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INDEX - 1 ‘RULES FOR SCANNING TRANSFORMATIONS AND EXECUTION These rules are numbered to correspond to the rules in Appendix At “Definition and Standard for TRAC T-64 Language", pages 1-15, 18, and 20-21, The initial and final forms of each transformation rule are shown, OC) 2/( with ne flfl= corresponding parenthesis to the right Uf "value dingran string” for a default call" Go to Rule 13 to determine action. taxecution al/ dingran where A stands for any wath #( character not treated Wy the preceding rules =flif= Copyright () 1972 Rockford Research, Ince INDEX - 2 THE 94 TRAC LANGUAGE PRIMITI INPUT AND OUTPUT CONTROL Print string ----- 7S,TL AND THEIR ARGUMENT TYPES BOOLEAN OPERATIONS Boolean union Logical OR ==-=- BU,BL,B2 Boolean intersection ‘Logical AND -=-= BI,Bi,B2 Boolean complenant ‘Logical NOT -=-- BC,BL STRING STORAGE AND DELETION Boolean rotate === BR,DL ,BL Retine: string —— Demi; Tt Boolean shift 35,01 ,B Delete definition DD,IM,N2, ... Delete all ------- DA DECISION String equality -- 54,71,72,73,7% Greater than ----- GR,D1,D2,7L,72 CREATION OF TERT MACROS Sagment string === S5,M1,T1,T2, ..+ CALLS AND PARTIAL CALLS AIELTARE on call canes CLyML,T1,T2, s+ Store block g00 sngnant aap mackers # es sharp oten J eo0 slant ? sa9 up orrow 2 reroes, plus and minus active strings The string of characters in the wotkapace which fn to the Tight of the scan pointer, and thus han not yet bean scammed. Viite5 App (ADDITION, AD'¢pednstsve). L012, 2819 aigetrade signe. KV ‘Plus sign omitted. 1Vi8 Fules for mumeriea) results, XVs10 with seroos. 1IVri5=15, %Vs17 angle rackets < > 1 Characters whizh are produced on the Model 33 Tale ‘type by pressing the comma ar tbe DaEiod Keys at the aane tine as the hist key, Uned to anclone dingnes= ‘tics printed owt ty the processor, 123, KVILe in FF print outs Used to enclose s9g- ment eap aazker munerels and the symbol for the form pointer * XVIII apostrophe ' + lleual nets characts Mad, TWi2 argument string areunente argunent types of the TRAC language printtives, VIII‘5, INDEX12(table) arguments) Neutral strings displayed ty the execution diagran of an expres= sion, 1¥:3, ¥Ie2, VITd=L0 Boolean, AIK default, X¥12=8,21 extra ot niosing, VIL Punerionl, WIViLi-16, ¥15-8 arithutic primitives, T7I2-3, XV:Geft argunents of 2V:5e6 artificial tntellizencer Tes activity of trying to make a machine exhibit, seontnely intelligent botarter, fives, $0 thine, CONE asterisk +, explanatory: Used to show where the printing elesent stops tn weripte, 16 in trace node: Syntactic marker used to separate oreunonta. EVIL auxiliary storager The storage facility ‘that supplanonis the forms storege area of the TRAG processor. duxllt— Ary storage may be provided by means cf disk, druxs, tape or other devices, 1113, XVTTH1-37 eranging oF upiating, X¥I1+6-7 default actions. X¥Ii17=8 arror dingnonticn, KVIIV7-8 nanagenent, XVIIi@t0 for the advanced students XVITi17=37 printtives, 11019, xVIDi2-4 backward slant \ 1 The chirscter which io produced on the Motel 33 Tele~ ‘type by pressing the L key and the shift key at the same tine. Used to correct the single preceding char= keter of the Input string, Also called “reverse slant”, IL See also single-character correction. balanced Rtring: A string in which avery ‘begin parextheais 1s followed by & eokruapending end parenthesis. Symbolined by ti: in pareing and execution diagrams, YI18 begin parenthests (. Vi? INDEX binary: The huaberine aysten with the tase 2, using digite counts according to the sequence: fe te if, th, ete. 102-3 binaryoctal table, 2 block: A group of forns stored together in auxiliary storage. XV11i2,11-13 block form: The form which is set up in forme storage at the tine a block is created. The nano string fe the ‘hock nano" and the text 18 the ‘tardvaze addreao" of the block tn AimiMary storaes, XVITI311-13 biock nase, HIT03 Boéle, Gecrme, Bnglish losictan (1815~ Lesh), ThE, XEKIL, Boolean argunents! Specified arguments of Boolean primitives. A Soclean arrment string 18 @ivided inte “prefix part" and an “octal part”. ak Yoolean combinations, II%13, BOOLEAM COMPLEMENT, BC (printt tye): ‘Transforms a Boolean vector accord ing to the “Logieal NOT" relation, Bach sero or one digit 4s changed to A one or a wero digit, reapec~ tively. XDE1869 BOOLEAN INTERSECTION, BI (primitive) s Uonbines two Bolan vectors accord- Ang to the "Logical AND" relation, ‘If the corresponiing digits of the first AND the second rectors are ‘both one otherwine a nero. TIKi6=7 FoOloah yeinittvess The class 6f opea- ‘tons