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You are on page 1of 26

BECAS v2.0

(Executable version)

A cross section analysis tool for anisotropic and

inhomogeneous beam sections of arbitrary geometry

Jos´e Pedro Blasques

RISØ – National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy

Technical University of Denmark

Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 49, Building 114,

DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

jpbl@risoe.dtu.dk

January 4, 2012

1

Title of document:

User’s Manual for BECAS v2.0 (Executable version) - a cross section analysis

tool for anisotropic and inhomogeneous beam sections of arbitrary geometry

Author:

Jos´e Pedro Blasques

Address: RISØ – National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy

Technical University of Denmark

Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 49, Building 114,

DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

E-mail: jpbl@risoe.dtu.dk

Copyright and ownership:

All rights to this User’s Manual belong exclusively to RISØ-DTU. The User’s

Manual may only be used when the user has a valid license from RISØ-DTU

to use the BECAS software.

Disclaimer:

RISØ-DTU disclaims all responsibility for any kind of damage, including

loss of proﬁt, loss of capital or any caused damage or loss, which might

appear by use or erroneous use of the BECAS software or Documentation,

even though RISØ-DTU should have been informed of the possibilities of

such damage.

2

Contents

1 Introduction 4

2 Why complicate? 4

3 A little note on the theory part 6

3.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

3.2 Cross section equilibrium equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3.3 Cross section stiﬀness matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3.4 Shear center and elastic center positions, and elastic axes . . 8

3.5 Cross section mass matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.6 Deﬁnition of the material properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.7 Cross section ﬁnite element mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4 Practical use of BECAS (executable version) 12

4.1 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.2 Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.2.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

4.3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

5 User’s Manual for BECAS (open source version) 16

5.1 Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

5.1.1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

5.2 List of functions and output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

5.2.1 BECAS_Utils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

5.2.2 BECAS_Constitutive_Ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

5.2.3 BECAS_Constitutive_Ms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

5.2.4 BECAS_CrossSectionProps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

5.2.5 BECAS_RecoverStrains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

5.2.6 BECAS_RecoverStresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5.2.7 BECAS_Becas2Hawc2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

5.2.8 BECAS_TransformMat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5.2.9 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5.3 The BECAS 3D implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5.3.1 Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5.3.2 List of functions and output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5.3.3 BECAS_3D_Utils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5.3.4 BECAS_3D_Constitutive_Ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

5.3.5 BECAS_3D_CrossSectionProps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3

1 Introduction

The BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – is a set of MAT-

LAB functions developed at DTU-RISØ for the analysis of anisotropic and

inhomogeneous beam cross sections of arbitrary geometry (see Blasques [1]).

The BECAS source code and User’s Manual are freely available for academic

use from jpbl@mek.dtu.dk.

NOTE: This document is a (very) short version of the original

BECAS User’s Manual by Blasques [1] which includes a thorough

description of the theory, implementation, and validation of BE-

CAS. Only the use of BECAS in its executable version is discussed

here.

2 Why complicate?

Cross section analysis tools are commonly employed in the development

of beam models for the analysis of long slender structures. These type of

models can be very versatile when compared against its equivalent counter-

parts as they generally oﬀer a very good compromise between accuracy and

computational eﬃciency. When suited, beam models can be advantageously

used in an optimal design context (see, e.g., Ganguli and Chopra [4], Li et al.

[5], Blasques and Stolpe [6]) or in the development of complex multiphysics

codes. Wind turbine aeroelastic codes, for example, commonly rely on these

types of models for the representation of most parts of the wind turbine,

from the tower to the blades (see, e.g., Hansen et al. [7], Chaviaropoulos

et al. [8]). In speciﬁc, the development of beam models which correctly de-

scribe the behaviour of the wind turbine blades have been the focus of many

investigations. The estimation of the properties of these types of structures

becomes more complex as the use of diﬀerent combinations of advanced

materials becomes a standard (see Figure 1 for a schematic description on

the use of beam elements to analyze the response of wind turbine blades).

It is therefore paramount to develop cross section analysis tools which can

correctly account for all geometrical and material eﬀects.

BECAS is a general purpose cross section analysis tool speciﬁcally de-

veloped for these types of applications. BECAS is able to handle a large

range of arbitrary section geometries and correctly predict the eﬀects of in-

homogeneous material distribution and anisotropy. Based on a deﬁnition

of the cross section geometry and material distribution, BECAS is able to

determine the cross section stiﬀness properties while accounting for all the

geometrical and material induced couplings. These properties can be con-

sequently utilized in the development of beam models to accurately predict

4

the response of wind turbine blades with complex geometries and made of

advanced materials.

Figure 1: Schematic description illustrating the use of beam ﬁnite element

models to analyse the response of wind turbine blades.

BECAS is based on the theory originally presented by Giavotto et al. [9]

for the analysis of inhomogeneous anisotropic beams. The theory leads to

the deﬁnition of two types of solutions of which, and in accordance to Saint-

Venant’s principle, the non-decaying solutions are the basis for the evalu-

ation of the cross section stiﬀness properties. A slight modiﬁcation to the

theory was introduced later by Borri and Merlini [10] where the concept of

intrinsic warping is introduced in the derivation of the cross section stiﬀness

matrix. Despite the modiﬁcations, no diﬀerence in the results was reported.

