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THE NOUN

 PROBLEMATIC

AREAS:

 

NUMBER: -Countable vs. Uncountable nouns -plural forms -nouns having only sg./pl. forms CASE: expression of possession GENDER: natural vs. grammatical gender PC in the use of gender

COUNTABLE vs. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS COUNTABLE NOUNS nouns referring to people or things that can be counted as separate, individual items. a manager, a job, an idea, a few ideas, two computers UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS things that cannot be divided or counted. accommodation*, advertising, advice, cash, documentation, employment, equipment, evidence, feedback, furniture, guidance, hardware, health, help, information, literature, luggage, machinery, marketing, money, paperwork, permission, progress, publicity, research, software, traffic, training, transport, travel, weather, work (Source: Cambridge Business Corpus)

 Can be used without a determiner   Singular countable nouns need a determiner (e.000 for this report. My boss has a PhD. my. .  Always take a singular verb  Can take a singular or a plural verb  This software is out of date and needs updating.  Cannot be used with indefinite articles a/an  Can be used with indefinite articles a/an  We made (some) progress in our research. a/an.UNCOUNTABLE  COUNTABLE  Do not have plural forms  Can be singular or plural  Can you arrange (some) accommodation for ten visitors?  This new job is a great opportunity for me. My colleagues are all graduates. We had a meeting and we solved this problem.g.  We paid £6. this. one)  Research is expensive. I have lots of opportunities to travel.

PARTICULAR EXAMPLES / CONCRETE THINGS 4. A PARTICULAR SITUATION .) COUNTABLE when they refer to     1. Nouns   that are (a.) UNCOUNTABLE when they refer to SUBSTANCE / IDEA (b. TYPES/BRANDS 3. CONTAINERS (for things) 2.

) UNCOUNTABLE .) COUNTABLE (a. (=cups of~) (colloquial English) 2. Our shop offers you dozens of cheeses to choose from.  She has blonde hair. Three teas and two coffees.  There’s cheese in the fridge.I prefer tea to coffee. (b.  The statue was made of stone. please. (=kinds of~) 3. There’s a hair in my soup! 4.      1. He had a stone in hand.

  BUSINESS (= company)  Small businesses are our future. so I couldn’t take notes.   PAPER (= newspaper. 2.  I have limited experience in sales. UNCOUNTABLE COUNTABLE . Our office is full. There’s no room to expand.  ROOM (= a hall)  ROOM (=space)  We’re short of meeting rooms.  BUSINESS (=activity)  EXPERIENCE (= an event)  We do business all over the world. Going to Asia was a great experience. (plural only) documents)   EXPERIENCE (= practical knowledge)  Do you get the local paper?  PAPER (=material) I have to file the papers of this  I didn’t have any paper deal.

painting/s. (plural only) activities involved in building/repairing roads and bridges)   The hotel is not responsible for any loss or damage to guests’ property. WORK (= job. COMPETITION (=rivalry for supremacy)   PROPERTY (= a building. This year they are investing in road works all over the country. 2. music produced by an artist.  PROPERTY (=things that somebody owns)   WORK (= books. The physical properties of this product are outstanding. plural only) features that a substance has)   Is there much competition in the field of IT?  They sold a property to avoid going bankrupt. . COMPETITION (=contest)  COUNTABLE UNCOUNTABLE  We run competitions as part of promotion. activity)  Our company intends to buy some of this artist’s works. He is a first-year student but he is looking for parttime work. a piece of land.

FEEDBACK. PAPER. MACHINERY. LUCK. WRITING! . MONEY. Expressions       used with UNCOUNTABLE nouns. EVIDENCE. LUGGAGE. PROGRESS. SOFTWARE) SOME / A BIT OF ADVERTISING (CASH. TRAFFIC. FURNITURE. NEWS. FUN. MEASURES AND CONTAINERS: A LITER OF OIL 15 TONNES OF CEMENT A BOTTLE OF WATER TWO TINS OF PAINT A PIECE OF / AN ITEM OF / A BIT OF ADVICE (EQUIPMENT. TRAVEL) DO NOT USE IT IN FORMAL   A BIT OF IS COLLOQUIAL.

foxes. veto/-es piano/-s. video – videos  CONSONANT + -Y VOWEL + -Y -CH*. -X. General rule: noun (singular) + -s  road/-s. -Z CONSONANT + -O +es +s VOWEL + -O +s . echo/-es. area/-s. casino/-s. mosquito/-es. negro/-es. -S. storey storeys watch – watches. fox . photo/-s. -SH. quiz quizzes potato – potatoes. kilo/-s. party – parties tray .trays. machine/-s Variations: Noun ending in PLURAL FORM + ies +s + es EXAMPLES family – families. volcano/-es. hero – heroes. adagio/-s radio – radios. boss – bosses.

referendum/-s – referenda GREEK: crisis-crises.oxen man – men.people sheep – sheep. half halves. ox . datum – data. elf . cliff – cliffs child – children. foot – feet. ellipsis/-es. alumnusalumni. shelf . woman – women.chiefs.ending in –F / -FE ending in –F / -FF usually + -VES +s leaf – leaves. belief .shelves. means . basis-bases.elves chief . symposium – symposia. phenomenon-phenomena. thief – thieves. loaf – loaves. *mouse – mice. series – series. analysisanalyses. alumnaalumnae. tooth – teeth.means LATIN: stimulus – stimuli. goose – geese. medium – media. criterioncriteria Other irregulars + (R)EN change of vowel no change in plural Foreign nouns varies according to the origin of word . craft – craft. ***person .beliefs. corpus-corpora.

MP – MPs. In  formal written English MD – MDs. 1970s Abbreviation / decade + -s   Plurals formed with apostrophe (‘) are common but may be considered correct in INFORMAL writing! . VIP – VIPs.

headquarters. billiards SUBJECTS/ACTIVITIES: Physics. thanks. Politics. These occur in a number of categories: CLOTHING: clothes. Economics. darts. news. pyjamas. aerobics. remains. stairs. overalls TOOLS/EQUIPMENT: scissors. surroundings. savings. trousers. cards. scales. customs . congratulations. Maths. glasses. athletics OTHER: goods. earnings. valuables. They      appear frequently in the plural form. binoculars GAMES: dominoes. outskirts. jeans.

only) returns (pl. vs. only) terms (pl. only) vs. minutes (pl. premises (pl. customs (pl. only) vs. only) vs. vs. colour/-s  compass/-es  custom/-es vs. vs. only)  damage/-es  minute/-es only)  premise/-es  return/-es  term/-es colours (plural only) compasses (pl. vs. . damages (pl.

family. audience. committee. team *police. people When they refer to the whole group (as a unit) + verb in the SINGULAR When they refer to the members of the group (as individuals) + verb in the PLURAL * always + verb in the PLURAL  AGREEMENT    . staff. crew. denote   a group army. majority. board. party. jury.

a ten-minute drive) .  can be written as    a single word: dressmaker. rocking chair  two words joined by a hyphen: waste-bin. real estate) multi-word verbs (breakdown. tea cup. turnover two separate words: business magazine. *downfall) time expressions (a three-hour delay. stand-up. Thanksgiving. swimsuit) adjective + noun (highway.created by combining two or more words. passer-by        Compounds can be formed from nouns (business person) noun + verb (windsurfing) verb + noun (cookbook.

take-off – take-offs.toothbrushes  The compound nouns ending in –FUL and –LOAD + -s (at the end)   handful – handfuls workload – workloads  If the compound does not contain a noun the last word gets the plural form  grown-up – grown-ups.driveins . drive-in . PLURAL     FORMS The noun or the main noun gets the plural form washing machine – washing machines printer cartridge – printer cartridges toothbrush .