performed on binary 2ercen and ones are called the Boolean prisitives, in honor of Georgs Boole, IKK13, X11 12 ‘BOOLBAN ROTATE, Bit (primitive): Rotates or circulates the Binary digits of & Boolean vector to the right or left ty a specified nunber of places, filling vacated binary positions at one end with the bi= mary Gigits which are moved off the other end, KIKI9-11 BOOLAAN SHIFT, 6 (primitives Shitte ‘the binary digita of a Boolean vec- ‘tor to the right or left ty a ape- ecified munber of places, filing vacated binary positions at the end Sith eerces. The binary dette bored of? the other en are Lost. XIRiG-t4 BOOLEAN IMECK, 30 (printtive)s Combines two Hoclaan vectors according to ‘the “logical OR" relation. If one of the digits of eliher the fret Pant 1, wnich ‘the result in a one, and a4 OR the second Boolean vector 1s a one, then the result ta a one, and otherwise a nero, X1Kiia6 Boolean union tables A truth table for ‘the relation of logical OR. 21X15, Boolean vector: A sequence of zero and cha digits, when used with tha Boolean printtives, X13 branching of control, Ditf-2i with FR, TE-5 Cty CL (primitive): Copies cut the CALL CHARACTER, Co text of a named form, inserting paraneter strings in corresponding segeent gap markers, I114,8, T1112, Wit,3 ard the form pointer, XIVi-9,21 (prinitive): Copte out one character fron a named form, moving the Pointer one character ahead each tine, I1I12, XIVs1-3 CALL My CN (printtive): Copies out characters frei Nay RIVA 3-16 8 nazed form, where rte a number, 21712, CALL RESTORE, OR (primitive): Rawets the CALL SUGHBMT: CB (primitive): Copt form pointer ef a nmsed fore tack to the hesd or left-hand end of the form, Also called “cursor remtore". Timed, xv) out one seprent at a tine fron & segnan- ted fora, 11212, X1Vitt=t3 carriage return Ci The format” action which 18 produced on the Medel 33 Teletype ty preasing the return key, The point of printing ts repont~ tiones to the left-hand mrein.ot the sexe line, CA acts ax a single character tn TRAC Innguage, 111B,9, VEs13-18 16 Sen alec tine f CHARGE RETA, OM (redittive)s Changes the meta character from tte usual aselgnaent as the apostropha 10 aone other apecifies character, Trrt-2, 1713.10 characters: At the reactive typeriter ‘keyboard, each action which produces 2 result is « character, The clase af cheractera includes ihe Isttera of the alphabet, the dtaits, the punctuation murke, the spacial ‘signs, and the ather control actions ‘produced by the keyboard. 118 oatled fron a form, xIVii3~i6 nade to dineppear. XIV: CLEAR (a eorapt}. XVII019,22 comm , 1 0 syntactic narker used to separate arqurents, Iie command: An expression typed in at the rasctive typewriter which causes some actions Tit, IVit commercial at @ + Used to erase the pre: ‘viously typed input ant to oau the Liput string to start over namin feon the typing at the key- boards D3 See also restart-tnput correction component: Each of the binary digits raking up a Boolean vector i Galled & component of that vector. ioe compound expressions: Arithaotic exe Frensions likes 3(5 +2) MVilt conputer operating eyaters, tha storage SMloms caused by. XVTTiLOeL1 eonputer ritual, for starting, 10-2 Tor stopping, 1185, computers, laree, inept desien of xind-2. woncatenmtions To Link together, ax in a chatne With ntringa, to put one string after another tn order to sake a resulting string. 117 context characters. contrel, branching with Ba, XITTL=5) control of input and output, Vit-B control of 1eope. IKi25-27 with oC, XIVabep with the default argunent, RIVi3=5 with GR, VUHB-LS: with IN, XTVat 20 control characters) Special characters which de not print and which are produced on the Kodel 33 Teletype by tise of the control key, the control key plus C rings & belle KITe6 control decision pristtives, 11f33 SQ, MEENA-5, AAL2 OR. xvei2-13 control hey: dn auxtlincy keys Like the ‘amift key, on the Modal 3) Zell type nachine which is prenaod to- gether with anather key to create a “eontrol character”. KIIt6 correction character gee single=chara ‘ter ceresction, corrections Single-charscter cor Tecttor and restart-Input correc= _ tien TH gee carriage return curecr restore pee CALL RESTORE 8 Ta Bat DECIDE (a script). 1X19 decimals The opdirary munbering systen with taae 10, uning digite # through 9. Used in the "mumerfeal part" of nueerical arsvnents, WV 1205 dactaion making. KIZTi1+5 dectaion-nakine soriptes Dit S-2t deeauie, Attar eli the ordinary ‘specified actions Have failed t0 8 apply, then a "gefault ru aotton J applied. Used ag an ad jeo= tive, Tdefault cali” vhicn ts an suptensdon with a elasiag ane onic argusent. lt action, for a miseing anenontc tn the #ibet argunent position see default call feral other alanine arguments: vIni7-L0, default action 4m auritiary storage. XVIIe?