The theory was subsequently extended by Borri et al [11] to account for

large displacements, curvature and twist. Ghiringhelli and Mantegazza in

[12] presented an implementation of the theory for commercial ﬁnite element

codes. Finally Ghiringhelli in [13, 14] and Ghiringhelli et al. [15] presented

a formulation incorporating thermoelastic and piezo-electric eﬀects, respec-

tively. The validation results presented throughout each of the previously

mentioned publications highlight the robustness of the method in the analy-

sis of the stiﬀness and strength properties of anisotropic and inhomogeneous

beam cross sections. According to Yu et al. [16] implementations of this

theory have been in fact used as a benchmark for the validation of any new

tool emerging since the early 1980’s (see, e.g., Yu et al. [16, 17] and Chen

et al. [18]).

Many other cross section analysis tools have been described in the liter-

ature. The reader is referred to Jung et al. [19] and Volovoi et al. [20] for

an assessment of diﬀerent cross section analysis tools. Nonetheless, at this

stage the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis commercial pack-

age VABS by Yu et al. [16] is perhaps the state of the art for these type of

tools. VABS has been extensively validated (see Yu et al. [16, 17], Chen et

al. [18]) and has therefore been used as the benchmark for the validation of

BECAS. It was shown then that the cross section properties estimated by

both tools are in very good agreement.

5

(a) Forces and moments (b) Strains and curvatures

Figure 2: Cross section coordinate system, forces and moments (a) and

corresponding strains and curvatures (b).

3 A little note on the theory part

This section presents a brief description of the theory underlying BECAS

and described in Blasques [1].

3.1 Assumptions

For a linear elastic beam there exists a linear relation between the cross

section generalized forces T and moments M in θ =

_

T

T

M

T

¸

T

(cf. Figure

2(a)), and the resulting strains τ and curvatures κ in ψ =

_

τ

T

κ

T

¸

T

(Figure

2(b)). This relation is given in its stiﬀness form as θ = Kψ, or

T

x

Ty

Tz

Mx

My

Mz

=

K

11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16

K21 K22 K23 K24 K25 K26

K31 K32 K33 K34 K35 K36

K41 K42 K43 K44 K45 K46

K51 K52 K53 K54 K55 K56

K61 K62 K63 K64 K65 K66

τ

x

τy

τz

κx

κy

κz

where K is the 6 × 6 cross section stiﬀness matrix. In the most general

case, considering material anisotropy and inhomogeneity, all the 21 stiﬀness

parameters in K may be required to describe the deformation of the beam

cross section. The transverse force components T = [T

x

T

y

T

z

]

T

represent

the shear in the x direction, the shear in the y, and the tension force in

the z direction, respectively. The components of the M = [M

x

M

y

M

z

]

T

represent the bending moment in around the x axis, the bending component

around the y axis, and the torsional moment around the z axis. The shear

component τ = [τ

x

τ

y

τ

z

]

T

is composed of the shear strains τ

x

and τ

y

, and

the tension strain τ

z

. The components of the vector of curvatures κ =

[κ

x

κ

y

κ

z

]

T

are the bending curvatures κ

x

and κ

y

, and the twist rate κ

z

.

6

3.2 Cross section equilibrium equations

The theory underlying BECAS assumes that the cross section deformation

is deﬁned by a superimposition of the rigid body motions r (translations

and rotations) and warping deformations g. The ﬁrst step in the deriva-

tion consists of establishing the cross section equilibrium equations. The

equations are derived in a ﬁnite element context. The cross section face

is discretized using two dimensional ﬁnite elements. The three-dimensional

warping deformations in g are approximated by the nodal deformations of

the ﬁnite element mesh u. Application of the principle of virtual work it is

possible to establish the ﬁnite element form of the cross section equilibrium

equations, deﬁned as

_

E

∂u

∂z

+R

∂ψ

∂z

= 0

R

T ∂u

∂z

+A

∂ψ

∂z

=

∂θ

∂z

_

Eu +Rψ =

_

C−C

T

_

∂u

∂z

+L

∂ψ

∂z

R

T

u +Aψ = −L

T ∂u

∂z

+θ

(1)

where,

∂θ

∂z

= T

T

r

θ

The matrices E, A, R, L, C, and T

r

are deﬁned in Blasques [1]. For a

given vector θ it is possible using the equations above (after application of

the correct contraints) to determine the cross section warping displacements

u and the cross section generalized strains ψ.

3.3 Cross section stiﬀness matrix

Consider the case where the set of equations (1) is solved for diﬀerent right-

hand sides each corresponding to setting one of the entries of θ to unity and

the remaining to zero. This procedure is similar to the stiﬀness method in

the ﬁnite element method. It can be realized by replacing the cross section

load vector θ by the 6 × 6 identity matrix I

6

and solving the following set

of equations

_

EX+RY =

_

C−C

T

_

∂X

∂z

+L

∂Y

∂z

R

T

X+AY = −L

T ∂X

∂z

+I

6

_

E

∂X

∂z

+R

∂Y

∂z

= 0

R

T ∂X

∂z

+A

∂Y

∂z

= T

T

r

(2)

where the resulting solution matrices U, ∂U/∂z, Ψ and ∂Ψ/∂z have six

columns each corresponding to each of the six right-hand sides. Using the

7

solutions from the system of linear equations in (2) and based on the compli-

mentary form of the internal virtual energy of the cross section it is possible

to determine the cross section compliance matrix F deﬁned as

F =

_

_

X

∂X

∂z

Y

_

_

T

_

_

E C R

C

T

M L

R

T

L

T

A

_

_

_

_

X

∂X

∂z

Y

_

_

(3)

where M is deﬁned in Blasques [1]. The corresponding stiﬀness matrix K

can be computed as

K = F

−1

(4)

This result can be used to generate beam ﬁnite element models for which

the strains can be exactly described by the six strain parameters in ψ. The

material may be anisotropic, inhomogeneously distributed, and the reference

coordinate system may be arbitrarily located. The stiﬀness matrix K will

correctly account for any geometrical or material couplings.

