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Map 56 Pergamum

Compiled by C. Foss, S. Mitchell (north) and G. Reger (islands), 1994 Introduction

The western seaboard of Asia Minor north of Ionia comprises Aeolis, the Gulf of Adramyttium and the Troad. Greek settlements were established at coastal sites here between about 1000 and 500 B.C., but none developed into a center on the scale of the leading Ionian cities. There were four major coastal plains, around Elaea at the mouth of the R. Caicus, in the broad delta of the R. Grylios, on either side of the R. Euenos north of Adramyttium, and in the lower basin of the R. Scamander around Ilium/Troia. It is clear that there have been changes to the water courses and to the position of the ancient coastline in these alluvial areas. In general, however, it appears that since classical times the increase in alluvial deposits at the river deltas has been matched by a rise in the sea level, with little resultant change to the position of the ancient shoreline. There has been considerable discussion concerning the original course of the Caicus between Pergamum and the sea. Drpfeld (1911) argued that in antiquity the river ran north of Mt. Kane through the gap between Kane and Atarneus, and this course is thus marked with approximate linework. Drpfelds view, however, was contested by Philippson (1911). No detailed geomorphological investigation of the area has been carried out, and the dispute remains unresolved. The river valleys of north-west Asia Minor extend eastwards into the thinly inhabited interior of the Troad and of Mysia, which is dominated by the forested mountain ranges of Ida, Pindasos, Temnon and Aspordenos. The mountains of the Troad were noted for timber as well as for mineral deposits, especially iron, lead and silver (Pernicka 1984). The evidence for the ancient topography of the region is hard to interpret. Only four of the ancient settlements in the entire area between Pergamum and Ilium and across inland Mysia are identified by epigraphic evidence (Alexandria Troas, Assos, Aureliane, Pericharaxis). The best information for the overall pattern of settlement has come from detailed archaeological exploration, notably of the Troad by Cook (1973), of the Gulf of Adramyttium by Stauber (IK 50), and of the territory of Pergamum by Schuchhardt (1912). Assigning names from the ancient sources to these sites is usually a matter of informed guesswork, however, and modern reconstruction depends heavily on the interpretation of the literary evidence. Much of this, including the work of Strabo, reflects the attempts of ancient commentators to make sense of Homeric geography (Leaf 1923). The southern part of the map comprises Lydia and northern Ionia. The latter is a region of typical Mediterranean climate and vegetation, with a long indented coastline and two major rivers, the Hermus and Cayster. It contains one large mountain, Mimas on the peninsula of Erythrai; otherwise it is broken country of small, but highly fertile, coastal and interior plains interrupted by craggy limestone hills. Communication was consequently easiest by sea. Because of its agricultural wealth, favorable maritime communications, and presence of numerous suitable harbors with adjacent hills for defense, this was the earliest area of the Greek colonization that produced a network of towns and cities. The interior is Lydia, a land characterized by the massive range of the Tmolus, the broad and extremely fertile plains of the Hermus and Cayster, and a rough, rather arid hilly country in the north-east. This country has enormous agricultural and mineral resources, as well as good communications with both coast and interior. Its most important roads follow the Hermus and radiate from Sardis. Already under the Lydian kingdom, the plains and valleys supported numerous settlements. In many cases, their presence is indicated by the tumuli which adorned important graves, a practice continuing into the Hellenistic period. Under the Romans, Lydia was densely occupied. The largest settlements were always in the Hermus valley, but the Cayster had many villages and towns, as did the hills. Mt. Tmolus, which contains numerous alpine valleys perpendicular to the main range, supported settlements too, although it was perhaps of greatest value for transhumance and for its mineral resources, of which the most famous was the gold of the R. Pactolus.

842

MAP 56 PERGAMUM

Lydia has been well explored over the past century, notably by Buresch, Keil and von Premerstein, Louis Robert, and Herrmann. Their researches have produced an unusual quantity of inscriptions, which provide many of the toponyms marked. This epigraphic material is now being published, with the full context of historical geography, in TAM. Inscriptions of the Cayster valley appear in IK 17. Islands The three large islands of Lemnos, Lesbos and Chios dominate the western side of the map. Study of their topography has been uneven, and the map reflects these differences. For Lesbos, Koldeweys survey (1890), conducted in the 1880s, remains the primary basis for the identification of many sites; its beautiful, large-scale maps and plans by Kiepert are as pleasurable as profitable to study. Some additional information appears in Kontes (1978), but many of his identifications must be treated with caution. Excavations have been conducted at some sites, and recent work has done much to increase our knowledge of Mytilene (Williams 1991). Most recently, however, three new studies deal with Lesbos in a comprehensive way: Axiotes (1992) extremely full descriptions of sites with sketch maps and illustrations; Spencers (1995) gazetteer of sites, which now replaces Kontes; and TIB Aigaion Pelagos (1998), which also covers Lemnos. These volumes represent a considerable advance on earlier work. Spencer, in particular, has collected and published an immense amount of data, including material in Axiotes; only the more significant sites newly brought to light by these two scholars can be marked at this scale. On Chios, many sites have been excavated, including notably Emporio (Boardman 1967). Ongoing work in the town of Chios has permitted a very useful summary by Tsarabopoulos (1986). The island as a whole was the subject of an intensive survey by Yalouris (1986), which is the basis for many of the identifications on the map. Since exploration early in the twentieth century by Fredrich (1906) and Sealy (1918), Lemnos has unfortunately remained neglected for the most part. There have been excavations, however, at the Kabeirion (Levi 1966). Two groups of sites largely are omitted. First, ancient farms, many of which are known for the island of Chios (Boardman 1958; Lambrinoudakis 1986); Dotion, however, is marked because its ancient name is known. Second, the many toponyms appearing in the Diocletianic (or later) land surveys (IG XII 2.76-80, IG XII Suppl.; Charitonides 1968, 70; LaBarre 1996, 223-37 for a recent study and bibliography). This second group poses a particular problem for Lesbos, since a remarkable number of toponyms there can reasonably be claimed to preserve names from those lists (Mantzuranis 1951; Kontes 1978). Kontes especially has been very quick to equate modern sites bearing these toponyms with the ancient ones. But in many cases, the modern sites have revealed no evidence of ancient occupation. Since toponyms can wander, the mere existence of a modern one resembling a known ancient one seems insufficient for the identification of a site without supporting archaeological remains. Kydonia provides a good example; a recent suggestion makes it the name of a region, not an island (Pliny, NH 2.232, 5.140; Koldewey 1890, 42; Mason 1993, 244-45). In general, I have been conservative in this matter, even rejecting some identifications (Mesos Agros, for example) that most scholars have accepted. Another problem arises from the large quantity of toponyms attested from antiquity whose identification is disputed or entirely uncertain. Lesbos has attracted numerous names of cities, indeed probably more than were ever established there. On Chios, some Hellenistic inscriptions published (in a bad state) by Zolotas (1908) offer a plethora of names. Only such toponyms as seem securely enough identified are marked; the rest remain Unlocated Toponyms. In addition, some famous sites, notably Leukonion (Thuc. 8.24.3) and the Lesbian site of the action in Daphnis and Chloe (Mason 1979; Green 1982), remain unlocated. Considerable shoreline change has occurred in the Aegean since antiquity, including the silting-up of harbors or bays, and loss of land to the sea. Most of these changes are too minor to show at this scalefor example, the shoreline at Eresos on Lesbos (Schaus 1994, 421-24). An exception is the strait between island and shore (euripos) at Mytilene, now silted up. Otherwise, the landscape of these islands has remained relatively unchanged.

