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**UWB Pulse Modulation, Detection and Multiple Access Techniques
**

Dr. Rakhesh S. Kshetrimayum

**3. UWB Pulse Modulation, Detection and Multiple Access Techniques
**

3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation 3.2 UWB Pulse-detection 3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques 3.4 An Intro. to Spreading Codes 3.5 UWB Demodulation Techniques

**3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation
**

Data modulation for zero-carrier UWB or Impulse Radio (IR) UWB done using pulsemodulation techniques in time domain Some UWB pulse modulation schemes are:

Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM), On-off keying (OOK), Phase shift keying (PSK), Pulse-position modulation (PPM)

1 Some UWB Pulses p(t) (a)Square (b)Gaussian (c) Monocycle (d) Doublets .1 UWB Pulse Modulation Fig. 3.3.

information modulated into amplitudes. or positions of pulses . phases.1 UWB Pulse Modulation UWB pulse modulation.3.

1 PAM Information in PAM signal conveyed in the amplitudes of pulses M-ary PAM signal comprises of sequence of modulated pulses with M different amplitude levels .1 UWB Pulse Modulation 3.1.3.

M-1} Tf is frame interval (pulse repetition time) and Tp is the duration of a pulse . …. which depends on the M-ary information symbol m Є{0.3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation s (t ) = ∑a k =−∞ ∞ m (k ) p (t − kT f ) where am(k) is the amplitude of the kth pulse. 1.

3.2 2-ary PAM Signals A pulse with higher amplitude represents 1 and a pulse with lower amplitude represents 0 .1 UWB Pulse Modulation Fig. 3.

which can change pulse amplitude and cause false detection Pulse transmitted is periodic produces discrete lines on the PSD of UWB signals as depicted Fig. 3.2 .3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation PAM signal simple to generate but vulnerable to channel noise.

3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation Such discrete spectral lines can cause interference to systems sharing a frequency spectrum This can be overcome by using spectrumwhitening techniques or time dithering .

PSD improves .1 UWB Pulse Modulation Pulses are sent at regular intervals. These frequencies are inverse of the pulse repetition rate Also known as comb lines because they look like comb By dithering (delaying the pulse or either transmitting slightly before the regular pulse time).3. resulting spectrum contain peaks of power at certain frequencies.

3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation

Fig. 3.3 PSD of UWB PAM Signals

3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation

Fig. 3.4 PSD of UWB PAM Signals after dithering

**3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation
**

3.1.2 OOK It is a special case of PAM with m Є {0,1} and pulse amplitude am(k) = m(k) OOK is simplest to implement But poor performance since noise & interference can easily cause false detection

s (t ) =

∑ m(k ) p(t − kT

k =−∞

∞

f

)

5 OOK Signals In other words. while it is absent if the information bit is 0 .3. 3. a pulse is transmitted if the information bit is 1.1 UWB Pulse Modulation Fig.

1 UWB Pulse Modulation Simple RF Switch can achieve OOK Synchronization is a major issue if streams of zero are transmitted In presence of multipath. difficult to determine absence of a pulse .3. when echoes of original or other pulses are present.

1 UWB Pulse Modulation 3. the binary data are carried in the polarity of the pulses For instance.1.3 PSK In binary PSK or biphase modulation.3. whereas it has negative polarity if the information bit is 0 {d(k)=0} Better performance than OOK since difference pulse level is twice the pulse amplitude ∞ s (t ) = ∑ d (k ) p(t − kT k =−∞ f ) . a pulse has positive polarity if the information bit is 1 {d(k)=1}.

3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation Fewer discrete lines on the PSD.6 BPSK Signals .3. change of polarity of pulses produce zero mean Implementation is more difficult since it requires one transmitter to produce positive pulses and another transmitter to produce negative pulses Fig.

4 PPM A very popular modulation technique in UWB comm.1 UWB Pulse Modulation 3.3. systems The information is carried in the fine time shift of the pulse Since information is carried in the time shift of the pulses. it is less sensitive noise than are PAM or PSK signals Besides pseudorandom code sequence of the pulse positions reduces the discrete lines in the PSD of PPM signals .1.

