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Controller area network

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Controller–area network (CAN or CAN-bus) is a vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other within a vehicle without a host computer. !" is a message based protocol, designed specifically for automotive applications but now also used in other areas such as industrial automation and medical e#uipment. $evelopment of the !"%bus started originally in &'() at *obert +osch ,mb-..&/ 0he protocol was officially released in &'(1 at the 2ociety of !utomotive 3ngineers (2!3) congress in $etroit, 4ichigan. 0he first !" controller chips, produced by 5ntel and 6hilips, came on the market in &'(7. +osch published the !" 8.9 specification in &''&. !" is one of five protocols used in the :+$%55 vehicle diagnostics standard. 0he :+$ standard is mandatory for all cars and light trucks sold in the ;nited 2tates since &''1, and the 3:+$ standard, mandatory for all petrol vehicles sold in the 3uropean ;nion since 899& and all diesel vehicles since 899<..8/

Applications
[edit] Automotive
! modern automobile may have as many as 79 electronic control units (3 ;) for various subsystems.)/. 0ypically the biggest processor is the engine control unit, which is also referred to as =3 ;= in the conte>t of automobiles? others are used for transmission, airbags, antilock braking, cruise control, audio systems, windows, doors, mirror ad@ustment, etc. 2ome of these form independent subsystems, but communications among others are essential. ! subsystem may need to control actuators or receive feedback from sensors. 0he !" standard was devised to fill this need. 0he !" bus may be used in vehicles to connect engine control unit and transmission, or (on a different bus) to connect the door locks, climate control, seat control, etc. 0oday the !" bus is also used as a fieldbus in general automation environments, primarily due to the low cost of some !" ontrollers and processors. +osch holds patents on the technology, and manufacturers of !"%compatible microprocessors pay license fees to +osch, which are normally passed on to the customer in the price of the chip. 4anufacturers of products with custom !25 s or F6,!s containing !"%compatible modules may need to pay a fee for the CAN Protocol License.

Technology
!" is a multi%master broadcast serial bus standard for connecting electronic control units (3 ;s). 3ach node is able to send and receive messages, but not simultaneously. ! message consists primarily of an 5$ A usually chosen to identify the message%type or sender A and up to eight data bytes. 5t is transmitted serially onto the bus. 0his signal pattern is encoded in "*B and is sensed by all nodes. 0he devices that are connected by a !" network are typically sensors, actuators, and other control devices. 0hese devices are not connected directly to the bus, but through a host processor and a !" controller. 5f the bus is free, any node may begin to transmit. 5f two or more nodes begin sending messages at the same time, the message with the more dominant 5$ (which has more dominant bits, i.e., Ceroes) will overwrite other nodesD less dominant 5$s, so that eventually (after this arbitration on the 5$) only the dominant message remains and is received by all nodes. 3ach node re#uires a

host processor o 0he host processor decides what received messages mean and which messages it wants to transmit itself. o 2ensors, actuators and control devices can be connected to the host processor. CAN controller (hardware with a synchronous clock). o Receiving: the !" controller stores received bits serially from the bus until an entire message is available, which can then be fetched by the host processor (usually after the !" controller has triggered an interrupt). o Sending: the host processor stores its transmit messages to a !" controller, which transmits the bits serially onto the bus. Transceiver (possibly integrated into the !" controller) o Receiving: it adapts signal levels from the bus to levels that the !" controller e>pects and has protective circuitry that protects the !" controller. o Sending: it converts the transmit%bit signal received from the !" controller into a signal that is sent onto the bus.