MAP 56 PERGAMUM

843

Directory
All place names are in Turkey unless otherwise noted Abbreviations
IK 1 IK 2 IK 5 IK 8 IK 17.1-2 IK 24.1 IK 50 Robert, Hell. Robert, OMS TIB Aigaion Pelagos H. Engelmann and R. Merkelbach, Die Inschriften von Erythrai und Klazomenai I, Bonn, 1972 H. Engelmann and R. Merkelbach, Die Inschriften von Erythrai und Klazomenai II, Bonn, 1973 H. Engelmann, Die Inschriften von Kyme, Bonn, 1976 T. Ihnken, Die Inschriften von Magnesia am Sipylos, Bonn, 1978 R. Meri et al., Die Inschriften von Ephesos VII, Bonn, 1981 G. Petzel, Die Inschriften von Smyrna II, Bonn, 1982 J. Stauber, Die Bucht von Adramytteion, Bonn, 1996 L. Robert, Hellenica, 13 vols., Paris, 1946-65 L. Robert, Opera Minora Selecta, 7 vols., Amsterdam, 1969-90 J. Koder, Tabula Imperii Byzantini 10, Aigaion Pelagos (Die nrdliche gis), DenkWien 259, 1998

Names
Grid G3 C2 E4 C2 C2 D3 D2 E4 A4 D3 C3 D3 C3 D3 A2 E5 C2 F4 C2 D2 D3 C3 D5 E2 E5 C5 D2 F5 G4 C4 C3 Name (...)aleia? Achaiion Achaion Limen Acheloos fl. Achilleion Adramyttenos/ Idaios Sinus Adramyttium Aegae Aegaeum Mare Aeolis Ag. Berenike Ag. Georgios Ag. Isidoros Ag. Nikolaos Ag. Sophia Agamemnoniai Thermai Agammia? Pr. Agatheira Aianteion Aidoneus fl. Aiga/ Kane Pr. Aigeiros? Airai Aisepos fl. Akakaya Akokome = (N)Akokome Aleon? fl. Alesion Pedion = (H)Alesion Pedion Alexandreia M. Alexandria Troas = Antigoneia Antissa Alyattes Amades Ametelle Andeira? = Astyra? Period H ACHR HR HR ACHR HR/ HR ACHRL ACHRL ACHR HL AC CHR ACHRL C?H? R CH H CHRL HR HR/ HR ACHRL CH HR H HR HR R AC CH ACH Modern Name / Location near Sndrg Hantepe Haci Ahmet Aa at Larisa (Troas) Beika Burnu Gulf of Edremit Karata (ren) Nemrut Kale coast and islands between Troas and Ionia on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lemnos GRE Ilca Beika Burnu near Halitpaa mouth of Azmak ay Ilca Dere S Gulf of Edremit Kabakli, on Lesbos GRE Aa Demirci Gnen ay stream at Erythrai above Antandros Eskioba at Bin Tepe on Khios GRE on Lesbos GRE Reference Robert 1962, 77 Cook 1973, 195-96 RE RE 7 Cook 1973, 188 RE RE 1 RE Adramytteion; IK 50, 127-49 RE 5 See Map 57 RE Aioles Kontes 1978, 363 Kontes 1978, 239-40; Spencer 1995, 11 Kontes 1978, 361-62 Kontes 1978, 242; Spencer 1995, 8-9 Sealy 1918, 169-71 RE Smyrna 3, col. 739, 759 Cook 1973, 169 TAM 5.2, 466 (no. 1307) Cook 1973, 86-87 Cook 1973, 281-82 RE Kanai Kontes 1978, 287-88; Mason 1993, 240-43 Robert, OMS 7, 309-311 RE 1 Bean 1979, 44 RE Suppl. 1 Cook 1973, 270 IK 17.1, 187-96 PECS Sardis Yalouris 1986, 156 Kontes 1978, 283

844 Grid D2 D2 C2 C3 D3 E3 C3 F2 H4 F5 F3 F4 C3 C5 D3 E2 E2 G4 B4 B4 C3 H4 C3 Name Andiros fl. Antandros Antigoneia/ (Col. Augusta) Alexandria Troas Antissa Ano Latomeia Kourtzi Antron Kybeles/ Mithra Aphrodisios? fl. Apias Pedion Apollo Axyros, T. Apollo Karios, T. Apollonia Apollonia = Assos Apollonis Apotheke Aqua Traiana Argennon Pr. Arginous(s)ai Inss. Argiza Argyria? Arilla Arios M. Ariousia Arisba Artemis Anaeitis, Men Tiamou, T. Artemis Thermia, T. Ascanius Portus? = Kyllene? Asklepieion Aspaneus Aspordenos M. Assios fl. Assos/ Apollonia *Asteeis? fl. Astyra Astyra? Astyra?/ Andeira? Astyr(i)a? Atarneus Atarneus sub Pitanem *Atetta? = Maionia Attaleia Attea? Attea Atys? M. Augonema Aureliane Aureliopolis = Tmolos Autokane = Kane Axos? fl. Period HR ACH H/ R/ HRL ACH C?L HR HR HR R C CH HRL ACHR CR CH RL R R ACHR ACHR R ACHR

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Modern Name / Location Kursak ay Devren / Avclar Eskistanbul Skalokhori / Obriokastro, on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Kapkaya on Lesbos GRE plain of Balkesir Sarayck Ovack between Yenice and Duvarlar near Mecidiye monument and fort on Lesbos GRE Ak Burun Makronisi Pazarky Karaidin Maden (Gm Maden) Hachasankran on Khios GRE on Khios GRE Arisbe, on Lesbos GRE 1 mile NNE Esenyaz (Grnevit) Skala / Loutra Thermis, on Lesbos GRE near Bergama near Avclar Yunt Da near Assos Beyramkale Tahtal ay Kaplca, near Nebiler Byk al Tepe Kilisetepe, Kaplcalar Kale Tepe, near Dikili Gavurgr near Selikli Maltepe, Ayazment (Altnova) Ovabayndr hill near Gkcedere on Khios GRE Havran (Freneli) stream N Erythrai Reference RE Troas 1, col. 547 Cook 1973, 267-71 RE 16 Lamb 1930; 1931; Spencer 1995, 35 Spencer 1995, 9 Radt 1978 RE Lesbos 1, col. 2126 RE SEG 1992.1082 Bengisu 1994 Schuchhardt 1912, 135 RE 1 Kontes 1978, 331; Schaus 1994, 416-17; Spencer 1995, 28 See Aqueducts RE 2 RE Arginusai RE Leaf 1923, 211-12 Malay 1994, 152 RE Chios 1, col. 2290 RE Chios 1, col. 2290 Kontes 1978, 288-91; Spencer 1995, 25-26 Naour 1983, 107, 109 Kontes 1978, 235-38; Spencer 1995, 6

E3 D2 E4 C2 C3 E5 D1 D3 E2 D2 D3 D4 F3 D3 G2 F2 C5 E2 C5

HR H HR HR ACHRL/ R A HR ACH CHRL ACHR HR HRL HR RL R CHR L R

Radt 1988, 250-71 Cook 1973, 267 RE Cook 1973, 246 (n. 1) RE 1 Pliny, NH 5.123 RE See Map 51 IK 50, 22-23, 248-50 IK 50, 23, 71-90 Cook 1973, 267; Engelmann 1989, 21 (l.24); IK 50, 16-27 RE 2; IK 50, 263-72; Lambrianides 1996, 190-94 RE Atarneus 3; IK 50, 287-88 TAM 5.2, 296-97 RE 1; IK 50, 232-33, 239-40 Taeuber 1989, 220 Robert 1937, 211-20 Yalouris 1986, 151 RE; IK 50, 65-66 RE Erythrai, col. 578