3.4 Shear center and elastic center positions, and elastic axes

Having determined the cross section stiﬀness matrix it is possible to de-

termine the locations of the shear and elastic centers. The shear center

s

c

= (x

s

, y

s

) is deﬁned as the point at which a load applied parallel to the

plane of the section will produce no torsion (i.e., κ

z

= 0). The shear center

is deﬁned as

x

s

= −

F

62

+ F

64

(L −z)

F

66

y

s

=

F

61

+ F

65

(L −z)

F

66

where F

ij

is the entry ij of the compliance matrix F. From the previous

equation it can be seen that the shear center is not a property of the cross

section. Instead, in the case where the entries F

64

and F

65

associated with

the bending-twist coupling are not zero, the position of the shear center

varies linearly along the beam length .

The elastic center e

c

= (x

e

, y

e

) is deﬁned as the point where a force

applied normal to the cross section will produce no bending curvatures (i.e.,

κ

x

= κ

y

= 0). The position of the elastic center is deﬁned as

x

e

= −

−F

44

F

53

+ F

45

F

43

F

44

F

55

−F

2

45

y

e

= −

F

43

F

55

−F

45

F

53

F

44

F

55

−F

2

45

8

Often, the bending stiﬀnesses are measured along the elastic axis. such

that the coupling between the bending in x and y directions is uncoupled,

i.e., K

45

= K

54

= 0. In BECAS, the orientation of the elastic axis is

determined by solving the following eigenvalue problem

__

K

44

K

45

K

54

K

55

_

−λI

_

v = 0 (5)

The solution to the eigenvalue problem above yields the eigenvectors v

1

and

v

2

which indicate the orientation of the elastic axes. The angle α

ea

between

the reference coordinate system and the elastic axes is determined as

α

ea

= arctan

_

v

1,2

v

1,1

_

; (6)

where v

i,j

is the jth entry of the ith eigenvector.

3.5 Cross section mass matrix

The 6 × 6 cross section mass matrix M

s

relates the linear and angular

velocities in φ to the inertial linear and angular momentum in γ through

φ = M

s

γ. The cross section mass matrix is given with respect to the cross

section reference point as (cf. Hodges [3])

M

s

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

m 0 0 0 0 −my

m

0 m 0 0 0 mx

m

0 0 m my

m

−mx

m

0

0 0 my

m

I

xx

−I

xy

0

0 0 −mx

m

−I

xy

I

yy

0

−my

m

mx

m

0 0 0 I

xx

+ I

yy

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(7)

where m is the mass per unit length of the cross section. The cross section

moments of inertia with respect to x and y are given by I

xx

and I

yy

, respec-

tively, while I

xy

is the cross section product of inertia. The term I

xx

+I

yy

is

the polar moment of inertia associated with the torsion of the cross section.

The mass and moments of inertia are obtained through integration of the

mass properties on the cross section ﬁnite element mesh and deﬁned as

_

_

m 0 0

0 I

xx

Ixy

0 0 I

yy

_

_

=

_

A

_

_

1 0 0

0 y

2

xy

0 0 x

2

_

_

dA

The oﬀ-diagonal terms are associated with the oﬀset between the mass center

position m

c

= (x

c

, y

c

) and the cross section reference point. The position of

9

the mass center m

c

is given as

x

c

=

_

ne

e=1

x

ce

v

e

e

_

/

_

ne

e=1

v

e

e

_

y

c

=

_

ne

e=1

y

ce

v

e

e

_

/

_

ne

e=1

v

e

e

_ (8)

where (x

ce

, y

ce

), v

e

and

e

are the coordinates of the centroid, the volume

and the density of element e, respectively, and n

e

is the number of elements

in the cross section mesh.

3.6 Deﬁnition of the material properties

At each element of the cross section ﬁnite element mesh, the user of BECAS

must specify

• Material properties

• Orientation of the laminate plane

• Orientation of the material coordinate system

Based on this input, the ﬁrst step consists of assembling the material consti-

tutive matrix in the material coordinate system based on a set of material

properties. At this point BECAS accepts only orthotropic materials. In this

case the stress-strain relation or generalized Hookes’ Law is stated as

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

σ

22

σ

33

σ

23

σ

12

σ

13

σ

11

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

=

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1

E

22

−

ν

23

E

22

0 0 0 −

ν

21

E

11

−

ν

23

E

22

1

E

33

0 0 0 −

ν

31

E

11

0 0

1

G

23

0 0 0

0 0 0

1

G

12

0 0

0 0 0 0

1

G

13

0

−

ν

2z

E

11

−

ν

13

E

11

0 0 0

1

E

11

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

−1

. ¸¸ .

Q

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

γ

22

γ

33

γ

23

γ

12

γ

13

γ

11

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

where the material properties are given in the material coordinate system

(see Figure 3c) and deﬁned as

• E

11

the Young modulus of material the 1 direction.

• E

22

the Young modulus of material the 2 direction.

• E

33

the Young modulus of material the 3 direction.

• G

12

the shear modulus in the 12 plane.