+it rates up to & 4bitEs are possible at network lengths below <9 m. $ecreasing the bit rate allows longer network distances (e.g., F99 m at &8F kbitEs). 0he !" data link layer protocol is standardiCed in 52: &&('(%& (899)). 0his standard describes mainly the data link layer A composed of the logical link control (GG ) sublayer and the media access control (4! ) sublayer A and some aspects of the

0his means open collector. if you are transmitting a recessive bit.physical layer of the :25 reference model. Truth tables or dominant!recessive and logical AND Bus state with two nodes transmitting dominant recessive dominant dominant dominant recessive dominant recessive Logical AND " # " 9 9 # 9 & 2o. When used with a differential bus. 0hus there is no delay to the higher priority messages. and the node transmitting the lower priority message will sense this and back off and wait. and the node transmitting the lower priority message automatically attempts to re%transmit 1 bit clocks after the end of the dominant message. 5f any node sets a voltage difference. !rbitration is performed during the transmission of the identifier field. and you know there was a collision. 5f a dominant bit is received when a recessive bit is transmitted then the node stops transmitting (i. !ll the other protocol layers are the network designerDs choice. you see a dominant bit. 0he !" solution to this is prioritised arbitration (and for the dominant message delay free).e. 3ach node starting to transmit at the same time sends an 5$ with dominant as binary 9. 5f one node transmits a dominant bit and another node transmits a recessive bit then the dominant bit =wins= (a logical !"$ between the two). (!ll other collisions are invisible. Data transmission !" features an automatic Darbitration freeD transmission. $uring arbitration. it lost arbitration). there is a priority based arbitration scheme to decide which one will be granted permission to continue transmitting.) ! dominant bit is asserted by creating a voltage across the wires while a recessive bit is simply not asserted on the bus. all nodes will see it. ! !" message that is transmitted with highest priority will DwinD the arbitration. starting from the high bit. !s soon as their 5$ is a larger number (lower priority) theyDll be sending & (recessive) and see 9 . each transmitting node monitors the bus state and compares the received bit with the transmitted bit. a arrier 2ense 4ultiple !ccessE+itwise !rbitration ( 24!E+!) scheme is often implemented: if two or more devices start transmitting at the same time. making !" very suitable for real time prioritised communications systems. and someone sends a dominant bit.. 0his is achieved by !" transmitting data through a binary model of =dominant= bits and =recessive= bits where dominant is a logical 9 and recessive is a logical &. or Dwired orD physical implementation of the bus (but since dominant is 9 this is sometimes referred to as wired%!"$).

ontinuous synchroniCation in turn enables the receiver to be able to properly read the messages. so they back off. When the 7th bit is transmitted. 0he Gength of each phase segment can be ad@usted based on network and node conditions. 5f these two nodes transmit at the same time. consider an &&%bit 5$ !" network. and the highest priority message gets through unimpeded. and the node with the 5$ of &F transmits a 9 (dominant) for its 5$. !t the end of 5$ transmission. the node with the 5$ of &1 transmit a & (recessive) for its 5$. which helps facilitate continuous synchroniCation. and no clock is sent during data transmission. and allow the node with 5$ of &F to continue its transmission. $it timing 3ach node in a !" network has its own clock. !" +it 0iming %ayers +ased on levels of abstraction. 0he sample point falls between 6hase +uffer 2egment & and 6hase +uffer 2egment 8. For e>ample. the structure of the !" protocol can be described in terms of the following layers: • • • !pplication Gayer :b@ect Gayer o 4essage Filtering o 4essage and 2tatus -andling 0ransfer Gayer 0he 0ransfer Gayer represents the kernel of the !" protocol. the node with the 5$ of &1 will realiCe that it lost its arbitration. each will transmit the first 1 Ceros of their 5$ with no arbitration decision being made.(dominant). with two nodes with 5$Ds of &F (binary representation. 5t presents messages received to the ob@ect layer and accepts messages to be transmitted from the ob@ect layer. 2ynchroniCation is done by dividing each bit of the frame into a number of segments: 2ynchroniCation. 0he transfer layer is responsible for bit timing and . 6ropagation. When this happens. all nodes but one have backed off. 6hase & and 6hase 8. 9999999&&&&) and &1 (binary representation 999999&9999). 0his ensures that the node with the lower bit value will always win the arbitration.

