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THEOLOGY Chapter One.

The Ontological Argument attempts to establish the existence of God solely on the very concept of God. This particular kind of argument does without appealing to anything outside the realm of the human consciousness and restricts to the analysis of the concept alone to prove its predicament. It does not rely on the facts of the observable world of sensible experience and thus exudes an argument of a priori. The major proponent of the ontological argument is Saint Anselm of Canterbury and through his greatest work Proslogion, he said that „God cannot be conceived not to exist.- God is that, than which nothing greater can be conceived.- That which can be conceived not to exists is not God.’ St. Anselm began his argument by citing a quote from Psalm 14:1 and mentioned the fool who believes that there is no God. The term „God‟ then is treated merely as an idea by the fool and is something that does not have and external existence. St. Anselm argued that this is a contradictory declaration because this God whose actual existence is denied by the fool is something that the fool understands to be that than which nothing greater can be conceived. He also pointed out that God exists in the mind of the fool therefore it is in his understanding. It is also worthy to acknowledge that such argument undoubtedly leads to God‟s attributes of omnipotence, omniscience, omnibenevolence and the like. Chapter Two. The establishment of the Cosmological argument is based on the use of the principle of Sufficient Reason which explicates that there must be a reason why everything that exists, exist-- that nothing comes into being by itself. The cosmological proof makes use of the sensible world and attempts to demonstrate the existence of God through human reason alone. Unlike the Ontological Argument, this argument is an example of an a posteriori proof for God. The most famous advocate of the Cosmological Argument is Saint Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century. Through his magnificent piece the Summa Theologiae, St. Thomas affirmed that the existence of God can be rationally proved with certainty. He offered five philosophical proofs for God‟s existence which are now known as the Five Ways. The Five Ways consist of the following: arguments from motion, efficient causes, contingency, gradation to be found in things and lastly, the governance of the world, all of which point to a reality beyond empirical existence. Chapter Three. Nothing in the world is random and everything follows a certain definite plan, pattern and design. The basis for this third argument is on the apparent order and design of the cosmos and the nature of things. From the word teleology which indicates something that has to do with direction or destiny, the Teleological Argument points out the fact that many things in the universe seem to have been designed to fulfil purposeful ends. Also called the Argument from Design, it attempts to derive the existence of God from the premise that the world exhibits intelligent purpose, and proceeds to the conclusion that there is most probably a divine intelligent being who caused the order that nature possesses. William Paley, one of the most famous advocates of the argument, provided the clearest sustained treatment of the argument where he

Pascal holds that the very act and decision of believing in God carries with it certain rewards and punishments. and devoid of any special mystery. The being of God should not just be understood but must also be experienced concretely and personally—“As if I saw”. is open. Conscience is regarded as a concrete and specific aspect of man‟s moral experience. A belief is pragmatically justified when there is sufficient reason for believing that having it will benefit one‟s self. Smith distinguisihes between the Holy and the profane by stating that the Holy is something different from the ordinary matters in one‟s life. Overall. Chapter Four. ordinary. manifest. a gamble about God. discusses life‟s crucial junctures where he began by stating that our task is to seek an understanding of the experience of the Holy for us to identify the distinctive features of its presence and to express these relations to God‟s existence. He explicitly regarded the fact that we cannot know whether God exists or not but nevertheless. The Argument from Conscience is a personal. Pascal is convinced that it is our best interest to believe that there is one that not to believe. fully expressed and profoundly developed the very distinctive path to God which is anchored on the central idea of conscience. For Newman. to the universe. awe-inspiring. Altogether. Paley claims that the universe seems to exhibit the same purposeful arrangement of intricate and complex parts which the watch holds. The Holy manifests through powerful. Pascal as a mathematician presented his argument with the pros and cons of believing. there is enough reason to prove that like the watch the universe was too designed by someone and that being is namely. He concludes that. faith in the existence of God should be grounded in the actual life of the believer and is not the result of logical arguments. in his last major work An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent. Pascal developed an argument in the form of a wager. The Pragmatic Argument for God‟s existence is based on the practical consequences or benefits that one could get out of believing in God. reverence . The argument of design morphed as the Analogical Argument from Design since it consists of drawing an analogy between natural and man-made objects. on the other hand. has been considered as the „Voice of God‟.The Profane. This belief appeals to common sense by letting one see the definite advantages that he can gain if he believes that there is a god. He also said that Assent to the being of God should be real and not just notional. spontaneous and emotional experience of God that is innate to all individuals.compared a human artifact-.a watch. Those who bet on God will be infinitely rewarded and those who gamble against him will be greatly punished. Using the probability theory. Cardinal John Henry Newman. The phenomenon of conscience where one experiences within himself a voice telling them what is right from wrong. The most famous proponent of the pragmatic argument for God‟s existence in the philosophical history is French Mathematician Blaise Pascal with his brilliant work Pensées. Smith in his piece. dangerous and significant presence that could only be approached with extreme caution and earnest. The Experience of the Holy and the Idea of God. obvious. Chapter Five. God. Chapter Six. John E.