 ***   the elements of the subject function as a single unit + verb in the SINGULAR His lawyer and business partner prepares the tax forms. ***Ice cream and cake is his favourite dessert.  COMPOUND SUBJECT (X and Y) + verb in the PLURAL Writing and reading are necessary for success in college. . 1.

Five dollars is a modest fee. A PLURAL SUBJECT DESCRIBING A SINGLE ENTITY (time. Five kilos of beans is about eleven pounds. 2. money) + verb in the SINGULAR    Twenty-four hours is a long time in politics. measurement. .

Either the idea or the details are wrong. NEITHER + noun … NOR + noun EITHER + noun … OR + noun NOR OR the number of the noun which is closer to the verb imposes the number of the verb (PROXIMITY RULE)    Neither the students nor the teacher is correct. 3. Snowstorms or rain causes accidents. .

Titles of books.)  SUBJECTS:    + verb in the SINGULAR (if we refer to the science)  Statistics seems to be very difficult for students.  5. 4. articles + verb in the SINGULAR  Monetary Theories is a useful book. . Nouns with no plural forms CLOTHES: + verb in the PLURAL (Scissors are used to cut the jeans. + verb in the PLURAL (if we refer to any other aspect but the science)  Statistics show a significant increase in consumer confidence over the last months. movies.

The United Nations are in disagreement on this issue. 6. . COLLECTIVE NOUNS The United Nations has agreed to deploy a peacekeeping force. The United Nations is in disagreement on this issue.

 It is common use to use a plural verb after nouns such as THE MAJORITY. if we refer to the individuals forming the group. In British English.  In the same context in American English a singular verb is preferred. the agreement with the verb is made in the plural. . A NUMBER. A COUPLE when these are followed by OF + a plural noun:  The majority of the people were pleased to see the government fall.

THE NOUN Gender Case .

Some grammarians assert that English does not have grammatical gender. . neuter The biological and social notion of being male or female. GRAMMATICAL vs. NATURAL GENDER  GRAMMATICAL GENDER   The gender that a word has from a linguistic point of view masculine. feminine. masculine. feminine  NATURAL GENDER     In Modern English grammatical gender is not important.

 Nouns that are automatically replaced by masculine or feminine pronouns or by IT.  1.          CONTRASTING NOUNS DESCRIBING PEOPLE boy / girl brother / sister father / mother gentleman / lady king / queen monk / nun Mr / Mrs – Miss – Ms nephew / niece sir / madam uncle / aunt man / woman Replaceable by HE / SHE .

poultry) gander / goose ram / ewe (sheep) stallion / mare (horse) .ox / cow (cattle) rooster – cock / hen (chicken. 2.  CONTRASTING NOUNS DESCRIBING ANIMALS Replaceable by IT      bull .

looks) god / goddess heir / heiress host / hostess prince / princess *steward / stewardess (PC term: flight attendant) waiter / waitress  Some words have gone out of use or considered pejorative (authoress. poetess. manageress). 3. .  –ESS ENDINGS AND OTHER FORMS INDICATING GENDER MASCULINE FORM + -ESS = FEMININE FORM        *actor / actress (talent vs.

-ESS endings are used for female animals leopard / leopardess lion / lioness tiger / tigress  HE  / SHE.(stressed) is used as prefix he-goat / she-goat wolf / she-wolf . In    a few cases.

 OTHER        ENDINGS (bride)groom / bride hero / heroine lad / lass landlord / landlady male / female usher / usherette widower / widow .

sales rep) postman / postwoman chairman / chairwoman (PC term: chair. ‘WOMAN’ policeman / policewoman (PC term: police officer) salesman / saleswoman (PC term: sales representative. 4.      IDENTIFYING MASCULINE AND FEMININE BY ‘MAN’. chairperson) spokesman / spokeswoman (PC term: spokesperson) .

is assumed that words like model. ‘male’ / ‘female’ are used in front of the noun.  It     model / male model nurse / male nurse judge / female judge wrestler / female wrestler . nurse traditionally refer to a woman and words such as judge and wrestler refer to a man.  If we want to refer to a person of the opposite sex.

cousin. artist. owner. strange. student. My accountant says he is moving his office. spouse. enemy. COMMON / DUAL NOUNS adult. neighbour. His doctor says she is pleased with his progress. journalist. cook. lawyer. etc. foreigner. speaker. parent. passenger. . For   most English nouns only the use of a replacing pronoun clarifies the gender. guest. person. relative. orphan.

 PC!!!! Nowadays the usage above is considered sexist. he must send his medical certificate to the College office.  If a student is ill. he or she must send a medical certificate to the College office. ‘HE OR SHE’ is preferred. If anyone wants my ticket. . therefore to be avoided. they must send a medical certificate to the College office.  Gradually. HE or SHE / THEY  Traditionally. English used HE when the gender of the person was not known  If a student is ill. ‘THEY’ is becoming popular in such contexts (although some grammarians still consider it as an INFORMAL construction)   If a student is ill. they can have it.

 CARS. SHIPS Sometimes people refer to animals (usually pets) as HE/SHE. ANIMALS. intelligence or feelings  Go and find the cat and put him out.’ The ship has struck a rock. especially when they are thought of as having personality.  Some people use SHE for motorbikes and cars. She’s sinking! . sailors use SHE for boats and ships (an affective use)   ‘How’s the new car?’ ‘She’s running beautifully.

To specify gender.  That’s the view of Sheila Davidson. one has to use the term man/woman (a woman doctor) Other nouns for jobs and roles do refer to males or females. there are different terms referring to males and females (woman / man. Some nouns have a ‘natural’ gender. chairman of the Institute of Public Relations. often by their suffix (businessman.  A lot of people avoid such situations now. manageress) Some time ago it used to be common to use the –man suffix to refer to people of both sexes. mother / father) Most nouns for jobs do not imply a gender.     Nouns do not have a grammatical gender in English. chair(woman) of the Institute of Public Relations .  That’s the view of Sheila Davidson. especially if referring to a woman. and prefer a form with no implicit gender (chair) or to match the suffix to the person (chairwoman).