-B default argunant An argument which pre- ‘vides the value string of a print= Live when the nora] operation of ‘the prinitive cantot take place, The value string 1s always scanned. Used in primitives CL, 20, CS, CM, Ih, GR, AD, SUy ME, and Vy HIV V2-7,21 33548 used te control a loop, XIV13-5 aefsult call) An expreseion whose execu ‘tion diagzan lncka @ menoric of & geinttive in the fixet arsument ponition, It ts axecute! 2ike CLy Sxcept that the value sering 4a lnaye scanned, ¥19-40, RIVel7 with BAST. XS defeult rule for soanning during execu tok of a peiattives Ist? DEFING STAIN, De (printttve): Sets up a fore canaisting of tex: string and a nine otrings The form io held in forms storage. ITi4,? Liz, Tris ‘DELETE ALL, DA (primitive): Srases all forms’ in ferns storage. T1112, Wht-2 miniched with LM and DD, X¥Tvl DRLETR DEFINITION, UD (peinitsve): De ‘leten a set of med forma cron Forme storage, Tls2, Iit47-5, wrt deletion of forme. 1:78 dolintters: #( ##( or ) 4m regular execution, Characters or eroupe of characters which mark the beginning and ond of & petaitive exsresstons fra, ¥rab sf tf or f , KVITI TWDEK = 6 “eat, Augustus, English eathomats- aan’ (1806=1678). 150011 De Morgan Identity. KIXii1-12 diagnostics 4 warning or explanatory ‘signal printed out ty the TRAC processor at the keyboards 1:23 storage tranafer error “STE? « XVII8 string eapeelty elect , 11123 TAAG Taélb Ganguage s XE07,8 atagnostic prinitivess IIZ:k, XVaIIi1-7 jsappaarance of charscter strings ZIVeGatt @isplay: General tera for aiy device ‘eapable of showing or presenting character strings printed out by the a T-type mores pivine (DIViSI¢K), DY (printtive). 1 HVi2,911 Alentraie glans tn, 11110 ‘DO (a script), XVithets double sharp signs. ¥ils-7, VIIe4-5 dcynataire, An pareing diagram, VI15 & procedure (a seript): Erasee blocks tn storage. Used with 5 procedure. qeeizs EASY (a script). Xe1-8, KVetdat6 default calle in, Kilbe5 how to atop. X15? sehot With the {dling program tn control, ‘the echo 4s produced whenever a string of characters is typed in followed ty the mata character. The ‘echo repeats the string just typed in, showing that the TRA? processor Aa'acetve. 1113, VIEs9=10 ent parenthesis} y'VIn8 enter charactor! A apiclal character or kay notion which must be used with seme computers to cause the sequence of characters typed at the keyboant to pass into the computer and the ‘TRAC procanaors 111248,9, I¥s5-6 Wit, 102 9, VEILS equality, string gee STRING EQUALITY HUSE DICK, EB (primitive): Erases a raned block in auxiliary eterage, ant also erases the block form. IITs}, TIT ERICS SCRIPT (a script). XILie9 arror contrel through a script. IXv2—1l6 error correction, Dist-4y12-18 siagle-character, Di11-2 Pentart-input, Dez srror dlagmostice in auxtLary storage. WVIT?-8 evaluation, of a primitives Forning the ‘alue siring at the tine of exesu— ton, VIe3 execution: Carrying out the action of an expresnion aa specif ied by TRAC languege, Execution ray produce a value sting or it my produce other effects, VIn3,1U-16, Wiad 26 rules esp rules fer exseution sean pointer, new position of, ¥IIi4-7 seepe ef, ValiL ‘execution dtagrans Shows the state of & Trinitive after {t bas been fully Soanned and is ready £6r execution, vited-19 exerch: TWs9, WiBy VI19,10,4t 44,18 ¥ 10, Tke27, A¥8, ATVB, IIL110, AEEE NS, "X27432, X¥ed7, IVEGB, xvrm38, arm for the advanced atudent. XV21136 experinentation by writing TRAC language ‘procestore, License proviatens. Fi3-4 snovegnerte at the reactive typmertter. vy expressians Any sequence of chamcters, particularly one containing one oF Bore TRAC lanewge priaitiven, 1217 arte arguments, VID15-8 factortal, 10116 FACTORIAL (a. script). XVst6 false: A Logical torn umunlly asgoctated with the # binary digit, 1102.9 FETCH BLOCK, FB (primitive): Fetches & named Mock fran awxliaxy storage, and causes the forms of the bleck ‘Yo te again ast up in min storage. 13, WL-6 wurst (x acrape). 11118 FIX (a neript). LIst5-17 used. to Insoxt trace expressions, XVIEEN? FIER (a script). Toie5,7, Wsth-18, x92 Limitations of, 1113-15 form: A naned string stored in the TRAC processor. 143, XI:7-8 fern pointers A pointer which 1s part of form. Tt whould be thought of es standing between to charactere, at ‘tha head or the tail of the form, ‘vetween tro segnent gap markers, "or ‘vetwoen a character and a seguent gap marker, It ie used by the Pr: mitives CL, CC, OS, GH, IN, and CR, and ip aymbolized in parsing dia grasa by an up arrow # . 