• G

13

the shear modulus in the 13 plane.

10

(a) (b)

x'

y'

z'

1

2

3

β

(c)

Figure 3: Determination of the material constitutive matrix at each ﬁnite

element of the cross section mesh. (a) Deﬁnition of the cross section coor-

dinate system XY Z and element coordinate system xyz. (b) Convention

adopted for the rotation of the element coordinate system xyz into the ﬁber

plane coordinate system x

y

z

**. (c) Convention adopted for the rotation of
**

the ﬁber plane coordinate system x

y

z

**into the material coordinate system
**

123.

• G

23

the shear modulus in the 23 plane.

• ν

12

the Poisson’s ratio in the 12 plane.

• ν

13

the Poisson’s ratio in the 13 plane.

• ν

23

the Poisson’s ratio in the 23 plane.

• the material density.

Moreover, note that

ν

ij

E

ii

=

ν

ji

E

jj

where ν

ij

is the Poisson’s ration that characterizes the transverse strain in

the j-direction when the material is stressed in the i direction. The natural

strains

ij

are related to the engineering strains γ

ij

by

γ

22

=

22

, γ

33

=

33

, γ

11

=

11

,

γ

13

= 2

13

, γ

12

= 2

12

, γ

23

= 2

23

The next two steps concern the two rotations of the material constitutive

matrix necessary to determine the element material constitutive matrix in

the ﬁber coordinate system. The three element coordinate systems – element

coordinate system, ﬁber plane coordinate system, and material coordinate

system – and respective conventions for each of the rotations are deﬁned

in Figure 3. The material constitutive matrix is rotated ﬁrst into the ﬁber

plane coordinate system and subsequently into the ﬁber coordinate system.

11

3.7 Cross section ﬁnite element mesh

In BECAS both four and eight node elements can be used in the cross section

ﬁnite element mesh. The four node element uses linear interpolation while

the eight node uses quadratic interpolation. Note that the although these

are similar to the typical two-dimensional elements, in this case there are

three degrees of freedoms per node corresponding to the displacements in

the three directions x, y, and z. The node ordering and position of the Gauss

points for both elements are presented in Figure 4. The triangular forms of

these elements can be obtained by simply deﬁning coinciding nodes.

i

j

k

l

ξ

η

ζ

Four node element

i

j

k

l

ξ

η

ζ

Eight node element

m

n

o

p

Figure 4: Node numbering convention and position of Gauss points for the

four and eight node ﬁnite elements which may be used in the cross section

ﬁnite element mesh.

4 Practical use of BECAS (executable version)

The practical use of BECAS (executable version) is discussed in this section.

BECAS (executable version) is limited version of the original software. The

time limit is typically one month for trial purposes and the limit number of

nodes is 2000. This limitations are obviously non-existent once the source

code is acquired.

4.1 Installation

BECAS is distributed as a self-extracting package which includes the MAT-

LAB Compiler Runtime (MCR) and the BECAS executable. The MCR

must be installed in order for BECAS to work (this is independent of the

user having a valid MATLAB installation or not). In order to install the

MCR and have access to the BECAS executable, place the executable pack-

age in the directory where you want to run BECAS, double click on the ex-

ecutable package and the installation will commence automatically. Follow

the instructions on the screen. After a successful installation the BECAS.exe

12

ﬁle will be available. In order to run BECAS, place the input ﬁles in the

folder where the executable is and double click on the BECAS.exe ﬁle.

Note that diﬀerent versions of the executable package may be required

depending on the Windows version. Please contact us in case of problems.

Furthermore, the executable version of BECAS may be slower than its orig-

inal version. Finally, acquiring the source will allow the user to use faster

solvers in the solution of the cross section equilibrium equations. The solu-

tion time has been decreased ten fold using dedicated solvers which cannot

be included in the executable version.

4.2 Input

In order to run BECAS the following input ﬁles must be placed in the same

directory as the BECAS executable:

• N2D.in - (n

n

×3) ﬁle storing an array with the list of nodal positions

where each row is in the form (node number, x coordinate, y coordi-

nate), where n

n

is the total number of nodes. The node numbering

need not be in any speciﬁc order.

• E2D.in - (n

e

× 8) ﬁle storing an array with the element connectivity

table where each row is in the form (element number, node 1, node

2, node 3, node 4, node 5, node 6, node 7, node 8), where n

e

is the

total number of elements. The element numbering need not be in any

speciﬁc order. The value of node 5 through node 8 has to be zero for

Quad4 element to be used. Otherwise, Quad8 is automatically chosen.

• EMAT.in - (n

e

×4) ﬁle storing an array with element material properties

assignment where each row is in the form (element number, material

number, ﬁber angle, ﬁber plane angle), where n

e

is the total number

of elements. The element numbering need not be in any speciﬁc order.

The material number corresponds to the materials assigned in the

MATPROPS.in ﬁle. The rotation of the material constitutive matrix

with respect to the ﬁber angle and ﬁber plane angle is described in

Section 3.6.

• MATPROPS.in - (nmat × 10) ﬁle storing an array with the material

properties where each row is in the form (E

11

, E

22

, E

33

, G

12

, G

13

,

G

23

, ν

12

, ν

13

, ν

23

, ), where nmat is the total number of diﬀerent

materials considered. The material mechanical properties given with

respect to the material coordinate system are deﬁned as

– E

11

the Young modulus in the 1 direction.

– E

22

the Young modulus in the 2 direction.

– E

33

the Young modulus in the 3 direction.