. accusative. genitive and dative. refers to the relation in which one noun / pronoun stands to some other word in the sentence  Some grammarians identify two cases in English: possessive/ genitive and common  Others support the idea of four cases: nominative.

(who?) She is my superior. can function as a direct object. he disagreed with his colleagues. Ada. a prepositional object. etc. has circulated the agenda for the next meeting. The  NOMINATIVE has the syntactic function of subject. subjective complement or apposition    Salespeople have a flexible work schedule. his secretary. (whom?)  At the meeting.  He saw his friend in the street.  The ACCUSATIVE  .

REPLY. LISTEN. COMMUNICATE. BELONG. SUGGEST.SPEAK  Explain to Mary what it means. INTRODUCE. THE    DATIVE has the function of indirect object is marked by the prepositions TO and FOR or by word-order THE PREPOSITIONAL DATIVE (to whom? For whom? Of whom?)   When the Accusative form precedes the Dative form  Give the money to John. EXPLAIN. After verbs such as ANNOUNCE. . DESCRIBE.

 THE    GENITIVE / POSSESSIVE ‘s Genitive ‘of’ Genitive POSSESSOR and POSSESSED OBJECT . THE   DATIVE THE DATIVE WITHOUT PREPOSITION used when the Dative precedes the Accusative  Show our guests the production line.

 (APOSTROPHE) ‘S GENITIVE  FORM      Singular noun + ‘s  The manager’s decision Singular noun ending in –s + ‘s  The actress’s speech Irregular plural noun (plural forms not ending in -s) + ‘s  Children’s games (most) names ending in –s + ‘s (‘ is also accepted.B. esp. in literature) (N. no matter how it is written. the genitive is pronounced as /iz/)  Charles’s address (Charles’ address)  * Greek names ending in –s + ‘ (Archimedes’ principle) Plural noun/ name + ‘  Managers’ meeting  the Joneses’ house .

 USE  When the possessor refers to people (animals.)  To refer to the origin of something (where it comes from. places. times    Have you seen John’s new car? Have you met the boss’s new assistant? Have you seen the article in today’s Observer?  Sometimes ‘s can be added to a noun phrase which does not end with a noun  He is manager-on-the-left’s assistant. who made it)   Oil is Saudi Arabia’s biggest export. groups. pets). The theory of human needs is Maslow’s most famous work. . (He is the assistant of the manager on the left.

distance. To   refer to a quantity or measure (duration. Could you give me a pound’s worth of candies?  In   certain fixed expressions: at death’s door for God’s/goodness’/Pete’s/Christ’s/heaven’s sake . value + ‘worth’) There will be an hour’s delay.

the doctor’s. (Linda’s home)  The possessed object can be omitted in REPLIES when it is clear from the context:  ‘Whose briefcase is this?’ ‘Richard’s.’ . the chemist’s. SOME SHOPS. MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS (the grocer’s. the hairdresser’s. SERVICES. Christie’s)  We are going to the Linda’s for the weekend. the florist’s. The possessed object can be omitted when reference is made TO SOMEONE’S HOME. Macy’s.

. DOUBLE  pronoun) POSSESSIVE (OF and ‘s/possessive Is used when a noun is seen both as specific and as one of several (use indefinite article with the noun!)   I have heard the story from a friend of my brother’s. He is a colleague of ours.

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE THE ZERO ARTICLE .

 There are two classes of determiners:  Words   Words which help us to CLASSIFY or IDENTIFY.in front of common nouns (or adjective + common noun) that affect (determine) the meaning of the noun. Words which enable us to indicate QUANTITY.  Proper nouns do not generally require identification but there are situations in which they are used with determiners. .

DEFINITE ARTICLE The briefcase that I’m holding is new. Words which help us to CLASSIFY or IDENTIFY:         INDEFINITE ARTICLE I bought a new briefcase yesterday. DEMONSTRATIVES I bought this/that briefcase yesterday. POSSESSIVES Do you like my new briefcase? .

 Words which enable us to indicate QUANTITY     NUMBERS I bought two new briefcases yesterday. QUANTIFIERS I didn’t buy many briefcases in the past years. .

the information. an invoice  THE     is used in front of: A SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUN: the letter the letters the water. A/AN   is used only in front of A SINGULAR COUNTABLE NOUN: a letter. the equipment A PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUN:  AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN:  .

information. ZERO   ARTICLE: we often use no article in front of A PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUN:  letters. invoices water. equipment AN UNCOUNTABLE NOUN:  .

.B. A or AN? and /ə/. /j/ (pronounced like y in 'you‘) is a semi-consonant. /ən/ or /ei/?    A is used before consonant sounds (not just consonant letters!!!).A. (Bachelor of Arts) I. Provide the correct indefinite article:             fire N (the letter) house umbrella year eye uniform honour union hotel B. N. AN is used before vowel sounds.Q.

 When something is mentioned for the first time: Peter and Jane shared an office on the ground floor.  2. Religions  Names of days  .   To refer to an example of a certain class: John is a Catholic. The meeting was scheduled on a Wednesday. 1.

ZERO ARTICLE is used:  He has been appointed head of the department / the head of the department. THE or ZERO ARTICLE is used. That is a very good (type of/kind of) coffee. . or example of something (+ adjective)    *** if you refer to something as UNIQUE. Names of jobs    *** When we give someone’s TITLE or UNIQUE POSITION. THE or ZERO ARTICLE is used:  Mary is training to be a certified accountant. He was promoted on the post/position/ role of Marketing Manager.  A kind of.  *** after THE POST/POSITION/ROLE OF + job title. She was a company director when she retired. English has become an international language.  English has become the international language of business.

Do you want to talk to him? . after WHAT and SUCH:  What a shame!  He’s such an efficient professional! The trains to Brussels depart three times an hour. Kenneth Perch on the phone. an early Rembrandt   + the name of a famous artist. + Proper nouns:   The burglar took a diamond necklace and two valuable paintings. With some units of time or measurement. the expression meaning ‘a certain…’  There is a (certain) Dr. to mean someone or something that has the same qualities as that person or thing: John is a good architect.  half an hour  a quarter of an hour  50 pence a litre    4. to refer to an unknown person. + a famous name. but he will never be a Gustave Eiffel. Quantity: ‘only one’ 6. 3. to refer to one of his/her creations:  + the name of a person. to mean EACH:   5.

the inventor? . /ðə/ is used before consonant sounds  /ði/ is used before vowel sounds  /ði:/ is used when we want to draw attention to the noun that follows (‘the one and only’. ‘the main one’)  Do you mean the Benjamin Franklin.