17:3,8, ve2-3 INDEX = 9 fora pointer (cont. } ‘And Chey TIVB-9 in partial calle, 20-21 in FF print outs Indicated by an up arrow anclosed in angle brackets re AVI. restored with CR, XIVe8 fornl variables: in a acript far oreat= ing & procedure with parancters, the argunent stringe of the §3 pri- nitive which remult in segment gap markers are called formal variables. Each formal variable correspents te a parumeter of a later call to the Procedure, 4115-7,12 format characters: Characters that af- fect the layout of the printing on ‘the page. In TRAC language ark, ‘the earriage return CR and the Line feod LF characters, In sone cases, ‘theme two characters are conbined into a character called “new line", 1088, YIed3=14 added or deleted by the computer op- rating systems, XII12 ‘forns storage: The part of the processor in which the forma are stored. It in to be distinguished from “awcilt- ary storage", which is generally eutaide the processar. Also called “main storage” or “nenory”, KVIs1-8 Torna storage prinitives, IITi2, IVieb, x1 -8 wIVe2, 8,44 13,47, coceco (a sertpt). Di22 grammars The rules by which the parts of a language go together. VTi See also parsing GREATER THAN, CR (primitive), T1113, wvet2-15, HALT, HL (jetattive): Causes the action of the TRAC procemser to halt, with control reverting to either the computer cr to the operating system, Tn many ayetena, the processor can be restarted fron where 1t left off, 121548, TET, Kite} hardware addreast A string of numerical or other digits which 4s used to locate a block in auriliary storage. Meld ax the text atring of the bloak fora in main storage. HVITN3~4 41,43 HELENS GAME (a script), 11107-8 housekeeping primitives, XIX, XX1-9 idealized processors Yhen x11 of the details of how the actual computer machinery works are excluded fron the discussion, we say that wo are talking about an Idenlized TRAC pro- ceanor, Excluded are auch matters ax volta, bite, cfreuits, and ao ene V1 Adentifiowtion of TRAC lansuanes 51 identities. KIXiL1 Adantity, De Morgan, 1X11 idling program: The script #(PSs6(RS)) which 4s automatically placed inte tha workapace ty tha Rrocensor whonaver the workspice becones onpty. VITE16 rules 9 rules. for reloading the idling program informants A peraon who has rast fanil- jarity with a certain topic ar att- uation) bere, parson experienced with reactive typewriters and. cot puters. TLit INETIAL, IN (prinitive)s Matches an argu- nent atring against the text of a hamed form, and if 8 match 1s found, At copies out the text from the forn pointer up to the matching substring. 1112, x1117-20 inputs What ts typed in fron the key= board of the reactive typeeriter. We, cm1-9 Anput primitives, IIe, Viz, Xttei-9 Anteractive ecripte: Such scripts pro- vide a “convarsation” betwean the person at the keyboard ani the pro= sossor, TXvelt, A113 interface: The Line of separation be- ‘mean two syatena, cr betwen huxan and machine, Xi interface scripter Designed to handle ‘the situation at an interface, X)1 integer A wehele mumber, such as 1, 2, 3a ste, XPab integer artihestion X¥rbe5 large computers, inept design of, X11 Letters, alphabetic, 1118 LP (see lane feed ne feed LP: The format action which 1s Freduced on the Motel 33 Teletype ty pressing the line feed key, The paper in noved so thet the point of Printing is on a new line. The point of printing is not coved hor= Anontally, 1118,5, VI3eth,16 See also carriage return Line numbers used fn ecripta. 1115 INDRE = 8 LIST NAMES, LN (primitive): Produces = value string composed of the se- quence of mane strines of B12 the forms in corms atorage, with each nane prefixed by the second ari nant sirine of the LN expressions Sineey kvireed tn "nave all ny work", AVID16-17 Logical Mathanatical oparattons on b- ary aizite where these digits rep- Tasent "true" and "false, KIC? Logical AMD see POGLEAN INTERSECTION Logie] NOT soe BOCLEAN COMPLEMENT Logie! OR eae BOOLZAN UNIGK Loept A soript which goes tek and does ‘the sane thing tine after time without stopping tesald to be “in De ee25-27 veith GC. XIVat=7 with the default argument, XIV3=5 with GR, XVithed 5 with IN, X1Vs18-20 LOOF (several soripte). 13¥23,4,6,19, Weiler 6 lower-cane letters. VIILi6 rain storage: The part of the proceasor where forma are stored, It in to ‘be istingyished from “auxiliary storage” witch 19 generally outeide maintenance of TRAG Language. F13 markers, workepace. VILi?