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OBJECTIVE

1. TO UNDERSTAND FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS 2. TO READ HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS WITH THE HELP OF SYMBOLS 3. TO KNOW THE CONSTRUCTION & FUNCTION OF IMPORTANT COMPONENTS USED IN HYDRAULICS 4. TO OPERATE, MAINTAIN AND TROUBLESHOOT HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS IN ORDER TO CUT DOWN TIME AND NUMBER OF SERVICE CALLS. 5. TO OPTIMISE SAFETY AND RELIABILITY

CONTENTS Advantages of hydraulic systems Fundamental principles Block diagram of hydraulic systems Component and circuit symbols Hydraulic fluid Reservoirs Filters and contaminants Pumps Direction control valves Solenoids for valve actuation Pressure control valves Flow control valves Actuators Accumulators Cartridge valves Proportional valves Safety precautions Maintenance and watch keeping Hoses and hose fittings Seals Troubleshooting hints and guidelines Thumb rules for hydraulic systems Safematic operation for steering gear

ADVANTAGES: 1. AUTOMATIC LUBRICATION. 2. HIGH POWER I WEIGHT RATIO — small component can handle large power. 3. SIMPLE DESIGN, FEW PARTS & LESS COMPLICATED CONSTRUCTION. 4. FLEXIBILITY — same component can do different job — can take power anywhere, only pipes, hoses required. 5. EASE OF CONTROL — only a lever required to start/stop/reverse the actuator. 6. PRECISE MOTION CONTROL — jobs exactly as required, less waste & better quality. 7. FORCE MULTIPLICATION ACHIEVED WITHOUT LEVERS, PULLEYS, GEARS, AND CHAINS ETC. 8. BETTER SPEED CONTROL — from <1rpm to >1000 rpm (motor can even be made to stall). 9. INSTANT STOPPING / REVERSIBILITY. 10. CONSTANT TORQUE WITH VARIABLE SPEED SINCE TORQUE ∞ PRESSURE AND SPEED ∞ FLOW 11. INBUILT SAFETY — actuator can be stalled at full load (even if relief valve lifts — it will reset immediately when overload is removed. 12. AUTOMATIC BRAKING — by blocking flow, no brakes, linings etc. required. 13. CAN BE USED IN HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS.

and each square Inch is pushed on by 10 lb. The bottle Is filled with a lIquid. If the bottom has an area of 20 sq. push. of force. and acts with equal force on equal areas. the entIre bottom receIves a 200 lb. which Is not compressible.PASCALS LAW Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions. in. . of force on every square Inch (pressure) of the container wall. and at right angles to them A 10 lb force is applIed to a stopper with a surface area of one squara inch. results In 10 lb.

multiply the height in feet by 0. 9. 15. H. Raised one foot in one minute. One H. There must be pressure drop (pressure difference) across an orifice or restriction to cause flow through it. 14.0007. 1 H. 7.P.4 PSI. 8. Reducing the diameter by half increases the velocity by four times. A pump does not pump pressure. = G. Fluids take the path of least resistance.000 lbs. Power is the rate of doing work.P. A fluid is pushed. if there is no flow there will be no pressure diffrence. Flow velocity through a pipe varies through a pipe varies inversely as the square of the inside diameter.P. Pumps used to transmit power are usually positive displacement types. 4. 18. A pressure gauge indicates the work load at any given moment. 12. x BAR/600. 17. H. PASCAL’S LAW: Pressure exerted on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all direction and acts with equal force on equal areas & at right angles to them.4. Atmospheric pressure equals 14. 6. 3. = 746 WATTS = 42.4 BTU/MIN. Gauge readings do not include atmospheric pressure unless marked PSIA.7 PSIA at sea level. Conversely. Friction losses (pressure drop) in a pipe are directly proportional to velocity. Work is force acting through a distance. KW = L. 13.FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 1.P. . = 33.M. its purpose is to create flow. of a prime mover = GPM x PSI x 0.000583. 2. WORK = FORCE x DISTANCE.P. W = F x D = Energy used.P.000 ft. T o find the approximate pressure at the bottom of any column of oil. POWER = WORK/TIME = F x D/T. 11. not drawn in-to a pump.M. Pressure is caused by resistance to flow. Pressure at the bottom of a one foot column of oil will be approximately 0. 10. 5. 16. x PSI xO. Hydraulics is a means of power transmission.lbs per minute or 33.

the piston will not move. It can extend only if there is flow into port A. .Hydraulic Principle I: Movement depends on Flow For anything to move in a hydraulic machine. the actuators must be supplied with fluid flow. Nothing moves without flow. If there is no flow into port A. This cylinder is retracted.

the faster the shaft will turn. the faster the piston will move.Hydraulic Principle II: Rate of Flow Determines Speed Actuator speed depends upon rate of flow. If the valve shifts fully the other way. cylinder speed will be normal in the other direction. and is producing only 6 gpm (0. reducing the flow rate delivered to the actuator. The Directional Control Valve spool may not have shifted all the way. The faster fluid fills the cylinder. What are the possible causes of slow actuator speed? Anything which reduces flow rate in or out of the cylinder. The faster fluid fills the expanding spaces in a hydraulic motor. Incomplete shifting will restrict flow through the valve. For example: Pump flow output may be low. actuator speed would be affected in both directions. If the pump should be producing 10 gallons per minute (0.631 liters/second).379 l/s) actuator speed will be slow. In this case. . Notice that in this case speed may be affected in one direction only.

or the cylinder may be binding or side loaded. If the load does not move. the load will move. the higher the pressure will rise. • . The relief valve may be leaking or set too low. the load may be normal but there is not enough pressure available to move it. Other leaks in the system may be absorbing all pump output and preventing the pressure in the cylinder from rising enough to move the load. Then all pump flow goes through the relief valve to the tank. is required to move the load. Normally. instead to the actuator. and therefore pressure. The greater the load. it is because either: • The load itself may have become too great. Think of it this way: Pressure in an actuator will rise until something gives. In this case.Hydraulic Principle III: Load Determines Pressure The pressure developed in an actuator depends on the load. That is. the system relief valve will open at its setting to prevent damage to the system. Or. Too much force. The pump may be slipping its total volume. pressure will rise until the force exerts on the piston in a cylinder can move the load.

A. FLOW IS THROUGH 100 psi VALVE B. FLOW IS THROUGH 200 psi VALVE . The oil can choose three paths.1. It first chooses Valve A because only 100 psi is required. 2. A pressure gauge at the pump will read 100 psi.

SERIES RESISTANCES ADD PRESSURE .

Piloting is done in two ways: Internal — this is done from the same circuit as the one in which the component is located. Caution — all drain lines to be led separately to tank to avoid back pressure build up and inadvertent operation of the valve. This is done in two ways: Internal — in those components with tank connection —in this type. . This drained oil must be led to tank to avoid the build of back pressure (since oil is incompressible) and component malfunction. a separate drain port and drain pipe is required to lead the drain oil to tank — this is shown in circuit as a dotted line going to tank. Since flow is proportional to area of orifice and ΔP.Drain : In hydraulics. there will be a leakage at these points. thus there is always a clearance between fixed and moving components. The pilot line can be likened to the starting circuit of an electric motor — where control voltages are much less than the main motor voltage. oil automatically lubricates the moving parts. the drain is not shown in the circuit or component symbol. movement of the valve is done by a pressure signal taken from the system. External — in those components without tank connection. Pilot: In many cases. This line is shown similar to the drain line but not connected to tank — thus we can differentiate between a drain line and a pilot line. This is called drain.

Relief valve b. 2 or 3 position valves c. PRESSURE CONTROL: Control of Force a. Braking valve DIRECTION CONTROL: Control of direction a. Bleed off d. Pilot. Non-compensated e. Meter out c. Different methods of actuation Manual. Pressure & temp. Pressure compensated f. compensated. Pneumatic.4 way (port) valves b. Mechanical. Meter in b. Electrical.2. 1. Pres. Counter balancing valve e. Unloading valve f. . FLOW CONTROL: Control of speed a. Compound relief valve c. Reducing valve d.3.External — this is when the pilot signal is taken from another pumps’ circuit or from a remote location.

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REMOVES AND AIDS IN DISSIPATING HEAT FROM THE SYSTEM 4. INHIBITS RUST! CORROSION 6. ANTI WEAR PROPERTIES 10. CHEMICAL STABILITY . COMPRESSIBILITY Additives are added to the oil to improve the above properties and thus extend the life of the oil. RESISTANCE TO FOAMING (ability to quickly give up air) 8.resistance to oxidation 9. . FILM STRENGTH 4. TENDS TO SEAL CLEARANCES 5. LUBRICATES COMPONENTS 3. LUBRICITY 3.FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF HYDRAULIC OIL FUNCTIONS: 1. DEMULSIBILITY (ability to separate from water rapidly) 7. TRANSMITS POWER 2. FLASH POINT 6. ACTS AS A BRAKE WHEN REQUIRED PROPERTIES: 1. POUR POINT 5. VISCOSITY (similar to electrical resistance) 2.

The internal friction of the fluid will increase resulting in increase in the flow resistance. 5. 4. 2. . Increase in friction between the moving parts will result in increased wear and more heat evolution. Machine operation will be sluggish. 3. IF THE VISCOSITY IS TOO LOW: 1. 4. 2. The machine and fluid temperature will increase. 3. There will be a loss of precise control. Pressure drop throughout the system will increase.EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS: IF THE VISCOSITY IS TOO HIGH: 1. The system will operate at a lower pressure. Pump slippage will increase and reduce pump efficiency and increase oil temperature. Internal and external leakage will increase.

Return line bottom edge to be chamfered. It should be on legs. Sight glass / level gauge to be kept clean and operational. Aids in removing contaminants.IMPORTANCE OF RESERVOIRS RESERVOIR: Functions: 1. Breather cap to be fitted & kept tightly in place. 7. To aid in expelling entrained air. Baffle plate to be placed between return lines and pump suction line. Cooling the hydraulic fluid. 2. 6. 5. . 2. 3. not flush with deck — to aid heat transfer & to enable complete draining. 4. Level of oil in tank to be maintained at least 3 — 4” above the suction filter. 3. Important design aspects: 1. Tank capacity should be about 3 — 4 times the gpm of the pump.

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Generated in cylinder. Filters with 3 P indicators and / or inbuilt bypass valves. Ingress of rust. Proportional flow filters. 7. 9. 5. Builtin dirt. Return line filter — about 20 — 40 microns. Suction line filter — about 100 — 200 microns. 3. Ingress through loose breather cap — keep tight — check filter element. paint flakes from tank. Introduced during repairs. Ingress while filling new oil — to use 10 micron filter. Maximum abrasion occurs due to particles slightly smaller or the same size as the clearance between moving parts. Importance of regular checks and cleaning / renewal of line filters cannot be overstressed. Ingress from cylinder oil seals. Full flow filters. 7. Pressure line filter — about 5 — 10 microns. it should be ensured that the new element is of correct type and size. 6. 2. 3. 5. valves etc. 2.FILTERS AND CONTAMINANTS Filter types: 1. 4. . 4. Off line filtration. SOURCES OF CONTAMINANTS 1. 6. 8. While replacing filter elements. Present in initial charge of oil. Generated in pump.