) The office was small and comfortable. to refer to something that is known to both speaker and listener(s).  2. to refer to something that has already been mentioned and is known to both the speaker and the listener(s):  (Peter and Jane shared an office on the ground floor.’ . with two facing desks. 1. although it has not been mentioned before:  ‘Where is the meeting room?’ (we assume it is only one meeting room in that building) ‘It’s on the first floor.

the weather. the inside. the front. the outside. Institutions: The World Bank. the sky. ‘Which car did you buy?’ ‘The red one. the centre. The IMF. the sun. The European Central Bank. the Police. the Army Publications: The New York Review of Books. the floor The back. the United Nations Public bodies: the Government. etc. the head.’ My desk is the one with a silver notebook on it. the sugar. the top. the pepper (Pass me the salt. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object:    The man who wrote this petition is famous. The Economist. the door. the moon. 3. to refer to objects that we regard as UNIQUE:       The Earth. the bottom . The Times The salt. the lungs The room: the ceiling.  4. please!) Parts of the whole:    The human being: the brain.

 + singular noun. . to make a general statement Schools should concentrate more on the student and less on exams. the old. the rich  7. the last chapter  6. to refer to ‘the group as a whole’ the Europeans.  + adjective/ + plural noun. 5.  before superlatives and ordinal numerals: the highest building. the first page. the Japanese. the liberals.

 The freedom of the individual is worth fighting for. .  THE   + clause/ phrase (to specify a person or thing) The Smith you are looking for no longer lives here. The letters on the shelf are for you.THE SPECIFYING ‘THE’  THE + noun + OF  8.

the future  + parts of the day: in the morning/afternoon. ‘THE’ in time expressions In time sequences: the beginning. the first.g. but not when they are written)   The next meeting will be on May 24th. the middle. for the time being. (spoken as May the 24th) + ages: The Middle Ages. at the moment. the last. The Renaissance  In fixed time expressions. the present. the past. the next. e.. the following day. evening  + seasons (THE is optional): (the) spring / summer / autumn / winter  + date (Ordinal numbers usually require THE when they are spoken. in the end  . the end. 9.

the better. The Chicago of the 1920s was a terrifying place. THE + comparative  The sooner. In fixed expressions:   THE + comparative.  + proper name (to refer to a specific situation)  . the Lincolns  + somebody’s name (to refer to a specific person or to make the distinction between two people having the same name):   I’m afraid this is not the Tom Smith I am looking for. do the shopping  make the beds  play the piano/violin/cello/flute  + PROPER NOUNS + family names (to refer to the family as a whole): the Smiths.

the Nile (or the River Nile). the Balkans Oceans. the Middle East. the Caspian (Sea). the Bahamas . the Isle of Man Groups of islands: the Azores. seas. the Mississippi (or the Mississippi River). the North Pole. the Carpathians. the Suez Canal Mountain ranges: the Alps. rivers: the Pacific (Ocean). the Himalayas Islands (only in the structure THE ISLE/ISLAND OF…): the Isle of Capri. the Black Sea. ‘THE’ with PLACE NAMES:      Geographical areas: the Arctic.

the Library of Congress Universities (in the structure THE UNIVERSITY OF…): the University of Cambridge . (the) Sudan. the USA (the United States of America)   *** (a few countries): the Netherlands. the Philippines.Deserts: the Gobi (Desert). the Drive *** A few buildings (in compounds): the British Museum. (the) Yemen      States/ counties: the Vatican *** A few cities: the Hague. the Sahara (Desert)  Countries (only unions and associations): the UK (the United Kingdom). the Strand. the Kalahari (Desert). the City (of London) *** A few streets: the High Street.

 The absence of an article  THE ZERO ARTICLE is used with:    PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS:  Computers are useful machines. Water is made of hydrogen and oxygen. Mr Thomson is planning to visit China in September. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS:  most PROPER NOUNS:  .

We went skiing at the weekend. games. drink. substances. places. politics. products. occupations.   2. food. with days of the week      5. We use computers at work. He understands Chinese well. nationalities. Thursday will be convenient. plants. We go away at Christmas. The AGM was on the Thursday of that week. philosophy. I started work here the Easter before the last. sports. colours. We had a wonderful Christmas. with the name of a meal    4. 1. insects. with special times (holidays)     . Have you had breakfast? Yes. Come round after lunch. Easter is early this year. uncountable nouns: food. with uncountable or plural nouns to talk about a type of thing rather than specific things the reader or listener already knows about (plurals: people. collections. with the name of a language  3. animals. I’ll see you on Tuesday. abstract nouns. languages)   We drank tea and ate sandwiches.

She must get home before midnight. with dates in writing . That was the year I was born. It was the winter of 1995 when things started to go wrong for the company. with parts of the day and night (especially after at. seasons and months      He was born in 1882. I start the course in September. It’s warmer during the day. with years. Winter always depresses me. I hope to get there before dark. I prefer to travel by day.  8. 6. The meeting is on June 29th.  7. on. We play golf in summer / in the summer. by. Someone got up in/during the night. before)      He can’t sleep at night. They arrived at the hotel in the evening. I couldn’t see in the dark. We are meeting in the morning.

Melanie waited in the hospital for news. hand in hand. the pub. in bed BUT sit on the bed. the factory. in the home at sea (sailing). (the school building) The meeting was at the college. to the house. in fixed expressions        . father and son. on/to the coast In town. She has gone to the prison to visit a relative. pen and ink. make the bed Arm in arm. hospital      School is over at half past three. church. the house. The young woman is in the prison. university. We wanted to look round the church but it was locked. go to work. the village At work. make fun of Day and night. (school activities) Vicky is at college. go to sea (as a sailor) BUT on the sea. come to light. leave town BUT the town centre. keep in mind. the library. the shop. from top to bottom. the factory Go to bed. (as a student) David is in hospital (as a patient) Melanie is going to church (to a religious service) The man is in prison (as a prisoner) The school is a mile from here. the cinema. come home. face to face. 9. the station at home. the city. light and dark. THE is used:   10. go into town. sun and moon  When we refer to that specific building. THE is used:       With other nouns referring to buildings. by the sea. with words referring to institutions such as school. prison. college. at/to the seaside. go home. leave home BUT in the house. leave work BUT the office. the office. make friends.

 Given titles in BrE: Sir + first name (+ surname). J. with names of people (first name/surname/full name/ initials)     13. Major. They are followed by a surname. Lord Spencer . Dear Madam) when we do not know the name of the people we are writing to. with titles (Mr. Mrs. Mrs. but it is common in written language to apply to both married and unmarried women.  Dr (doctor). Dr) Mr.  12. but it can also be used on its own as a form of address (written in full)   Dr Brown/ Nice to see you. Smith is the pseudonym of a famous author. abbreviated. Ms. is followed by a surname. Colonel. Lord + Surname   Sir John Falstaff / Sir John. Queen Elizabeth. These tools are made by Jackson and Son. Doctor! Captain. Professor are titles that can be used both on their own or with surnames  Madam and Sir are used in BrE as a form of address (Can I help you. Ms cannot normally be used on their own as a form of address. on foot Elizabeth was my colleague’s name. Madam/Sir?) or in formal letters. Ms is hardly heard in speech. with means of transport  by air/ bicycle / bike / boat / bus/ car/ coach/ land / plane / sea / ship / tram / tube. as salutations (Dear Sir. 11. Miss.