-8 nenory: The part of the processor in “which the ferme ave stored, It te to be diatingutahed fron “auxiliary storage” which 1a generally cutelde ‘the procasser. Wit ‘lso forms storage Greek word meaning “with” or "after". ‘The neta character 1s used after all the characters of an Anput string have been typed at the keyboard, XITi2 neta character! The character used te Andicate that the input string is completed afd that the proceasor whould mgin work, In TRAC Jan mage, the neta character ts usual ly the apostrophe, The CH primitive can be uned to change tt to another character, 11y9, T¥12, KIT:2,40 An trace mode, KVIELi6 sgeipte for changing. X11sl=5,10 microcomputer! A "computer in a ‘teact a0 small 1t can be placed inside the ease of a reactive typerriter, 116 miniconputer! A computer about the size miosing argunants, defatlt action for. WILT 5=8 nnenonte (non=nonetck): A nexory-eidins, ynbols Dac TRA Innewwe prinktive has a two-letter snemenie chosen to rentzd the user of the rane of the peinitives 1118, 1135(tatis) ‘INDEX 12 (table) NOOR, 0 (primitive): Causes the process ear to revert to the standard TRAC T-66 langunge may be used for otter aspects of contro2 of the FEccessor, [T1i4, Mkv6-2 Jmportance to standardization. X18 nodification of text in storeges XLit permanant, X118-© novenont of text. 1fit MULTIPLY (MULTIPLICATION), Mi, (petmt~ tive) IDD12, FV12,9 aigetraie aigna'in, KVi10 Wt {a soript). V5 nazelist form: The form which contains ‘the list of all the forms of a Block. KVITe2t maselist technique: A procedure making wea of the scripts STORE and CLEAR r naking a list of rama in each block, so the my be canventently eraned as 4 group fron min storage whan they axe no longer needed. XVID 24 NB (name tranch) (a seript): A procedure set up ina script which deteraines whather a tamed fors a tn forma storage, VI17-8 nano string: The tring used as an areu- nent in a primitive which $8 treated ae the rane of sone form. Te hogations The sane as “Logical 407". ‘Aino, the negation of “true” 48 “falao", snd conversely. 11X19 nested: Having one Snatde another. A Primitive expraseion with one prt- nitive inaide another ts called a seated expraseions ¥43-5 neutral string! The strings of characters to the left of the scanning pointer An the workspace, whten have been scanned, and which will be used as the axgiment strings of the prizt- tive, VIi8-5 neutralized) Placed 4n a neutral string and therefore not to be further scanned, ¥IIi7 INDEX = 9 new Line: A combination of the charac= tere carriage return GR ard line font OF, 1518 null string: A string which has no char= acters, For exanple, the atring bo- ‘swoen the following two commas 18 a pull strings yy ViIV7& An trace node, AVIIDe4 nat] valun mul value expression null value expression: Ar expression, such as the DS or FS printtive, whiten dees not leave a string of characters, called a "value", in ‘the workepace when Lt ts executed, VI03, FIIN35 punbera. EVi1-17. used to control procedures and locre. AvateALS, numeric part runerical part nunerical argunenter Spectfted argunant of primitives that take decimal nuserical string. A nunerfca} ar- gqunent string ts divided into x “prefix part” ané a “nusertes? part". XEVi1h, R295 nurerical digita, 1118 nuverioal magnitude, teat for. X¥ci2-13 nupercal parts A aunertcal arqunant string {9 divided inte a "nuxerteal, part", containing decimal digita, at the rightshand end, and a ‘prefix part” at the left—rand and. Tf there ia a eign preceding the munbers, it 4s fueluded tn the nu- merical part, 3¥12-5 cotals The mumbering eynten with the ‘aso 8, using digits f through 7. Binary digits of Boolean argunante are represented in ootal form, where each octal digit reprecents three binary digits. X02 cetalsbinary table, ¥1k8} cetal part: A Boolean argument string ts Atvided into an “octal part® at. the Fight-hand end and a "prefix part” at the leftohand end. EDC ordinal nunbert & number such as “first”, “eecont™, #tc. The decimal digits 1, 2, etee, can be used to repre sont ordinal munbers, The kind of segment gap narker at a given loca thon in the text of « form is indi eated by an ordinal nusber. XLi2 outputs What te printed out at the re= active typmeriter dteplay by the processor. Vit, XITd-9 pante step: The emergency stop, to be ‘used whenever the processor gets out of eontrol or is in an endles sequence of actions. After the pane fe atop, the workopace !s cleared, fand the 'precasecr Femunes tts ner ma] Bahavier. The key or method used for the ganic stop varies with aifforent installations, 1116, I1i21 parameters: In the CL prinitive, the ar qunont strings which foller the ing argusent are