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Grid C5 E5 C3 F4 C2 F5 C5 C3 E3 E5 D3 C5 G4 C5 B5 E5 F4 C2 D2 D5 Name Babrantion Belkahve Bigla tou Aetou Bin Tepe Birytis? Boukolion *Boutheia Brisa Pr. Caicus fl. Cayster fl. Chalkis? Ins. Chalkitis Charax/ Charakipolis Chios Chios Ins. *Chondria *Choria Chrysa Chryse? Chyton/ Chytrion (Col. Augusta) Alexandria Troas = Antigoneia Colophon Corynaeum? Pr. Cyme Daldis (*Phlabiokaisareia) Damandri *Daredda Dareioukome Delphinion *Diginda Dionysos Bresagenes, T. Dios Hieron Dios Hieron? Doroukome? Dotion Draco M. Drakou Pedema Drymousa Ins. Elaea Elaioussa Ins. Elaitikos Sinus Elateia? = Herakleia Elinta Embaton Emoddi/ *Pereudos Emporio Enbeilos fl. Epi Peraia? Eresos Period A?C? ACH AC ACH CH R C Modern Name / Location Daskalopetra, on Khios GRE on Lesbos GRE Lydian royal mounds Mersinoba S atal near eme Kabos Bourkos / Ag. Phokas, on Lesbos GRE Bakr ay Kk Menderes Gymonisi region around Ilca near Karayakup GRE Khios GRE ehitler Selendi Gztepe Maara Tepe, near Akay SW Urla Reference RE Chios 1, col. 2291; Yalouris 1986, 159 Bean 1979, 41 Kontes 1978, 332; Spencer 1995, 39 Hanfmann 1983, 53-54 Cook 1973, 114, 357 IK 17.1, 202 IK 1, 35 RE Lesbos 1, col. 2126 RE Kaikos RE Kaystros 1 RE 11 IK 1, 142 TAM 5.1, 220 Tsarabopoulos 1986 RE 1 IK 17.1, 271 Keil 1910, 53 Cook 1973, 232-33 IK 50, 28-31, 35-38 Cook 1953, 156-57

845

HR ACHRL CH R R/ R ACHRL R RL ACH ACHRL C/ R

E5 C5 D4 G4 C3 G5 F4 C5 G5 C3 G5 F2 H4 C5 F5 C3 D4 E4 D4 D4 B5 C5 H4 C5 F2 C4 B3

R ACHRL RL/ R CH R R CH R ACHRL RL R R HR R CH CHR ACHRL HR HR CHR C A ACHRL

olak Burnu Nemrut Liman Nardi on Lesbos GRE Elbi Dereky Delphinion, on Khios GRE Kayack Asar Ag. Phokas, on Lesbos GRE Birgi Ilca Ky Ayvatlar Dotia, on Khios GRE Mahmut Da on Lesbos GRE Uzun Ada Kazkbalar Mardali Adas Gulf of andarl on Khios GRE Agrilya on Khios GRE on Khios GRE Skala, on Lesbos GRE

See Map 61 RE Korunaion Knoblauch 1974 TAM 5.1, 200-201 Kontes 1978, 361 Keil 1914, 58 RE Dareiu Kome Boardman 1956 RE Kontes 1978, 364-65; Spencer 1995, 17 RE 1 Robert 1937, 213 (n. 1) TAM 5.1, 137 Yalouris 1986, 146 Cadoux 1938, 8 Kontes 1978, 291-92; Spencer 1995, 48-49 RE Drymusa RE 1 RE Elaiussa 1; IK 50, 288 RE ; IK 50, 334-36 Yalouris 1986, 151-52 RE Embata See Map 62 Boardman 1967 See Map 52 Zolotas 1908, 174-75 Kontes 1978, 318-39; Spencer 1995, 29-30

846 Grid F2 C5 D5 E2 Name Ergasteria Erythrai Erythras? Euenos fl. Eurydikeia = Smyrna Flaviopolis = *Lora E3 C3 D2 D2 C2 D2 F3 D5 G5 F4 E1 D3 E4 G4 F4 Gambreion Garbias Gargara Gargara Akron Gentinos? Gergis Kerge Gergitha? Germe = (Hiera) Germe Gerraidai Geraesticus Portus Gevele Glaukos fl. Granicus fl. Grylios fl. Gryneion Gygaia/ Koloe/ Talaimenis L. Gyges Hadrianopolis = Stratonicaea Hadrianoutherai (H)Alesion Pedion Halisarna Halonessos Ins. Halonnesos Ins. Hamaxitos Harmatos Pr. Hekatonnesoi Inss. Helos Hephaistia Herakleia Herakleia/ Elateia? Idale Itale Herakles, T. Hermeios Sinus Hermokapeleia/ Thyessos? Hermus fl. Hiera I(e)ra (Hiera) Germe Hierakome/ Hierokaisareia Hippoi Inss. (H)Ormoita AC CH CHR C? ACHRL CH HR/ RL R A?C?H? R? C HRL/ C? ACHRL CHR RL HR/ RL R R CHR CHRL CHRL HR HR ACH L HR R H HRL R R HR AR/ R/ R? AC Period HRL CHRL R HR

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Modern Name / Location settlement and mine at Balya Maden Ildr Sarpdere Liman Havran ay Reference RE RE 1 RE 1 RE 2

Poyrak on Sandalium? Ins. GRE near Arkl Kaz Da Ball Da Karnkal Yirce Sack Liman lower course of Hyllos Madra ay Termaalk Burnu Marmara Gl in Bin Tepe

Schuchhardt 1912, 130 Koldewey 1890, 42; Spencer 1995, 18 Cook 1973, 255-61 RE Troas 1, cols. 551-52 Cook 1973, 139-40 Cook 1973, 347-51 HierSyn 663.4 Strabo 13.1.70 Keil 1912, 61 Keil 1912, 57-58 TAM 5.2, 446 See Map 52 RE; IK 50, 348 RE RE RE 2 Robert 1987, 311 PECS Sardis

F2 C2 E3 C5 A2 C2 D4 D3 C4 A2 E4 D3

RL HR ACHR R

Balkesir lower Tuzla ay Erigltepe arufa Ada, formerly Kamilonissi Ag. Eustratios or Strati GRE Beiktepe, Glpnar narburnu Yuntadas Denizgiren? Kastro Bouni, on Lemnos GRE Emiralem? near Ayvalk

Robert 1962, 389 Cook 1973, 224 Schuchhardt 1912, 116-17 Keil 1912, 58 RE Cook 1973, 231 RE Harmatus IK 50, 182-84; Kontes 1978, 234 RE Polichne 9 Fredrich 1906, 247-49; Mustilli 1932 Robert 1937, 115 RE 12; IK 50, 178 RE 4; IK 50, 182, 231-32 Fredrich 1906, 251 RE TAM 5.2, 439-40 RE 2; TIB Phrygien 268 Kontes 1978, 247-52; Spencer 1995, 13-14 Robert 1962, 406-408 RE Hiera Kome RE 2 TAM 5.2, 506

A2 D4 F4 E4 C3 F3 F4 C5 F4

Kome, on Lemnos GRE Izmir Krfezi S Suleymanky Gediz ay Perama, on Lesbos GRE Kiresun, Savatepe near Sazoba in Ildr Krfezi Karaaal