1. .1 UWB Pulse Modulation s (t ) = ∑ p(t − kT k =−∞ ∞ f − m(k )Td ) where m(k) Є {0. which provides a time shift to represent each M-ary symbol.M-1} is the kth M-ary symbol and Td is the modulation delay.….3.

3. 3.1 UWB Pulse Modulation Fig.7 Vulnerable to random collisions that are caused by multiple-access channels. timing synchronization issues .3.7 2-ary PPM Signals A 2-ary PPM is shown in Fig.

3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection Basic conventional pulse-detection techniques: Energy detectors and Classical matched filters (CMF) Most UWB receivers use one of these techniques for data demodulation .

3. non-coherent receivers that detect the energy of a signal & compare it with threshold level to demodulate data bits .2 UWB PulsePulse-detection 3.2.1 Energy Detectors Energy detectors are simple.

3. 3.8 energy detectors comprised of a squaring device. followed by a finite integrator and a decision threshold comparator Once this energy passes a certain threshold. the received data will be demodulated to 0 . the data is demodulated as a digital bit 1 If the data is not present or its energy does not pass the threshold.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection As shown in Fig.

2 UWB PulsePulse-detection T ∫ 0 3.8 Energy detector receiver .3.

2 Classical Matched Filters CMF is a simple and optimal method for detecting a signal in random noise based on the correlation process Correlation is a mathematical operation that provides a measure of similarity between two signals .2 UWB PulsePulse-detection 3.3.2.

3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection The basic idea of correlation is to multiply the two waveforms at different points in time and to find the area under the curve formed by multiplication using integration in finite time .

**3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection
**

Rxy (τ ) = ∫ x ( t ) y ( t − τ )dt

where the two signals compared are x(t) and y(t), τ is the time shift to provide sliding of y(t) on x(t), Rxy(τ)is the correlation function Large value of correlation function (negative or positive) represent strong resemblance between the two waveforms Small value close to zero represent low correlation or slight similarity between the two

**3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection
**

In a CMF, the received signal is correlated with a template signal matched to the transmitted signal If the received signal is similar to the template, high correlation values are expected and received signal can be detected

**3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection
**

As shown in Fig. 3.9, CMF perform the correlation operation on the received signal r(t),

which comprises of

transmitted signal s(t) and channel noise w(t)

2 UWB PulsePulse-detection dt ∫ $ s 3.3.9 Classical matched filter .

s(t) and then integrating over a finite period of time This process maximize the received signal’s SNR and detects the desired signal from the background random noise .2 UWB PulsePulse-detection The correlation operation is achieved by multiplying the received signal with a predefined template (similar to the transmitted signal).3.

resulting from the correlation of the transmitted signal with the similar template signal The second term represents the correlation of the signal with noise and can be ignored due to poor correlation between the transmitted signal and the random noise . s = ∫ [ s (t ) + w(t ) ] • s (t )dt 0 T T 2 $ s = ∫ s (t )dt + ∫ w(t ) • s (t )dt = E p + 0 0 0 Expanding the integral produces two terms The first term represents the signal energy Ep.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection T $ r (t ) = s (t ) + n(t ).3.

3. which is created by dissipative devices in transreceivers . that do not have AWGN features AWGN is a special model of channel noise also known as thermal noise. NBI.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection CMF is optimum for detecting signals in the presence of AWGN These receivers are sub-optimal when the signal is distorted by other forms of interference such MAI.

(b) different samples of AWGN are uncorrelated at various segments of time What is MAI? r (t ) = s1 (t ) + s2 (t ) + n(t ) T $ s = ∫ [ s1 (t ) + s2 (t ) + w(t )] • s1 (t )dt 0 T T T 2 $ s = ∫ s1 (t )dt + ∫ s1 (t ) • s2 (t )dt + ∫ w(t ) • s1 (t )dt 0 0 0 = E p + MAI + 0 .3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection AWGN has two ideal characteristics: (a) flat PSD for all freq.

w(t) Assuming the user 1’s signal is the desired signal. and random noise. user 2’s signal s2(t).3.2 UWB PulsePulse-detection The above equations show the suboptimal performance of CMF in a two-user scenario. s1(t) is multiplied and integrated over a finite time . where the received signal r(t) consists of user 1’s signal. s1(t).

the correlation between s1(t) and s2(t).2 UWB PulsePulse-detection Although we can ignore correlation between the desired signal and random noise.3. (MAI) can't be disregarded so we should use a proper multiple access scheme .