called parenoters. in a call to @ proc dure, the jaraneters are used to imply data te the procedure, I115-7 nonexistent: nonexistent jaraneters & ‘ive sed to make unwanted charac tore disappear. XIVi10-11 form variables begin (V7 ant). Whee excess or migsing, VInt0, VITi16-15 weetective (ire) 1 A pate of par- entheses in an argunent string ‘which murround an executable belane sed stzing expeesnion and which protect it from execution during ‘scanning. Vil,5=? See leg delieiters parsing Analycing an expreseion into ‘ts various arts. Jn TRAC language, ‘the "scanner" doss tha parsing, ini -18 parsing dingrans: Magrans showing the ‘the etage-by-stage action ef the scanner in forming the « dingrana of the primitives masher of dealing with the ‘value strings produced. Visite partial oall prinittvos: Spoctal-purpose yetaitives, CC, CR, C3, CN, and IN, which are capable of copying out different parts of a fore, When ‘the form pointer 1s not at the head of 2 form, Cl also acta as a jar- Hal call. KIVit-22 pathological sizings: Strings which are ick", in other words, not normal for TAG ‘oxpreasionss Tha string A3C))}# tm pathological, VIE6-t8 portable: TRAC language script are said ‘to be portable because thay oan be un on any computer that has a stan- dard TRAC language processor. Fr prefix part of a Joolsan armuenti The ‘Left-hand end of the argusent otring, remaining after the "octal part" at the right-hand end has deen removed, XIU renex prefix part of & numerical argunents The left-hand emf of the argument string, remining after the “olaned Bunacicel part” at the right-hané ‘ard fas beer renoved. XVi3 prefix string see prefix part prinitive expressions 4 primitive whieh yay contain other executable prini= tives an argurenta. [¥s2 peinitive finetions see priattives Primitives; che simplest form of an exe ‘cutable expression with a mnemonic in the first areunant positien in TRAE language in celled a printtive TRAC Ta6 laneuse has 34 different Frinitiven, ench corresponding to fone different action ‘yy the proces sor, 1:7, Hieh, VITEit exociitien of: VIU-16 extended. 117 summary of, 111-4, 5(table), INDEXZ (table! RINT TOhN, PF (primitive): Prints out the text of a named farm, tndtcat- ing the Loestion of the Tore poin= ter and the Location ant ordinal veluce of all the segment gap Rar kere, XVEZIe=2, 1718 PRINT STRING, PS (printtive): Causes a string 4o be printed cut at the re- aetive typueiter, Tit, Wit third argunent position of. XIVri1 peint outr Outputs text printed out on ‘the reactive typeriter or at the Gisplay device by the processer. val ‘procedures A noriyt vhten 19 stored an a ‘form, for causing some action when called. Moat procedures require ad- Aitienal duta at the tine of call ing, and auch date to supplied by ‘the "yaraneters" of the call. xE2-13 procedures, formal variables of, XTH12-13 making changes tn, X1113-16 paranetare of. 11112-13 processor: A TRAC processor is tha prom. ‘eran inside the ccxputer which car- Tiss out the action specified in TRAC language ecripte, Pr2-H, 1212, 3-10 how to save, Uib-6 how te atop. RXit Adenlised, Vin2 PROG.A f } (a sorapt), Ot PROG. FROG. protective parenthescs ‘protective peeudo primitive! An expression which gee parenth 19 Looks and acts 1ike a prinitive ‘wut which 1s not one of the 34 TRAC language prinitives, 215-9 punotuation marke, 1118 reactive typewriter: An autontic type weiter connected te a computer which cetsas the computer to react to connards typed in at the key- board, Fel, Tit sxparinente at, Vs8 READ CHARACTER, FO (primitive): Takes in any single character typed at the Peactive typurriter keyboard. No neta character in required to con- late the Anput, CITH, 117169, zie STRING, RS (primittve)s Takes tn string typed at the reactive type wetter keyboard, The input action te terminated with the typing of ‘the meta character. T1012, Vi2—3 tn trace mode. XVIIEr5<6 recalling stared text. [1:2 Feoursiens A gaript whose execution rakes une of itaelf, fae, which appeare to “Lift iteelf by its orn bootstraps”, in aid to perfora re- eursion. x12i~24 recursive: Performing ty meana of recur- aton. X24, X16 restart-input characters Erases the pre- ‘vriowsly-typed Anput and causes the Input string to start over from the ‘typeing at the keyboard, Usually the "commercial at” character, 221) reauna parker / 1 Used in a parsing dia ‘Eran 10 show where the scan potiter Mil resune scanning whan 4 value string is placed in the workspac vant return key: Vaed for the sarriage return ER on the Hotel 33 Teletype. AVIEL5 sererse alant gee achoart slant Palen for arithastic primitives. 