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System cleanliness starts with keeping the hydraulic fluid clean and free of contamination during the storage and installation. either the operation of the equipment may be unsatisfactory or damage to the unit may occur. The customer must follow storage and handling precautions to ensure that the fluid is clean when it is installed in the system. These storage and handling precautions are recommended to prevent contamination of the fluid by materials such as . KEEPING HYDRAULIC FLUIDS CLEAN Cleanliness of the hydraulic fluid and system is essential to maintaining the longest possible service life of the fluid and to ensuring trouble-free operation of the system. numerically controlled machines. and aircraft and missiles system. To standardize the method used to express the level of particulate contamination in hydraulic fluid. the International Standards Organization (ISO) developed standard 1S04406. ISO 4406 is an internationally recognized standard that not only expresses the level of particulate contamination of a hydraulic fluid. but it is also used to specify the required cleanliness for hydraulic components and system. such as electrohydraulic servo valves. A number of different classification system have been used by various organization and individual companies to define and measure the cleanliness level for the hydraulic and lubricating fluids that are used in equipment. This is especially true for highly-automated facilities. STORAGE AND HANDLING Hydraulic fluid suppliers are careful to ensure that the fluid is clean when it is delivered to the customer. The standard of cleanliness that was acceptable a few years ago is no longer sufficient for many of today’s hydraulic systems.Hydraulic Fluid Cleanliness Requirements Cleanliness requirements for hydraulic fluids have changed significantly in recent years. A hydraulic system may be perfect with respect to the design and construction. This widely accepted system provides a consistent and meaningful standard that can be used by all manufacturers and users. but if the fluid that is used in the system contains excessive contamination.

dirt and dust on the top of the drum. a filtration system should be used to transfer the fluid to the reservoir. equipment that is used to transfer fluid to these systems should be designated and used for each different fluid to prevent cross-contaminating noncompatible fluids. and containers should be covered after use to prevent the entrance of contaminants.dust. etc) should be equipment that is specifically designated for that purpose. Hydraulic oils received in bulk should be filtered into clean tanks or other storage vessels. The general use of any hose or container will cross contaminate the hydraulic fluid. Drums of hydraulic fluid should be stored on their sides to prevent any accumulation of moisture. water and dirt. . Even though fluid suppliers are careful to deliver only clean fluid. The degree of filtration should be the same as the filtration system that is used on the equipment. Drums should be stored indoor or under some sort of shelter to keep the drums out of the harsh effects of the elements. The transfer equipment must be thoroughly cleaned prior to use. Because many facilities use different types of hydraulic fluids in different system. Facilities should establish and follow hydraulic fluid standards and practices to prevent the contamination of hydraulic system from the improper storage and handling of hydraulic fluids. pumps. Hoses should have their ends capped. Equipment that is used to transfer the fluid from the storage containers to the reservoirs (hoses. The top of the drum must be cleaned of dirt or moisture before opening to prevent dirt or moisture from falling into the drum and contaminating the fluid. The following are some of the precautions for storage and handling that are recommended by hydraulic fluid suppliers. Many fluid suppliers will provide hydraulic fluid filtration system specifically designed for filtering fluid as it is added to the system.

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000 1. which gives the code as’ 18 /13’ .250 250 Thus.55O >15 μm =6.550 These two values are plotted on the graph as shown.000 5. ‘ >5μm=156.Example: Sample size = 100 ml Particle size range 5— 15 μm 15—25 μm 25—50 μm 50—100 μm >100 μm Number of particles 50 150. total number of particles.

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3. The most commonly used standards today are NAS 1638 and ISO DIS 4406. 3. The first number indicates the range number for the particle size larger than 5 tm and the second number indicates that for the particle size larger than 15 urn. . The designation of the cleanliness class comprises only two numbers.1. 3. In each class a specific number of particles (in 100 ml) is given for each of 5 ranges of sizes.11 Classification to NAS 1638 Fourteen cleanliness classes exist to classify fluids. Diagram 1 illustrates the contamination class to ISO DIS 4406. The cleanliness class of the fluid is determined on the basis of both particle counts.2 Claasltlcallon to ISO DIS 4406 Here the sizes larger than 5 im and larger than 15 im are cumulatively provided.1 Classification systems for the degree of contamination in a fluid Classification systems (standardised cleanliness classes) are used to help determine the amount of sijlld particles present in a fluid. Twenty-six ranges are available for classification. Table 6 shows how contamination classes are formed to NAS 1638.

As we all know the cleanliness of the oil as well as the as the general oil condition is very important for the lifetime of the system. we have found ships sailing around with more than 2-3 thousand particles per ml between 5 -15µm. This is very costly in the end. Nevertheless. max 640 Number of particles per ml ≥ 15µm: 20. oil. max 40 With FRAMO original filter element this cleanliness level should not be of any problem to maintain.DEAR CUSTOMER! In this Service Bulletin we will highlight the hydraulic oil and the filtration. and we therefore strongly advise you to pay attention to the filtration and the cleanliness of the hydr. . The practical life has shown that some of the ‘FRAMO ships’ are sailing around with far too high particle level in the hydr. oil. This means: Number of particles per ml ≥ 5 µm: 320. Our recommended level of particles in the system is: ISO 4406 code 16/12.

2: Lubrication of all moving parts. Be aware of the following important filter specifications: 1) The filter Beta Ration (β) Normal FRAMO filters have a Beta Ration = β 12 ≥75. from the same highlighted sampling point. β = particles in ÷ particles out 2) The filter dirt capacity Filter with higher dirt capacity gives longer service intervals and improved economy. i. This means if 75 particles of 12 pm or bigger come into the filter only one passes through.. oil monitoring and particle counting.As you know the hydr. and in an absolutely clean sampling bottle. Particles counting combined with pressure drop over the filter is the only safe indicator when to change the filter element. It is essential that the oil sampling is provided regularly. Houston and Singapore can offer hydr. oil has four main functions in the system: 1: Transmit the power from the aggregates to the different consumers. 4: Transfer all dirt back to the filter. Rotterdam. In other words the Beta Ration is the filter’s ability to stop the particles. FRAMO offices in Bergen.e. 3: Transfer all produced heat back to the cooler. . Do not play around with non FRAMO oil filter elements.

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However as a thumb rule Oil Cleanliness Level required for the most sensitive component of the system should be maintained.Q: What should be the Hydraulic Oil Cleanliness Standard for our type of Hydraulic System? And what should be the micron ratings of the Filter for such systems? A: Following are the recommended Oil Cleanliness Levels for different Hydraulic Systems and absolute micron ratings of the filters used in the system. . Recommended Oil Cleanliness levels for different Components are as per next table.

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PUMPS Function : Converts mechanical energy into fluid energy. Provides flow.

Types: 1. Hydrodynamic 2. Hydrostatic Non +ve displacement Centrifugal, axial flow etc. +ve displacement. This type is used in hydraulic systems since flow is not affected by load pressure.

Types of Hydrostatic pumps: 1. Gear pumps: These are simple in design, cheap and robust but heavy, bulky and noisy. They can withstand a higher degree of contamination. Pressure rating - about 2000 - 3000 psi. These are light, small and quiet. They require a higher degree of filtration. Easy to maintain and repair (Cartridge type). Pressure rating > 3000 psi. Require a minimum speed of 600 rpm. Two types - Balanced and Unbalanced. These are used in high pressure applications. Require very high filtration. Two types - Axial and Radial.

2. Vane pumps:

3. Piston pumps:

COMMON PROBLEMS WITH PUMPS: 1. Contamination 2. Cavitation Causes This will result in loss of lubrication & increase in clearances. This is caused when pressure at pump suction becomes 5”Hg (about 2.5 psi) below atmospheric. Tank oil level low. Suction filter clogged. Oil viscosity higher than design - due wrong oil or low temp. Long length and / or bends in suction line. Inlet pipe clogged. Breather cap choked. Pump running higher than rated speed. This is caused by presence of air in the system. Can occur only from suction side of the pump. Leaking suction line fittings. Pump shaft seal leaking. Return / drain lines not immersed in oil in tank. High velocity of return oil.

3. Aeration Causes -

Both cavitation and aeration will cause the pump to run with more noise than normal.

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consider an axial piston pump that is designed with eight pistons.tenth of an inch. With the constant change from eight to six and back to eight active pistons. regardless of the length of the pump stroke. To explain why this significant. A condition unique to the variable displacement pump is that seven. nine or eleven pistons are used (Fig. the pistons that were positioned over the lands become aligned with their respective semicircular grooves. the pump stroke is held at a maximum of 1. lubrication of all internal parts is possible. the piston diameter is increased by one.14). prevents the continuous flow of oil. because of the design of floating ring. two of the active pistons are located directly over the lands used to segregate the two semicircular grooves. only one piston is always exposed to the lands. First. for example. Therefore. As the cylinder barrel rotates a few degrees. Likewise. the effective discharge is six cubic inches per revolution. At some point during the revolution of the cylinder barrel. By reducing the number of pistons to seven. . the pistons that pass over the lands next have not as yet passed from the semicircular grooves. At the same time. the pump with seven 1. Initially. When the number of pistons is reduced to seven. As the pistons are at the extremes of their strokes. First.diameter pistons has a theoretical displacement of the remaining six pistons is 7.4 cubic inches per revolution. pulsation’s are developed by the pump. Therefore. the axial piston pump produces an entierl different lubricating condition. For comparison. continuous flow of the lubricant must exsist. only six of the eight cylinders are at this instance. as well as not being aligned with either groove. the oil in the cylinders is unable to pass from the cylinder barrel. you should realize that to have proper lubrication of all internal parts is possible.1 inch. This also means that the capacity of the pump is increased. at neutral stroke. As previously stated. the capacity of the pump is improved by using an odd number of pistons. This means that all eight pistons are active at this instance. the eight one-inch pistons are found to produce a displacement of 7.Diagram showing the relationship of even numbered positions verses the larger diameter odd numbered position to relate how capacity is affected as rotation occurs relative to the valve plate of an axial position pump. Since it has already been stipulated that an average of two pistons cease to discharge during one revolution. The construction of the radial piston pump floating ring.85 cubic inches per revolution. 3.25 inches. On the other hand. you should realize that to have proper lubrication.

DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES These valves start. Two way c. Three way d. Three position Two types of basic direction control valves: . Piloted 3. One way (check valve) b. Hydraulic e. Method of actuation: a. Mechanical c. Two position b. stop and control the direction (path) of fluid flow. Poppet (ball or piston) b. Sliding spool (this is the most commonly found type) 2. Number of flow paths: a. Number of positions: a. They are classified according to their principal characteristics as given below: 1. Pneumatic d. Electric f. Type of internal valving element: a. Manual b. Rotary spool c. Four way 4.

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The two side positions give the same cylinder reversing action as the two — position valve previously described. . with center neutral. but several other choices of center porting are commonly used.THREE – POSITION 4 . and these are illustrated in diagrams on the following pages. The 3 — position valve pictured below has all ports blocked in center neutral. are used in circuits where the cylinder must be stopped in mid travel.WAY VALVES Three position valves. all external circuit connections should be made to the center block. The center position is considered the “normal” position. and in drawing diagrams.

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They may also be used to prevent movement of an actuator if a hose fails.Pilot Operated Check Valves These valves act like conventional non-return valves (i. • • • Flow into port A lifts poppet 1 off its seat. aloe flow in one direction only).e. For reverse flow B to A pressure can be applied to pilot port X. . Flow into port B will act on top of the poppet which with spring 2 it closes onto its seat preventing reverse flow B to A. This will push up pilot piston 3 lifting poppet 1 off its seat. but can be opened by pilot pressure to allow flow in the reverse direction Being poppet type they are virtually leak-free when closed and are thus useful in preventing creep or inadvertent movement of an actuator. passes freely through and out of port B.

The construction of a dual check module is shown below: 2.1. When closed. the pilot supply coming from opposite service line to that in which the check acts. General description These modules provide pilot operated check functions in one or both service lines (A and B). Functional Symbols . the check prevents flow from the actuator port to which it is externally connected.

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3. Thus. thus quieter operation & longer life.here an air space separates the solenoid from the system. Misalignment between solenoid flange & spool. If this seal leaks. They can be DC (generally round shape & black) or AC (generally flat sided and blue) Solenoids are made up of two main parts . Thus the other type Wet armature type .6 times the electrical power taken by the air gap type. Also. All 4 bolts of above flange not equally tight. the coil is effectively prevented from coming into contact with oil. which is surrounded by the coil. sealed inside a core tube. Excessive ambient temperature. 2. Reasons for coil burning: 1. To prevent oil leakage. the oil will come in contact with the coil.here all the solenoids moving parts (armature & solenoid pin) operate in the oil. if energised and the armature does not move to its end position.valve spool jammed. the solenoid pin is sealed with the help of a dynamic seal.off type.SOLENOIDS FOR DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE ACTUATION. Two solenoid designs in use are: Air gap type . If both coils are energised at the same time (this is normally prevented with an interlock arrangement . Seals required here are only a static seal (where the core tube is screwed into the valve body) and a seal at the manual push pin. But this design requires about 1. Contamination in system . the oil acts as a cushion for the pushpin & armature. the current drawn will be too high & the coil will burn (A. .C. The solenoids always actuate the spool by PUSHING on it. The ones used in this application are of the ‘on . 4. 5. These are the most common actuators for direction control valves.but to be safe. both supply wires should not run together.the coil (which receives the supply) and the armature (which is the moving element). In both these types. Coils).