and the I !" e>tended frameJ supports a length of 8' bits for the identifier.9 +). acknowledgment. !" controllers that support e>tended frame format messages are also able to send and receive messages in !" base frame format. 0asks include: o 2ignal Gevel and +it *epresentation o 0ransmission 4edium &rames ! !" network can be configured to work with two different message (or =frame=) formats: the standard or base frame format (or !" 8. and the e>tended frame format (or !" 8. 0he only difference between the two formats is that the I !" base frameJ supports a length of && bits for the identifier. which is transmitted as dominant in case of an &&%bit frame. message framing. 0he distinction between !" base frame format and !" e>tended frame format is made by using the 5$3 bit. !" has four frame types: • • • • $ata frame: a frame containing node data for transmission *emote frame: a frame re#uesting the transmission of a specific identifier 3rror frame: a frame transmitted by any node detecting an error :verload frame: a frame to in@ect a delay between data andEor remote frame Data rame 0he data frame is the only frame for actual data transmission. 5t performs: o Fault onfinement o 3rror $etection o 4essage Halidation o !cknowledgment o !rbitration o 4essage Framing o 0ransfer *ate and 0iming o 5nformation *outing 6hysical Gayer 0he physical layer defines how the signals are actually transmitted. arbitration.• synchroniCation. !ll frames begin with a start%of%frame (2:F) bit that denotes the start of the frame transmission. error detection and signaling. made up of the &&%bit identifier (Ibase identifierJ) and an &(%bit e>tension (Iidentifier e>tensionJ). 0here are two message formats: • • +ase frame format: with && identifier bits 3>tended frame format: with 8' identifier bits . and fault confinement. and transmitted as recessive in case of a 8'%bit frame.9 !).

+emote rame • • . 'tended rame ormat 0he frame format is as follows: &ield name %ength (bits) *urpose $enotes the start of frame transmission First part of the (uni#ue) identifier for the data 4ust be recessive (&):ptional 4ust be recessive (&):ptional 2econd part of the (uni#ue) identifier for the data 4ust be dominant (9) 2tart%of%frame & 5dentifier ! && 2ubstitute remote re#uest & (2**) 5dentifier e>tension bit & (5$3) 5dentifier + &( *emote transmission & re#uest (*0*) *eserved bits (r9. r&) 8 *eserved bits (it must be set dominant (9). 5t is also possible.0he !" standard re#uires the implementation must accept the base frame format and may accept the e>tended frame format. a sensor) sending out a $ata Frame. however. but the actual data length is always limited to ( bytes.g. 0here are 8 differences between a $ata Frame and a *emote Frame. but accepted as either dominant or recessive) $ata length code ($G )K < "umber of bytes of data (9%( bytes) $ata field 9%( bytes $ata to be transmitted (length dictated by $G field) * &F yclic redundancy check * delimiter & 4ust be recessive (&) 0ransmitter sends recessive (&) and any receiver can ! L slot & assert a dominant (9) ! L delimiter & 4ust be recessive (&) 3nd%of%frame (3:F) 7 4ust be recessive (&) 0he two identifier fields (! M +) combine to form a 8'%bit identifier. . although the data is still limited to ( bytes. for a destination node to re#uest the data from the source by sending a *emote Frame. Firstly the *0*%bit is transmitted as a dominant bit in the $ata Frame and secondly in the *emote Frame there is no $ata Field. but must tolerate the e>tended frame format. * 5t is physically possible for a value between '%&F to be transmitted in the <%bit $G .enerally data transmission is performed on an autonomous basis with the data source node (e. ertain controllers allow the transmission andEor reception of a $G greater than (.