1Vs3-10 eigetraic signa, 2V14,8,10 aixed-string arguaents. 1713 eeroes, leading. 1V1? plus ‘and minus. XV? rulaa for exsowtient Rales for the new ‘position of the soan potnter after En executable expressicn ie re placed by ite value string. FIT7, TwDEx (tabla) rules for relotding the 161ins progres. 'VIEV8-19,, INDEX: (table) clearing the workspace. YILi16-17 eapty workepace, VILi8 IWTRK = 11 ¥ules for scanning: Rules for transform= tone that take place at the acai pointer in the workspace. VIv6q17, VILIi5-10, INDERs (table) commas. Viet 2-13 default call. VIIIe9 extra arguments, VEET6 format characters, VIi13-14 atssing argunents. V2L¥7 andinary text characters, WIi6-7 proterted etringe, VIr7-1E protective parentheses, VI17=11 ‘sharp slanos VIstt=12 sunsary ef, VIN6-17, INDEX (table) 5 procedure (a geript}s Stores blocks in auxiliary storage while keeping an index record of the tartare addres was of the blocks, Used with = pro- ‘oedure, XYII121=23,29=33 weave all my work" techaiguer An expres- ‘ston which saves all the fore in nain storage and stores then in & ‘vlock dn auxtitery storage. x¥IT116-17 saving the TRAC processor. X16, 4S0A> go string casacity alert. Scan pointer: Separates the active string (to the right) fron the neu= ‘tral otrines (to the loft} tn the workspace, Symbolized by // in yeraing diagrams. E13 expansion af. VIII scanners The part ef the TRAC processor ‘that does the scanning. ¥I83 seanning: Carrying out the TRAC lancuage scanning rules won characters and strings in the warkspece, VIi3-17 scanning Tiles see rules for scanning age string capacity exceeded scope of execution! The range of argue nerite acted upon ty a printttve, Marked out ty the symbol in execution diagrams. 1Vi2, VIN-26, ¥Edd— SCRIPT (a script). KII05 script: A carefully written amuence of expressions tn TRAC language for carrying out sone kind of action, vy Frid, Tebes, 11110, Tat jlet? seripts (taxts of) CUBAR, XVIT119,22 DROIDE. Test 9 Dy AV eAH-16 © procedure, XVI1121423,33-35 EASY. Nat -B. SRICE SCRIPT, X1T8-9 FACTORIAL. ¥st6 nertpta (text of) (cont.) FURST, “ist FIX. Teh 6-17 FIXER, Ivb—18, X57, i9A2 ATS fer mranching or deciaien making, mte-at for changing the meta charecter. XILH-5 tor panes for children ant infants. xins7-9 for controlling tmput errors. ix:12=18 for determining whether a specified fore ia in storage, RVIi-8 onc0ee, 1x 122 HELENS GAME. XT 17-8. interactive, Ikst-£1 interface, Tel IDGP (several scripts) KIV+3=2,5,19, WH Let Nr XLS x3 (name tanch). x¥T17 PROG A, 115, ALL? Ed 6, KIL2 recursive, IXi21-27 control with desaule argunant, XIV13-5 contol with IX, X1Vi18-20 “save a1 ny work" technique. XVTENAG=t7 8 procedure, XVILs21-23 SCRIPT. ITS SSOOND, UTt5 STORE. “AVIL118 Temp. Bitzi with numbers, XViLtets XY, 125 was. D286 SECOND (a script}. M1115 segments 4 string of text between sag- pent gap markers in a soguented, string, XTVeit segnent gpl The place where 8 seqnent gap marker is inserted 1n the text of a form ty the SS printtive, x23 wegnent pup mckerat Invisttle markers inserted by the SS prinitive in the text of a form, Synteliged in mars ing 43 ‘by a numeral in a box, evkes Aye 1112 gn FF pein out: Indicated by a numeral encloned in angle trackots, 484+ ay, WE SEOMENT STRING, $5 (primitive) + Modifies a fora ty inserting semnent exp nackers at various locations in the ‘text, The augment gap sarkera are numbered to correspond to the INDEX - 12 formal variables of the 59 print- tives when the text of the fem te later copied out by the CL primt- tive, pataneter etrines can be tn serthd in locations marked by the segrent gap sarkera. 11:2, K111-18 sharp signs #» YITsb-7 ‘double, VIEHi-§ single and double. ¥IZ107 ehitt keys An auxiliary key on the Model 33 Teletype machine vhten is pressed together with another key to create a “special sles". single-sharacter correction: Corrects ‘the single preceding character of the input stying. Usually, the backward slant character. IX'i with RC. 117 single sharp elgna. ViIs4~? slant / s Delimiter used in trace mod voit colldus sea slant space chamnater. 1118 special signs. 