3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques UWB can deliver large amounts of data with low PSD Useful for short-range and high-data-rate applications Such applications require several transmitters in an area .

3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Proper multiple-access techniques are required for proper channelization of multiple users In a typical multiple-access communications.3. several users transmit information simultaneously and independently over a shared channel .

3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques S1(t) S2(t) r(t) MultipleAccess Receiver $1 (t ) S $ 2 (t ) S $ N (t ) S SN(t) w(t) Fig.3.10 A typical multiple-access communication system .

in addition to the channel noise A multiuser receiver extracts the desired user’s signal from the received signal using proper demodulation techniques .3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques The received signal is therefore the superposition of all users’ signals with different delays and attenuation factors caused by the wireless link.3.

3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques A major limiting factor on the performance of multiuser receivers is MAI. which is caused by the cross-correlation of unwanted users’ signals on the desired signal due to their partial overlap .

MAI and AWGN r(t)=s(t)+MAI+w(t) The deteriorating effect of MAI is severe in UWB systems due to their strict transmit power limitation Two common multiple-access techniques are: (a) Time-hopping (TH) UWB (b) Direct-sequence (DS) UWB .3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques The received signal is a combination of desired signal.

3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques TH-UWB. information is sent with a time offset for each pulse determined by the TH sequence DS-UWB. the data are carried in multiple pulses whose polarity are based on a certain spreading code TH-UWB is theoretically sound but seldom used in practical applications DS-UWB is a promising scheme for IR UWB .

the frame interval Tf is divided into Nc segments of Tc seconds where NcTc<Tf .11. only one of the segment carries the transmitted monocycle or doublets A unique code also referred to as TH code is assigned to each user to specify which segment in each frame interval is used for transmission As shown in Fig.3.1 TH-UWB Each frame interval is divided into multiple smaller chip intervals.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques 3.3. 3.

0. 3.3.…} s(t ) = ∑ p(t − kT k =−∞ ∞ f − c(k )Tc ) .3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques The TH sequence is denoted by {c(k)}. 0≤c(k)≤Nc-1 It provides an additional time shift of c(k)Tc seconds to the kth monocyle of doublet to allow multiple access without catastrophic collisions Fig.3.11 is a pulse train with TH sequence c(k)={1.

3.3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Fig.0.11 Pulse train with TH sequence {1. 3. …} .

the choice of orthogonal TH sequence does not guarantee collision free transmission TH technique can be used with PAM.3. PSK or PPM modulations .3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques In a synchronized network. an orthogonal TH sequence that satisfies cu(k)≠cu’(k) for all k’s and for any two users u≠u’ can be adopted to minimize interference between the users For asynchronous system.

3. 3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Fig.12 TH-UWB Signal with PAM Modulation s (t ) = ∑a k =−∞ ∞ m (k ) p (t − kT f − c(k )Tc ) .

13 TH-UWB Signal with PSK Modulation s (t ) = ∑ d (k ) p(t − kT k =−∞ ∞ f − c( k )Tc ) . 3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Fig.3.

14 TH-UWB Signal with PPM Modulation s (t ) = ∑ p(t − kT k =−∞ ∞ f − c(k )Tc − m(k )Td ) .3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Fig.3. 3.

each user in the system is assigned a pseudo-random sequence that controls pseudorandom inversions of the UWB pulse train .3.2 DS-UWB DS-UWB employs a train of high-duty-cycle pulses whose polarities follow pseudo-random code sequences Specifically.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques 3.3.

3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques In a DS-UWB with BPSK modulation the binary symbol d(k) to be transmitted over a kth frame interval is spread by a sequence of multiple monocycles or doublets {c(n ) p(t − kT c f − ncTc )}n =0 c N c −1 whose polarities are determined by the spreading sequence {c(nc )}n =0 c N c −1 .