0his practice is called bit stuffing.2 contributed from different stations.i.e.rror rame 3rror frame consists of two different fields 0he first field is given by the superposition of 3**:* FG!. the node that transmitted the *emote Frame receives the desired data immediately. 2ince bit stuffing is used. the $ata Frame wins arbitration due to the dominant *0* bit following the identifier. Fault%0olerant.-/ ##010-2: . .-/ ##010-4: . si> consecutive bits of the same type (&&&&&& or 999999) are considered an error. 0here are two types of error flags !ctive 3rror Flag 0ransmitted by a node detecting an error on the network that is in error state =error active=. 6assive 3rror Flag 0ransmitted by a node detecting an active error frame on the network that is in error state =error passive=.-/ ##010-3: .nit !" Gow%2peed.-/ ##010-5: !" $ata Gink Gayer and 6hysical 2ignalling !" -igh%2peed 4edium !ccess .-/ ##010-#: . *0* N 9 ? $:45"!"0 in data frame *0* N & ? *3 3225H3 in remote frame 5n the very unlikely event of a $ata Frame and a *emote Frame with the same identifier being transmitted at the same time. $it stu ing 5n !" frames. a bit of opposite polarity is inserted after five consecutive bits of the same polarity. 0he =stuffed= data frames are destuffed by the receiver. 5n this way. -tandards 0here are several !" physical layer standards: • • • • • .nit with Gow%6ower 4ode . 4edium%$ependent 5nterface !" 0ime%0riggered ommunication !" -igh%2peed 4edium !ccess . 0he following second field is the 3**:* $3G54503*. and is due to the ="on *eturn to Bero= ("*B) coding adopted. +it stuffing implies that sent data frames could be larger than one would e>pect by simply enumerating the bits shown in the tables above.

-/ ##010-4 standard defines the time%triggered communication on !" (00 !"). 7#131-##: 8F9 kbitEs. 724##: 2ingle%wire !" (2W ) . for e>ample a system that measures temperature and humidity and communicates the results to a computer. (August 2 ! " 8odbus is a serial communications protocol published by 4odicon in &'7' for use with its programmable logic controllers (6G s).-/ ##603-2 uses four unshielded twisted wires? two for !" and two for terminating bias circuit (0+ ) power and ground. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. 5t is based on the !" data link layer protocol providing a system clock for the scheduling of messages. . 7#131 standard uses a two%wire twisted pair.&/ 0he main reasons for the e>tensive use of 4odbus over other communications protocols are: &. 5t moves raw bits or words without placing many restrictions on vendors 4odbus allows for communication between many devices connected to the same network. 0his bus is used on agricultural tractors. -A.• • • • • . 2hielded 0wisted 6air (206) -A.-/ ##603-2: 8F9 kbitEs.nsourced material may be challenged and removed. and is now the most commonly available means of connecting industrial electronic devices. 0his bus is intended to provide interconnectivity with any implementation adhering to the standard. .-/ ##010-2 uses a two%wire balanced signaling scheme. . %&& has a shield around the pair while %&F does not. 8odbus From Wikipedia.n2hielded 0wisted 6air (. .06) (reduced layer) -A. 7#131-#5: 8F9 kbitEs. search 0his article needs additional citations or veri ication9 6lease help improve this article by adding reliable references.. 4odbus is often used to connect a supervisory . 2!3 &')' is widely used in agricultural M construction e#uipment. !gricultural 2tandard -A.-/ ##112-#: !" fault%tolerant for truckEtrailer communication . 5t is openly published and royalty%free 8. *elatively easy industrial network to deploy ). 5t is the most used physical layer in car powertrain applications and industrial control networks. 5t has become a de facto standard communications protocol in industry.