13

– G

12

the shear modulus in the 12 plane.

– G

13

the shear modulus in the 13 plane.

– G

23

the shear modulus in the 23 plane.

– ν

12

the Poisson’s ratio in the 12 plane.

– ν

13

the Poisson’s ratio in the 13 plane.

– ν

23

the Poisson’s ratio in the 23 plane.

– the material density.

4.2.1 Example

Example ﬁles are distributed together with BECAS. These ﬁles can be used

as a starting point for the development of new input for BECAS. The user

can open the diﬀerent folders and copy the input ﬁles into the directory

where the BECAS executable is.

4.3 Output

The following output ﬁles are generated and stored in the working directory

if BECAS is ran with success is returned by BECAS (executable version):

• BECAS_2D.out - All of BECAS results are printed to this ﬁle. The

results include:

– Cross section stiﬀness matrix with respect to the cross section

reference point;

– Cross section compliance matrix with respect to the cross section

reference point;

– Cross section mass matrix with respect to the cross section ref-

erence point;

– Shear center position;

– Elastic center position;

– Mass center position;

– Mass per unit length;

– Orientation of principle axis w.r.t. reference center;

– Orientation of principle axis w.r.t. elastic center;

– Stiﬀness matrix with respect to shear center;

– Stiﬀness matrix with respect to the elastic center;

– Stiﬀness matrix rotated along principle axis;

– Stiﬀness matrix at the elastic center rotated along principle axis;

– Mass matrix with respect to mass center;

14

• BECAS2HAWC2.out - The results from BECAS are written in the

HAWC2 format in this ﬁle. The reader is referred to the HAWC2

Manual (Larsen [2])for information on each of the entries in this ﬁle.

Note that the cross section reference point must be coincident

with the mid-chord location in order to generate the correct

input for HAWC2.

• BECAS_FIG*.fig - After each run BECAS presents and saves six

ﬁgures. The ﬁrst ﬁve ﬁgures are useful for debugging purposes while

the last allows for the visualization of some of the results. The six

ﬁgures are:

– BECAS_FIG_Fiber_orientation - Figure presenting the ﬁber

orientations. A vertical line indicates the 0

◦

orientation, or along

the length of the beam.

– BECAS_FIG_Fiber_plane_orientation - Figure presenting the

ﬁber plane orientations. The ﬁber plane at each element is par-

allel to the line presented at each element in this ﬁgure.

– BECAS_FIG_Element_numbers - Figure presenting the number

of each element.

– BECAS_FIG_Material_numbers - Figure presenting the mate-

rial number at each element.

– BECAS_FIG_Fibers_in_3D Figure presenting the three dimen-

sional orientation of the ﬁbers. The user should use the 3D ro-

tation capabilities in the MATLAB ﬁgure to fully visualize the

orientation of the ﬁbers at each element.

– BECAS_FIG_Cross_section_centers - Figure presenting the

position of the reference point, shear center, mass center, elastic

center, and orientation of the elastic axes.

15

5 User’s Manual for BECAS (open source version)

The usage of BECAS in open source format is described in this chapter. The

aim is to go through the functionalities of BECAS and discuss its practical

usage within a structural analysis environment. BECAS is implemented as a

Matlab toolbox.

The following functions are currently available

• BECAS_Utils - Build arrays for BECAS calculations.

• BECAS_Constitutive_Ks - Calculation of the cross section stiﬀness

matrix;

• BECAS_Constitutive_Ms - Calculation of the cross section mass ma-

trix;

• BECAS_CrossSectionProps - Calculation of the cross section proper-

ties;

• BECAS_RecoverStrains - Calculation of the three-dimensional strains

at each point in the cross section;

• BECAS_RecoverStresses - Calculation of the three-dimensional stresses

at each point in the cross section;

• BECAS_TransformationMat - Rotate and translate the cross section

constitutive matrices;

• BECAS_Becas2Hawc2 - Generate output for latest version of Hawc2.

• BECAS_3D_Utils - Build working arrays for BECAS calculations.

• BECAS_3D_Constitutive_Ks - Calculation of the cross section stiﬀness

matrix based on solid ﬁnite element models of the cross section;

• BECAS_3D_CrossSectionProps - Calculation of the cross section prop-

erties;

The version of BECAS based on two-dimensional ﬁnite element discretizations

of the cross section is presented ﬁrst.

Note that the BECAS toolbox also includes a number of functions for

visualization of the input and output. The description of this functions has

been omitted as it falls beyond the scope of this manual.

Part of the MATLAB code in BECAS is generated through MAPLE. There

are four MAPLE ﬁles which follow together with the BECAS code:

• GenerateMatricesBECAS.mw used to generate all the element stiﬀness

matrices which are included in the MATLAB function Quad4 used

within the function BECAS_Constitutive_Ks.

16

• LayerRotationBECAS.mw used to generate the code for the function

which rotates the material constitutive matrix Q in the MATLAB

function BECAS_Utils when orienting the ﬁbers in a layer.

• FiberPlaneRotationBECAS.mw used to generate the code for the func-

tion which rotates the material constitutive matrix Q when orienting

the ﬁber plane in an element in the MATLAB function BECAS_Utils.

5.1 Input

In order to run BECAS the following input is necessary:

• nl_2d - (n

n

×3) array with the list of nodal positions where each row

is in the form (node number, x coordinate, y coordinate), where n

n

is

the total number of nodes. The node numbering need not be in any

speciﬁc order.