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Grid D4 G4 G4 F5 D5 F4 F4 G3 H4 D2 C2 C2 F3 D4 G4 C3 G4 C3 A2 F5 C3 D2 E5 C2 C3 C2 F4 A2 B3 D3 D4 D3 C4 F3 D3 C3 F5 E3 C5 C3 C3 D5 G4 C3 B5 F5 Name Hyde? = Sardis Hydra Pr. Hyllos fl. Hyllos? fl. Hypaipa Hypokremnos Hyrcanius Campus Hyrkanis *Hyssa *Iaza Ida M. Idaios Sinus = Adramyttenos Sinus Ilieon Kome Ilium/ Troia Indeipedion Ionia *Ioudda Issa? Iulia = *Maiboza Iulia Gordos/ *Porotta? Kabaki Kabeireion *Kaira Kalapetro Kale Peuke Kaleon fl. Kallikolone M. Kalogera Kalydnai/ Lagusae Inss. Kamai Kaminia Kampos Krousos Kanaites fl. Kane M. Kane Pr. = Aiga Pr. Kane/ Autokane Kanai Kardamyle? *Karena Karene? Karini Karios M. Karkasos fl. Kastelli Kastrelli Kastri Kasystes Katakekaumene Kato Tritos Kaukasa? Kaystrianoi Period CH R ACHR HRL R HR HRL R ACHR HR ACHRL/ ACHR H ACHRL R ACH RL/ H C ACHR H? HR HR R AH CH HR/ HR R C? R R CHR ACH/ C ACHRL R C H C C CHR? H AC? R L CHRL H Modern Name / Location S Myrina Demirci ay Kum ay Datbey Glbahce Manisa Ovas W Halit Paa Khra Kaz Da on Karatepe Hisarlk between Siledik and Krkaa Phocaea-Lebedos Sacayak Xerokastrine, on Lesbos GRE Eski Grdes on Lesbos GRE Khloe, on Lemnos GRE near Gken on Lesbos GRE N Grgen Da Uzun Dere Karatepe on Lesbos GRE Tavanadas near Arabacbozky on Lemnos GRE on Lesbos GRE at Kane Kara Da, near andarl Acan Liman (Bademli) Marmaron, on Khios GRE N Yataan Assar Kaya / Tasal on Lesbos GRE Byk Kel Da Ilias ay on Khios GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Krkdilim Liman? on Lesbos GRE Bolissos, on Khios GRE middle Cayster valley Reference RE 7 TAM 5.1, 29 RE 1 RE Keil 1912, 60 RE Hyrkanion Pedion RE TAM 5.1, 248 See Map 62 RE 2 Cook 1973, 109-11 RE Suppl. 14 Troia 1 Habicht 1975, 78-79 RE 4 TAM 5.1, 196 Kontes 1978, 312-15; Spencer 1995, 27 TAM 5.1, 225 Kontes 1978, 277 Levi 1966 IK 17.2, 396 Kontes 1978, 283 RE ; IK 50, 342-44 RE Smyrna 3, col. 748 Cook 1973, 111-12 Kontes 1978, 357-58 RE Kalydna 1 Leaf 1923, 222 TAM 5.2, 437 Fredrich 1906, 252-53 Kontes 1978, 333 RE; IK 50, 277, 347 RE Kanai; IK 50, 277, 345 RE Kanai; IK 50, 273-78 RE Chios 1, col. 2292

847

BE 1960.353 Schuchhardt 1912, 122; IK 50, 242, 245-47; Lambrianides 1996, 195-96 Koldewey 1890, 40-41; Spencer 1995, 16-17 Bengisu 1996 RE Yalouris 1986, 159 Kontes 1978, 311 Kontes 1978, 312; Spencer 1995, 35-36 RE See Map 62 Kontes 1978, 246 Chamoux 1980 RE

848 Grid D2 D2 D2 E3 C3 C3 G5 G5 G5 E2 D4 D2 D2 G4 D3 F5 D5 D5 C2 E4 G5 C4 C3 A2 C2 G5 C2 C5 G5 H4 F4 D5 D3 D2 C3 B3 C3 F4 C4 D4 E3 Name Kebren Kebren? fl. Kenchreai? Kertonos? = Kytonion? Keteios fl. Khontro Bigli Khydera Kilbianoi (Ano) Kilbianoi (Kato) Kilbos fl. Kilikes Killaion M. Killaios? M. Killaios? fl. Kissos? fl. Kisthene? Krtepe Klazomenai? Klazomenai Koal Koddinou Petra Kogamos fl. Koila Koja Dag Kokkinos *Kokylion? Koloe Koloe L. = Gygaia L. Kolonai Kontari *Korakoe Koresa Korou Pedion Cyri Campus Korykos M. Koryphas Kotylos M. Kouphi Kourouklos Koutlougouni Kryos fl. Kybelaia Kyllene?/ Ascanius Portus? Kytonion?/ Kertonos? Lagusae Inss. = Kalydnai Inss. Lamponia *Lamyana Laneion Lapedia Lapsarna Laris(s)a? Larisa Larisa/ Ptolemais? Larissai Petrai Larsos *Lasnedda? Latom Latomi Period ACHRL HR RL HR CH A?C? HR R R A HR HR R CH A CHRL R R R CHRL ACH C?H? CR RL ACH HR R HR CHR HR HR CH AC ACH R AC C/ R C

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Modern Name / Location Fula Tepe, al Da tributary of Menderes ay Kayal Da Kestel ay GRE on Lesbos GRE upper Cayster valley upper Cayster valley upper R. Cayster Thebe and Lyrnessos on Lesbos GRE Adatepe Zeytinli Dere Grce ay Gme SW Urla Iskelesi Klazmen Ta Sret Derbent ay on Khios GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lemnos GRE Karaev Kiraz Beiktepe on Khios GRE Yeilkavak Kasaba ovas Kiran / Koraka Da near Keremky Grgen Da on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Nif ay Badembk? Yenifoa Asar Kale Reference Cook 1973, 327-44 Cook 1973, 320 (n. 2) Cook 1973, 288-89 Radt 1988, 17 Spencer 1995, 27-28 Schaus 1994, 418 RE Kilbianoi RE Kilbianoi C. Foss Leaf 1923, 305 Kontes 1978, 255 Cook 1973, 265 IK 50, 353 RE Tomara 1 RE 1; IK 50, 157-61 See Map 61 Cook 1953 PECS Cook 1973, 208-209 Bean 1979, 33 RE Kogamis, Kogamos Yalouris 1986, 157 Kontes 1978, 311; Spencer 1995, 40 Fredrich 1906, 253-54 RE Kokylis; IK 50, 34-35 Keil 1914, 57 Cook 1973, 219-20 Yalouris 1986, 144 Malay 1994, 36-37 See Map 62 RE 11, col. 1440 RE 1 RE Coryphanta; IK 50, 167-77 RE Troas 1, col. 557; IK 50, 341 Spencer 1995, 35 Schaus 1994, 418 Kontes 1978, 311; Spencer 1995, 39-40 RE Keil 1910, 21 RE 4; Bean 1966, 99-100 RE RE; IK 50, 330-31

C2 F4 F2 C3 B3 E4 F5 C2 C3 C3 F4 C4 C5

CH R R R HRL ACHR CHR ACH/ H CHR R CHR? ACHR

Kozlu Da Bykbelen S Gkedere on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Buruncuk, in Aeolis near atal Limantepe, in Troad Larsa, on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Grece on Lesbos GRE on Khios GRE

Cook 1973, 261-64 TAM 5.2, 470 Robert 1937, 207 Kontes 1978, 331 Kontes 1978, 316 Bean 1966, 97-101; IK 5, 156-64 RE 9 Cook 1973, 219-21 Robert 1987, 281-89 Kontes 1978, 243-44 Kontes 1978, 244 TAM 5.2, 471 Kontes 1978, 256 Yalouris 1986, 144