. Electrical Requirement.DIRECT . but not always limited to ¼” maximum size. In this single solenoid valve the spool is driven in one direction by the solenoid force and in the other by spring action after the solenoid is de-energized. The high current and heavy impact of larger solenoids creates many operational problems both electrically and physically. The usual construction of spool valves naturally results in having an exhaust discharge at each end of the stroke.ACTING SOLENOID VALVES Figure: A direct-acting solenoid valve is one where the solenoid armature is directly linked to the spool and provides the necessary push or pull “muscle” for shifting it. Porting through the valve when deenergized and energized is shown by the left and right blocks respectively of the graphic symbol. Maximum Size. This is the same as for any standard 4-way valve. The single solenoid valve requires a “maintained” electrical signal to stay in a shifted position. Direct-acting valves of modern design are usually.

5.PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES These valves perform functions such as limiting maximum system pressure or regulating reduced pressure in certain sections of the circuit and other functions wherein their actuation is a result of a change in operating pressure. 3. Some of the most common types and their function are listed below: 1. . Direct acting pressure reducing valve 4. Sequence valve — used when two or more functions are to be carried out one after another (sequentially) 6. Direct operated relief valve 2. Pilot operated pressure reducing valve They maintain reduced pressures in certain branch circuits of the system. Counterbalance valve — used to support a vertical load and prevent cylinder creep. Balanced piston type relief valve They limit the maximum pressure in the system.

7.used in cranes and winches to prevent excessive acceleration and to prevent the load from ‘running away’. Brake valve . . Unloading valve . 8.used to save power by unloading the pump or pumps when large flows are not required ( otherwise the extra oil will go over the relief valve at high pressure).

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and to enable the relief valve to be mounted upside down or sideways. The intensity of the oil pressure holding the main poppet closed is regulated with a small direct. It is dumped to reservoir if the main poppet opens. As system pressure rises. a pilot-operated relief valve will keep the system pressure more constant while releasing oil. the main poppet remains tightly closed. Action of a Pilot-Operated Relief Valve. The poppet is held closed by hydraulic pressure which enters the main spring chamber through the control orifice. Although slower to act than a direct-acting type. Figure 7-3: Pump oil is held in the hydraulic system under pressure when the main poppet of the relief valve is closed. But when system pressure rises to equal or exceed the tension which has been set on the pilot spring. If at any time pressure in the pump line should exceed the setting of the pilot spring. The intensity of oil holding pressure is set on the pressure adjustment knob. the pilot relief valve will not permit any further rise in pressure inside the main spring chamber. Its main functions are to get the main poppet in a closed position before the pump is started.Direct-acting relief valves often start to “leak” part of the system oil to the tank by the time pressure reaches only 50 to 60% of the pressure at which full flow is discharged. Oil which continues to come from the pump line through the control orifice into the main spring chamber is simply bypassed to reservoir through the pilot relief poppet. This naturally produces more heating in the oil and reduces system efficiency. The light main spring has very little effect in holding the main poppet closed. They are recommended for all systems which are designed for frequent or continual by-pass of part or all of the oil flow to the tank.acting relief valve called the “pilot relief which is built into the relief valve body or into the top cap of the relief valve. the pilot relief poppet would open to prevent any further .

pressure rise inside the main spring chamber. if pressure in the pump line should continue to rise. the main poppet would open to by-pass enough flow to prevent any further pressure rise. Thus. .

Operation of balanced piston rehef valve.Fioure 10-3. .

Occasionally. The main stage in either valve is a balanced piston type relief valve. the remote valve must be set for a lower pressure than the integral pilot stage. 1500-3000 psi. To exercise control. this standard spring is replaced by a heavier one permitting vent pressure of approximately 80 psi when required for pilot pressure. Typical spring ratings for three different heads might be: 125-1 000 psi. A second benefit of the heavier vent spring is that it causes faster and more positive seating of the piston. the only force holding the piston on its seat is that of the light spring. Bipressure relief valves can be used to select either of two preset pressure or one pressure and a vent. An electrically modulated relief valve provides the capability to modulate system pressure using a remote electrical controller. Pilot operated relief valves may be remotely controlled by means of an outlet port from the chamber above the piston. An application of remote pressure control is illustrated in. and the valve will open fully at approximately 20 psi. Multiple Preset Pressures: Multi-pressure. An electrically modulated relief valve (see figure) consists of three basic parts: a main stage. It is also possible to connect a direct-acting relief valve to the vent connection to control pressure from a remote location (see figure). an . Tnpressure relief valves (see figure) can be used to electrically select any one of three preset pressure.Vent Connection. Different pressure are obtained by connecting the vent to the tank through one of the valve with the help of a 3-position directional control valve. increasing current provides increasing pressure. and the intermediate stages are of spring loaded poppet type. Heads in the intermediate stages contain springs with different ratings. When the chamber is vented to the tank. The pressure setting of the valve is approximately proportional to the input current. Remote Control. see figures. or two pressure and a vent. solenoid operated relief valves are also available that provide ability to electrically select one pressure from a set of given preset pressures. Electrically Modulated. 500-2000 psi.

The resulting force is then compared with the force of a spring. The task of the pressure-reducing valve. The intermediate body contains standard relief valve pilot parts to provide manual adjustment and has a mounting pad which accepts the electrically modulated pilot. 2. The pilot contains a flapper valve assembly. is to reduce the pressure in a particular branch of the circuit to that required by a special load or consumer.2 Directly-operated pressure-reducing valve With this valve. the valve spool shifts and closes an initially open connection between the two ports. the outlet pressure is applied to a measuring surface. 2.1 Function and graphical symbol It is the task of the pressure relief valve to limit the pressure in the complete system to a given level. and the electrically modulated pilot. on the other hand. a blocking valve. the valve continuously closes a connection. and a ball-type check valve.intermediate body. whereby the valve spool assumes any intermediate position (regulating valve). and not the input pressure. Pressure-reducing valves are designed almost without exception as spool-type valve because in this application the emphasis is . The graphical symbol shows the initial open state as well as the control from the output. which initially is fully open. When the input pressure exceeds the selected pressure. The main stage is similar to the standard relief valve. If the force from the measuring surface exceeds that force set at the spring. The pressure level which is to be reduced is regulated independent of the through flow. Pressure-reducing valve 2.

. even with the smallest of flows.upon precision control. rather than upon lack of leakage.

The output pressure which is to be controlled is applied to the bottom end of the main valve and via an orifice. 2.2.relief valves. Such devices are comprised of a main and a pilot stage. With this valve. To this end.3 Pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve Pressure-reducing valves are pilot-operated when designed to handle large throughflows for the same reason as outlined in 1. this control-oil flow must be drained externally. and closes the connection between the input and output in order to maintain the output pressure constant. Due to the pressure drop.4 3-way pressure-reducing valve If an external force is applied to the load from the outside. the main s5tage is designed as a spool-type valve (precision control) and is open in its initial position. when the outlet pressure rises the inlet connection from the pump to the . The same as the pilot-operated pressure. then a simple pressure-reducing valve does not suffice for pressure reduction in the branch concerned. When the response pressure is reached. the main valve shifts upwards against the force of its spring. Some arrangement must be made to relieve the pressure in this branch. the pilot valve opens and a quantity of control oil flows through the orifice in the main valve. During the control process though. From the upper end. Pilotoperated pressure.reducing valve. an additional pressure.relief valve of the poppet type.3. As a matter of principal. to the upper end. Generally. these pressure-reducing valves can feature remote-control pilot-operation. there exists a connection to the pilot valve. The latter being a simple pressure. a certain control-oil flow must always be upheld through the input.relief valve can be used which is set to a slightly higher pressure than the pressure. This combination of a pressure-reducing valve and a pressure-relief valve can be incorporated in a single device: the 3-way pressure-reducing valve.reducing valves maintain control of the pressure even when the load does not need any oil. as well as the “read-back” facility when connected to a number of pilot valves.

The drawing shows a directly operated version of such a valve. .load is at first interrupted. and finally a connection from the load to the tank is opened.

Sequence valve. .

Sequence valve with integral check permits reverse free flow.

UnIoadng valve.

This can also e achieved with a pilot operated check valve in place of the counterbalance valve. .ILLUSTRATION OF A COUNTERBALANCE VALVE CIRCUIT A counterbalance valve ‘C’ is used when there is a tendency of the hanging load W to cause the actuator to ‘creep’ due to slight leakage at the spool of the direction control valve.

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In the lowering position. The counterbalance valve can be internally drained. the cylinder piston is forced down causing pressure at the primary port to increase and raise the spool. opening a flow path for discharge through the secondary port to the directional valve and subsequently to tank.LOWERING CYLINDER RAISING CYLINDER A counterbalance valve is used to maintain control over a vertical cylinder so that it will not fall freely because of gravity. The primary port of the valve is connected to the lower cylinder port and the secondary port to directional valve. it does not matter that load pressure is effective in the drain passage. its secondary port is connected to tank. . When the pump delivery is directed to the top of the cylinder. When the cylinder is being raised the integral check valve opens to permit free flow for returning the cylinder. The pressure setting is slightly higher than is required to hold the load from falling. In the reverse condition. because the cheek valve bypasses the spool. when the valve must be open.

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Limited rotation motors . Rectify internal and external leakage if they occur. Double rod 5. Maintenance & care: 1. MOTORS: These closely resemble pumps in their construction. Tandem Some types of cylinders are provided with cushioning at the end of their stroke (to slow down the piston and prevent it from hammering the end cap). Types: 1. they are pushed by the hydraulic fluid and thus develop torque and rotating motion.ACTUATORS These convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Check foundation bolts regularly. CYLINDERS: There are various types of cylinders. 2. 4. Spring return 3. There are two types of actuators: 1. Ensure rod wiper seal in good condition. Gear motors 2. Motors: these are rotary hydraulic actuators. Cylinders: these are linear hydraulic actuators. Single acting 2. 3. the difference being instead of pushing on the fluid as in pumps. They can be either fixed or variable displacement depending on their type I design. Prevent side loading 2. Double acting 4. Piston motors 4. namely 1. Vane motors 3.

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Changing Eccentric Mechanism: (Motor) .

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Pulsation damper and shock absorber: It dampens the pulsations of the pump delivery to tolerable levels. 3. pressure is obtained. Compensating device for any pressure fluctuation due to temperature variation. 4. If possible pump to have flexible hoses at suction at delivery ends for about 1/2 mtr. Motor and pump to be mounted on foundation using shock absorbers.ACCUMULATORS Since hydraulic fluids are essentially incompressible.accumulators absorb I cushion this shock and reduce its effects.used for emergency energy storage . 3. Hydraulic accumulators store the potential energy that is in the incompressible fluid for subsequent conversion to useful work. Stop filling and wait for about 10 mins. Other ways of reducing vibration: 1. .pump can be unloaded to tank (when system pressure is reached) while the accumulator maintains system pressure. Safety / Emergency . Functions: 1. 2. they do not have the ability to store power. The charging pressure should be between 2/3 and 3/4 of system pressure and should never be allowed to drop below 1/4 of the system pressure. Gas charged piston type 4.this would normally cause heavy sound and vibration . Also. Types of accumulators: 1. . pressure and then disconnect after releasing the pressure from the hose. Weighted type 2. Note: Never open any component or fitting in the hydraulic system before ensuring that the accumulator fluid has been drained to tank. Spring type 3.then fill again (if pressure has slightly dropped) to reqd. Gas charged bladder type The gas charged bladder type is the most popular and common type in use. heavy pressure surges can be set up by the sudden closure of a valve in the system . For charging. 2. Power saving device . Charging procedure: The accumulator must be completely drained of hydraulic fluid before charging. Clamp pipes at short intervals. connect the charging hose and fill slowly till reqd.in case of sudden power failure.

bag closes a valve to prevent its own extrusion into the oil-line. Diaphragm Accumulator: Built in small sizes primarily as a shock dampening device. Bladder Accumulator: A rubber bag ( the bladder) keeps oil and nitrogen separated and floats between the two media. several other types are in limited use. Of the types illustrated the rubber bladder type is next in popularity to the piston type. Weight loaded accumulator: Originally used before development of other types. their discharge capacity is .TYPES OF ACCUMULATORS Types of Accumulators Although piston type accumulators are probably more widely used. Rubber diaphragm separates oil and nitrogen. SPRING LOADED ACCUMULATOR: Usually built only in small sizes for a shock dampener. Pressure remains constant as oil is discharged. Never needs pre-charging which makes it ideal on installations where maintenance is not practical. shortening its life. Circuits using this type should be designed to always retain 1/4th oil volume at maximum discharge to avoid stretching the rubber. Built in large sizes where ample mounting space is available. In case oil should be completely discharged ( as for precharging).