• el_2d - (n

e

×8) array with the element connectivity table where each

row is in the form (element number, node 1, node 2, node 3, node

4, node 5, node 6, node 7, node 8), where n

e

is the total number of

elements. The element numbering need not be in any speciﬁc order.

The value of node 5 through node 8 has to be zero for Quad4 element

to be used. Otherwise, Quad8 is automatically chosen.

• emat - (n

e

× 4) array with element material properties assignment

where each row is in the form (element number, material number, ﬁber

angle, ﬁber plane angle), where n

e

is the total number of elements. The

element numbering need not be in any speciﬁc order. The material

number corresponds to the materials assigned in the matprops array.

• matprops - (nmat ×10) array with the material properties where each

row is in the form (E

11

, E

22

, E

33

, G

12

, G

13

, G

23

, ν

12

, ν

13

, ν

23

, ),

where nmat is the total number of diﬀerent materials considered. The

material mechanical properties given with respect to the material co-

ordinate system have been are deﬁned as

– E

11

the Young modulus of material the 1 direction.

– E

22

the Young modulus of material the 2 direction.

– E

33

the Young modulus of material the 3 direction.

– G

12

the shear modulus in the 12 plane.

– G

13

the shear modulus in the 13 plane.

– G

23

the shear modulus in the 23 plane.

– ν

12

the Poisson’s ratio in the 12 plane.

– ν

13

the Poisson’s ratio in the 13 plane.

17

– ν

23

the Poisson’s ratio in the 23 plane.

– the material density.

The rotation of the material constitutive tensor is described in Section

3.6.

5.1.1 Example

All the ﬁles necessary to run all the validation examples presented in Blasques

[1] are distributed together with BECAS. These ﬁles can be used as a starting

point for the development of new input for BECAS.

5.2 List of functions and output

The diﬀerent functions included in the BECAS library and corresponding

output are described in this chapter.

5.2.1 BECAS_Utils

The function BECAS_Utils is used to build working arrays. It is included

inside all the other functions in the 2D version of BECAS. It is called using

[utils]=BECAS_Utils(nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops)

5.2.2 BECAS_Constitutive_Ks

The function BECAS_Constitutive_Ks is the BECAS central function and is

used primarily for the evaluation of the cross section stiﬀness matrix K

s

.

The function is called using

[Ks,dX,dY,X,Y]=BECAS_Constitutive_Ks(nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops);

The output is

• Ks - (6 ×6) array storing the cross section stiﬀness matrix K

s

.

• dX - (n

d

×6) array

∂X

∂z

.

• dY - (6 ×6) array

∂Y

∂z

.

• X - (n

d

×6) array X.

• Y - (6 ×6) array Y.

where n

d

= n

n

×3 is the number of degrees of freedom in cross section ﬁnite

element equations.

18

5.2.3 BECAS_Constitutive_Ms

The function BECAS_Constitutive_Ms is used for the evaluation of the cross

section mass matrix M

s

. It is called as

[Ms]=BECAS_Constitutive_Ms(nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops);

The output is

• Ms - (6 ×6) array storing the cross section mass matrix M

s

.

5.2.4 BECAS_CrossSectionProps

The function BECAS_CrossSectionProps is used to determine a series of

relevant cross section properties. It presumes that the cross section stiﬀness

K

s

has been previously determined. The function is called using

[ ShearX,ShearY,ElasticX,ElasticY,...

MassX,MassY,MassPerUnitLength,...

AlphaPrincipleAxis,AlphaPrincipleAxis_ElasticCenter,...

AreaX,AreaY,AreaTotal,...

Ixx,Iyy,Ixy,Axx,Ayy,Axy]=...

BECAS_CrossSectionProps(Ks,nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops);

The output is

• ShearX - the x

s

position of the cross section shear center.

• ShearY - the y

s

position of the cross section shear center.

• ElasticX - the x

t

position of the cross section elastic center.

• ElasticY - the y

t

position of the cross section elastic center.

• MassX - the x

m

position of the cross section mass center.

• MassY - the y

m

position of the cross section mass center.

• MassPerUnitLength - the cross section mass per unit length.

• AlphaPrincipleAxis - the orientation of the cross section elastic axis

determined at the reference point (in radians).

• AlphaPrincipleAxis_ElasticCenter - the orientation of the cross

section elastic center determined at the elastic center (in radians).

• AreaX - the x coordinate of the area centroid.

• AreaY - the y coordinate of the area centroid.

• AreaTotal - total cross section area.

19

• Ixx - the mass moment of inertia with respect to the x axis.

• Iyy - the mass moment of inertia with respect to the y axis.

• Ixy - the mass product of inertia.

• Axx - the area moment of inertia with respect to the x axis.

• Ayy - the area moment of inertia with respect to the y axis.

• Axy - the area product of inertia.

5.2.5 BECAS_RecoverStrains

The function BECAS_RecoverStresses is used to determine the three-dimensional

strains components at the center of each element and at each Gauss point

in the cross section ﬁnite element mesh. The function is meant to be used

after the one-dimensional beam ﬁnite element solution has been determined.

The resulting strain values are given in the global coordinate systems. The

function is called as

[ElementStrain_GlobalCS,NodalStrain_GlobalCS]=...

BECAS_RecoverStrains(theta0,dX,dY,X,Y,nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops);

Part of the input is coming from the BECAS_Constitutive_Ks function. The

extra input consists of

• theta0 - (1 ×6) array holding the cross section generalized forces and

moments (i.e., the variable θ =

_

T

T

M

T

¸

T

. The magnitude of the

entries are generally determined based on the one-dimensional beam

ﬁnite element solution.