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Grid C3 D2 A2 C3 B3 C3 D4 C3 B5 G4 F4 F4 E2 D4 E4 F4 G4 G4 C3 G2 D3 D3 D3 D3 E2 B5 C3 B3 D5 D2 D2 D5 B3 C4 B4 E4 E5 E5 G4 C5 C3 C4 F4 E4 C3 B5 C5 E5 Name Lekton Pr. Leleges Lemnos Ins. Leptymnos M. Lesbas Lesbos Ins. Leukai Leukai Inss. Lithi *Lora/ Flaviopolis Lydia/ Maionia Lykos fl. Lyrnessos Lysimachea? Magnesia ad Sipylum *Maiboza/ Iulia Maionia = Lydia Maionia/ *Atetta? Maionia/ Mysia Makara Mekestos fl. Malea Malene Malia Pr. Maloeis Sinus Malus Managros Manna Mantra Marathoussa? Ins. Markaion M. Marpessos Mastousia M. Megalos Lakkos Melaina Pr. Melaina Pr. Melampagos Meles fl. Meletos/ Smyrnaeus Sinus Meloukome Men Tiamou, T. = Artemis Anaeitis, T. Mesate Pr. Messon Metaon? Meter Plastena, T. Meter Theon, T. Methymna Metokhi Metokhi Metropolis Period CHR A AHR CHR A?HR R/ R ACHRL/ ACHR R ACH H CHRL C?/ R HRL/ H HR AC?H CHR C HR A?CHRL CHR R CR L CH R A R C ACHR A R R ACHRL AC R HR ACHRL CHRL A?C? HRL Modern Name / Location Bababurnu W Antandros Lemnos GRE Korakas, on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Lesbos GRE tepeler Tokmakia GRE on Khios GRE ahankaya? central interior W Anatolia Grdk ay Ala Da Hatplar Manisa Glmarmara Menye E Lydia on Lesbos GRE Akhlia, on Lesbos GRE near Makaronya Agrelias GRE around headwaters of Karesos on Khios GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Yassca Ada Kayal Da Damkale, Zerdallk Dikmen Da / Iki Karde on Lesbos GRE Karaburun Melainos GRE Gkkaya Halka Pnar Izmir Krfezi apakl Top Burnu Messa, on Lesbos GRE Ta Meti / Plagia, on Lesbos GRE near Ta Sret Mamurt Kale Methymna, on Lesbos GRE on Khios GRE on Khios GRE Yeniky Reference RE Leaf 1923, 249-50 RE RE Kontes 1978, 332 Koldewey 1890; RE 1 RE Leuka 6 RE Leuka 5 Yalouris 1986, 151 TAM 5.1, 255; Foss 1987, 91 RE 1 RE 1 RE 2 IK 50, 66-71, 102-12 Schuchhardt 1912, 118 RE Magnesia 3 Robert 1980, 329-35 TAM 5.1, 165-66 RE 2 RE Lydia, col. 2163 Schaus 1994, 415-16; Spencer 1995, 28-29 See Map 52 Kontes 1978, 239 RE; Lambrianides 1996, 196 RE Lesbos 1, cols. 2128-29 Koldewey 1890, 14 RE 2 Yalouris 1986, 146 Kontes 1978, 252-54; Spencer 1995, 13 Kontes 1978, 330 RE Marathus(s)a Cook 1973, 287 Cook 1973, 281-82 RE 2 Kontes 1978, 332; Spencer 1995, 37 RE 2 RE Chios 1, col. 2290 RE RE Smyrna 3, col. 764 RE RE RE Melokome RE Mesate Akra Koldewey 1890, 47-61; Kontes 1978, 350-65; Spencer 1995, 22-23 Kontes 1978, 255-57 Bean 1979, 39 Schuchhardt 1912, 108 Buchholz 1975; Spencer 1995, 45 Yalouris 1986, 152-54 Hunt 1940, 36 RE 8

849

850 Grid D2 C5 C4 F4 C3 C3 D3 E4 E4 F5 A2 G5 A2 D4 D4 D4 E2 F3 G3 D3 C4 F3 F3 F3 C3 E5 C2 E4 B3 G5 H4 C3 E5 G4 C4 C4 D3 E4 C3 E5 C1 B3 E5 G5 Name Miletos? Milingos Mimas M. *Misnya Mithra = Antron Kybeles Molibos Monasteraki Moria Mormonda Moschakome Mostene Mosychlos M. Myloukome Myrina Myrina/ Sebastopolis Myrmekes Myrsinia Mysia Mysia = Maionia Mysios fl. Mysoi Abbaeitai Mytilene Nagos (N)Akokome *Nakrason? *Nakrason?/ Tibbai? Nape? Nasos = Por(d)oselene Naulochon/ Smyrna/ Palaia Smyrna Neandria Neonteichos Nesope Ins. Nikaia *Nisyra Ntantania [Nymphaion] *Odon Oinous(s)ai Inss. Oinousa Ins. Okcular Olympos Olympos M. Olympos? M. Ophryneion Ordymnos M. Ormoita = (H)Ormoita *Oroanna *Oumyrota Period CR CHR ACLR R A CH R L RL? HRL R ACHRL ACHRL/ R R CHR ACHRL HR ACHRL ACHR R HR HR/ R ACHR A/ AC/ R ACH ACHRL RL C H HR L H R HR

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Modern Name / Location Uyuncak Kpr, over Havran ay on Khios GRE Boz Da Seyitoba? on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE cemetery and mine on Lesbos GRE Soukpnar near Tepecik near Sancaklbozky Mosykhlos, on Lemnos GRE Kemaliye? Kastro / Myrina, on Lemnos GRE mouth of Koca ay rocks off Eskifener Burnu Myrsinia, on Lesbos GRE Yal Dere (Akcavl ay) Mytilene, on Lesbos GRE on Khios GRE avlu Maltepe?, Bakr?, Ilyaslar? Maltepe?, Bakr?, Ilyaslar? Klopedi, on Lesbos GRE Bayrakl gr Da Yankky? Megalonisi GRE Trkn on Lesbos GRE Kemalpaa Selekler, Borlu Oinoussai GRE Oinousa GRE fortified settlement with church, NW Perperene; Theodosiopolis? Yenice Ag. Elias, on Lesbos GRE Nif Da near Erenky Hypsilia Monastiri, on Lesbos GRE N Colophon Suludere Reference RE 3; IK 50, 64-65, 150-51 Yalouris 1986, 157 RE 1 TAM 5.2, 421 Buchholtz 1975, 58-65 Kontes 1978, 278-82 Kontes 1978, 238; Millar 1993; Spencer 1995, 7-8 Bean 1955, 51 TAM 5.2, 504 RE RE Lemnos, col. 1928 RE Fredrich 1906, 243-47; RE 2 RE Suppl. 6 Cadoux 1938, 18 Kontes 1978, 255 KlPauly RE 3 See Map 62 Kontes 1978, 129-231; Spencer 1995, 9 Yalouris 1986, 156-57 TAM 5.2, 421 BE 1970.512 BE 1970.512 Herrmann 1986, 18-19 Koldewey 1890, 35-36, 44-46 RE Smyrna 3, cols. 740, 743 PECS RE Smyrna 3, col. 742 RE RE 2 Kontes 1978, 339 Keil 1914, 57 See Map 62 Kontes 1978, 292-93 Robert 1980, 386-92 BE 1984.385 RE Oinussai 2 RE Oinussai 2 IK 50, 310-19 RE 18 RE Lesbos 1, col. 2130 Cadoux 1938, 8 RE; Cook 1973, 72-77 RE Lesbos 1, col. 2130 Robert, OMS 7, 316-18 IK 17.2, 323 (no. 3713)