The screen prevents the rubber diaphragm from blowing out when oil is discharged. Charging and Gauging: On hydraulic system using accumulators a charging and gauging assembly to fit brand accumulator used should be on hand for use of maintenance people. The assembly may also contain a shut off valve between the gauge and bottle adapter so the assembly can be left attached to monitor gas precharge. A pressure bottle of oil pumped (dry) nitrogen should also be on hand. All oil must be discharged before checking or adjusting pre-charge pressure.small and their maximum size is limited. .

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the entire oil valve must be introduced into the accumulator.ACCUMULATORS Function A hydraulic accumulator is a vessel in which a fluid may be kept under pressure. 3. An oil valve which prevents the bag from being forced out of the pressure vessel if the circuit pressure drops below the charging pressure of the bag. There is a slit or tear some 10-40 cm from the bottom end of the bag. Malfunctions and their causes. The nether part of the bag may then be forced upwards or even folded on itself. When the oil pressure drops. The bag has developed a small puncture at a distance of some 2-10 cm from the charging valve. and the pressure of the oil mounts. 4. When liquid is supplied to the accumulator through the oil valve.g. the rubber bag is compressed. In about 99 cases out of 100. During installation. separating the liquid and gas phases. the bag is not given time to assume its correct shape. Cause: The charging pressure has dwindled to nothing (through diffusion over several years of operation or because of a leaking charging valve or through failure to check the tightness of the valve after charging). Faulty operation of hydraulic accumulator is relatively rare as compared with other hydraulic components. for charging the bag to the desired pressure. and the accumulator delivers oil to the hydraulic system into which it is connected. the rubber bag expands. A steel container. 2. A gas valve integral with the bag. e. With a high charging rate. Large bags are often folded down . 1: 1. Hydraulic Accumulators Components The hydraulic accumulator consists of four main components Fig. Causes: After installing the bag it has been charged too rapidly. improper surveillance of the charging pressure. malfunctions are due to punctures of the bag and may generally be traced back to an error in installation or bad maintenance. The bag has been compressed by the hydraulic circuit pressure until the upper part of the bag has folded itself over the charging valve and been punctured by it. but is severely strained in its lower peripheral parts. or diaphragm. Typical damage encountered: 1. 2. A rubber bag.

If the nut on the charging valve is tightened without maintaining the valve proper stationary the upper part of the bag will be distorted.B. and the effective length of the bag reduced. The accumulator must not be vented! . The filling of the bag must then be done at a sufficiently slow rate in order that the bag shall have time to open up into its correct shape. N. Fast charging will then cause excessive strain and rupture of the bag.the middle to facilitate their introduction into the accumulator vessel.

Reducing connectors W24!32M and W24/14D also form part of the charging set. Insufficient gas pressure in the bag may cause the following kinds of damage: 1. Hydraulic pumps and motors may break down. 4. Charging hydraulic accumulators with nitrogen (N2). Open the valve of the nitrogen bottle. and is torn by the charging valve. 1000-hour intervals) and also when replacing the oil cooler in the system. Check the charging pressure of the bag every year (approx. A new accumulator must be installed. It comprises a 3-way valve. Open the reducing valve adjusting screw until the valve spring is unloaded. and the discharge valve closed tight. 2 is required (available from HAGGLUNDS). 3. To charge a hydraulic accumulator. the equipment of Fig. and approximately 2 meters (7 feet) of pressure hose fitted with a W24 connector for connecting to the nitrogen bottle. Connect the 3-way valve to the accumulator charging valve. 3. . 1. Connect the charging equipment to the nitrogen equipment to the nitrogen bottle reducing valve. (Air/oxygen should not be used).ACCUMULATORS NB. causing brake linings to wear too fast and possibly reducing the operational safety of the equipment. a 0-60 bar (600 kPa) pressure gauge. They require a constant refilling pressure. Excessive brake release times may eventuate. The rubber bag in the accumulator is compressed by the hydraulic circuit pressure. 2. 2. The filling screw of the 3-way valve shall be fully opened.

The pressure reading at this abrupt drop approximates the gas pre-charge. When the correct pressure has been obtained. the reading will be close enough to indicate a problem. faster and more reliable way to check the accumulator precharge is to watch the pressure gage in the accumulator circuit after the pump is turned off. reverse these procedures and go to the next accumulator. Then uncap the accumulator charge value. and may be followed by the standard checking procedure and recharging if needed. which slows . Whichever way your circuit is designed the pressure gage in the accumulator circuit will show pressure as long as the accumulator has any oil in it. Adjust the reducing valve until the correct charging pressure (see table on page 4) is obtained. Turn the 3-way valve filling screw clockwise. the gage will suddenly drop to zero. This simple preventive maintenance action will assure consistent flow to the circuit and extended bladder life. Fill the accumulator bag with nitrogen. All accumulator circuits should at least have a manual unloading valve to discharge any store energy. Maintenance tip: watch gauge to monitor pre-charge pressure The pre-charge pressure in a bladder should be checked at least once in a month according to one accumulator manufacturer. but not too tightly as this may damage the accumulator charging valve. the pressure gage in the accumulator circuit can be monitored as the pump is turned on. As an alternative. An easier.5. There will be a sudden pressure climb. Although it’s difficult to read most pressure gages accurately. back out the filling screw of the 3-way valve. As the accumulator discharges. Most accumulator circuits include an automatic dump valve that discharge store energy every time the pump shuts down. Written records of dates and pressure readings should be maintained. the pressure will fall steadily until pre-charge pressure is met. Check the nitrogen pressure in the bag when the temperature and pressure of the gas have stabilized. If the pre-charge pressure reading is correct. The conventional way to check pre-charge is to shut of the pump and discharge all pressures from hydraulic circuit. and open the charge valve with its tee handle. 6. As soon as pre-charge pressure is reached . install a gage head assembly. however that every time the above procedure is followed. 7. some gas is lostand there also is a chance the valve might leak after it has been unseated and reclosed. 8. Note.

when the pre-charge pressure is reached. but again will give some indication of a problem. checks of each individual accumulator will be necessary. . For multiple-accumulator circuits this gage check will indicate the condition of the lowest pre-charge pressure. This slowing pressure climb is even harder to read accurately. If that pressure shows less than required.

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ADVANTAGES OF CARTRIDGE VALVES • • • • • • • • • • • High flow rate (over 250 1pm) High working pressure (>200 bar) Compact and light Complex circuitry made simple Fast response Low internal and external leakages Good stability Low noise level High reliability Higher contamination tolerance Easy to maintain.25 psi) .3mmdia. In 0.5to2. operate and repair APPLICATIONS: • 1:1 & 1:1.25 bar (3.125 psi) Heavy >2.1= Pressure control function • 2:1 = Direction control function • 2:1 with notched skirt = Flow control function ORIFICE PLUGS: 0.1 steps SPRINGS: Light >0.25 bar (18.5 bar (36.625 psi) Medium >1.

. flow and pressure-control valves as well as check valves were now incorporated individually directly in the appropriate passages of manifold blocks. Dimensions are to be supplemented by generally valid symbols. slightly different presentations are still used which are based on the actual designs. switching behaviour.2-WAY CARTRIDGE VALVES (CARTRIDGE SYSTEM) 1. General The ‘classical” method of hydraulic control using elements connected by piping still plays an important role in modern day hydraulic. In order to further improve the power efficiency and a number of other factors such as costs. noise and efficiency etc. This meant that complex valve-switching functions could be realized with a relatively low number of basic elements (2-wat cartridges) and series-production pilot valves. At present. as well as special manifold blocks. With these systems. Demands for more compact solutions requiring less labour contented to the development of horizontal and vertical modular system. The installation dimensions are standardized according to DIN. CETOP and ISO standards.. the individual control elements such as directional. This system has become known as the “Cartridge System”. the valves are bolted on directly and the piping is replaced by passages bored in the blocks. Using this method it now became possible to produce single high-performance controls for which there were previously no conventional valves available which were large enough or of reasonable price.

The total leakage is only about 10% of that encountered with conventional controls. This means that the oil flows can be optimally controlled. Cartridge Systems (Also called LOGIC ELEMENTS) Special characteristics of control using cartridge valves 1. and in the pilot valve. 3. This is attributable to a number of facts. This justifies the high constructional outlay and the production engineering involved in the manufacture of a given manifold block.Manifold blocks Special manifold blocks are usually designed if particular control tasks are to be performed. the cartridge valve is not provided with a housing in . Low volume and weight Compared to conventional hydraulic installations. Due to the poppet valves not having overlap. It has been possible to considerably reduce the volume required. a number of different functions can be combined in a single cartridge valve. CAD/CAM is being used more and more for design and production. Secondly. High switching speeds This is due to the masses of the poppet valves and also due to the fact that these valves are without overlap stroke. Work processes with a high labor content are for the most part eliminated. Firstly. Depending upon the size of the block and the pressure involved. Economic solutions to hydraulic problems Complex controls can be realized using but a few standard elements. 2. Reduced leakage flows Leakage only occurs in poppet-type cartridge valves at the poppet guiding channel between the spring chamber F and the port B. The cost effectiveness is determined by the production quantity. Recurring part-functions are to a large extent standardized. 5. The opening and closing speeds are for the most part dependent upon size and switching times of the pilot valves (fastest possible times: 20-50 ms with the NG 25 cartridge valves). Complicated control circuitry is subdivided into a number of individual blocks. The costeffectiveness is determined by the quantity produced. Low voltage peaks The opening and closing times for the individual control edges can be influenced as required. a variety of casting qualities are used. the reaction to pressure peaks is extremely rapid. 4.

8. (Proportional Cartridge Valve. High flexibility A large number of component variants (different area ratio. functional modifications can be carried out in the shortest possible time. 11. It is often the case when a defect occurs that it is sufficient to merely replace individual cartridge elements instead of complete valves In this manner. and the mass of a cartridge valve is only a fraction of that of a spool-type valve of conventional construction. Longer machine life because of reducing system shocks (Pressure up to 350 bar and flow rates up to 2800 1pm). In order to carry out repairs on systems using cartridge valves. Due to the volume of the control circuit being smaller. as well as the possibility of variable pilot control. Trouble-shooting becomes more difficult if measurement ports are not provided on the manifold blocks. 10. 3. a general overhaul of the installation becomes a more economically priced proposition. Taking a prototype into service for the first time can be much more timeconsuming than was the case with conventional systems. 6. the service life of the cartridge valves will exceed that of comparable spool-type valves. under certain circumstances. there is less radiating surface available for oscillations. Higher efficiency due to lower. the dynamic behavior of individual valves will have to be optimized by experimenting with different control nozzles and springs.the power circuit. as a matter of course. 12. P —310 bar. This is because. 9. Better contamination tolerance. Furthermore. 7. different springs and control throttles etc. the low number of basic elements means that spare part storage is simplified. High reliability. 2.). mean that if the cartridges are arranged in a particular order. 13. G — 900 1pm) Disadvantages 1. result in a minimum of external leakages. . Experience has long since shown that. Ease of maintenance and servicing The compact design and the reduction of the number of screwed fittings to a minimum. Better noise figures One of the most important primary causes of noise can be eliminated by avoiding pressure peaks. the service personnel must be better trained than was the case with conventional systems. Good stability.

spring and the necessary ‘0’ rings and back-up rings as shown in figure. or porous. poppet. . If the manifold-block walls are cracked. it may be necessary to replace the block. consist of a sleeve. The basic component (insert kit). CARTRIDGE VALVES The main components of a cartridge valve are fitted inside a manifold block leaving only the pilot control valves on the block surface.4.