3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques A different spreading code is assigned to each user Similar to TH-UWB. an orthogonal spreading sequence may be used to mitigate MAI in a synchronous network N c −1 1 ∞ x(t ) = d (k ) ∑ c(nc ) p (t − kT f − ncTc ) ∑ N c k =−∞ nc =0 A pulse has positive polarity if the information bit is 1 {d(k)=1}. whereas it has negative polarity if the information bit is 0 {d(k)=0} .3.

15 DS-UWB Signal with BPSK Modulation .3. 3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Sequence of data ∑b k =−∞ +∞ m (k ) 1 Nc N c −1 nc =0 ∑ c(n ) p(t − n T ) c c c Pulse train with a pseudo-random code Fig.

3.16 DS-UWB Signal with BPSK Modulation . 3.3 UWB Multiple Access Techniques Tf -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 N c −1 1 +∞ bm (k ) ∑ c(nc ) p (t − kT f − ncTc ) ∑ N c k =−∞ nc =0 Fig.

signals belonging to different users can be made completely orthogonal.3. as they are all emitted from the same transmitter (BS) A family of codes that fulfill these requirements is given by Walsh-Hadamard matrices Define the (n+1) order Hadamard matrix in terms of nth order matrix ( n +1) had (n) H had = (n) H had (n) H had (n) − H had H .4 An Intro. to Spreading Codes Walsh-Hadamard codes In the downlink.

it is immediately obvious that the columns are orthogonal to each other From the recursion equation. to Spreading Codes The recursive equation is initialized as H (1) had 1 1 = 1 −1 The columns of this matrix represent all possible Walsh-Hadamard code words of length 2.4 An Intro.3. we can find that (2) order Hadamard matrix as .

3. to Spreading Codes (2) H had (1) H had = (1) H had 1 1 1 1 (1) 1 −1 1 −1 H had = (1) − H had 1 1 −1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 The columns of this matrix are all possible code words of duration four Further iterations give additional code words each of which is twice as long as that of the preceding matrix .4 An Intro.

4 An Intro. to Spreading Codes Orthogonal codes lead to perfect multiuser suppression at the receiver if the signal is transmitted over an AWGN channel Delay dispersion destroys the orthogonality of the codes The receiver can either accept the additional interference or send the received signal through a chip-spaced equalizer that eliminates delay dispersion before correlation and thus user separation is performed .3.

to Spreading Codes An additional challenge arises if different data rates so that codes of different length need to be used for the spreading Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes are a class of codes that fulfill these conditions.3. they are derived from WH codes Let us first define what we mean by orthogonality of codes of different duration .4 An Intro.

-1. to Spreading Codes The chip duration is the same for all codes Consider a code A that is two chips long (1.-1.1) The output of the correlator A has to be zero if the Code B is at the input of the correlator Thus the correlation between code A and the first part of the code B has to be zero which is true (1*1+1*-1=0) .4 An Intro.3.1) and a code B that is four chips long (1.

3. to Spreading Codes Similarly the correlation of the code A with the second part of code B has to be zero (1*1+1*1=0) Let us now write all code words of different WH matrices into a code tree All codes within one level of the tree (same duration of codes) are orthogonal to each other .4 An Intro.

4 An Intro.2) Whereas codes p2.3.2 and p4. to Spreading Codes Codes of different duration A. code A lies on the path from the root of the code tree to code B (p2. B are only orthogonal if they are in different branches of the tree They are not orthogonal if one code is mother code of the second code For instance.1 and p4.1 are orthogonal to each other .

4 An Intro. to Spreading Codes How to generate code tree? Choose one row of the W-H matrix Hn1 as the mother code of length 2n1 Construct the other codes of this mother code using the usual Walsh-Hadamard algorithm H’n2 Choose one row of the W-H matrix H’n2 as the spreading code of length 2n2 .3.

1) p1.1 = (1.1.17 Code tree of OVSF codes .1. −1. −1.1 = (1. −1. 3.1. −1) p4.1.1) p2.1) Fig.3 = (1. −1.4 An Intro.4 = (1.1 = (1) p4. −1) p2. −1) p4.3.2 = (1. to Spreading Codes p4.2 = (1.

to Spreading Codes Code generation by linear shift registers (SRs): There are several ways of generating code words One is by using SRs (used in CDMA systems) A SR consist of a number of cells (numbered from 1 to n) and each cell is a storage unit that.4 An Intro. under the control of a clock pulse. moves its contents to its output while reading its new contents from its inputs .3.