H R

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Grid E3 G5 E5 D2 A2 B3 D2 E4 C3 E3 F5 E5 D5 G2 C4 E4 E3 F2 D3 F5 C3 C3 D2 B5 C5 D3 H5 D4 C4 C3 D4 F4 E5 F4 E3 F3 F2 D4 F3 C3 E2 C3 D5 D5 C3 D3 Name Paa Ilca Pactolus fl. Pagos M. Palaia Gargara Palaia Smyrna = Naulochon Palaio Pretorio Palaiokhori Palaiskepsis? Palamedium = Polymedion *Panda Parakoila Parthenion? *Parsada Pegaseum Stagnum Pele? Ins. Pelekas M. Pelinnaion M. Pelopis Thronus *Pereudos = Emoddi Pergamum Pericharaxis Perperene/ Theodosiopolis Person Exedra Petra Petra Phalakrai Phanai Phanai Pr. Phara Philadelpheia Phocaea Phoinikous? Sinus Phonias Phrikonis Phrygios fl. Phyrites fl. Pidasos fl. Pindasos M. *Pingea Pionia(i) Pitane *Pityaia Plagia Plakos M. Platy Bounari *Polichna Polichne Polymedion/ Palamedium Por(d)oselene/ Nasos Nesos *Porotta? = Iulia Gordos Period R CHR R AC A?C?H? R? HR AC R AC? CHR L CR HR R ACHRL CHRL CHRL/ L A?C R AC HR ACHRL HR HRL ACHRL CR A CH HR R R HR R CHRL ACHRL H HRL AHR HR C C ACH/ HR CHRL/ CH Modern Name / Location Reference Schuchhardt 1912, 131-32 RE Paktolos RE Smyrna 3, col. 747 Cook 1973, 257-58 Sealy 1918-19, 161-62 Kontes 1978, 316; Spencer 1995, 4 Cook 1973, 300-304 TAM 5.2, 499 Koldewey 1890, 39; Spencer 1995, 27 Schuchhardt 1912, 110 Robert, Hell. 6, 115 See Map 61 RE 3 Robert 1937, 190-91 RE Chios 1, col. 2290 Bean 1979, 40 RE Pergamos 1 RE RE; IK 50, 291-309 Bengisu 1996 Kontes 1978, 277; Spencer 1995, 43 Koldewey 1890, 35 Cook 1973, 304 Lamb 1934 Boardman 1967, 253-54 Kontes 1978, 242-43 RE 1 RE Phokaia RE Phoinikus 6 Kontes 1978, 312; Spencer 1995, 40-41 RE Kyme 2 RE 1 RE TAM 5.2, 464-65 RE; IK 50, 345 TAM 5.2, 421 Robert 1962, 364; IK 50, 93-97 RE TAM 5.2, 309 Kontes 1978, 256-58; Spencer 1995, 15 RE; IK 50, 45, 55-62 Kontes 1978, 363 ATL 1, 487 RE 10 RE RE; IK 50, 198-212

851

Sart ay Kadife Kale Kocakaya on Lemnos GRE on Lesbos GRE Kk kizce? amky? on Lesbos GRE Eski Bergama Parsa Hekim Adas between Balkesir and Simav ay on Khios GRE Yarkkaya Bergama at Kad Kale ay Aag Beyky on Kel Da on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE summit of Mt. Ida Kato Phana, on Khios GRE Mastikho GRE on Lesbos GRE Alaehir Foa Eri Liman on Lesbos GRE district around Larisa and Cyme Kum ay (lower course) Fitrek ay tributary of Kum ay Madra Da Yayaky? Gmeni andarl near Sleymanl on Lesbos GRE Paa Da, mountain and village above Thebe on Lesbos GRE Balklova? Urla Iskelesi? Asarlk Alibey Adas

852 Grid C4 E5 B4 B4 C5 C1 D3 C3 C3 C3 C1 G2 H4 E4 C2 E4 F3 C3 F5 F4 G5 E4 G4 C2 C2 F5 E3 C3 D4 C2 C1 B3 B3 F5 E4 C2 E4 C3 D3 C3 C2 C2 D2 C3 C2 E5 Name Poseideion Pr. Prepelaion? Psyra Psyra Ins. Pteleon Pteleos L. Ptolemais? = Larisa Pyrra Pr. Pyrra Pyrraion? M. Pyrraios Sinus Pythikos fl. = Titnaios fl. Rhoiteion Rhyndakos fl. Saittai Saloe?/ Tantali? L. Samonion Pedion Sancakl Kalesi *Sandaina? Sandalium? Ins. Saouenda Sardianon Pedion Sardis/ Hyde? Saram Satala Satnioeis fl. Scamander fl. Sebastopolis = Myrina *Selinda Selinos fl. Selles Sidoussa? Ins. Sigeion Sigeion Pr. Sigrion Pr. Sigron *Siklia Sillyos Simoeis fl. Sipylos M. Skala Polykhnitou Skala ton Loutron Skala ton Mistegnon Skamandreia Skamandros Skepsis Skoteino Smintheion Smyrna/ Eurydikeia Zmyrna Smyrna = Naulochon Smyrnaeus Sinus = Meletos Sinus Sta Oikia ACH H ACHRL C HR HR ACHR Period

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Modern Name / Location on Khios, Ag. Helene / Katomeras GRE Cambaz Tepe Psara GRE Psara GRE near Karareis-Meli Erenky Bozburun, N Yapuky Megale Limne, on Lesbos GRE Tschiftlik, on Lesbos GRE Kallonis gulf Baba Kale Reference Zolotas 1908, 174-75 Robert 1989, 77-85 RE Suppl. 14 RE Suppl. 14 RE Polichne 9 Cook 1973, 72-74 RE Pyrrha 18; IK 50, 154-56 Kontes 1978, 340-46; Spencer 1995, 21-22 Koldewey 1890, 32 RE Pyrrha 8, cols. 1415-16 Cook 1973, 77-90 See Map 52 See Map 62 Cadoux 1938, 38 RE Cook 1973, 315 Bean 1979, 42 Schuchhardt 1912, 138 Pliny, NH 5.140; IG 12.2 (Map 2) Keil 1914, 66 Strabo 13.4.5 RE Sardeis; PECS RE 1 TAM 5.2, 500 TAM 5.1, 194-95 RE RE Troas 1, col. 565 RE Radt 1988, 17 Kontes 1978, 282; Spencer 1995, 43 IK 1, 35-37 Cook 1973, 178-88 RE 1 Strabo 13.2.2 Kontes 1978, 338-39 IK 17.1, 208 (no. 3287a) RE RE 1 RE 1 Schaus 1994, 420 (n. 55) Kontes 1978, 241-42; Spencer 1995, 12 Koldewey 1890, 33-35 Cook 1973, 354-56 Cook 1973, 275-76, 355-56 Cook 1973, 345-47 Kontes 1978, 282; Spencer 1995, 42 Cook 1973, 228-30 RE 3 RE Cadoux 1938, 31-32

HR/ R HR H R R HR ACHRL/ A HR RL AH ACHR R R A AC AC ACHRL R L? AH ACHRL A CHRL HRL CHR L CHR A ACHR HRL/ H HRL

Karagl E Neandria Asarlk, between Yirce and andr Gabia GRE Yegenli Sart settlement and temple Adala Yermidere ay Menderes ay near ren Bergama ay on Lesbos GRE Bykada Yeniehir Kumkale Sigri GRE Sigri, on Lesbos GRE near Furunlu Cili? Dmruk Su Manisa Da on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE on Lesbos GRE Adatepe Akky Yakas Kurunlu Tepe on Lesbos GRE Klahl, Glpnar Izmir

B3

on Lesbos GRE

Kontes 1978, 330

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Grid C2 F3 Name Stoma Limne Stratonicaea/ Hadrianopolis Talaimenis L. = Gygaia L. Tantali? L. = Saloe? L. Tantalos M. Tantalus Monu. *Tarigya Tarti Tateikome Temnon M. Temnos *Tempsis Tempsis M. Tenedos Tenedos Ins. Teos Termetis M. Tes Kores to Gephyri Teuthrania Teuthras M. Thea Larmene, T. Thebe Thebes Pedion Theodosiopolis = Perperene Therma? Thymiana Thyateira Thybarna? = Thymbrara Thyessos? = Hermokapeleia Thymbra Thymbrara/ Thybarna? Thymbras Pedion Thymbrios fl. Tiarai? Tibbai? = *Nakrason? Tisna/ Titne Titnaios/ Pythikos fl. Titne = Tisna Tmolos/ Aureliopolis Tmolus M. *Tomara Torrebia L. Tragasai Trarion Traron Trianta Troas Troia = Ilium Period HR HRL/ RL Modern Name / Location E mouth of Menderes ay Siledik, Yamurlu Reference RE 1 Robert 1962, 252-72 RE 1