1118. ‘See leo shift key standardization ef TRAC language, F123, Tito, KiB ‘STEy ge’ storage transfer error step, pante wee janie stop stopping EASY. i3~7 stopping the TRAC proceasar. IXat—3 suxtliary storage, forms and main storage storage chain, XYZ1[137 atorage transfer error 1 The Gingnostic that da printed out in case the action of any of the aux- iliary storage primitives cannct be carried out properly. XVIII)8 storage tree, XYTIIN7 STORE (a script), ¥ITN8 STORE BLOCK, SB (peiaitive): Takes a ‘group of raed forme from min stor- age and places thea in a block in wattliary storage, XVIEH2-H, T1183 stringer Saquenees of characters, v, Th2,8 argunen’ seo argunents mized, in arithentic prinitiven. Xie=5 saking then dteappear, 1IV+9-11 string capacity alert CSCAD © The diage nostic that in printed out aa a warning that the processor has TOR fer fever than iff additional char- actere, 1123, XVIT8 string capacity exceeded (SCE> + The diagnostic that 1s printed out when the proansor due run cut ef room to work ant has cleared the work= Stan EQUALITY, pares tro Character strings. If they aze exactly the sano, the value string ia one argunant, but Af thoy differ, the value st¥ing 1s another argument, 1111}, X1TL-5 stored strings A string stored as the text of a farm, 12 substring A past of @ strings 1113 SUBTRACT (SUBTRACTION), SU (primitive). TED, 12,9 aunnary of ‘searning rules. VIs16-17 syntactic markers. YI eymtax gop sfachir and parsing TRAS 7-64 language diagnostic Tosh sae” TRAC T-6b Janemee Fetleet yaitieas at thelr anaemert. types HERZ petnitives and. thar mnenonten. 2115 Eeunning treneteraation alec. TAR! truth, Boolean functions. Xiti5-8 arent, Alopege Tike? Teletype, fosel 33. ed ‘HWP {a sotipt), e126 [ant foe numerical mapattater CR, Subse tert Avoequmes of characters, oF char accent in generals a epecitic oer quence of Sraractore in often called @ "string", The sequence of charac tere stoped inve fame is cmiled the text of the form, Iin9, vs? storage of see auxiliary storage Sal Seca! storage thtaidne mchiness Kod ‘ine anizing! A avthod #2 which sewers Sept ne cg ee, Some Ctnputer tin telephone Linon, Bach ier ie coanented to the computer Tatum fore fraction of seconds ani consequently they “share” the ‘tims which is avatiable, [15 ‘Tuc langings. Tit for the expert. [16-9 qeiting sorted. Tl Sanaiieleation of, 72-4 TRAC T-64 language The standard TRAG language which de tought tn Ente fends tly Fe dangnontis BO" fk? piabdardtcation of. Fri-Sy X18-9 trace action: Causes the processor to ome Mifare tha mverties Of sh Frinitive and print out the DEL = 13 areurente. exactly as thay wT be ‘used tn execution, XVEILs2-? trace prinitiven, 1fve, VIZ ,2-7 t¥ace node: When the prccensar 12 per~ forming the trace action, it 1s in teace modes TFIID ,2-7 TRAGE OFF, TP (primitives: Turna off the ‘race action of the processor, Titi, Witt RAGE Oh, IN (pelndtive)1 Turns on the ‘race action of the procasae>, Hitch, evIIne tranefarrafion rules gee rales for seanning truer A logical tern usually associated with the f Ringxy digit. x1002,9 teuth tables A table Like a nultiplion= ‘tion table tut with entries of g and i, corresponding to "false" ana *true" Baclean conplenent, XTK:8 Boolean interasetSny KiK+7 Boolean union, KEK: 5-6 Turing machine, ‘universal gee univers sal Turine machine type int Input, Characters typed in on the reactive typewriter keyboard by the uger which go to the TRAC pee owaeer. ¥12 typewriter stgrals Action taken by the Eecessar in moving the point of Fiinting to the lert nargin and to anew line (CH pius DF}, This action Signals that the person using the Eeactive typewriter can agein begin typing. 1119, Tab, VIEi8 typing errors. ILi-5 universal Turing mchine! A hypothetical machine which makes marke ona tape, reads marks on the tape, and soves ‘the tape one step at a time tack or forth. In principle, such a rachine can perform any computation xhatac- aver, It wan devised by the Eng]iah Jogician A. Ms Turing (1902-1954). Fat) up arrow T 1 The character which te prow duced on the Model 35 Teletype key- poard by preseing the "key and the anift Rey at the sane tine, In Print form, is enclosed in angle Yeacketa and 18 used to indicate the forn pointer. 1VIZT12 update; An action of the store block Primitive. in whieh new grap of Forms ie insertes in a lock, thus dlsplactig, the eroup of fora al- Fondy inthe Slock, AYEZiE+7,2 3-36 union "gee Boolean union ‘upper afi’ lever case lettara in prtat— tives. FIETI6 vpstairs, in parsing ftagran. 17:5 value: The sequence of characters pro= duced ty a prinittve, The valua replaces the primitive in the work= apace after execution. ¥ITs3 value string 00 value workspace! The part of the TRAC proces- gor where the prinitive expressions are scanned and executed. It holds the active siting to the tight ef the scanning pelnter and the neutral atrings to the left of the pointer, V1} olearing, rules for ¥IIW6-19 empty, rules for VII08 Y (ew mortpe). 25. YES (a script}. 1126 ‘seroes, leading. 17:7 lus and uimia, in CK, XIVi15-16 ‘in arithaetio primitives, IV17