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This document gives the method to find out the stresses at the interaction between pressure vessel cylinder walls and end caps. FEA is used for this.

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& Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12)

**Finite Element Analysis of Ellipsoidal Head Pressure Vessel
**

Vikram V. Mane*, Vinayak H.Khatawate.**Ashok Patole***

* (Faculty; Mechanical Engineering Department, Vidyavardhini‟s college of Engineering. and Technology, Vasai (w), University of Mumbai, Email: vikmane1973@yahoo.co.in) ** (Asst. Prof. (PIIT, New Panvel),University of Mumbai ) *** (Asst. Prof. (PIIT, New Panvel),University of Mumbai)

ABSTRACT Pressure vessels are a commonly used device in engineering. The stress Analysis with with the help of Finite Element Method and Experimental Method is necessary to find out the exact behavior of pressure vessel .To find out the stresses at the interaction between pressure vessel cylinder walls and end caps; When modeled correctly, F.E.A. proved to be useful, but the operator also needs to be able to interpret the results properly. For the validation of F.E.A. result; the measurement of stresses by the experimental method is necessary. The analyst should be able to approximate the solution using classical methodology (hand calculations) in order to verify the solution. This project set out to explore applicable methods using finite element analysis in pressure vessel analysis. Keywords – Air Booster Unit, Air Reservoir tank 1. INTRODUCTION

Pressure vessels are leak proof containers may be of any shape and size ranges from cold drink bottles to high-pressure steam boilers, used in engineering construction. The word „design‟ means to create, to innovate and used not only for the calculation of the detail dimensions of the vessels but also to find out the mode of failure or damage, and selection of materials type and its environmental behavior. The increasing use of pressure vessel under different conditions of pressure, temperature, operation cycle, contained fluid properties etc., has given special importance to analytical and

experimental method for determining their operating stresses. Development in nuclear and chemical industry places new demand of finding most likely method of damage, method of stresses analysis and its reliability of result. The pressure vessel is designed for a 50-kg/cm2 of internal pressure, 1bar atmosphere of external pressure, and a maximum working temperature of 70 degree Celsius. It is a Horizontal type of pressure vessel. Pressure vessel is the main body of the pneumatic Booster. An operating pressure of 50 Kg/cm2 for testing of pressure vessels and other application.

Fig. 1.1 Air Booster unit.

**2. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF BOOSTER RESERVIOUR TANK
**

2.1 Shell Design [UG-27] [2]

AIR

If a thin circular cylinder is subjected to the action of radial forces uniformly distributed along its circumference, hoop stress will be produced throughout its thickness in tangential direction as given by Harvey [1]. σH = Pr /t, σL = Pr / 2t

Where P = Internal Pressure, r = Radius of shell,t = Thickness σH = Hoop stress,σl = longitudinal stress Page 132

Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology, Vasai

Mpa Similarly. E = 1 (for R.2.2.P = Design Pressure.4 t) (ii) Fig.2 Shell Thickness (UG – 27): For circumferential stress t = PR / (SE – 0.4 t) Where.1.2 Ellipsoidal Head (Thickness Calculation) [UG 32] [2] Material: use SA516 Gr 70.4P) or p = 2SE t / (R – 0. 2.1 Hoop stresses in shell Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology. t = Minimum Vessel Thickness.T) 2.3] t = PR / (2SE + 0.4P) or p = 2SE t / (R – 0. 2. Mpa. S = 138 N/mm2. P = 5 N/mm2.1. Allowable Stress.70 Permissible stress.65 mm.2 Longitudinal stresses in shell Thickness (t) = = 2. S = 138 N/mm2 welding efficiency.3 Longitudinal Stress: t = PR / (2SE + 0. other component given by ASME. E =1.6t) ii)Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joint) [1.S = Maximum allowable stress.1.3 Ellipsoidal Head Fig. mm.6 P) or p = SET / (R + 0.1 Design Data Operating pressure = 3 – 5 N/mm2 (shell side) Design pressure = 5 N/mm2 Inside diameter = 295 mm Shell material – SA 516 GR.463 mm 2. 2. Vasai Page 133 . ASME has suggested modified formula for finding thickness for given pressure.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12) Taking fabrication and inspection quality into account.E = Joint Efficiency.6t) (i) Thickness (t) = = 5. 2.6 P) or p = SET / (R + 0.3] t = PR / (SE – 0. i) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joint) [1. Fig.R = Inside radius of shell. mm. 2. there are formula‟s for design of heads.