The output is

• ElementStrain_GlobalCS - (6×n

e

) array holding the three-dimensional

strain components evaluated at the center of each of the elements in

the cross section ﬁnite element mesh.

• NodalStrain_GlobalCS - ((6 × n

gp

) × n

e

) array holding the three-

dimensional strain components evaluated at the each of the Gauss

points (n

gp

Gauss points at each element) in the cross section ﬁnite

element mesh.

Note: function is not yet validated.

20

5.2.6 BECAS_RecoverStresses

The function BECAS_RecoverStress is used to determine the three-dimensional

stress components at each element or at each Gauss point in the cross sec-

tion ﬁnite element mesh. The function is meant to be used after the one-

dimensional beam ﬁnite element solution has been determined. The stresses

are evaluated based on the strains determined using the BECAS_RecoverStrains.

The resulting stress values are given in both the global and material coor-

dinate systems. The function is called as

[ElementStress_GlobalCS,ElementStress_MaterialCS,...

NodalStress_GlobalCS,NodalStress_MaterialCS] = ...

BECAS_RecoverStress(ElementStrain_GlobalCS,...

NodalStrain_GlobalCS,nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops);

The output is

• ElementStress_GlobalCS - (6×n

e

) array holding the three-dimensional

stress components in the global coordinate system evaluated at the

center of each of the elements in the cross section ﬁnite element mesh.

• ElementStress_MaterialCS - (6×n

e

) array holding the three-dimensional

stress components in the local coordinate system evaluated at the cen-

ter of each of the elements in the cross section ﬁnite element mesh.

• NodalStress_GlobalCS - ((6 × n

gp

) × n

e

) array holding the three-

dimensional strain components in the global coordinate system eval-

uated at the each of the Gauss points (where n

gp

are the number of

Gauss points at each element) in the cross section ﬁnite element mesh.

• NodalStress_MaterialCS - ((6 ×n

gp

) ×n

e

) array holding the three-

dimensional strain components in the material coordinate system eval-

uated at the each of the Gauss points (where n

gp

are the number of

Gauss points at each element) in the cross section ﬁnite element mesh..

Note: function is not yet validated.

5.2.7 BECAS_Becas2Hawc2

The function BECAS_Becas2Hawc2 is used to generate input for RISØ’s

HAWC2 code for the aeroelastic analysis of wind turbines. It is presumed

that the functions BECAS_Constitutive_Ks, BECAS_Constitutive_Ms, and

BECAS_CrossSectionProps have been previously called. Extra input is re-

quired for this function, namely, the following have to be deﬁned:

• RadialPosition - coordinate of the section along the span of the

blade.

21

• OutputFilename - name of ﬁle to which the output is written (e.g.,

OutputFilename = ’BECAS2HAWC2.out’ ).

The function is called as

BECAS_Becas2Hawc2(OutputFilename,RadialPosition,...

Ks,Ms,...

ShearX,ShearY,...

ElasticX,ElasticY,...

MassX,MassY,...

AlphaPrincipleAxis_ElasticCenter,...

AreaX,AreaY,AreaTotal,...

Axx,Ayy,Axy,...

nl_2d,el_2d,emat,matprops)

5.2.8 BECAS_TransformMat

The function BECAS_TransformMat is used to determine the translated and

rotated values of the cross section constitutive stiﬀness or mass matrices.

The function requires extra input, namely:

• p - column array specifying the coordinates of the new reference point

(e.g., p = [ShearX ShearY] to translate the matrix to the shear cen-

ter).

• alpha - angle of rotation around the z axis, in degrees, deﬁned positive

in the counter-clockwise direction (e.g., alpha=AlphaPrincipleAxis

to align with the elastic axis).

The function is called as

[M]=BECAS_TransformationMat(M,p,alpha);

5.2.9 Examples

All the ﬁles required for the replication of the validation examples are dis-

tributed together with BECAS. The user should specify the name of the cor-

responding folder in the ﬁle Inputdata4RunMe.m. The ﬁle RunMe.m which

calls BECAS should then be ran to obtain the results.

5.3 The BECAS 3D implementation

An alternative implementation of BECAS using solid ﬁnite elements is de-

scribed here. The main advantage of this approach concerns the possibility

of using layered solid ﬁnite elements. All BECAS functions associated with

this implementation start by BECAS_3D.

22

5.3.1 Input

The input to the BECAS_3D group of functions is

• k3d - n

d

×3 array with the sparse form of stiﬀness matrix of the cross

section slice meshed with solid ﬁnite elements, where n

d

is the number

of degrees of freedom in the solid ﬁnite element model. Each row in the

k3d array is in the form (row number, column number, value), where

row and column number correspond to the row and column positions

in the global stiﬀness matrix.

• nl_3d - n

n,3d

×3 array with the list of nodal positions where each row

is in the form (node number, x coordinate, y coordinate, z coordinate),

where n

n,3d

is the total number of nodes in the solid ﬁnite element

model. The node numbering needs to be in the same order as it is

listed in the k3d matrix.

5.3.2 List of functions and output

The following functions are part of the BECAS_3D group of functions.