God. Cardinal John Henry Newman makes use of the phenomenon of conscience which is innate to any human person. His philosophical proofs are the following arguments from motion. As we have defined the term God. a proponent of the Teleological Argument draws a comparison between natural objects—the universe and man made artifacts-. It should be real and personally experienced by an individual “as if I saw”. Agnosticism is not a way one could take. efficient causes. Pascal states that betting on God will earn infinite rewards while betting against Him will result to punishments. . Smith addressed that the Holy be clearly defined and marked distinct from the Profane although separating the two is nonessential since both are related despite its dissimilarities. On chapter five. Both are interrelated with each other and not be necessarily be separated because both are part of an individual‟s existence. William Paley. he cites the differences between the Holy and the profane. Saint Anselm‟s Ontological Argument explicitly makes use of the very concept of God to ascertain the being and existence of God. He argues that like the watch the universe too consists of a purposeful complex pattern and perfectly fits together to carry out purposeful ends. is „that than which nothing greater can be conceived”. John E. Newman argues in his. Only a foolish person can say that there is no God because he is incapable of taking deeply what he is implying and he is indeed self-contradictory. as he had defined in his work Proslogion. in his piece the Summa Theologiae.the watch and argues that like the artifact. with the Holy being sacred while Profane as the inverse of it. gradation of things and governance of the world. And finally. Blaise Pascal in his brilliant work Pensées. makes use of the sensible facts of the word and presented the Five Ways. Furthermore. In his work. Conscience as the tiny voice we hear within gives us insights about the moral order of the world but there are many views that this voice is that of society. We draw on this idea and define God as some being who is overwhelmingly perfect. The Argument from Conscience attempts to reveal God through man‟s personal living experience. Smith argues that we must find and understand the Holy experience so as define it and relate to the idea of God. the universe has too its designer and maker both of which is God. on the lastchapter. developed an argument about God in the form of a wager. Grammar of Assent. for when he does not wager he will end up losing on both accounts. that faith in God should be based on the actual life of the believer. On the third chapter. Then on next chapter. supreme and infinite without relying to any fact and evidence that he is indeed such. From the word Pragmatic. Synthesis: I have come to indulge on the facts that in the first chapter. Saint Thomas Aquinas. superego or even of the insane and not of God. It uses a posteriori proof of God unlike the Ontological argument which uses a priori proof. The next chapter. Like a toss of a coin. this argument is based on the practicality and the consequences of one‟s belief or disbelief of God.and depth. we have grasped the reality where we understand that He is a being that is greater than anything conceivable. there is a half percent chance for one to win the wager that there is or no God. contingency.

No one could prove the existence of God but it is acceptable to equate that since there is a product there must be a source or a maker. The Quest for the Absolute. On the second chapter which holds Saint Thomas Aquinas‟ Five Ways. does not necessarily equate to the maker. Pascal claims that there is no way for us to find out if God exists and that reason is inutile. Also. Since I believe that it does me good and helps me develop a much fulfilling life. With the Pragmatic Argument on the fifth chapter. It does not mean that God is withholding my freedom when He leads me to goodness. one who fears the Lord finds delight in His commands. Smith. I am more willing and happier to follow Him. I will always bet on Him. as human beings. I would assume that this is God‟s way of revealing himself to me through my everyday acts and activities. I know that God does exist and I am not a fool to deny that He does not. one can conclude that there is a reality beyond empirical experience. his definition of God is „that than which nothing greater can be conceived‟. stand and belief in God. Then on the fourth chapter-. I take stand that there is a destiny and an apparent order and design of things. With the Teleological Argument on the third chapter. I agree to his proposal that it is man‟s task is to seek God. are perfectly created by God through a design perfect in His eyes. Since the pattern which God has created is perfectly mended and designed. I believe that conscience guides me to the true good since it helps me through my decisions in life and keeps me on the right track. In Psalm 112:1. First of which is St. Many protest that this argument‟s factor is fear and they believe that homage of reason is more gallant than blindfolded fear. the cause. Anselm‟s Ontological Argument. Last of all is the Argument presented by John E. There are many opinions and arguments which I never even have heard before my reading expedition. It has given me the opportunity to ask my self about my personal faith. I wager on the existence of God for I have nothing to lose and everything to gain. The product serves as evidence that there is a source but the product. He is capable of perfection therefore He is of Perfection. I believe. even more when God manifests Himself to me in one way or another. I believe that everything in this world has a purpose although some are openly revealed and some concealed. I agree to Saint Anselm‟s definition and concept of God for He is indeed a being that is greater than anything conceivable. and the necessity. I have become aware with the many arguments concerning the existence of God. We can not adequately explain ourselves and the only found answer is the existence of God-God who is the mover of things. It is not right to say that the product is as good as its maker for the maker as the being who has the upper hand could decide how He would like the product to be made.Personal Stand: The overall experience of enlightenment of the matters and arguments about the existence of God amongst different philosophical propositions to me is something that greatly allows my self and other individuals to further develop our faith and self actualization. I agree that with the given philosophical proofs. the experience of the Holy.the Argument from Conscience by Cardinal Newman. One must come to point where he holds . We. it permitted me to further realize the significance of God in a person‟s life. I am not blindly following God but rather I rejoice! My motivation is not that all of fear but the solace that I seek whenever I rejoice in His embrace. This argument appeals on the selfishness of a person but it also appeals to the practical reality. I have been raised by my parents to be God-fearing. By reading the six chapters of the book.

as a Christian and a human person. No matter what. My encounter with His grace and guidance allowed me to feel that there is meaning to my life and I am of value. not only in the grandest of things but also in the meekest and humblest of matters. I attest that through my life changing experiences that there is a God. I always seek God. I will always confirm to my belief. it may seem that I am alone in conquering my endless battles. . value.his life at bay and reflects on the seriousness. mystery and gift of life. At times. but I believe to the deepest of my soul that some higher being is with me throughout my bliss and struggles in life. that there is aGod.