Bloomingdale’s . Hyde Park Buildings: Buckingham Palace. Oxford Street Most bridges: Tower Bridge Most shops and restaurants: Marks and Spencers. Corfu Island Most countries States. Europe Geographical areas: Central Asia. Upper Austria Lakes: Lake Constance. Ceahlau Islands: Christmas Island. Ohio. Lower Egypt. Asia. 14. Surrey Most cities Parks: Central Park. with place names              Continents: Africa. Lake Geneva Mountains (peaks): Mont Blanc. Everest. Westminster Abbey Most streets: Madison Avenue. counties: Bavaria.

DEMONSTRATIVES AND QUANTIFIERS PERSONAL PRONOUNS REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS .

’ . I think this photocopier looks reliable.’ ‘Well. THIS / THAT (singular) and THESE / THOSE (plural) can be used as adjectives before nouns to refer to somebody or something known to both speaker and listener:  ‘I’m not sure which photocopier to order.

SPACE TIME What are you doing this weekend? There’s so much crime these days.  N. They are used to distinguish between close and distant things (in both space and time) CLOSE DISTANT I’ve seen that presentation before.B. Do you recognize this presentation? These negotiators are extremely proficient. often to introduce a topic or start telling a story:  This woman came up to me in the bank and asked if she could borrow… . In very INFORMAL SPEECH we can use THIS or THESE instead of A/AN or SOME. Can you see those people over there? Do you remember that AGM? There were no smartphones in those days.

a thing or an idea:    THIS can be used to talk about a situation we are experiencing:  This is a really wonderful idea. do you? .  In certain expressions. THIS or THAT is used instead of SO to intensify an adjective:   Some residents turned out to welcome the official to their neighbourhood. They can be used as pronouns to refer to a noun. Those who had bothered were invited to a cocktail party afterwards.  They are used as a more formal alternative to THE ONE(S):  This is the worst recession we have seen for more than ten years. I’ve never seen a winter this cold before. I think that’s stupid. So you think you’re that clever. Alistair says he’s giving up his job to travel the world.

+ PL. NOUN no none of the neither either any both few/little half . none of the details neither of the briefs either of the two semesters any (of the) documents both (of the) awards (a) few (of the) projects half (of) the tasks + UNCOUNT NOUN I’ve got no money. NOUN I’ve got no coins. are determiners which describe the quantity of something. none of the information ------------any (of the) information -----(a) little (of the) water half (of) the work ------------neither brief either semester any document ----------half (of) the task QUANTIFIER +SG.

NOUN some (of the) projects several (of the) issues a lot of (the) ideas many (of the) managers most (of the) projects each of the applicants every one of the pages + UNCOUNT NOUN some (of the) money ----a lot of (the) time much (of the) furniture most (of the) fruit --------- all (of) the problems all (of) the trouble . NOUN --------a lot of the conference ----most of the holiday each applicant every page all (of) the problem + PL.QUANTIFIER some several a lot of many/much most each every (one of) all + SG.

using of THE before a plural or an uncountable noun changes the meaning of the noun from general to specific: I’d like some information.  They must come to classes every day. Note the difference between EACH and EVERY! Both quantifiers describe ‘more than one’. we do not specify which information)  I’d like some of the information. They had many exams each semester. OF can be omitted before THE:  Both (of) the candidates believed they had won. (general. (specific information)    With BOTH. but not EVERY.  . Often quantifiers (except NONE and A LOT) are used directly before a noun:  It’s impossible to nominate both candidates for the Vicepresidency.  With most quantifiers. we can use EACH to refer to two things.

Is some of the information useful? (I expect that part of it is. ANY in negative or interrogative sentences:  You’ve got some interesting ideas but do you have any money to back them?  ANY used in affirmative sentences means ‘it does not matter which’:   It is possible to use SOME in questions where the speaker has some expectation that the answer will be positive:   You can’t negotiate with them. Any business person will tell you that.) Is any of the information useful? (I have no idea if it is useful or not.) .  SOME and ANY SOME is usually used in affirmative sentences.

though a plural verb is now accepted in speech and informal writing:   None of the students is willing to accept the increase in coursework. some quantifiers take a singular verb. and some take a plural verb. Others are used with a singular or plural verb. None of the students are willing to accept the increase in coursework. depending on the noun they substitute or modify. Quantifiers (except NO and EVERY) can be used without a noun as subject of the clause:  The vote was split: half were in favour of the motion.   When used as subjects. half were against it. (spoken or informal written English) . The quantifiers NEITHER and NONE take a singular verb with plural nouns.

- are words which are substituted for nouns in order to avoid repetition. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS SUBJECT OBJECT POSSESSIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS PRONOUNS ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS S I you he she it we they me you him her it us them my your his her its our their mine yours his hers --ours theirs myself yourself/yourselves himself herself itself ourselves themselves .

don’t you?  I. After we mention a person or an object once. He was a founder of Microsoft.: Those books belong to Jeremy.: Did the neighbours leave that here? It looks like their deckchair. I really appreciate him. please?   Possessive adjectives are used before a noun to express ‘belonging’:  ADJ.: I met the CEO yesterday. we usually use pronouns to refer to them:  Paul Allen plans to set up a museum.O. it’s not their deckchair.O. PRON. Can you give them to him. It’s ours! Don’t you recognize it?  Possessive pronouns are used instead of a possessive adjective + noun:  . or if the context makes it clear who or what we are referring to.: No.  Object pronouns are used instead of a noun as a direct or indirect object: D.

 English  does not usually omit pronouns. they are often voted in the AGM.  Object pronouns are not used in infinitive phrases or relative clauses if the object has already appeared in the same sentence:   Those plastic cards look safe enough to use (them). That’s the folder I told you about (it). especially subject pronouns: We can expect new regulations. .

the object pronoun is more common: FML.: It is they who asked for the project to be voted.  INFML: The line manager didn’t actually know the procedure any better than me.: It is them who asked for the project to be voted. ‘Who’s there?’ ‘It’s us.: The line manager didn’t know the procedure any better than I.  There are some cases where either an object pronoun or a subject pronoun can be used.’   The object pronoun is usually used in short responses:  After IT IS the subject pronoun is used in formal language and the object pronoun in informal: FML. After AS and THAN in comparative patterns.  INFML.   After AS and THAN we can use a subject pronoun with an auxiliary or modal verb:  The line manager didn’t speak English as well as I do/did/can. we use the subject pronoun only in very formal English.  .

although in informal English it is possible to use the subject pronoun:  They are sending the new consignment over for Tom and me to check. we usually put the pronoun first:  Don’t you think we should let him and his lawyer decide about going to court?  We should use object pronouns after a preposition. . When we have a noun and a pronoun. we tend to put the speaker first (out of politeness):  You and I are both invited to that presentation. or two pronouns together.  If we have a noun and a pronoun where the pronoun does not refer to the speaker.: They are sending the new consignment over for Tom and I to check.  INFML.

usually with an adjective: Look what I’ve done! Silly me! Lucky old him/her!  We   can use a noun after a pronoun to clarify who or what we are referring to: I want you people to see the Department head immediately. In   some exclamations we modify object pronouns. . got up and asked everyone to leave at once. Ms Stein. Then she.