3 Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Vessel [6] [7] [9] Because of the complicated shape of the shell.b-Minor axis or depth of head.75)2]/6 K=1 Thickness of Head (th) = = 5. Translation in x and y direction.M.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12) i) Preprocessor: In preprocessor following steps involved. iii) General Postprocessor: It contains the commands that allow you to list and display the result of analysis. and . Where. Hence finite element technique has been selected for the analysis purpose.2 P) Where K is spherical radius factor [3 K= [ 2 + (a/b)2] / 6. IN ANSYS each element type is identified by category name followed by a number. There are different types of commercial F.1 Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS FEM Software Package [6][9] In Ansys there are three processors that are used in finite element analysis .70.E. Define Element Real constants. It is important to realize that real constants vary from one element type to another. Finite Element Analysis of Pressure Vessel Using ANSYS i. The element is defined by four nodes having two degrees of freedom at each node. ii. K= [ 2 + (295/2X73. 3. Element real constants are quantities that are specific to a particular element. Vasai Page 134 . software‟s available in the market. ii) Solution or Processor: Fig.2. PLANE -42 is a four node quadrilateral element used to model structural solid problems. stress analysis by using photo-elasticity will also be difficult. -Define element real constant.348 mm. -Define meshing controls -Mesh the object created. ANSYS FEM software is one of the most popular commercial software is used for the Finite element analysis of the pressure vessel. Preprocessor →Element type→ Add /Edit/ Delete. The material use for the construction of pressure vessel is SA516GR. 3. and its properties are as shown in Table 1. At this point we have to define the material physical properties of the material used for the given problem. Define the Element [6] [9]: Ansysis provides more than 150 various elements to be used to analyze different problems. Selecting the correct element type is a very important part of the analysis process. -Define element type. not all the element requires real constants.3 Stress distribution in Ellipsoidal Head t = PDK / (SE – 0. Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology. (iii) The solution processor has the commands that allow you to apply boundary conditions and loads and it solves for nodal solutions. iii. -Define material properties -Create model or geometry.a-Major axis of ellipsoidal head.2. iii)General Postprocessor.Define Material Properties. Real constants can be defined by the command Preprocessor →real constants → add/edit/delete. Stress analysis by finite element method is obviously the best choice. i)Preprocessor ii)Solution or Processor .

Having uniform thickness 6 mm. Solution → Define loads → Apply → structural→ Displacement In this problem we have applied the boundary conditions as shown in Fig.3 and those are at upper section line DX=0 and at bottom section line all DOF =0.70 Sr. These include starting from primitives. The Ansys program can automatically generate the nodes and elements.6. Fig. There are three types of geometric models commonly used to represent physical objects. Fig. provided that you specify the element size. The following commands used for element size.3. →Material props→ Material iv. The commands to apply the Boundary conditions are.3. Create the model Geometry Geometric modeling is the process of generating three dimensional objects of the real world for the purpose of analysis. the following commands need to issue. Geometry of the part can be created in several different ways. Preprocessor models.1 Shows geometric model of section of Shell with Head.1 Loads: In order to specify the distributed loads on a line or surface of a model.4 Define Meshing Control [6] [9]: In this step the created geometrical model is discretized into nodes and elements.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12) Table 1 Material Properties SA516GR. no Properties 1 2 3 Values 3.3.1. Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology. For meshing command is. 3. the model was prepared by using solid works graphic software as shown in Fig. Vasai Page 135 . design. 3.3 Modeling of Problem For the particular problem. A key philosophy in geometric modeling is to sketch sections on work plane or on a face of an object and modify the dimensions later. Preprocessor →Meshing →Mesh →Area 3.2 Shows Meshing of Geometric Model of Pressure Vessel.3 7833 Kg/m3 You can define material properties by command. The process is called meshing. They are as follows: a) Wire-frame modeling b) Surface modeling c) Solid modeling 3. The smaller the element size the finer the mesh. Solution → define loads →Apply →structural →Pressures→on line or Areas The pressure applied on the line is 5 MPa as shown in Fig 3. The element size controls the fineness of the mesh. Modules of elasticity 2 x 105 N/mm2 Poison‟s ratio Density of material 0. 3.5 Solution or Processor: following steps involved. drafting and manufacture etc. Preprocessor→ Meshing → Size Control→ Manual Size→ Global→ Size. In this phase the 3.6 Loading and Boundary Conditions:The loading is given as: Internal pressure and displacement constrains applied as per the deformation takes place in the pressure vessel.

24 10 0.4 93. (Note: All stresses in N/mm ) Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology.29 9 0.4 95.36 Stress es at crown 120.9 6 185.36 96. To solve the above problem we have to issue the following commands.18 132.4 8 179. No .7 96.5 3 174. 3.47 129. Convergence Stress Table Sr.4 Vonmises stress in N/mm2 in the pressure vessel.62 4 8 134 268 28 126.18 3 10 108 215 28 126. 3.36 125.32 Fig.40 93.5 25216 22.5 Displacements (mm) 3.0 6 25. Stre ss 21.8 Min.2 129.50 7 2 1558 208 7 734 0 154 19 273 24 2 185. Ele men t size 14 No. General Postprocessor→ Plot Results → Contour Plot → Nodal Solutions.55 6 4 398 664 30.81 Stres s at shell 87.4 4 175.8 6 186.8 1 185.7 13912 22.5 96.3 95.0 92.9 Convergence: . of Elem ents 77 No.5 7 175. of nod es 154 Max.60 95.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12) In the above deformation the maximum stress occurs at the junction of ellipsoidal head and shell and which is in the range 174 -192 N/mm2 Fig.89 5 6 180 357 179. Solution → Solve → Current LS 3.3 Internal pressure applied and displacement constrain. 3.66 2 12 89 178 26. we have to issue the commands.Plane -42 [6] Table 2.72 131.8 General Postprocessor: In this step we get the results and its display in the deformed shape and contour displays.0 30.7 Solution: In this step the problems get solved. Stres s 170.15 131.6 8 1 6285 23.Element type: . 1 Fig. Vasai Page 136 . 3.95 131.

