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# 13. 4. 30.

## isolator design considerations

Design Considerations
The rubber mountings are used to support machines isolating the vibration generated or to prevent precision equipment from external vibration. Suppose the force transferred to the foundation with the rubber mountings used to support the machine is F and the force without using the rubber mountings is Fo , then the vibration transmissibility TR can be represented as follows.

Fo . vibration generated by machine F : vibration transferred to the foundation. u : vibration frequency ratio = f / fN --------------------------- (2) f : vibration frequency of machine fN : natural frequency with machine supported by rubber mountings Formula (l) is illustrated in TR-u chart.

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13. 4. 30.

## isolator design considerations

As is evident in the chart, when TR=1(100%)vibration isolating effect is 0% and vibration frequency ratio u is 1.414 Sufficient effect can be obtained when TR<1; therefore u > 1. Generally, the purpose can be achieved when u = 2~3 Relationship between vibration frequency ratio and vibration isolating effect. vibration frequency ratio vibration transmissibility u=0 TR=1 u=1 TR u= TR=1 u> TR<1 state of vibration Fo=F Fo<F Fo=F Fo>F vibration isolating effects No effect Resonance No effect Sufficient effect

The vibration transmissibility is decided by the vibration frequency ratio u given by (2) Machine vibration is generated during operation and the vibration frequency can be given for example as follows: Type of machine Blowers Speed x number of blades Shaft rotating speed shaft rotating Motors Speed x number of poles Shaft Rotating Speed x Number of gears f Gears gears elastic vibration of gears (very high frequency) Shaft rotating speed x number of balls x 2 Ball bearings AC machines Ac machines ac frequency x 2 (transformers) Compressors Internal Combustion Engines Shaft rotating speed Vibration frequency of secondary or over Vibration frequency Shaft rotating speed, shaft rotating

The natural frequency is decided by the weight of machine and spring rate of rubber mounting.

fN : natural frequency (Hz) K: spring rate (lb/in or kg/cm) W : machine weight (lb or kg) g : acceleration of gravity (386.4 in/sec2 or 980cm/sec2 )

Vibration transmissibility

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13. 4. 30.

## isolator design considerations

The natural frequency in vertical direction is related with the deflection of rubber mounting due to the machine weight, and can be represented as follows:

where = deflection of rubber mounting (cm). The standard vibration transmissibility according to the size of machine, installation place type of equipment and purpose of building are shown in the following. 1.Classified by output of machine Power ~5 7.5~15 20~40 50~100 100~300 Vibration transmissibility (%) Higher floors heavy Basement and 1st floor structure Noise control 50 50 25 20 10 10 5 5 3 Higher floors light structure 10 7 5 2.5 1.5

## 2.Classified by type of machine Vibration transmissibility (%)

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Type

## Higher Basement floors 1st floor heavy structure 30 30 20 30 25 20 10 20 10 15 10 5

Package type coolers Air conditioners Centrifugal refrigerators Reciprocating Refrigerators ~10 hp 15 hp~50 hp

60 HP~150 HP Cooling towers Condensers Ventilation units Piping Pumps ~3 hp 5~ HP 3.Classified by purpose of building Location Only noise control General purpose Places requiring caution Places requiring special caution Churches, Conference Rooms Studios, Concert Halls 1~5 High Rise Buildings Warehouses, Garages Offices, Shops, Restaurants Hotels, Hospitals, Schools, Buildings Factories, Basements, 80~150 20~80 (approx.30) 5~20 (approx.30) Vibration transmissibility (%) 30 30 30 30 30 20 15~20 20 20 5~10 20 5

## Practical design guide line

l. Determination of positions The support positions must be decided so that the static loads at the support points are nearly equal. In the case of general industrial machines, the anchor bolt positions are used as the support points but it is necessary to re-check the positions when the load is unevenly distributed. 2. Determination of natural vibration frequency and spring rate Calculate the natural frequency and spring rate according to the aforementioned ''Vibration isolating principles''. 3. Selection of rubber mountings Select appropriate rubber mountings taking into account the spring rate, allowable load, allowable deflection and forcible power direction.

Design Example
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13. 4. 30.

## isolator design considerations

1 Design requirements 2 Calculation of spring rate 2-1Supporting load The static load at each support point W = P/N = 3700/6 - 617 lb 2-2 Determination of natural frequency

If vibration transmissibility TR=25%or less is intended, then the frequency ratio u=f/fn=2.24 from formula (1), and the natural frequency f N =f/u = l,170/2.24 = 523 cpm. 2-3 Calculation of spring rate Since the static load per point is 617 lb,the required spring rate is as follows from formula (3).

Determination of spring mount isolators 3-1 Selection of mountings Select the mountings which satisfy the following conditions. (1) Spring rate K= 4820 lb/in or less (2) Load W = 617 lb (3) Deflection = 617/4820 = 0.13 in QDI spring mounts SMA-1-8 can satisfy these conditions. 3-2 Check of vibration transmissibility JA-1-400 Spring rate K= 789 lb/in. Allowable load W=800 lb max. Natural frequency fx=212 cpm from formula (3).Vibration frequency ratio from formula (2). u1 = l,170/212 = 5.52 against compressor rotating speed; u2 = 1,750/212=8.25 against motor rotating speed. Vibration transmissibility from formula (1): TR1 = 3.37% against compressor rotating speed, TR2=1.48% against motor rotating speed. The vibration transmissibility as a whole is 8.29% or less. 3-3 Determination of rubber mountings Type . QDI Spring Mounts Product No. : SMA-1-8 Quantity . 6 pcs

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