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It is spring off-set so that A and B are both normally c1oed.FIGURE The insert kit may be thought of as the main stage of a two—stage valve. The poppet has an area labeled AP area of pilot against which pilot pressure can act. The AP area is the circular area defined by the outside diameter of the poppet. Return flow from the cylinder rod end passes to the tank over cartridge 4 when rod end pressure is high enough to overcome the spring acting against the . Energizing solenoid S-I drains the “AP” areas of cartridges 2 and 4 while maintaining pilot pressure on the “AP” areas of cartridges 1 and 3. directing pump flow to the cap end of the cylinder. It has two main flow ports. The A port area is the circular area defined by the seat. A and B. System pressure acting over the ‘6” area of cartridge 2 forces the valve open.

the system pressure acting on the “B” area. If the pump is unloaded or shut down. combine to overcome system pressure and the spring acting on the “AP” area. a check valve appears in each cylinder port line. and a center condition are shown.cartridge valve poppet. This causes the piston to move to the left. This is done to indicate that when neither solenoid is energized. Cartridge valves. In such a case. which is shown on the right in Figure 12-8. on the other hand. are sized to handle only the flow required through their individual ports. Economies are realized and system size is optimized. Notice that in the center condition. pilot pressure is lost and each cartridge can open when its spring force is overcome This condition is not acceptable when vertical loads or external cylinder forces can be high enough to produce cylinder piston movement. plus slightly more than system pressure acting on the “A” area. valve 3 rather than valve 2 will open). . the crossed arrow paths. the cylinder piston is not hydraulically locked into position as it is with a spool-type closed-center valve. an external force pushing on the piston rod could cause valve 2 to open. The parallel paths. The piston of the cylinder moves to the right. (If the rod is pulled instead of pushed. Large system flows can be controlled with a small pilot directional valve and four cartridge valves. Conventional spool valves must be sized for the highest flow at any one port. This could happen when the cylinder cap end pressure exceeds the system pressure. This arrangement is similar to a spool-type directional valve with three distinct positions. In either case. Energizing solenoid S-2 drains the “AP” areas of cartridges 1 and 3 and applies pressure to the “AP” areas of cartridges 2 and 4.

.position. the cylinder operates in regenerative manner. The three-position. double.Directional Control Circuit With Regeneration Figure 12-10 shows how the cylinder in the four-cartridge valve circuit from Figure 12-8 can be operated regeneratively without adding more solenoids. two. single-solenoid valves.solenoid pilot valve is replaced with two. When the two solenoids are energized simultaneously.

. as shown at the bottom of the Figure 5 of these positions give the same flow conditions.Two additional two-position. This arrangement enables the independent control of each cartridge. Operating each cartridge valve with a solenoid valve produces the equivalent of a sixteen-position spool valve. which allows a smooth transition from one operating phase to the next. single-solenoid valves are added in Figure 12-11 to create an independent pilot control circuit. which leaves twelve different possible flow path combination.

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Cheap. A torque motor creates a force proportional to the imposed current which moves the spool to give the required flow and direction. linearity.PROPORTIONAL VALVES: They fill a gap between conventional solenoid (On/Off) and servo valves. . simple in design and easy to maintain.) when compared to proportional valves. They have improved performance characteristics (response time. SERVO VALVES: Servo valves are basically direction control valves combined with flow control function. they can take up an infinite number of positions within their working range. without their inherent complexity and high cost. hysterisis. They have many of the control features of the more sophisticated servo valves. dead band etc. This force is balanced by a mechanical spring force.

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servo valves are used which are high cost. If flow rates or pressures had to be varied. starting and stopping but without eliminating shocks. faster and lighter packages. (C) Pressure transducers. For high precision position or velocity control. A proportional valve is a solenoid operated valve whose output is varied according to the applied electrical signal. cheaper. (D) Tachogenerators. The use of electro-hydraulic proportional valves has resulted in reducing the number of flow and pressure control valves. (E) Microprocessors/PLCs These are low-power sources in terms of voltage/current and therefore. This results in simpler. The introduction of electro hydraulic proportional valves has opened an altogether new field.ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC PROPORTIONAL VALVES INTRODUCTION Electrical control of hydraulic valves had been confined to direction only till the advent of electro hydraulic proportional valves. . Solenoids provided on/off or “BANG-BANG” control i. Leakage is eliminated as there are no extra pipes which were needed for connecting additional valves. cheaper and more accurate. Today they can meet most of the industry’s requirements which needed servo valves earlier. Servo valves vary only direction and flow. The amplifier produces a larger current proportional to the input to move the valve spool. relatively cheaper and easy to maintain and repair. manually adjusted valves were used. flow or a combination of flow and direction remotely. The direction of the movement is automatically controlled by the + ye or — ye input signal. high specification valves requiring special filtration arrangements (1 micron or less) and are difficult to maintain and repair. These have now been replaced by electrical components which are smaller.e. These valves are simple in design. (B) Temperature sensors. need an amplifier to move the proportional valve. CONTROL AND FACILITIES Input signal: The initial input signal to control the proportional solenoid valves may be provided by: (A) Potentiometers. The output can provide variable pressure.

Drive Enable: This facility can be used as an emergency stop. Overload Safety: Limiting the maximum current to the solenoids. Current Feedback: When current is passed through a coil. The valve current is enabled when activated and becomes “zero” as soon as “disabled”. 3. signal (50/60 Hz) to reduce effect of frictional forces. 6. This will change the current to the solenoid which will give erratic response. Instead of feeding a continuous current to the solenoid.AMPLIFIER FUNCTIONS: 1.C.C. single and double acting cylinders and variable pumps. heat is generated and the resistance of the coil goes up. Gain A: Output voltage/input voltage i. current feedback is used which will keep the current constant for a particular signal value. 8.c. a series of pulses are fed. Dither: Low voltage a. APPLICATION These valves can be used to vary pressure. Examples include control of hydraulic motors. from the rectifier should be regulated and of proper current rating. 7.e. Output signal is an amplified version of the input signal. The output D. power supply to operate the amplifier and the valve this can be provided by a battery or by a rectified A. Pulse Width Modulation: This technique is used to reduce the heat generated in the amplifier whose output stage acts like a variable resistor similar to the earlier fan-regulator. 4. supply. flow or both flow and direction in a number of different applications. 5. Ramp: Provides smooth acceleration and deceleration to avoids shocks and vibrations. giving certain time lag before flow starts. 2. REGULATED POWER SUPPLY: Proportional valves require a properly installed D>C. This also takes care of voltage variations. “PROPORTIONAL VALVES PROVIDE THE DESIGNER WITH SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS THAT WOULD BE DIFFICULT IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE TO SOLVE” . They can be used to obviate shock caused by rapid pressure changes and the quick start and stop of a heavy mass. Dead band Compensation: dead band is mainly due to the spool overlapping the valve ports. this can be compensated by this control. In order to compensate for this change.

Before considering the detail operation of the valve range. The pole piece . positioning of the valve spool can either be achieved by balancing the solenoid force against spring force or by using a spool position sensor incorporated into the valve. 4. the actuating device of a proportional valve is a proportional solenoid.1 Proportional solenoids In terms of construction. The core tube is manufactured from a sandwich’ of magnetic and non magnetic material in order to concentrate the magnetic field into the gap between the armature and pole piece. the solenoid coil is encapsulated in a glass filled polyester material and fits over the valve core tube.1). or to control the pilot stage of a two-stage valve. This can either be used to operate the valve spool or poppet directly. a proportional solenoid is very similar to a conventional on/off DC solenoid of wet armature design (fig.4 Proportional valve constructions As mentioned in Chapter 2. Also. it is therefore useful to examine the component parts of a proportional valve. In this case. 4.1.

Figure 4. pole piece and core tube assembly which are shaped to provide a more constant force over the solenoid working stroke. even when the valve is mounted vertically. the . In some cases.fits into the front end of the core tube and provides a stop for the armature when the solenoid is energized. The armature has through holes to enable fluid to pass easily from one end to the other when operating. As can be seen from Figure.2 illustrates typical force/stroke curves for the two types of solenoid. The solenoid force created is transmitted to the valve spool or poppet by the push pin.2. The relationship between solenoid force and coil current is a linear one which means that for any position of the armature within its working stroke. the magnitude of the force being proportional to the coil current. This construction ensures minimum friction and so reduces the valve hysterisis. is supported by a low— friction bush in the pole piece and a ball race in the back end of the core tube. to ensure stable operation of the valve. it is necessary to purge air from the core tube and bleed screws are fitted this purpose Passing a solenoid coil force which current through the creates a magnetic pulls the armature towards the pole piece. The armature is attached to a push-pin which in this example. Total closure of the armature/pole piece gap is prevented by a non-ferrous washer which limits the maximum solenoid force and prevents the armature sticking’ to the pole piece when de-energized. The main difference between a proportional solenoid and a simple on/off solenoid is in the design of the armature. the proportional solenoid force remains virtually constant over the working stroke whereas the conventional solenoid force increases as the armature/pole piece gap closes. A light spring pushes the armature/push pin assembly into contact with the spool and ensures that all clearances are taken up. 4.

.3). 4.solenoid force is determined only by the coil current (Figure.

On two stage valves. . or to both the main stage and pilot stage for high performance valves (hg. The solenoid then moves the spool until such a time as the feedback signal from the position sensor corresponds to the demand input signal. The use of a double feedback arrangement on two stage valves provides additional control stiffness resulting in a faster valve response. position sensors can be attached to the main spool of the valve for medium performance applications.7). The Sensor used for spool position feedback is an LVDT (linear Variable Differential Transformer) such as illustrated in figure 4. The amplifier then maintains an output sufficient to hold the spool in the required position. This technique enables the spool to be positioned very accurately within the valve body and any disturbances caused by frictional flow or pressure forces are automatically corrected. 4.Position sensors An input Signal is fed to the control amplifier which in turn produces a corresponding output signal to the valve solenoid.8.

20 mA represents full movement in opposite direction and 12 mA indicates the spool in the center position. then with the core centralized. drops below 4 mA) and the amplifier output can be inhibited in this situation. The phase shift of the output relative to the input indicates the direction of movement. the induced voltages in each coil will cancel out producing a net zero output. In practice. the magnitude of which is proportional to the amount of movement. the current signal may have a range of 4to20mA. Using a current feedback signal as opposed to a voltage. This means that the LVDT assembly requires only a DC supply and also the feedback signal to the amplifier is in the form of a DC voltage or current.The LVDT consists of a primary and two secondary coils surrounding a soft iron core attached to the solenoid pin. where 4 mA represents full spool movement in one direction. provides greater immunity to electrical noise and also avoids the problem of voltage drops in long cables. The AC supply signal can be created from a DC voltage by a device known as an oscillator and it is now common practice to incorporate both the oscillator and the demodulator into the LVDT housing. The primary coil is connected to a high frequency AC supply which creates a varying magnetic field in the core. If the two secondary coils are connected in opposition. The output is then fed to a phase sensitive rectifier (demodulator) which will produce a DC signal proportional to movement and polarity dependent upon direction. As the core is moved away from center the voltage in one secondary coil will increase and in the other coil will reduce. This can then provide indication of a transducer error (if the signal. . The magnetic field in turn induces voltages in the two secondary coils by transformer action. This now produces an output voltage.

4. reduces actuator creep).e. • It provides a greater degree of security in the event of an electrical power failure to the valve (i.14 Spool Lap Condition Sliding spool type proportional valves will normally have a certain amount of overlap between the spool lands and the body port (Figure. • It relaxes the manufacturing tolerances and hence cost of the valve. This initial amount of movement is known as the DEADBAND and typically accounts for approximately 20% of the total spool movement. is the fact that the valve will not effectively react to low input signals.9). typically anything less than 20% of the maximum solenoid signal. This means that the spool has to move a certain distance before it starts to uncover the port and flow can take place. The disadvantage with an overlapped spool however. Spool overlap is provided for several reasons including: • It reduces the amount of spool leakage in the de-energized condition. The dead band will be apparent at the start of movement of a throttle valve spool and either side of the centre position in the case of a directional valve.4. In applications .