4.3 Head Stress (Maximum) 138 Fig 4.1 Electrical Resistance Strain Gauges Electrical Resistance strain Gauges are metallic resistors that can be pasted onto the surface of a part on which you want to measure strain. This deformation is reflected as a proportional change in the resistance of the strain gauge.1 Strain measurement with electrical strain gauges Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology. When the part deforms the strain gauge deforms along with it. = -81x10-6x2x105=σ1 – 0. max. Vasai Page 137 . stress Element size stress at crown = 308 X 10-6 X 2X105 = σ2 – 0.z Table 3 The comparisons between the results of all the method Sr.2 101.S.6 Convergence Chart of Element: Plane -42. Circumferential Stresses in Head: σc = E X eh = (v) 2x105 x 508 x 10-6 = 101.S.8 N/mm2 4.44 -16.6 N/mm2 4. Table 3.3 68.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12) convergence chart of Element : -PLANE-42 4.16 Longitudinal Stress -9. E= 2x105 N/mm2 ) v. Part of Pressure Vessel (Booster Tank) Finite Element Method (N/mm2) Strain gauge Measurement Results (N/mm2 ) 1 2 3 Shell Hoop Stress 99.v σ2 ---------------E e1 Fig.3.3.v σ1 ---------------E (iv) 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 stress in N/mm sq.2 Observations: Following observations are found with operating conditions.44 N/mm2 and б1 = 22. v=0.Poisons ratio = for M. stress min.3) е2 σ2 .3 σ1 σ1 . No. Table shows stresses in the pressure vessel shell from mechanics of material laboratory [12]:From mechanics of material laboratory:For E. Strain Measurement Strain Gauge [1][12]: 4.Young‟s Module – (for M.4 Comparisons of Stresses: The comparisons between the results of all the methods.3 б2 From (iv) and (vi) Б2 = 68.

Vidyavardhini’s College of Engineering and Technology.International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 National Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology (VNCET-30 Mar’12) 5. Edition 1981. New York.Dorling Kindersley India pvt. [3] ASME codes -2003 -Section VIII.S. Edition –I-1985. VI With the comparison of the results from all the methods. V From the table no 2. edition -1987. John Wiley & Sons. “Chemical Equipment design”. [10] Mikel P.“ Process Equipments Design ”. “FiniteElement Analysis. [2] M. Bhattacharya. [11] P.Printed in Delhi . Division –I. CBS Publisher New Delhi. Pressure Vessel codes. CONCLUSION I With the help of Finite element analysis we can study the actual stress distributions in the different components of pressure vessel and the actual behavior of pressure vessel. Edition second -1993.Prentice hall India. the actual values of stresses at different locations at pressure vessel are having some variations with reference to theoretical and finite element analysis.Joshi. TATA MCgraw Hill .W. “Process Equipment Design”. Harvey.4. reprint -2001 “Theory and Design of Pressure Vessel”. McGrw-Hill International .C. it is observed with the help of electrical strain gauge .E and Young E. New Dehli. Grover and E. Vasai Page 138 .N. [5] B.N. . . it is observed that the results of the stress analysis by classical methods are more than the actual stresses measured by strain gauges and less than the finite element analysis.Theroy and Programming ”. [12] Strain measurement of Thin walled pressure vessel by Mechanics of materials Laboratory REFERENCES [1] John F. IV There is 25 % variation between the results by finite elements and experimental method. [6] Saeed Moaveni.Zimmer-printed-1999 “CAD/ CAM” .H .-2010. [7] Krishnamurty C. Third edition -2008 “Finite Element Analysis .New Delhi. [9] “ANSYS” Theory Manual and Expanded ANSYS Workbook. II It is found that Different types of finite elements behavior is different for the same operating or load conditions. III It is found that Element size affects the results of finite element analysis but after particular size of the element it does not affects on the analysis results. [8] Reddy J. Macmillan India Limited. Van No strand Reinhold Company.V.“Finite Element Method ”. Ltd. Theory and Application with ANSYS”.Ltd . “CAD/CAM” . [4] Bronwell L. Tata McGrawHill Publication Co. Rao. Inc.

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