3. 3.18 shows a single binary shift register. which is binary polynomial of degree n (n is the number of sections of the shift register) . which generate a sequence from generator polynomial g(x)=x5+x2+1 In general the configuration of a linear binary shift register of n sections is described by a generator polynomial.4 An Intro. to Spreading Codes Fig.

18 A single linear shift register .+a1x1+1 [aiЄ{0. 3.4 An Intro. most spread code sequences are generated Output + (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Fig.1}] By using these shift registers. to Spreading Codes g(x)=anxn+an-1xn-1+….3.

to Spreading Codes Maximal-length sequences: As discussed in the previous section.4 An Intro. WH codes have good orthogonal property when they align in times Their orthogonality properties can be poor when they do not align in time Ideally we would like sequences that are orthogonal for all time shifts But it is sequences which are only approximately orthogonal that are practically achievable .3.

a randomly chosen sequence will have good autocorrelation properties on average For communications applications.4 An Intro. but that can be generated simply at both the transmitter and the receiver One class of sequences that satisfies this condition is the class of maximal-length sequences or m-sequences .3. we need sequences that have properties similar to those of random sequences. to Spreading Codes Theoretically.

to Spreading Codes These sequences can be generated by using binary shift register with feedback For a given memory m.3.4 An Intro. not all sets of feedback taps will generate a m-sequence Those sets of taps which will work can be derived theoretically from a topic in abstract algebra known as Galois field .

to Spreading Codes There is a correspondence between the maximal-length shift register design and irreducible (non-factorable) polynomials in Galois fields with binary coefficients For instance. the polynomial x2+1 can be factored as (x+1)2 by means of binary arithmetic While the polynomial x2+x+1 cannot be factored with the use of only binary coefficients .4 An Intro.3.

to Spreading Codes Thus the latter can be used to construct a msequence.4 An Intro. but the former cannot M-sequences have the following five important properties: (a) Length property: Each m-sequence is of length 2m-1 .3.

3. m-1 zeros and ones . ….2.3. to Spreading Codes (b) Balance property: Each m-sequence has 2m-1 ones and 2m-1-1 zeros (c) Shift property: The modulo-2 sum of an m-sequence and any circular shifted version of itself produces another circularshifted version of itself (d) Subsequence property: Each m-sequence contains a subsequence of 1.4 An Intro.

3. to Spreading Codes (e) Autocorrelation property: 1. then the normalized autocorrelation is Rjj(k)=1 if k=0 and Rjj(k)=-1/Q if k≠0 where Q=2m-1 2. The larger Q is. in the sense that m-sequence comes ever so much closer to a random sequence . If the sequence is a maximal-length sequence.4 An Intro. the better the autocorrelation properties of the m-sequences are.

a RAKE receiver can be used to exploit the diversity by combining constructively the monocycles or doublets received from the resolvable multipath components A typical RAKE receiver is composed of several correlators followed by a linear combiner as shown Fig.19 .1 RAKE Receivers: In frequency-selective fading channel.3. 3.5 UWB Demodulation Techniques 3.5.

correlators each assigned to different multipath component Each finger independently decodes a single multipath component Contribution of all fingers are combined to make best use of different transmission characteristics of each transmission path Result in higher SNR (or Eb/N0) in multipath environment .5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Radio receiver designed to counter multipath fading effects Use several fingers.3.

5 UWB Demodulation Techniques ∫ dt (1) sk (t − τ (1) (0)) (1) $ s k (0) w(1) (0) (1) $ s k ( L − 1) (1) $ sk ∫ dt (1) sk (t − τ (1) ( L − 1)) w(1) ( L − 1) Fig.19 UWB RAKE Receiver . 3.3.