The purpose of the overlap is both to reduce spool leakage in the de-energized condition and also to provide additional security. (Figure. Dead band Compensation Sliding spool type proportional valves will normally have a certain amount of overlap (or dead band) either at the start of spool movement (for throttle valves) or around the centre position (for directional valves). The effect of spool overlap however. is that a certain minimum signal level has to be provided to the valve solenoid coil before the spool starts to uncover the valve port and flow can take place through the valve.10). for example in power failure situations. This will be described in more detail in chapter 5. Alternatively. In general. This will now virtually eliminate the valve dead band enabling flow to take place at very low signal levels. 5. . 4. it is also possible to specify a valve with a zero lapped spool where the edge of the spool land and the edge of the valve port exactly coincide in the null position (Figure. where the valve is being used in a closed ioop control system. for example. this will only be a requirement in critical control applications. when flow through the valve should be blocked off. Typically.9). the possibility exists to significantly reduce the effect of the dead band by including electronic compensation into the control amplifier. the dead band will account for approximately 15 to 25% of the total spool movement.where this is undesirable.

In most cases the dead band compensation is adjustable to cater for different spool configurations arid flow ratings so it is therefore possible to over compensate for the dead band. amplifiers can incorporate a dead band compensation adjustment which will almost eliminate the effect of the dead band. the amplifier output increases suddenly to a level determined by the dead band adjustment. 50 mSec to 5 mSec). To overcome this. a certain amount of dead band is desirable. Adjustment ranges are specified in terms of ramp times (for example. a step change in input signal will create a gradual or ramped change in output signal as shown in Figure. less than 15 to 25% of the maximum signal). Once the amplifier input signal reaches approximately 1 — 2% of its maximum. one of the most useful features of proportional valves is their ability to control actuator.12. With the ramp function selected. 5. 5.e. but in practice the actual ramp time obtained will depend not only on the adjustment of the ramp angle but also the setting of the gain and dead band compensation adjustment and the change in level of input signal. The remedy in such a situation would be to reduce in such a situation would be to reduce the compensation adjustment to the optimum level. In some application. 5.11). In this case the output step from the amplifier moves the spool beyond the overlap region causing a sudden increase in flow through the valve and preventing the control of very low flows. Ramp Functions As already mentioned. for example where a valve is being controlled by a joystick potentiometer. The ramp adjustment therefore determines the rate of change of output .10). acceleration and deceleration or rate of change of pressure. The step change in output signal at the 1 —2% input is designed to move the valve spool rapidly to the edge of the dead band so that flow through the valve will commence once the input signal exceeds the I — 2% threshold level (Figure. This is achieved by incorporating a ramp generator into the electronic amplifier which will determine how quickly the amplifier output signal can change from one level to another. An amplifier will also include the facility to change the steepness of the ramp (normally by means of potentiometer adjustments) between minimum and maximum values. In such cases. the ability to adjust the effective dead band electronically is very useful. Increasing the input signal further then produces a corresponding increase in output signal as determined by the gain setting (Figure.In many applications this may be undesirable since it means that the valve will not respond to small input signals (i.

signal (i. how steep or shallow the ramp is). but the time taken to change from one output level to another depends on a number of other factors. 2.13). . 2. (Figure. 5. this could be achieved by using two demand signal potentiometers to generate the input signal voltages and a switch to select one or the other (Figure. Considering the situation where the input signal to a proportional valve needs to be switched between two levels. A ramp signal is simply a controlled or gradual change from one condition or setting to another.6 Ramp Signals Mention should be made at this point of one of the most useful amplifier features which is its ability to generate what is known as a RAMP SIGNAL.14).e.

As the switch is changed from P1 to P2, the input signal to the amplifier will change in the form of a step (Figure. 2.15). By incorporating a ramp signal generator into the amplifier however, a controlled rate of change from one level to another can be achieved from the amplifier output (Figure. 2.16). The amplifier will also normally incorporate a means of adjusting the steepness of the ramp. When controlling a proportional relief valve, a ramp signal will determine the rate of pressure rise or fall when switching between two or more levels. In the case of a proportional throttle or directional valve, a ramp signal controls the rate of change of flow i.e. actuator acceleration and deceleration. The major benefit obtained from using ramp signals is the reduction or elimination of shock in the hydraulic system caused by sudden changes in pressure or rapid starting and stopping of high inertia loads. An analogy of this feature would be the situation where resurfacing work on a road sometimes leaves a temporary difference in level between the old and new surfaces. If the contractor provides a ramp between the two levels, it is considerably smoother to drive over than if it is simply left as a step (Figure. 2.17).

Depending upon its type, an amplifier may have either one, two or four ramp adjustments. Where only one adjustment is provided (in the case of plug mounted amplifier), the ramp angle will be the same for both increasing and

decreasing output signals. When used with a proportional throttle valve for example, the acceleration and deceleration rates of the actuator would be equal (Figure. 5.14).

When two adjustments are provided, acceleration and deceleration ramp angles can be set independently of each other thus providing, for example, a rapid acceleration and a slow deceleration. In the case of directional valves however, the acceleration and deceleration ramps would be the same for both forward and reverse movement of the actuator (Figure. 5.15). To provide independent acceleration and deceleration ramps for both directions of movement, four adjustments are required sometimes referred to as a ‘four quadrant’ ramp (Figure. 5.16).

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Directional valve applications As mentioned previously. either direct acting or pilot operated depending upon the flow requirement. . is to use separate flow control valves to control flow independently for each direction of actuator movement. there is the option on two stage valves of limiting the main spool stroke to provide a degree of throttling action. means that the control of both actuator direction and speed can now be performed by the one valve If two forward speeds are required on the cylinder. A more common arrangement however. This is achieved by fitting stroke adjusters to the end caps of the main stage body. a conventional system would require the addition of a further flow control valve and solenoid valve. Substituting a proportional directional valve for the solenoid valve however. the standard method of controlling actuator movement in industrial systems is to use solenoid controlled directional valves. The proportional system would simply require one extra potentiometer or other means of generating an additional input signal It now starts to become clear that as the circuit complexity increases. Where control of actuator speed is required.

remote operation of a flow control valve is easily achieved using proportional techniques.11). Figure.the proportional valve system becomes more and more advantageous in that one valve can take place of several. 3. high-pressure pipe work of a conventional system (Figure. No such problems exit with proportional valves since the demand signal can be created in any convenient position leaving the valve free to be mounted in the optimum position for controllability. compromises sometimes have to be made so that valves are easily or safely accessible. For example. To obtain different actuator speeds using conventional valves may require a flow control valve and switching directional valve for each speed. One proportional valve has replaced two solenoid valves and three flow control valves. A single electrical connection to the operator’s station is all that is required as opposed to the full flow.12. 3. With manually adjusted valves. illustrate a typical arrangement for a 3-speed system. 3. Ideally.2 Flow Control Applications Many of the benefits discussed for proportional pressure control valves also apply to proportional flow controls. in . flow control valves should be mounted close to the actuator they are controlling in order to obtain good control and to minimize the effects of fluid compressibility.

.practice. it may be possible to combine single solenoid valve functions into a double solenoid valve or to use two flow control valves to obtain three speeds.

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. In simpler systems where the features offered by proportional valves are not required.Advantages of Proportional Valves The potential advantages to be gained from using proportional control valves depend entirely upon the application. then conventional solenoid valves with manually adjusted flow and pressure controls will continue to prove the most cost effective solution. is towards increasing levels of sophistication which may include: • Increased automation • Shorter cycle times • Easier set-up • Less power wastage • Self-diagnostics • Improved product quality • More reliable operation • Zero external leakage • Control of acceleration I deceleration Proportional valve technology is ideally suited to contribute towards meeting all these objectives. The trend in both industrial and mobile machinery however.

2. can constitute a vapor and fire hazard. Suspended loads.Remember that even if pump is off. leaking fluid could be hot. fluid could squirt out under very high pressure. Leaks : : : : SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS can make the area slippery. relief valves. 3. Electrical voltage. Hot components: Pumps. ENSURE that there is no hydraulic pressure present inside . Charged accumulators. .BEWARE OF: 1. Any component where oil is leaking off at high pressure without doing mechanical work will be hot. Stored energy: Tension springs. While disconnecting any joint or fitting in the system. flow control valves could all be very hot to touch. pressure can still be present due to the accumulator.

There may or may not be manual over-rides. • Work DCVs through all positions so that all lines will have a chance to discharge. if necessary. In this case. System controls-electrical and pilot operated-may be involved in relieving system pressure. A full understanding of system operation is essential! Even after you think you have relieved all pressure. • Jack or wedge the load enough to relieve hydraulic pressure mechanically. Before restarting a machine. or untensioned position before shutting the system down.RELIEVING SYSTEM PRESSURE Pressure may be due to external loads or forces. • Carefully open adjustable valves that may be counterbalancing loads. Eliminate them. • Securely block anything that might move when pressure changes. (Note the setting first. • Lower or move all parts to the rest. • Loosen lines slowly and carefully. • Discharge accumulators. . • Warn people to stand clear. so the valves can be reset). • Have rags and run out bucket ready. Pressure may also be due to internal forces such as air compressed in the lines or charged accumulators. • Be ready for an emergency shut off.

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something that happens as a function of time.poor condition of hydraulic fluid WHILE SERVICING ANY COMPONENT: WARNING — Before breaking a circuit connection.SYSTEM INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CLEANING OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS How clean should the Hyd. Lower all vertical cylinders and discharge accumulators. . parts sticking. NOTE — Discard and replace all ‘0’ rings. Purification. It must quickly reflect changes in force’s direction and magnitude.C — ideal range is 50-55 deg.because troubles were improperly diagnosed or repairs were done wrong • 10% . causes. CAUTION — Absolute cleanliness is essential when working on a hydraulic system. Results of uncontrolled contamination: Frequent disposal and replacement of fluid Environmental problems from fluid disposal Equipment wear. Why do hydraulic systems fail? Results of a study • 10% . dirt and other contaminants foul the fluid. Fluid be? Hydraulic fluid serves as a medium for transmitting force from one place to another. Fluids lose their ability to do the job as water. prevent cavitations and guard against overheating • sufficient lubricating capability to protect system components • temperature between the fluid’s pour point and 60 deg. To meet these needs. downtime and replacements Only regular and continuous purification can avoid these problems. breakdowns.C • anti-wear protection.mechanical causes such as bearing or seal failures • 5% . and even new fluid contain some contaminants that may negate these abilities. from excessive packing friction on rams to chatter resulting from inadequate lubrication of ways 70% . must be through enough to maintain these characteristics. gaskets and back up rings removed during disassembly. a fluid must have: • enough viscosity to efficiently transmit force. pressure or volume • 5% . The presence of dirt and foreign materials in a system can result in serious damage or inadequate operation. if needed • oxidation stability • adequate pour point • good demulsibillty • rust inhibition • resistance to foaming • compatibility with seal materials Only a few fluids have these characteristics when new.units were operated beyond recommended limits of speed. make sure power is off and system pressure is released. then.misc.

leakage and contamination all follow each other and so it is imperative to keep the system clean. heat and leakage (both internal and external). Filter indicators to be monitored & filters cleaned / renewed as required.MAINTENANCE AND WATCHKEEPING The three chief dangers to hydraulic systems are contamination. During rounds. Heat. all parts to be cleaned in kerosene. 75% of hydraulic failures can be directly attributed to poor condition of hydraulic oil. the work table and components to be kept clean. any hot components. just enough to prevent leaks. cool and leak free. leakages and any unusual noise from the components. to be fitted without kinks or twists (reference line to be observed) and should not be very taut. special care to be taken of filters condition. tank oil level. preferably. During o’haul. . Fittings should not be over tightened. Hoses to be compatible with oil in use.

Oil rarely wears out.POINTS TO BE CHECKED • Level in reservoir — Daily • Suction strainer — Clean it regularly • Return line & pressure line filters — replace every 500 hrs • Intake lines. bolts and brackets must be tight (but not too tight) . About 70% of all failures are due to contamination. Premature failure of oil or system is more likely the result of careless handling or inadequate protection from contamination. THREE SIMPLE MAINTENANCE HINTS: • Maintain proper oil level in tank • Keep the oil clean • Fittings. Mounting bolts & Brackets — keep them tight • Direction of pump rotation • Oil viscosity — proper • Speed of the pump — within limits • Operating pressures — should not be set too high or too low • Oil leaks — stop them • Oil temperature — within limits Note: Keep a record of defects / oil change or other actions taken TROUBLE FREQUENCY Cavitations Cylinder packing worn out Pilot — operated relief valve malfunction due to dirt Aeration Incorrect pressure setting It is important that oil be kept clean at all times.