5t re#uires a dedicated co%processor to handle fast -$G %like token rotation.8/ *rotocol versions Hersions of the 4odbus protocol e>ist for serial port and for 3thernet and other networks that support the 5nternet protocol suite. 2ome of the prominent members are 2oft$3G 2ystems. educators and other interested parties can become 4odbus members.. 2uppliers large and small. typically a card made for the 52! (2!(F). #od$us Plus (#od$us) or #B)" A !n e>tended version. system integrators. 4otor 6rotection 3lectronics. 5t does not re#uire a checksum calculation as lower layer takes care of the same. 4odbus *0. Field2erver 0echnologies and many more. 4odbus 6lus (4odbusO or 4+O). #od$us over %CP('P or #od$us over %CP A 0his is a modbus variant that differs from 4odbus 0 6 in that a checksum is included in the payload as with 4odbus *0. end users. 4odbus !2 55 messages are framed by leading colon (D:D) and trailing newline ( *EGF). ! 4odbus *0. also e>ists. • • • • . which makes it transitionEedge triggered instead of voltageElevel triggered. format follows the commandsEdata with a cyclic redundancy check checksum as an error check mechanism to ensure the reliability of data. binary representation of the data for protocol communication. 4ost 4odbus devices communicate over a serial 35!%<(F physical layer . but remains proprietary to 2 -"35$3* 3G3 0*5 . 6 5 or 6 4 5! bus. open source developers. 4odbus messages are framed (separated) by idle (silent) periods. 5t uses twisted pair at & 4bitEs and includes transformer isolation at each node. is the most common implementation available for 4odbus. 0he !2 55 format uses a longitudinal redundancy check checksum. 6recision $igital orporation. #od$us %CP('P or #od$us %CP A 0his is a modbus variant used for communications over 0 6E56 networks.) in supervisory control and data ac#uisition (2 !$!) systems. #od$us ASC'' A 0his is used in serial communication M makes use of !2 55 characters for protocol communication. message must be transmitted continuously without inter%character hesitations.computer with a remote terminal unit (*0. 0he *0. 0here are many variants of 4odbus protocols • #od$us R%& A 0his is used in serial communication M makes use of a compact. 2pecial interfaces are re#uired to connect 4odbus 6lus to a computer.&/.

silence $etween . ! 4odbus command contains the 4odbus address of the device it is intended for. 0ypical problems the designers have to overcome include high latency and timing &rame &ormat !ll modbus variants choose different frame formats . :nly the intended device will act on the command.&/. 8odbus +T: &rame &ormat Name -tart Address &unction Data %ength &unction ).Fc idle at least *+!(2 character times o. but on 3thernet. control or read an 5E: port. 2ome of them were specifically designed for this protocol. even though other devices might receive it (an e>ception is specific broadcastable commands sent to node 9 which are acted on but not acknowledged). as it is a very simple protocol and often copied. silence (#AR.illed depending on the message t/pe 0rror chec.$ata model and function calls are identical for the first < variants of protocols? only the encapsulation is different.rames . although usually only one master device does so. to change a value in one of its registers.Fc idle at least *+!(2 character times o. 5n serial and 4+O networks only the node assigned as the 4aster may initiate a command.condition" ( bits ( bits Station Address 'ndicates the . any device can send out a 4odbus command. wireless communication and even 242 or . 0he basic 4odbus commands can instruct an *0.unction codes li.6*2.s C+C Check &1 bits .e read coils ( inputs n K ( bits Data ) length will $e . $ifferent implementations use wireline. !ll 4odbus commands contain checking information. -owever the variants are not interoperable as the frame formats are different. 0here are many modems and gateways that support 4odbus. as well as commanding the device to send back one or more values contained in its registers. Communication and devices 3ach device intended to communicate using 4odbus is given a uni#ue address.nd ). ensuring that a command arrives undamaged.

the unit identifier tells the 2lave !ddress of the device behind the gateway.2E0 6 to 4:$+.2 *0.2E0 6%capable devices usually ignore the . 5n such case. gateways.nd 8 chars carriage return 3 line ..eed(CRL4" pair (ASC'' values o. server M client *rotocol .or #8DB&S(%CP 8 bytes Num$er o.illed depending on the message t/pe %+C Check 8 chars 0rror chec. remaining $/tes in this .g.denti ier 8 bytes . not used" & byte 4unction codes as in other variants n bytes Data as response or commands Transaction .8odbus A-C. 2ome of the most common variations are: . "atively 4:$+. on 4:$+.s . e.e read coils ( inputs n chars Data )length will $e .nit 5dentifier.2 devices.denti ier &unction code Data bytes 8 bytes 7ero . D 5 A he2" 8odbus TC* &rame &ormat Name %ength &unction 4or s/nchroni6ation $etween messages o.denti ier %ength &ield :nit .nit identifier is used with 4:$+.mplementations !lmost all implementations have variations from the official standard.unction codes li. $ifferent varieties might not communicate correctly between e#uipment of different suppliers.rame & byte Slave Address (299 i.2E0 6 devices that are composites of several 4:$+. . &rame &ormat Name -tart Address &unction Data %ength &unction & char starts with colon ( 1 " (ASC'' value is *A he2" 8 chars Station Address 8 chars 'ndicates the .