5 UWB Demodulation Techniques A note on the reference or template signal used at the correlator of each finger of a RAKE receiver DS − BPSK 1 (1) sk (t ) = Nc N c −1 nc =0 (1) c ∑ (nc ) p(t − kT f − ncTc ) TH − BPSK (1) sk (t ) = p (t − kT f − c (1) (k )Tc ) TH − BPPM (1) sk (t ) = p (t − kT f − c (1) (k )Tc ) − p (t − kT f − c (1) (k )Tc − Td ) .3.

multiplied by the tap weights and finally combined The performance of RAKE receivers depend on the path selection technique and combining method .5 UWB Demodulation Techniques The signal received at the RAKE receiver is correlated with delayed versions of the reference pulse.3.

proportional to the transmission BW and excess delay TD of the channel.3.5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Path selection techniques In general the number of resolvable path components in a realistic dense multipath channel (indoor channel) is approx. Since the product TD×BW is supposed to be large for UWB system All-RAKE receiver that combines all resolvable path .

3.5 UWB Demodulation Techniques But expensive & complex to implement Use reduced complexity RAKE receivers which process only a subset of all resolvable paths Three path selection techniques are proposed in the literature Let the number of resolvable path components be L1 and number of paths chosen to be combined as L. L≤L1 .

3. which would require instantaneous and highly accurate channel estimation .5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Maximum selection: Select the L best paths of L1 resolvable paths. it requires keeping track of all L1 path components using algorithms to sort all these L paths by the magnitude of their instantaneous path gains. To select properly.

which are not necessarily the best The partial selection requires neither path knowledge nor selection mechanism Less complexity than previous case but lower performance Performance comparison of p-RAKE to maximum selection is quite small for Nakagami fading channel unlike Rayleigh fading channel .5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Partial selection: Select the first nonzero arriving paths.3.

20 Performance comparison of p-RAKE and aRAKE Receiver in a multipath channel .5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Fig.3. 3.

3. this method does not require either a sorting algorithm or amplitude knowledge Different thresholds give different results.5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Threshold selection: Select the first L paths in which the magnitude of the path gains is greater than a threshold Like p-RAKE. a proper threshold needs to be defined .

Introduction to receive diversity Fig.21 . 3.

Introduction to receive diversity Fig. 3.22 .

Introduction to receive diversity .

Selection combining .

Maximal ratio combining .

Maximal ratio combining .

Equal gain combining .

3..5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Combining Methods: The combining method specifies the choice of tap weights to be used Equal gain combining (EGC): The outputs of the correlators are summed together directly and fed to the detector [i. w1(l)=1 for all l after cophasing] It is the simplest form of combiner that does not require any knowledge of the path amplitudes .e.

3.5 UWB Demodulation Techniques Maximum ratio combining (MRC): The outputs of the correlator are weighted in direct proportion to the signal strength received (the square root of the power level) along with cophasing and then fed to the detector This requires an estimate of the amplitude parameters of each path chosen The RAKE receivers employing MRC maximizes the system’s instantaneous SNR when no NBI exists .

M. 3. Ultra Wide Band Multiple Access Performance Using TH-PPM and DS-BPSK Modulations. 2. J. MSc thesis. Multiple Access Schemes & Demodulation M. Kohno. Air Force Institute of Technology. 2007. B. Ultra Wideband Signals and Systems in Communication Engineering. John Wiley & Sons. Canadeo. W. Ohio.References UWB Pulse Modulation. Siriwongpairat & K. . John Wiley & Sons. L. Ultra-Wideband Communications Systems: Multiband OFDM Approach. C. 2007. Ray Liu. Michael & R. P. Ghavami. 2003 1.

D. Adve’s Lecture Notes on Receive Diversity 4. R. Z. Ultra wideband wireless communications. Arslan.-G. John Wiley & Sons. Benedetto.References H. N. 2006 5. . Chen & M. S.

2005. K. “Narrowband Interference Mitigation in UWB Radio Systems. S. 2010 . S. F. Prentice Hall. Reddy. Nekoogar.References UWB Pulse detection 6. 7. Sastry and T. IITG. Ultra-Wideband Communications: Fundamentals and Applications. “ BTP.

John Wiley & Sons. Wireless Communications. Principles of Mobile Communications. Moher. G. 2005 9. Springer. A. 2005 10. S. Molisch.References Spreading Codes 8. Modern Wireless Communications. L. Stuber. 2009 . F. Pearson Education. Haykin and M.

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