853

C4 F4 G5 C4 F5 F3 E4 F5 F5 C2 C2 D5 E5 C5 E3 E3 H4 E2 D2 C3 C5 F4

R R? CHR R HR CHR R R ACHR ACHRL ACHRL R HR ACHRL R R ACHR CHR CH R? HRL

Dalados, on Lesbos GRE near Ta Sret Akpnar on Lesbos GRE Yaykn between Krkaa and Balkesir Gurice Damarmara atma Da Bozcaada Bozcaada Sack SW Smyrna on Khios GRE Kalerga N Pergamum Yeiloba Tepe? 1 mile NNE Edremit plain of Edremit Ag. Thumianos, on Lesbos GRE on Khios GRE Akhisar

Kontes 1978, 255 Bean 1979, 35-39 Keil 1914, 58 Spencer 1995, 14 Buresch 1898, 5 RE RE BE 1958.435 RE; C. Foss Leaf 1923, 214-16 RE 1 RE RE Smyrna 3, col. 759 Yalouris 1986, 144 Schuchhardt 1912, 115 RE 9 TAM 5.1, 179, 186 RE 5; IK 50, 45 Leaf 1923, 307-308; IK 50, 46-47 Kontes 1978, 234-35 Yalouris 1986, 145 RE

C2 G4 C2 C2 E3 E4 E4 F4 F5 G4 G5 C2 E3 C1 C3 C2

AC C/ C HR HR HRL ACH R/ L R/ RL ACHR R R HR R HR CHL ACHR

area of Aka Ky and Hanay Tepe near Durasall plain at confluence of Kemer Su and Menderes ay Kemer Su Karacakaya, Geyikli Da Kk anita, Gzelhisar Gzelhisar ay Gkkaya Boz Da Gcek? Glck Tuzla Assarkaya, near Yukar Beyky Tek Top, 5 miles SW Erenky on Lesbos GRE

Cook 1973, 117-21 Hanfmann 1975, 23 RE Cook 1973, 117-18 Cook 1973, 117 RE; IK 50, 327-28 RE RE Foss 1982, 184 RE Tmolos 1 RE 1 Robert 1987, 309 RE RE 1; IK 50, 328-30 Cook 1973, 86 Koldewey 1890, 35; Spencer 1995, 26 RE 1

854 Grid C2 F5 B3 F4 C2 D4 F5 H3 H4 H3 Name Troicus Campus Troketta Tsouloumountra Tyanollos Xanthos fl. Xanthos fl. Yusufdere Zeus Antigonios, T. Zeus ek Didymon Dryon?, T. Zeus Thimenos, T. Period HR R HR HR HR R R R

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Modern Name / Location lower Menderes ay plain near Turgutlu on Lesbos GRE Lutfiye tributary of Simoeis at Cyme site with Caesareum near Imrenler Reference Leaf 1923, 169-70 RE Kaisareia 7 Kontes 1978, 316 TAM 5.2, 469-70 Leaf 1923, 161-62 Head 1911, 554 IK 17.2, 398 Malay 1994, 52-54 See Map 62 See Map 62

Aqueducts
Grid E5 C2 C3 D3 E3 E5 Name / Location Aqua Traiana, at Ak Pnar Ilium Methymna, on Lesbos Mytilene, on Lesbos Pergamum (7) Smyrna (2) Period R R R R R Reference IK 24.1, 164 Cook 1973, 282 Buchholz 1975, 57-58 Koldewey 1890, 65-68; Chatzeioannou 1985 Garbrecht 1987 RE Smyrna 3, col. 754

Bridges
Grid C2 C3 F2 F4 F5 G2 G4 Location N Smintheion near Pyrra, on Lesbos at Pericharaxis over R. Hermus, NW Sardis S Mostene? NE Laneion near Satala Period RL R? RL R? R? RL R? Reference Cook 1973, 225 Kontes 1978, 349 Hasluck 1910, 139 Hanfmann 1975, 19 C. Foss Hasluck 1910, 132 Magie 1950, 786

Roads
Itinerary Adramyttium Pergamum Alexandria Troas Skamandreia Antandros N Assos Gargara Assos Smintheion Alexandria Troas Ilium N Cayster valley Gargara Antandros Adramyttium Koryphas Heracleia Attaia? S Hadrianoutherai (Hiera) Germe Pergamum Ilium Gargara Map 52 Argiza Adramyttium Map 52 Pericharaxis Pergamum Miletos? Hadrianoutherai Period RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL Reference Magie 1950, 793 Cook 1973, 392 Cook 1973, 289-90; IK 50, 337 Cook 1973, 252-53 ItMiller 697-98 IK 17.1, 148 ItMiller 698-99 Magie 1950, 798 D.H. French Magie 1950, 794 Hasluck 1910, 138-39 ItMiller 713

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Itinerary Myrina Aegae Pergamum Thyateira Sardis E Sardis Ephesus Sardis Hypaepa Sardis Thyateira Smyrna Cyme Myrina Elaea Pergamum Smyrna Ephesus Smyrna Myrina Smyrna N Smyrna Sardis Smyrna W Thyateira Hadrianoutherai N Thyateira Hermokapeleia Period RL RL RL RL C RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL RL Reference Magie 1950, 795 Magie 1950, 798-99 Magie 1950, 786 Magie 1950, 786 Foss 1978, 27-37 Magie 1950, 799 Magie 1950, 793-95 Magie 1950, 795-96 Magie 1950, 795 Bean 1979, 70 Magie 1950, 786 Magie 1950, 796 Magie 1950, 797-99 TAM 5.2, 439-43

855

Tumuli
Grid E4 E4 F3 F4 F4 F4 F4 F5 G4 G4 G5 Location W Moschakome cluster W *Panda NE Apollonis S Apollonis cluster ESE Thyateira 3 around Gygaia L. 6 clusters in Korou Pedion E Boukolion cluster SW *Odon 4 clusters in Sardianon Pedion / Katakekaumene 3 near Koloe Period AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC Reference Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971 Ramage 1971

Unlocated Toponyms
Name (...)dana Achelous fl. Adai/ Halai Agam(m)eia Agamede Ageana Aigiroessa Ainea Aisyme Akrasos Alabastros fl. Algiza Alybe Ambonium Anaideia Antiochia Aphrodisias/ Politice Orgas Apidanos Apolloniacharax Ardynion Period R A R A? R C RL R L Probable Location upper Can ay valley on Sipylos M. near Cyme Beika Burnu on Lesbos upper Can ay valley in Aeolis upper R. Aisepos valley in Troad or Thrace plain of Krkaga Mt. Ida upper Cayster valley? settlement and lake in N Asia Minor near Zeleia in Troad? name for Kebren? region in Troad N Lydia Mysian city in plain of Thebe Reference Le Bas 1870.1745 RE Sipylos, col. 279 IK 5, 148 RE Troas 1 Pliny, NH 5.139; StByz RE Ageannoi IK 5, 147 Cook 1973, 302 RE Troas 1, col. 528 Aisyme BE 1970.512 Pliny, NH 5.122 RE RE 1 RE RE Robert 1987, 284-85 Pliny, NH 5.122; IK 50, 166-67 RE 2 Habicht 1975, 74 IK 50, 125

H R/ C?H? R A

856 Name Argos *Arima Arkadiupolis Asklepieion Asterion Astron fl. Athena Hyperdexia, T. Augaza/ Euaza/ Theodosiopolis Auliou Kome/ Valentinianopolis Baisteana Balce Baretta Bla(un)dos Boione Boliskos Botion Bregma Brenthis Chalkideis Chalkis Inss. Chryse Cormalos fl. Creon M. Crianos fl. Cydonea Ins. Doidye Doryknama Elaioussa Enalos? Pr. Euaza = Augaza Eureeis Geren Geronton Limen Get(h)one/ Gentinos? Gordus Hierolophos Hieros fl. Hippoi Hippokrorona *Hychanta Hyperdexion Iolla *Ilbeita *Iskra Itone Kalleneis Kam(br)e Period H A L H R R H? L L R R L L HR C L R R R R R H L C H