&999. called open%mbus)% the master node must routinely poll each field device. to determine if a register value represents a temperature between )9 and &7F degrees. which limits the number of field devices that may be connected to a master station (once again 3thernet 0 6E56 proving the e>ception). &9. Garge binary ob@ects are not supported. and look for changes in the data.• $ata types o Floating point 5333 o )8%bit integer o (%bit data o 4i>ed data types o +it fields in integers o 4ultipliers to change data toEfrom integer.</ • • • • • . &99. 2ince 4odbus is a masterEslave protocol. "o standard way e>ists for a node to find the description of a data ob@ect. the number of data types is limited to those understood by 6G s at the time. such as over a low%bit%rate radio link..) o Word swapped data • %imitations • 2ince 4odbus was designed in the late &'79s to communicate to programmable logic controllers. 0his consumes bandwidth and network time in applications where bandwidth may be e>pensive.. for e>ample. . 4odbus transmissions must be contiguous which limits the types of remote communications devices to those that can buffer data to avoid gaps in the transmission. 8F1 . there is no way for a field device to =report by e>ception= (e>cept over 3thernet 0 6E56. 4odbus protocol provides no security against unauthoriCed commands or interception of data. 6rotocol e>tensions o &1%bit slave addresses o )8%bit data siCe (& address N )8 bits of data returned. 4odbus is restricted to addressing 8<7 devices on one data link.

regardless of whether or not the user transfers data during that period. which is typically billed per minute of connection time. either as part of a bundle or on a pay as you use basis. 5t provides moderate%speed data transfer. . 5t was originally standardiCed by 3uropean 0elecommunications 2tandards 5nstitute (3025). search 0his article needs additional citations or veri ication9 6lease help improve this article by adding reliable references. as well as in the ). 0his contrasts with circuit switching data. .6*2 usage charging is based on volume of data.b per month for a fi>ed fee.*+-) is a packet oriented mobile data service available to all users of the 8. cellular technology combined with . a technology between the second (8. .6*2 is integrated into .. the .)/. where a certain #uality of service (Po2) is guaranteed during the connection.66).8/. . (Novem$er 2 :" .eneral packet radio service (.) generations of mobile telephony.24 *elease '7 and newer releases. . cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (.6*2 was .sage above the bundle cap is either charged for per megabyte or disallowed.9<. !n e>ample of a bundle is up to F. .&/ 8. .6*2 provides data rates of F1%&&< kbitEsecond.eneration 6artnership 6ro@ect (). 5n 8. that is. systems.24 system. 0he pay as you use charging is typically per megabyte of traffic. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.6*2 is sometimes described as 2.) and third (). systems. as opposed to circuit switching. for e>ample.nsourced material may be challenged and removed.24).6*2 is a best%effort packet switched service. .eneral *acket +adio -ervice From Wikipedia. by using unused time division multiple access (0$4!) channels in. but now by the )rd .</.