ONE or ONES are used to avoid repeating countable nouns:

Do you prefer the blue folders or the black ones?

ONE/ONES can be used after THE and adjectives but not immediately after A/AN:
I’d like a folder. Can you pass me one from the top shelf?  There are interesting exhibits here. This is an amazing one.

ONE/ONES is not used when we refer to an item that has previously been described:
I need a box. A large one. (= any box)  Where is my box? Oh, here it is. (my box – a definite one)

Reflexive pronouns are formed with SELF/SELVES and are used when the subject and the object are the same person or thing:

Quick! The worker has burnt himself!

After prepositions an object pronoun is used to refer to the subject when it is clear who or what it refers to; otherwise a reflexive pronoun is used:
Jim emerged from the underground station and looked around him. (him = Jim)  Jane was upset. Her supervisor was really annoyed with her. (her = Jane)  Jane was upset. Her supervisor was really annoyed with herself. (herself = supervisor)

Reflexive pronouns are used to refer to the subject after verbs with dependent prepositions:

Politicians have to believe in themselves if they expect the people to believe in them.

Either the object pronoun or the reflexive one can be used to refer to the subject after AS (FOR), LIKE, BUT (FOR) and EXCEPT (FOR):

 

IDIOMATIC USES Some verbs take the reflexive in English idiomatically: e.g. enjoy oneself, help oneself, behave oneself, etc.

Howard made sure that everyone except him/himself had the agenda of the meeting.

Help yourself with the food, won’t you?

The phrase ‘by oneself’ (one = myself/yourself/himself/herself/ourselves/yourselves, themselves) means ‘alone’ or ‘without help’:

We’ve decided to make the presentation by ourselves.

EMPHATIC USE OF REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS  Reflexive pronouns can be used to emphasize the subject or object of a sentence. The pronoun can come after the subject, after the auxiliary (if there is one) or verb, after the object or at the end of the sentence.
I myself have used this technique on a number of occasions.  I have myself used this technique on a number of occasions.  I have used this technique myself on a number of occasions.  I have used this technique on a number of occasions myself.

The reflexive pronoun used at the beginning or the end of a sentence and separated by a comma means ‘as far as I’m concerned’.
Myself, I don’t like the communicative approach in language learning.  I don’t like the communicative approach in language learning, myself.

some. Some of the information is considered top secret. either.’ SINGULAR OR PLURAL any. ‘We can’t get many books to the schools in the outback.’ “Don’t worry! Any (books) are better than none. many Much of the research has already been completed.ALWAYS SINGULAR ALWAYS PLURAL each. half. a few. Some of us are hiring a motor home to go on holiday. much both. several. all . a lot. Some visitors to the new plant are enthusiastic but many have expressed their disappointment.

(Steve blamed Elaine and Elaine blamed Steve)  EACH OTHER usually refers to two subjects. Steve and Elaine blame only themselves for the failure of the project.  Steve and Elaine blame each other for the failure of the product. (they both blamed the two of them and nobody else) Vs. ONE ANOTHER to more than two. . though we tend to use the two forms interchangeably in informal English:  He spoke fast and his words tripped over each other/one another.

Did you know they’ve introduced a new safety procedure? (= the management)  THEY is also used to refer to people in authority:  .  If we wish to include ourselves.e.  If we wish to exclude ourselves. it is better to use THEY:  They behave really badly at football matches nowadays. WE or THEY:  You can wear whatever you like to go to work these days. When we wish to express general feelings and opinions (i. it is better to use WE:  We can wear whatever we like to go to work these days. not necessarily those of the speaker). we can use YOU.

 ONE  is  used in formal language to mean people generally including ourselves: One can empathize with the demands of the strikers. . and as a reflexive pronoun (oneself): One tends to learn to fend for oneself if one lives alone.  It  is used as a subject or object pronoun.

PERSON someone/somebody anyone/anybody OBJECT something anything PLACE somewhere anywhere MANNER somehow anyhow (informal equivalent of anyway) everyone/everybody no one/nobody everything nothing everywhere nowhere .

 SOME compounds are used when we are thinking of a particular unspecified person. etc. place. there’s something I would like…’ (a particular present) . places or things in general:   ‘What would you like for your birthday?’ ‘oh. place or thing  ANY compounds are used when we are thinking of people. anything.’ (no particular present) ‘Well. They do not refer to a specific person. object.

adjectives or ELSE: The manager decided to do something active about the problems of the company. they take a singular verb:  Everything is going smoothly and NASA expects to launch the shuttle as scheduled.g.  Something else you become aware of in this company is its organic structure. e.  .  If we use these pronouns and adverbs as subjects. ANY + one/thing/where is not negative and it means ‘it doesn’t matter who/what/where’:  Anyone would understand that the promotional campaign is a flop.  We can use these pronouns with modifiers.

things. possessions people. animals ideas people. objects. animals USED AS SUBJECT √ X √ √ √ √ X √ √ √ OBJECT √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ . animals people objects.USED FOR PRONOUNS who whom which which that whose no pronoun ADVERBS where when why NOMINAL PRONOUN what objects. ideas (means the thing that) places times reasons people. animals relationships.

 WHOM is formal and we rarely use it in speech. It would only be possible to colonize planets whose atmosphere contained enough oxygen to sustain human life. (the atmosphere of which) . which made her suspicious. he carried a heavy bag.   WHOSE can be used to refer to objects:  Mr Harrison is the lawyer who/that has been chosen to represent you. It is mainly used after prepositions:   WHICH is used (not WHO) to refer to inanimate objects:  I’m referring to the person with whom you were seen.  THAT is used to refer to people and objects but WHO is usually preferred for a person when the pronoun is the subject of the relative clause. When he left the office.