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Probable Location on Khios in Katakekaumene Cayster valley? (founded by Lysimachus) in Mysia on Tenedos Mt. Ida on Lesbos upper Cayster valley? upper Cayster valley upper Can ay valley inland in Mysia Cayster valley? Mysia / Troad between Larisa and Phocaea on Khios near Ilium in Pergamene conventus region of Teos on Lesbos Mt. Ida on Lesbos Mt. Ida off Lesbos region of Apollonis on Lesbos region of Erythrai on Lesbos river and village near Skepsis on Lesbos on Khios town or island in Troad between Menderes ay and Can ay N Magnesia Mt. Ida in province of Hellespont Adramyttium area upper Can ay valley on Lesbos near Adramyttium, perhaps at Fula Tepe, near Brezli upper Can ay valley Mysian community on Tmolus M.? on Lesbos Bakr ay valley on Mysian-Lydian border Reference Zolotas 1908, 163-184 (no. 3 A11) Robert 1962, 287-89 RE 2 RE Troas 1, col. 548 RE Tenedos 1, col. 495 Pliny, NH 5.122 StByz RE; RE Euaza RE RE Baisteanoi Pliny, NH 5.126 RE RE Blaudos Engelmann 1981 Thuc. 8.24.3 RE RE Bregmeni RE Suppl. 4 Karnabas RE Teos, col. 566 StByz StByz Pliny, NH 5.122 Pliny, NH 5.140 Pliny, NH 5.122 IK 50, 179 TAM 5.2, 421 IG 12.2.129.5 IK 1, 37 Plutarch, Moralia 163a-d RE StByz RE Chios, col. 2292 RE Leaf 1923, 208 TAM 5.2, 499 Pliny, NH 5.122 RE 1 IK 50, 34 Le Bas 1870.1745 StByz Imhoof-Blumer 1883, 245-48; IK 50, 113-15 Le Bas 1870.1745 Robert 1962, 400 Robert 1962, 314 BE 1976.595 RE Kambre; Robert 1962

R H R R L H R H? C R R C? R HR

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Name Kanai Inss. *Karbaleida Karidai Karseai/ Karseis/ Kerasai/ Kerateis Kerassai Kerdanetta Kilbion M. Killa Kimpsos Kissos Kithos Kleandria *Koloe Kolonai Konisine/ Konision Korone Korybissa Krasos Krene Helenes Krybissos Krymne *Lakimai Leuke Akra Leukonia Lycide Lygdamum Macistus M. *Mandacanda Mandrai Mandrai Melainai Mernouphyta Mesogeion/ Herma M. Mokada *Mola *Mossyna *Mottiana *Mourena Mygdonia Nea Aule/ Theodosiopolis Nea Kome/ Nee Oanos Oios ho Grallades Oios ho Hermaites Ollius fl. Period R ACHR H Probable Location Mysian community on Khios Mysia / Lydia Reference

857

Strabo 13.2.2 Robert 1962, 400 Athenaeus 3.105d-e Robert 1937, 194-97; RE Karseai; RE

HL RL R ACH H H

region of Sardis region of Philadelpheia peak of Tmolus perhaps near Akay region of Sardis on Lesbos between Menderes ay and Can ay, 60 stades from Kale Peuke near Koloe L. territory of Erythrai inland in Mysia perhaps near Killa sanctuary near Skepsis in Troad? on Khios region of Teos in Troad N Lydia on Lesbos mainland (not on Khios) inland in Mysia in Mysia on Lesbos in conventus of Adramyttium, province of Hellespont Pergamene village bishopric in province of Hellespont; at Mandrachora, E Balkesir? village near Kotylos M. region of Thyateira hill on Lesbos shore Mysian / Lydian mountains Maionia in Pergamene conventus upper Can ay valley N Lydia in Pergamene conventus region of Philadelpheia? between Polichna and Palaiskepsis above Sardis? on Khios on Khios in Mysia, perhaps (I)ollius (see Iolla) and to be identified with Karnca Su

Robert 1962, 273-78 Feissel 1996 RE Leaf 1923, 311-13 Robert 1962, 314 RE Kissos 5 RE Lesbos 1, col. 2127 Leaf 1923, 208 Malay 1994, 43-44 IK 2, 303 Robert 1962, 160 (n. 6) IK 50, 33-34 RE RE 1 StByz Robert, OMS 7, 297-379 RE Troas 1, col. 558 BE 1984.385 IG 12.2.79a.6 Plutarch, Moralia 244e-45c; Boardman 1967, 254-56 RE Lykide Pliny, NH 5.126 Pliny, NH 5.140 RE Mandakanda Robert 1962, 79-80 RE RE 4 TAM 5.2, 352 Myrsilos, FHG 4, 459 BE 1984.385 BE 1977.450 RE Le Bas 1870.1745 Habicht 1975, 74 RE 4 HierSyn 660.7 Leaf 1923, 211 Robert 1962, 316 Zolotas 1908, 163-84 (no. 3 A24) Zolotas 1908, 163-84 (no. 3 A17, 23) IK 50, 113, 348-49

R CH RL R H H A? H H HR A R R RL H L H H H R R R R R L RL L H H R

858 Name Orphitos fl. *Outhimena Oxyopum Palaia Palaimagnesia *Panda/ Pantheum *Pantheon Parthenion Passanda Pedaion Pedasos Penthile Petra Philetaireia Phlossa Planateis Polichna Polichne Polion Politice Orgas = Aphrodisias Pornopia Posidea Prinna Pylaion M. Rekita Sagara Sardessos Sarnaca Siai Silindion Sipylos *Sivissa Stabulum Teium Theodosiopolis = Augaza Theodosiopolis = Nea Aule Tiarai regio *Trinoixeita Valentinianopolis = Auliou Kome Xanthos Zeus Hyperdexios, T. C H? L L R L C R R R Period R R R H R H CL ARL H H H H L CHRL A

MAP 56 PERGAMUM Probable Location on Lesbos N Lydia in Mysia 130 stades from Andeira fort near Magnesia in Pergamene conventus NW Lydia crag in Tmolus village near Adramyttium and Kisthene perhaps near Thebe deserted site near Satnioeis fl. on Lesbos Ball Da? S side of Mt. Ida, N Gulf of Adramyttium region of Smyrna on Lesbos city of inland Troad on Khios Poli on Lesbos? (but no sign of ancient occupation there) on Nesos? inland town of Aeolis in Peraea of Mytilene; note modern toponym Prina near Keremky (Koryphas) on Lesbos Mysia / Troad near Balkesir? near Lyrnessos inland in Mysia Cayster valley? on Ida M. probably legendary Mysian community inland in Mysia inland in Mysia Reference IG 12.2.129.2 Habicht 1975, 74 RE IK 50, 91 IK 8, 114-15 TAM 5.2, 499 TAM 5.2, 499 Robert 1962, 315 (n. 1) IK 50, 157 IK 50, 47 RE 4 StByz RE Troas 1, col.. 560 IK 50, 13 RE Smyrna 3, col. 759 IG 12.2.129.1 RE 11 Hdt. 6.26 StByz ; RE Lesbos, col. 2131; Kontes 1978, 256 IG 12.2.645.48 Pliny, NH 5.121 IK 50, 166 and map Strabo 13.3.3 HierSyn 662.14 HierSyn 663.5 RE; IK 50, 71 Pliny, NH 5.126 HierSyn 660.1b RE RE Robert 1962, 400 Pliny, NH 5.126 Pliny, NH 5.126

H R H

CH R

on Lesbos upper Can ay valley

Athenaeus 2.62b-c RE

on Lesbos on Lesbos

StByz StByz

MAP 56 PERGAMUM

859

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861

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