5.3.3 BECAS_3D_Utils

The function BECAS_3D_Utils is used to build working arrays. It is included

inside all the other functions in the 3D version of BECAS. It is called using

[utils] = BECAS_3D_Utils(k3d,n3d);

5.3.4 BECAS_3D_Constitutive_Ks

This is the main function of the BECAS_3d and is used to determine the cross

section stiﬀness matrix K

s

. It is called using

[Ks,dX,dY,X,Y]=BECAS_3D_Constitutive_Ks(k3d,n3d);d

The output is

• Ks - (6 ×6) array storing the cross section stiﬀness matrix K

s

.

• dX - (n

d

×6) array

∂X

∂z

.

• dY - (6 ×6) array

∂Y

∂z

.

• X - (n

d

×6) array X.

• Y - (6 ×6) array Y.

where n

d

= n

n

×3 is the number of degrees of freedom in cross section ﬁnite

element equations.

23

5.3.5 BECAS_3D_CrossSectionProps

The function BECAS_3D_CrossSectionProps returns some relevant cross

section properties. It presumes that the cross section stiﬀness matrix K

s

has been previously determined. The function is called through

[ShearX,ShearY,ElasticX,ElasticY,AlphaPrincipleAxis]=...

BECAS_3D_CrossSectionProps(Ks);

The output is

• ShearX - the x

s

position of the cross section shear center.

• ShearY - the y

s

position of the cross section shear center.

• ElasticX - the x

t

position of the cross section elastic center.

• ElasticY - the y

t

position of the cross section elastic center.

• MassX - the x

m

position of the cross section mass center.

• MassY - the y

m

position of the cross section mass center.

• MassPerUnitLength - the cross section mass per unit length.

• AlphaPrincipleAxis - the orientation of the cross section elastic

24

References

[1] Blasques J. P., User’s Manual for BECAS v2.0 - A cross section anal-

ysis tool for anisotropic and inhomogeneous beam sections of aribtrary

geometry, DTU-RISØTechnical Report RISØ-R 1785, 2011

[2] Larsen T. J., How 2 HAWC2, the user’s manual, DTU-RISØTechnical

Report RISØ-R 1785 (v3-9), 2009

[3] Hodges D., Nonlinear Composite Beam Theory, Progress in Astronau-

tics and Aeronautics Series, 213, AIAA, 2006.

[4] Ganguli R., Chopra I., Aeroelastic optimization of a helicopter rotor

with composite coupling, Journal of Aircraft, 32(6), 1326-1334, 1995

[5] Li L., Volovoi V. V., Hodges D. H., Cross-sectional design of composite

rotor blades, Journal of the American Helicopter Society, 53(3), 240-

251, 2008

[6] Blasques J. P., Stolpe M., Maximum stiﬀness and minimum weight op-

timization of laminated composite beams using continuous ﬁber angles,

Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, DOI: 10.1007/s00158-

010-0592-9, 2010

[7] Hansen M. O. L., Sørensen J. N., Voutsinas S., Sørensen N., Madsen

H. A., State of the art in wind turbine aerodynamics and aeroelasticity,

Progress in Aerospace Sciences, (42), 285-330, 2006

[8] Chaviaropoulos, P.K., et al., Enhancing the damping of wind turbine

rotor blades - the DAMPBLADE project, Wind Energy, 9, 163-177,

2006.

[9] Giavotto V., Borri M., Mantegazza P., Ghiringhelli G., Carmaschi V.,

Maﬃolu G.C., Mussi F., Anisotropic beam theory and applications,

Composite Structures, (16)1-4, 403-413, 1983

[10] Borri M., Merlini T., A large displacement formulation for anisotropic

beam analysis, Meccanica, (21), 30-37, 1986

[11] Borri M., Ghiringhelli G. L., Merlini T., Linear analysis of naturally

curved and twisted anisotropic beams, Composites Engineering, (2)5-7,

433-456, 1992

[12] Ghiringhelli G. L., Mantegazza P., Linear, straight and untwisted

anisotropic beam section properties from solid ﬁnite elements, (4)12,

1225-1239, 1994

25

[13] Ghiringhelli G. L., On the thermal problem for composite beams using a

ﬁnite element semi-discretization, Composites Part B, (28B), 483-495,

1997

[14] Ghiringhelli G. L., On the linear three dimensional behaviour of com-

posite beams, Composites Part B, (28B), 613-626, 1997

[15] Ghiringhelli G. L., Masarati P., Mantegazza P.,Characterisation of

Anisotropic, Non-Homogeneous Beam Sections with Embedded Piezo-

Electric Materials, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Struc-

tures, (8)10, 842-858, 1997

[16] Yu W., Hodges D. H., Volovoi V., Cesnik C. E. S., On Timoshenko-like

modelling of initially curved and twisted composite beams, International

Journal of Solids and Structures, (39), 5101-5121, 2002

[17] Yu W., Volovoi, V. V., Hodges D. H., Hong X., Validation of the Vari-

ational Asymptotic Beam Sectional Analysis (VABS), AIAA Journal,

(40)10, 2105-2113, 2002

[18] Chen H., Yu W., Capellaro M., A critical assessment of computer tools

for calculating composite wind turbine blade properties, Wind Energy,

(13)6, 497-516, 2010

[19] Jung S. N., Nagaraj V. T., Chopra I., Assessment of composite rotor

blade modeling techniques, Journal of the American Helicopter Society,

(44)3, 188-205, 1999

[20] Volovoi V. V., Hodges D. H., Cesnik C. E. S., Popescu B., Assessment

of beam modeling methods for rotor blade applications, Mathematical

and Computer Modeling, (33), 1099-1112, 2001

26

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