Lines should be dipped in oil at all times. sticking. overloaded or side loaded • Sequence or counterbalance valves set wrong. leaking internally or not shifting fully • Flow control or pressure reducing valves set wrong.COMMON SYSTEM FAULTS When hydraulic systems fail. well ventilated and airtight. it is usually because one or more of these conditions exist: • Choked inlet strainer • Pump slippage or leakage • Pressure compensated pump set wrong or sticking • Relief valve set wrong. opening before system pressure rises to setting or stuck open • DCV’s sticking. sticking or blocked • Electrical source has failed CARE AND MAINTENANCE: • Use a 10 micron filter while filling oil (use a pump for filling) • Air breather should be of proper size with a 10 micron filter • Reservoir should be well designed. • Use kerosene for cleaning the components . choked or bypassing • Pilot operated valves sticking. DURING REPAIRS: • Hands must be clean • Use clean tools • Work on a clean surface which is above ground level • There should be nothing left on the table from the previous job • Mark components during dismantling (scratch marks) • Cotton waste is NEVER to be used • Lubricate (with the same oil) components before refitting. leaking internally. pilot orifices or passages blocked • Actuator leaking internally.

the fluid itself may actually be contaminating the system if its additives have broken down.a system that runs hot becomes contaminated. . There are a lot of practical things you can do that will keep your hydraulic machines running right. air and much other substance circulating through the machine in the fluid . grit water.ROOT CAUSES A good troubleshooter understands hydraulic machines well enough to see behind the immediate cause of a breakdown is there a deeper problem with the system that allowed the fault to occur. Excessive system heat is a common cause of contamination . and make your job much easier and less hectic. The machine can be kept running only by eliminating that problem Contamination in some form is root cause of most machine malfunction. Leakage causes heat build-up. There may be dirt. Leakage is often responsible. These three root causes of hydraulic problems can be prevented or delayed by proper maintenance.

lubrication. Pressure builds up in both ends. Leaks can affect system operation Actuators may move too slowly because fluid flow is reduced.HYDRAULIC LEAKS External leaks can be dangerous but they are usually easy to find Internal leaks however can be difficult to locate. When a closed center directional control valve is in its center position all ports are closed. But since pressure in the cylinder is intensified the rod seals will probably fail. causing load to settle or creep out. Eventually this flow will move the piston rod out. Leakage across the lands allows a small amount of fluid to enter the cylinder. Actuators may move when they should not. Maximum available system pressure may be limited. forcing the rod into the cylinder ‘the only way the rod can come into the cylinder is if some fluid leaves the cylinder Some fluid will leak out through the directional control valve. If fluid can blow by the piston seals a heavy load may settle. However there is always some clearance between the spool and bore for . Although in some circuits other leak will also allow setting. Cylinder creep. Load setting Leakage can allow suspended loads to move when the actuator is supposed to be holding them in place Cylinder leakage is often responsible. even though the pressure on both the sides of the piston may be the same.

Is it higher than when the machine was new? There must be either a flow restriction or a higher load. yet the relief valve is unusually hot. Fluid flow carries away some of the heat. as the piston moves back and forth. Too little heat is being lost to the environment. but some of it remains at the leak. shift the DCV to hold . Check system-operating pressure. 3. • Relief valves. SYSTEM HEAT If any hydraulic machine or system is running too hot. Make sure that no fluid is dumping to tank through the relief valve when it is not supposed to. Heat from leaking piston seals (blow by) is usually spread out. under high pressure. Worn pumps and hydraulic motors with a lot of internal leakage. If you suspect blow by. If the system uses an unloading valve or some other means to unload the pump. Bad leaks. Too much heat is being generated internally. or slippage. will run much hotter than normal. make absolutely certain that the pump is unloading when it should. either one or both of these possibilities is the cause: A. Feel how components are. Testing Possibility A 1. which will cause metal parts to wear more quickly. Heat will often create leaks by deteriorating synthetic and rubber components. • Pumps and hydraulic motors. 2. • Cylinder. Check also for cylinder side loading and mechanical binding in the load. Increased clearance between worn moving parts allows more fluid to leak.LEAKAGE AND HEAT CONTRIBUTE TO EACH OTHER Fluid flowing under pressure through leaks will generate heat. Heat also reduces fluid lubricity. pump flow is probably leaking through the valve to the tank. B. produce hot spotsnoticeably hotter than the line bringing the fluid to the component. If a system is operating well below the pressure setting of the relief valve. Check for line or hose damage-kinks and pinches.

3. Perhaps the whole plant is hotter than it used to be. so will fluid temperature. If plant temperature goes up by 20 degrees. 4. Testing Possibility B 1. Ventilation around the reservoir may be restricted.pressure in the cylinder fully extended. If a hot spot develops near the piston in either position. or an exhaust or steam pipe-may be creating a local hot environment near some part of the system. When the reservoir is full. The reservoir may be caked with dirt. and then fully retracted. and unable to transfer enough heat to the air. Fluid level in the reservoir may be too low. the piston seals are probably leaking. 2. . Some external heat source-such as the sun. fluid has more time to cool.

Figure 20. (2) a reinforcement for the inner tube. Figure. 21. Hose Fitting Types The hose fittings may be either permanent or reusable. Nylon. while the fittings are saved. Inner tubes of Butyl or ethylene propylene are usually specified with fire resistant phosphate ester hydraulic fluid. 19. . The typical industrial hose consists of (1) an inner tube for conducting the fluid. Nitrile (Buna N) and Neoprene go into most tubes and cover stocks of hydraulic hose. Special equipment is required for the clamping or swaging. Only the hose is discarded. The reusable type hose fitting. see Figurer. The permanent type. The entire assembly is thrown away when the hose is replaced. They are also used in some hydraulic systems to reduce the effects of vibration and hydraulic shock. has found increasing acceptance and use because it does not age-harden.HOSE AND HOSE FITTINGS Hose Construction Whenever a connection between moving parts is necessary. however. has a definite advantage today with many items in short supply. and (3) a cover layer to protect the reinforcement. All three are bonded together. may be crimped or swaged onto the hose at the factory or in the field. a flexible hose is usually the answer.

a leak is taking place within the inner layers. It may be that the hose manufacturer’s instructions were not followed on proper crimp or swage of the hose fitting.Maximum hose life Hose leakage or failure usually occurs where the end fitting grips the hose. Tighten clamps’! Hose Installation The foil. While there may be no apparent fluid leakage out past the clamp. High oil temperatures (over 200 deg F) quickly harden or stiffen the nitrile inner tube. Check the system for pressure spikes or surge. Make sure operating pressures do not exceed 25% of hose rated minimum burst pressure. As a result the system gets spongy. drawings indicate wrong and right hose installation: . Sometimes on low pressure lines. Actuator response slows and the pump may get damaged. the hose are clamped to the fitting like those found on auto radiators. esp. Keep a log of hose use so replacement can be made before failure occurs. it fails by cracking. The hose should be replaced. there may be considerable air leakage into the system. on pump inlet lines. When pressure pulses flex a hardened hose. Use a hose rated 275 deg F if fluid temperatures are above normal. If bulges or bubbles occur on a flexible hose. Every increase in 25 deg F cuts hose life by half.

Too tight a bend pinches the hose and restricts the flow. use of the right fittings or adaptors can eliminate bends or kinks. The line could even kink and close entirely. brackets and clamps keep hoses in place and reduce abrasion. At bends. they should be insulated by a heat resistant boot or a metal baffle. This can loosen the fitting nut or even burst the hose at the point of strain. In many cases. A hose fitted too tightly may fail early. If a hose is installed with a twist in it. high operating pressures tend to force it straight. . When hose lines pass near a hot surface. provide enough hose for a wide radius curve. In any application.The hose is to be fitted with a little slack for movement while working.

In applications where there is considerable vibration or flexing. too !! . are not flexible. The metal hose fittings of course. allow additional hose length. and proper installation protects metal parts from undue stress and avoids kinks in the hose. It uses less hose. When 90 deg. adaptors were used. this assembly became neater looking and easier to inspect and maintain.

To maintain a more constant load on the shaft. face seals and packing. are used to retain fluids in or keep dirt out of the equipment with reciprocating or rotating shafts. 22. directional valve push pins and actuator rods. If it gets too thin. Periodic replacement of the seal is required. the interference fit or lip pressure falls off. temperature. High pressure. Three types of dynamic seals are lip seals. pintles on variable delivery pumps and motors. is used only for low speeds and low pressures. In brief. Where the action is Typical locations for dynamic seals are pump and hydraulic motor drive shafts. Seal Dynamics Seal is normally a result of a interference fit between the flexible sealing lip and a shaft. It should be noted. The simplest type. a garter or finger spring is used fig. 23. If the film gets too thick. The lip must ride on a thin film of lubricant to be successful. they will eventually wear out or fail. Since these seals contact moving surfaces. With proper installation and maintenance. fig. the seal lip DOES NOT act like a squeegee to wipe the shaft dry. the single lip-seal. speed and surface roughness work to reduce seal life. Radial Lip Seals Radial lip seals. however. the seal lip . dynamic seals prevent leaks where the action is taking place. commonly called oil-seals or shaft seals. This permits operation at higher speeds and moderate pressures. However. as seals age and temperatures change. dynamic seals may last several hundred to several thousand hours. the seal leaks.Dynamic Seals Seal life Dynamic seals prevent or control leakage between surfaces that move past each other.

2. If too rough. Lip seal installation 1. the more difficulty the lip has in following the shaft movement. Surface finish Tests have shown maximum seal life is obtained when the shaft sealing surface is 8 to 20 micro inches. it won’t support a film. But you must start with a good product. premature seal failure may occur. Finish marks should be circumferential rather than axial to retain the fluid.25 mm smaller in OD than the bore diameter and should have a flat face to contact the back of the metal case on the seal. A press should be used for installing the installing the oil seal into the bore. be sure that ram pressure is applied only to the rollover bead around the outer diameter of the seal face and not to the inside face or to the filler ring inside the metal outer case. The harder the seal. it wears the seal lip. has not been damaged. The press ram or driving tool should not be more than 0. If the shaft is too smooth. nor lost its spring. Examine the seal to be sure it is the correct part. Lip seals must be installed correctly to operate successfully. If installing the seal in the reverse position. In either case.wears and gets hard. .

We recommend lubricating the shaft and oil seal lip before mounting the seal over the shaft 4. 25. Polish shaft to remove burrs. fig.) to avoid seal lip distortion during assembly.3. . Check shaft to bore misalignment and dynamic run out. 25. 28. to protect the seal. fig. 27. sharp or rough edges that touch seal lip during assembly. or in an emergency. Never hit the seal directly I! 5. a block of wood resting squarely on the seal may be used instead of a driving tool. does not rotate around its true center. Use mounting thimble as in fig.012 inch max. Mis-alignment is the distance that the shaft is off center with respect to the bore. the seal may be seated with a driving plug or tool. When large seals are being seated. fig. If a press cannot be used. Run out is the amount by which the shaft. The thimble wall should be as thin as possible (0. at the sealing surface. This tool is placed into position and tapped with a mallet.

. To reduce misalignment. it is necessary to remove the cause: shaft bearings.Misalignment plus runout is called eccentricity. To lower run out. replace the shaft. housing or shaft side load. Some other suggestions in reducing lip seal leakages. 29. The recommended maximum eccentricity which exist in the standard lip seal application is shown in fig. For a given eccentricity. the probability of shaft seal leakage increases as shaft speed increases.

The two are separated by an oil film. oil surface tension can complete the seal and there is no leakage. Elevated pressure can induce seal wear. 30. The seal seat is attached to rotate with the shaft. Repair of Worn Parts .Face Seals The mechanical face seal is one of the most effective devices in preventing leakage along a rotating shaft which passes in or out of an area of pressurized to the shaft. fig. but with proper balancing. while the spring loaded seal head is stationary. The usual seal face materials in hydraulic applications are hard carbon for the seal head. Within an excellent matching of sealing forces and seal flatness. pressure induced sealing forces can be kept low. and steel or cast iron for the seal seat.