I met the man who was in the negotiating team at a conference. I remember – it was the day when/that the company went bankrupt. High taxation is often the main reason for which governments fall. Sometimes he thought that money was the reason why/that he accepted the job. The relative pronoun that refers to the object of a relative clause can be omitted:  The man (who) I met at the conference was in the negotiating team.  The relative pronoun cannot be omitted if it is the subject of the relative clause:   THAT can be used as an alternative to WHEN in relative clauses:   The only noun that takes WHY as a relative pronoun is ‘reason’:   Instead of WHY we can also use OF + WHICH:  .

none of whom we thought suitable. The college entered over a hundred students for the exam. . several of which were found to contain fragments of glass. We interviewed fourteen applicants for the post. MANY OF may be used before WHICH or WHOM in a relative clause to refer to the subject or object of the clause:    The supermarket removed from the shelves all of its jars of tomato puree. all of whom passed. Modifiers such as ALL OF.

 In relative clauses we can modify the pronoun or adverb with –ever to give the meaning of ANYTHING. ANYONE. ANYWHERE. You can put the billboard wherever you think it looks best. I’d like to meet whoever wrote this report. etc. I don’t mind.:    Use whichever phone you want – they all have outside lines. .

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES THE ORDER OF THE ADJECTIVES ADVERBS DEGREES OF COMPARISON SOFTENERS AND INTENSIFIERS .

 Three business partners are having lunch in a quiet restaurant. This coffee tastes good. seem. etc. They feel talkative. Some adjectives are restricted to one position . The food is delicious. It’s a warm day.  An adjective can be used attributively (before a noun) or predicatively (after a linking verb i. smell. get. stay. look.)   Most adjectives can be used in both positions:  This is good coffee. feel.. be.e. Vs. appear. taste. touch. become.

industrial. general. local. INDOOR / OUTDOOR – Chess is an indoor game. ONLY – The only problem is that the company is running out of money. national.g.        MAIN / CHIEF / PRINICIPAL – Be careful crossing the main road. social . UPPER ELDER / ELDEST Adjectives ending in –al e. INNER / OUTER FORMER – The former sales agent now trains young professionals.

 Adjectives

beginning with the prefix a- are usually predicative, e.g.,
Ablaze, afraid, aglow, alike, alive, alone, asleep, aware, ashamed

The products look very alike.

    

Pleased Ill / unwell Content (= happy) Fine (in good health) / well Glad

 In

descriptions, we often use a sequence of adjectives to refer to a noun, being ordered according to their meaning.  Determiners (articles, quantifiers, numerals, demonstrative and possessive adjectives) usually precede the sequence of adjectives.  GENERAL DESCRIPTION + PHYSICAL STATE + PROPER ADJECTIVE + noun

1. OPINION (HOW GOOD?) 2. SIZE (HOW BIG?) 3. MOST OTHER QUALITIES 4. AGE (HOW OLD?) 5. COLOUR 7. MATERIAL (MADE OF?) 8. TYPE (WHAT KIND?) 9. PURPOSE (WHAT FOR?)

wonderful, nice, great, awful, terrible large, small, long, short, tall quiet, famous, important, soft, wet, difficult, fast, angry, warm new, old red, blue, green, black stone, plastic, steel, paper an electric kettle, political matters, road transport a bread knife, a bath towel

6. ORIGIN (WHERE FROM?) American, British, French

  a horrible. ugly building a busy. quality. lively. type) some nice easy quiz questions (opinion. type) A long boring train journey (size. commas are used between adjectives referring to opinion. exciting city . purpose)  Sometimes . size and quality. quality. material. Examples     Japanese industrial designers (origin. purpose) a beautiful wooden picture frame (opinion.

 There are some adjectives that we can use to talk about groups of people in society:  .to do with social or economic position:  the disadvantaged. None of the young people in the village can find jobs here. The severely disabled need full-time care. the rich. the poor. the privileged. the disabled. PEOPLE are used. The less fortunate cannot afford to go on holiday.to do with age:   We can sometimes use an adverb before such an adjective:      THE + ADJECTIVE refers to that group in general. WOMAN. the words MAN. When we mean a specific person or a specific group of people. the homeless. the handicapped. the healthy the elderly. the old. the starving. the sick. the middle-aged. the living. . the strong. the hungry. the unemployed. the over-sixties.to do with physical condition or health:  . Should the mentally ill be allowed to live in the community?   . the young The very poor are left without hope. the underprivileged. the under-fives. the deaf. the weak the blind.   The young have their lives in front of them.

threatening. disabled. armed. outstanding. missing. increasing. exciting. following. boring. worried  COMMON –ED ADJECTIVES  .  Most adjectives from this group are derived from verbs. tired. COMMON –ING ADJECTIVES  amazing. underlying. ashamed. educated. interested. willing. complicated. leading. existing. exhausted. working advanced. bored. corresponding. disappointed. promising. remaining. surprised. frightened. determined. alleged. encouraging. interesting. pleased. excited. unexpected. unemployed.

insensitive. monotonous. careful. misleading. active. serious. instinctive. greenish . dis-. Many adjectives are formed by adding an adjective prefix or suffix to a verb or noun. illegitimate. careless. -ent. final. -ous. continuous. irregular  SUFFIXES  -less. persistent. central. non-.beautiful. stylish. mis-.  PREFIXES  NEGATIVE MEANING: un-. funny. technical. effective. illiterate. sunny. disrespectful. -y. i(l) uninteresting. different. -al. non-standard. in-. -ish  cordless. -ful. -ive.

slow-moving highly-sensitive wishy-washy. so-called free-spending. Are made from a combination of more than one word. cutting-edge. including: greyish-blue full-time. roly-poly. horsedrawn eye-catching. newly-restored. law-abiding. goody-goody church-owned. resulting in a compact expression of information. age-old. classroom-based. large-scale butterfly-blue. life-long ill-suited. They take many forms. nervewracking ADJECTIVE + ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE + NOUN NOUN + ADJECTIVE ADVERB + -ED PARTICIPLE ADVERB + -ING PARTICIPLE ADVERB + ADJECTIVE REDUPLICATIVE NOUN + -ED PARTICIPLE NOUN + -ING PARTICIPLE .