Abrasive wear of the sealing faces means contaminated oil. Lubricate the sealing surfaces well with the fluid to be sealed before installation. Burned faces indicate dry running of the seal. Heavy wear may mean either excessive operating pressure or a hung-up spring. Worn bearings should be replaced if end play exceeds 50 mic or radial looseness is greater than 100 mic. Make sure the seal seat is perpendicular to the shaft within 25 micron TIR. Handle With Care With the new. A cracked carbon ring leaks badly. TIR is the change in indicator reading during one complete rotation of the shaft. don’t touch the sealing surfaces with fingers or an old wiping rag.4 bar) before installing the component on a machine. Replace the shaft with a new one if run out exceeds 50 mic TIR. . correct replacement parts. test the mechanical seal assembly with low pressure filtered air (0. Test Assembly To insure against goofs. an externally drained piston pump housing is easily pressurized through the drain port connection. Figure. The condition of the seal surface is so critical that one company provides 40 hours of training to its personnel on face seal operation. Troubleshoot Examine the old parts for telltale signs. Polish the new shaft to remove burrs or scratches that might damage static seals. 3. repair and installation. For example.35 to 1.Only a properly trained person should attempt to repair the sealing surface of face seals.

or braided cotton. . packing can seal without fluid leakage. Three basic types are compression. mica or PTFE. there must be enough leakage to lubricate and cool the packing. Metal foil or wire is sometimes added for reinforcement along with solid lubricants such as graphite. Characteristics The packing is sufficiently pliable when axially compressed to provide radial sealing for a moving shaft or rod. On some large applications using compressed packing. Where there is relatively little motion. With rapid motion. woven. the desired leakage rate may be as high as 10 drops per minute. It will not scratch or corrode the moving shaft or rod. flax or asbestos fiber. deformed so as to throttle leakages between a moving or rotating part and a stationary one. lip and squeeze packing. Compression Packing Compression packing used in chemical processing is rarely found in industrial hydraulic service. On some small 0-ring applications with rapid motion the leakage rate may be as low as one drop per every other hour.Packing A packing is a material. The packing is made of twisted. It requires frequent adjustment to compensate for packing wear.

Lip type packing has lower leakages. less friction. With packing lips facing fluid pressure. Five or more rings are needed in the stack for high pressure. The V-ring needs a stack of three rings along with male and female adapters to contain low pressure fluid. A ring support or pedestal with cross drilled holes assures equal pressure loading in both seal lips. and longer life than compressed packing. Characteristics Distortion of the packing lips from an interference fit on assembly creates a counter sealing force adequate for low pressure. nitrile. Two common shapes are U-ring and V-ring.Molded Lip Type Packing Lip type packing is molded from rubberized fabric. polyurethane or PTFE. The U-ring is an effective seal when used singly. any rise in pressure flattens the lips against wall surface and raises the sealing force. .

.Molded Squeeze Packing Squeeze packing is molded from synthetic rubber. Antiextrusion rings are shown with the Tring in. On assembly the 0-ring should be squeezed about 10 percent. High pressure puts an additional squeeze on the packing. figure 32. Squeeze packing have less friction than either compression or lip type packing and also seal in both directions. TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS 1. LOW OR ERRATIC PRESSURE a) Contaminants in fluid. polyurethane or PTFE. raising the internal sealing force to counter the pressure force. b) Worn or sticking relief valve. Characteristics Distortion of the squeeze packing from an interference fit on assembly generates an internal sealing force within the packing to contain low pressure. T-ring and X-ring. This action tends to extrude the packing through any clearance gap. the T-ring about 5 percent and the X-ring as low as 1 percent. c) Dirt or chip holding valve partially open. Common shapes are the 0-ring.

d) Aeration of fluid in reservoir (return lines above fluid level). e) Full pump volume bypassing through faulty valve or actuator. c) Worn or damaged shaft seal. b) Pump drive reversed or not running. f) Breather choked. c) Pump shaft broken. c) Fluid viscosity too high. d) Operating temperature too low. Others . d) Operating pressure too low. Electrical failure. ii. etc. g) Low oil level. 3. Interlock device not actuated. e) Worn or damaged cylinder or hydraulic motor. NOISY PUMP Cavitations (pump starving) a) Clean inlet strainer b) Check inlet piping for obstruction. Pump picking up air (Aeration) a) Low oil level. b) Directional control not shifting: i. 4.d) Pressure control setting too low. solenoid. Insufficient pilot pressure. ACTUATOR FAILS TO MOVE a) Faulty pump operation (see noisy pump). c) Mechanical bind. limit switches. e) Excessive drive speed. b) Loose or damaged intake pipe. iii. 2. d) Relief valve stuck open. NO PRESSURE a) Low oil level.

Fluid viscosity too low. b) Low fluid level. I. There are three ways in which the fault can be analyzed: . e) Worn or faulty bearings. e) Pump drive too slow. ERRATIC FEED RATES. c) Viscosity of fluid too high. d) Internal leakage through actuators or valving. b) Air in fluid c) Faulty or dirty flow control 7. Fluid viscosity too high. SLOW OR ERATIC OPERATION a) Air in fluid. c) Excessive slippage or internet leakage I. a) Sticking. b) Keep the oil clean c) Keep the joints & fittings tight to avoid leakages Troubleshooting.a) Worn or sticking vanes. 5. warped or binding ways. Stalling under load etc II. Check stall leakage post motors and cylinders. 6. b) Continuous operation at relief setting. THREE SIMPLE METHODS OF HYDRAULIC-MAINTENANCE a) Maintain correct oil-level in the tank. In troubleshooting the major problem is making a quick diagnosis of the fault. a) Water shut off or heat exchange clogged. c) Worn or damaged gears and housings. d) Shaft misalignment. b) Worn ring. II. OVERHEATING OF SYSTEM.

is therefore present when a failure occurs. After using algorithms. By working from the start of the machine cycle up to the point of failure. 3. that is . as the subconscious will remember by continual exposure to the charts. in logical form.1. hopefully reducing lost production time. The algorithm is chart that helps the troubleshooter to develop a logical approach to fault finding by arranging in logical sequence. Where the chart provides the logical thinking. they do depend upon the use of measuring devices to improve the effect. it is possible to use the algorithm to its fullest effect and reduce break down time. the route take to the failure is determined. By starting at the fault and working from this point through the cycle. Vacuum Gauge. the user will eventually learn to trouble-shoot without a chart. all of the possible cause of failure in a unit. in an attempt to speed up diagnosis. . 1. With all the aids. 2. Rational thinking. give 80% of breakdown time to finding the fault and 20% rectifying the failure. Flow monitor. there are only two possible answers: “Yes” or “No”. By answering a series of questions. Pressure Gauges (more than one) 2. With the logic charts. Vickers. 3. The chart is written in a binary form. this situation will be reversed. The essential measuring devices are. Figures stated. have a series of chart called algorithms available for the range of products. or/tree. By working from the end of the machine cycle and back to fault. when questions are asked.

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5. Human error is responsible for a lot of down time. 6. • Unauthorized adjustments are made. However the spools in pressure compensated valves do occasionally stick because of varnish deposits. Sometimes bearings go first. Simply check valves almost never stick closed.LIKELYAND UNLIKELY 1. low flow pilot passages and orifices inside of pilot operated valves are easily blocked by contamination in the system. 2. which loosens fittings. Small. Chattering components wear out fast. and subject other components to damaging pressures: • Relief valves may chatter if they are internally worn. . Unlike other hydraulic components. • When actuators chatter or oscillate. Flow control valves. overloaded. low pressure. Pilot operated check values can fail to open if: • Pilot passengers are blocked • The pilot position is stuck. • Relief valves and other pressures valves in a circuit may chatter if their settings are too close to each other. maintenance on equipment is inadequate. and seldom stick open. 4. or if the drain is restricted. causing shaft misalignment. • Too often. these are normally expected to wear out after so many hours of operation. suspect flow and check valves in the line. especially non-compensated needle valves. • Drain blocked. rarel become blocked by contaminants. There is often a lot of vibration near the pump. Suction side problems are common. Probably the most common faults in hydraulics machines are not mechanical.FAULTS. • Operators sometimes mistreat their machines. undersized. 3. Sometimes pressure rings Misaligned shafts and hot or contaminated fluid speed up wear. Pump and motor mounts may also loosen. Pump and hydraulic motor failure is common. • Pilot pressure is inadequate. 7.

and with the DCV in center position. • Other downstream blockage (unlikely) C) If pressure drops and stays down. B) If pressure drops. Check for: • Leaks. • Defective solenoids or electric controls. Watch it while you shift a directional control valve. Example: This circuit includes a three.position. Check for: • Excessive load. Check for: • Sticking pilot spool. pressure would be low no matter how the DCV was shifted. the pressure gauge reads near the relief valve setting. external or internal. it probably means that pressure and flow are going through the DCV to the actuator. side loading. and quickly builds back up to where it was. • Plugged pilot orifices. it probably means the valve spool is not shifting. . closed-center DCV PROBLEM: Suppose that the actuator will not move. binding actuator or load.When listing probable causes. The pressure drop occurred as flow briefly went through the DCV to build pressure in the lines and actuator. it probably means that fluid is bypassing to tank down streams of DCV. If fluid was bypassing to tank anywhere on the pump side of the DCV. • A defective flow or pressure control valve anywhere downstream of the DCV. always consider human error READING PRESSURE GAUGES The system pressure gauge can tell you a lot. Try to shift the valve: A) It there is no change in the gauge reading.

Maximum Recommended fluid velocity in hydraulic lines.Over 210 BAR .7.4. Lines .5 mts. 7. Heat exchanges are normally sized to dissipate 30% of the connected load of the system. 11./sec .0 mts. or any other valve which can bypass fluid to tank.Suction line . . THUMB RULES TO GUIDE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM DESIGN.• A defective bypass flow control valve. . 3. 25 micron filtration is adequate for most industrial and mobile systems. 2. Industry standards specify a maximum noise level of 80dba for equipments. 6. Oil through 1 deg C per hour. 8. The suction strainer is sized to handle 3 to 4 times the pump flow. unloading valve.Pr./sec . The tank capacity of a hydraulic system is generally 3 to 4 times the pump 5.6.8 Its. Each watt of heat will raise the temperature of 6. Pressure line filters are sized to handle 2 to 3 times the pump flow. %% for every 70 Bar of pressure. Maximum recommended oil temperature in hydraulic systems.Charge pumps in closed loop systems are generally at 15% of the main pump flow.1./sec . 10.2 mts. flow rate in industrial circuits.65deg C .Mobile .Industrial . 9. The compressibility of hydraulic oil is approx.9odeg C 1.35-210 BAR .0-35 BAR .5 mts. ./sec 4.

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#1 pilot de-energized and #2 pilot energized so #4 piloted . -No further leak. S leak P1—Alarm P2— Stbd. S system isolated and functional (No further leak) and P system held in bypass condition and leaking — so. P leak S1 —Alarm S2 — Port pp started. S system isolated but leaking and P system held in bypass condition. pp started. #1 (design preference) pilot energized & #3 piloted — Thus. #1 pilot energized & #3 piloted — Thus... Case 3: P running. P1. S3 — S pp stopped. and P3 at which P pp stops. Case 4: P running. P3— P pp stopped -No further leak. pp started. S leak S1 —Alarm S2 — Port pp started. P leak P1—Alarm P2— Stbd. #1 pilot energized & #3 vv piloted — Thus. S system isolated but leaking and P system held in bypass condition. — No further leak. #1 pilot energized & #3 vv piloted — Thus. SI—Alarm S2 — No action since P pp already running and #1 pilot already energized S3 — S pp stopped. S system isolated and functional and P system held in bypass condition and leaking — so.. P2.SAFEMATIC SYSTEM OPERATION Case 1: S running. Case 2: S running. #1 pilot de-energized and #2 pilot energized so #4 piloted — Thus P system isolated and functional and S system held in bypass condition.

— Thus P system isolated and functional. No further leak. .