FREE / FREELY These pairs of adverbs have different meanings:      I tried hard. Vs. We did some hard work. SLOW can be used as adverbs. They sell cheap clothes in the market. NEAR. (very) We got into the concert free. The material is highly radioactive. lively. I’ve been very busy lately. (very little. (uncontrolled) . Vs. FAST. LATE/ LATELY. They sell things cheap / cheaply there. STRAIGHT. LONG. lonely. The train went quite fast. (almost) Rachel arrived late. QUICK. The animals are allowed to wander freely. She spoke to us in a friendly way / manner. Vs. I’ve got hardly any money left. ugly   The interviewer was very friendly. The ending –LY is the normal adverb ending. RIGHT can be used both as adjectives and as adverbs     I came on the fast train.  friendly. I nearly fell asleep in the meeting. elderly. (without paying) vs. but a few adjectives also end in –ly. LOW. likely. LATE. NEAR / NEARLY. silly. almost none) Luckily I found a phone box quite near. (in the last few days/weeks) The plane flew high above the clouds. EARLY. DEEP. as usual. We worked hard.      HARD / HARDLY. HIGH / HIGHLY. the adjectives CHEAP. but I didn’t succeed. lovely. HIGH. LOUD. This is a silly question.  HARD.  In informal English. Vs. Come here as quick / quickly as you can. WRONG.

the opposite of ILL   The manager was very ill.’ . (Our results were good. but he is quite well again now.) An adjective meaning ‘in good health’. WELL    may be the adverb of GOOD We all did well in the test. ‘How are you?’ ‘Very well. thank you.

the most / the least forms are used   The film is more exciting than the book.  Everyone was pleased with the results of the negotiation. the more/less. nice) usually have the endings –er (than) (for the comparative) and –est (for the superlative)   The secretary needs a bigger computer. SHORT and LONG ADJECTIVES  One-syllable adjectives (small. This is the nicest colour. This machine is the most reliable. but the Sales Manager was the most pleased. the most / the least forms are used.  For three-syllable adjectives and with longer ones. the more/less.  The comparative and superlative forms of short and long adjectives are different. .  For adjectives ending in –ed.

stupid. common. famous. the happiest 2. words ending in a consonant + Y have –er. nervous. simple. foolish. cruel. words ending in –ing and –ed have more. the most careful helpful. narrow. the most boring willing. tired  5. most   boring – more boring than. -est. -est    happy – happier. most. other adjectives that have more. hopeless  3. correct. quiet. adjectives that have both –er and –est and more and most  . recent clever. eager. surprised  4. most:  afraid. exact. normal. 1.   Some two-syllable adjectives have –er. words ending in –ful or –less have more. modern. and some have more. gentle. certain. useful. most careful – more careful. polite. annoyed. frequent. pleasant.

hottest. thinnest . nicest  Consonant  + -Y. thin – thinner. Final  –e of the positive form is dropped before –er and –est: nice – nicer. lucky – luckier. Y shifts into I before adding -er and -est. luckiest  Adjectives ending in a single vowel + single consonant double the consonant before adding –er and –est  hot – hotter.

 Try to come to the office sooner. slowly) form the comparative and superlative with more and most. The short adverbs that have the same form as an adjective form the comparative and superlative with –er. easily. -est.  Note the forms sooner.  Can you type faster than that?  Many adverbs formed by ADJECTIVE + -LY (carefully. soonest and more often. most often.  We could do this more easily with a computer. .

but only for people in the same family (elder than is NEVER used)  My elder sister is the CEO of that company. oldest. .good/ well bad/ badly far better worse farther/further best worst farthest/furthest  We can use elder. eldest + noun instead of older.

 AS   … AS is used to say that things are equal or unequal. . It isn’t as cold as yesterday. Thy don’t earn as much money as they’d like.  THE  SAME AS The result of the contest was the same as last year.

quite. far. rather.  This chair is a bit more comfortable. a bit. then we use the subject form (I)   SOFTENERS and INTENSIFIERS We an put a word or phrase (much.  After THAN or AS. slightly) before a comparative to intensify or soften the meaning of the adjective. a little. a personal pronoun on its own has the object form (me).  He is twenty years older than me.  This month’s figures are slightly less good. It’s much faster by tube. but if the pronoun has a verb after it. He is twenty years older than I am. a lot.  .

Used to imply that a change in one thing goes with a change in another  The higher the price. the more reliable the product. Used to express a gradual change     The queue was getting longer and longer. The country is rapidly losing its workers. COMPARATIVE + COMPARATIVE THE + COMPARATIVE. as more and more people are emigrating. THE + COMPARATIVE . Everything is getting more and more expensive.

MID POSITION (close to the verb) and END POSITION (at the end of the sentence). .  Outside (front position) it was obviously (mid position) raining hard (end position). An adverb can be found in three places in a sentence: FRONT POSITION (at the beginning of a sentence).

 I really enjoy negotiations.  The briefs have definitely been stolen. the adverb usually comes after it.    If there is no auxiliary. then the adverb usually comes before it: You certainly are a lot better today.   When there is stress on the verb TO BE or on the auxiliary.  You’re certainly a lot better today. When the verb TO BE is on its own.  I really have made a mistake. The adverb comes after the first auxiliary: The visitors are just leaving. The boss is usually in a bad temper. the adverb comes before the main verb. haven’t I?   Use of adverbs in mid position in questions – after the subject: Has Andrew always liked Statistics?  Do you often go out to business lunches?  .

 Nevertheless. We played volleyball yesterday. after the object. it is put in end position. . An adverb does not usually go between the verb and the direct object.    Tom proofread his report quickly. object:  an adverb can go before a long Detectives examined carefully the contents of the dead man’s pockets. I like classical music very much.

We politely asked permission.  ADVERBS OF PLACE AND TIME  Adverbs and adverbial phrases of place and time usually go in end position:     Is there a phone box nearby? We’re meeting by the entrance. ADVERBS OF MANNER  tell us how something happens. I’ll see you before very long. The train is now approaching Swindon. Did you have a nice time in New York?   Sometimes they can go in front position:  We are really busy this week. I’ll soon find out. but an adverb which ends in –LY can sometimes go in mid position as well.   We asked permission politely. They usually go in end position. Last week we had nothing to do. Some short adverbs of time can also go in mid position:   .

and I’m already exhausted. Are you still waiting after all this time? Has Tom already been on holiday?  In questions STILL and ALREADY usually go after the subject:   . often expressing surprise that the situation has gone on for so long.  STILL and ALREADY  In a positive statement. not yet. YET means that we are expecting something. I should get it next week. STILL is used before the auxiliary:  STILL is stronger than YET. She’s still at work. It’s nearly lunch time and you still haven’t opened your e-mail. We wrote a month ago and we’re still waiting for a reply. ALREADY means ‘sooner than expected’ usually goes at the end of a negative statement or a question:      YET  Vicky has got a letter but she hasn’t opened it yet.   In negative statements. STILL and ALREADY usually go in mid position:    Sarah isn’t home yet.   Rita hasn’t bought her plane ticket yet. STILL means ‘going on longer than expected’. Rita still hasn’t bought her plane ticket. Wait a minute! I’m not ready yet. Have they sent you your cheque yet? No. I’ve only been at work an hour. I have two more lines to write.

It goes in mid position.  I used to belong to the golf club but I’m no longer a member. ANY LONGER/ANY MORE comes at the end of the sentence. They no longer make them. You can’t buy these items now.   They don’t make these items any longer / any more. She doesn’t work here any longer/ any more.   NO LONGER can be a little formal. Rita has resigned. NO LONGER means that something is finished. In informal speech NOT … ANY LONGER or NOT … ANYMORE is used. .