.24 circuit switched data capabilities and makes the following services possible: • • • • • • =!lways on= internet access 4ultimedia messaging service (442) 6ush to talk over cellular (6o E600) 5nstant messaging and presenceAwireless village 5nternet applications for smart devices through wireless application protocol (W!6) 6oint%to%point (686) service: inter%networking with the 5nternet (56) 5f 242 over . 5n this mode 666 is often not supported by the mobile phone operator but if the mobile is used as a modem to the connected computer. each phone can have one or more 56 addresses allocated.g. mobile built%in browsers use 56v< since 56v1 is not yet popular. or even over 56. 0his is much faster than using the ordinary 242 over . but doing this re#uires either a network based router to perform encapsulation or intelligence built in to the end% deviceEterminal? e. When 0 6E56 is used. Q.6*2 will store and forward the 56 packets to the phone even during handover. 666 is used to tunnel 56 to the phone.24.g. due to a radio noise induced pause).developed as a .6*2 supports the following protocols: • • • internet protocol (56). point%to%point protocol (666). 0his allows an 56 address to be assigned dynamically to the mobile e#uipment.3).24 response to the earlier $6$ and i%mode packet switched cellular technologies. . whose 242 transmission speed is about 1 to &9 242 messages per minute. although it has been removed from the standard.8F can still be supported over 666.6*2 e>tends the . <ardware . 5n practice. *rotocols supported . 0his is typically used for applications like wireless payment terminals. user e#uipment (.6*2 is used. Q. Technical overview -ervices o ered . 0he 0 6 handles any packet loss (e.8F connections. an 242 transmission speed of about )9 242 messages per minute may be achieved.

24 service (voice call or 242) has concluded. 242).$evices supporting .6*2 depend on a number of factors such as: • • • the number of +02 0$4! time slots assigned by the operator the ma>imum capability of the mobile device e>pressed as a . a .<8bis.6*2 multislot class the channel encoding used summarised in the following table. lass + an be connected to . or nowadays more like a pendrive.2+ devices which are similar in shape and siCe to a computer mouse. 4ost .6*2 service and .6*2 mobile devices are lass +.2+ ). sometimes referred to as =simple class !=.24 service (voice call or 242). 242).E. and thus will need two radios. 2uch devices are known to be available today.6*2 mobile may implement the dual transfer mode ($04) feature. and *F &&<< and some models have connector for e>ternal antenna. data formats H. $uring . 242).9 and later.24 service (voice. 2ome networks are e>pected to support $04 in 8997.6*2 4odem . using both at the same time. -uawei 3889 ). ! $04%capable mobile may use simultaneous voice and packet data.6*2 are divided into three classes: lass ! an be connected to . lass !re connected to either . 4ust be switched manually between one or the other service. 8.6*2 modems use a terminal%like interface over . 4odems can be added as cards (for laptops) or e>ternal .24 service (voice.2+ &. and then resumed automatically after the .&. . but using only one or the other at a given time. Coding schemes and speeds 0he upload and download speeds that can be achieved in .24 service (voice. ! true lass ! device may be re#uired to transmit on two different fre#uencies at the same time.6*2 service and .E. 2uch mobiles are considered pseudo% lass !.6*2 service is suspended. with the network coordinating to ensure that it is not re#uired to transmit on two different fre#uencies at the same time. Coding -peed scheme (kbit!s) .6*2 service or . 0o get around this e>pensive re#uirement.

6*2 (3$. $uring a session.9 19.8 ( lass (.24 with .3) 3. but has '(R of normal coverage.1 8(.8 (9.42L modulation defined for . especially when there is a continuous flow of data between the endpoints.6*2 (3$.9 &8.( <). 0he least robust.9 &<. coding scheme ( 2%<) is available near a base transceiver station (+02).3) Download (kbit!s) '.9 ( lass ( M &9 and 2%<) <9.1 :pload (kbit!s) '.24 technologies which deliver data services: circuit%switched data ( 2$) and high%speed circuit%switched data (-2 2$).6*2 and circuit switched data services. 5n contrast to the shared nature of .24.6*2 3. a user is assigned to one pair of up%link and down%link fre#uency channels.2%& 2%8 2%) 2%< (. -owever.9 kbitEs per time slot.( &77.6*2.1 &<.6*2.< &<. using this scheme the cell coverage is 8FR of normal.6*2 are based on fre#uency division duple> (F$$) and 0$4!. there are two other . 2ome applications such as video calling may prefer -2 2$.9 8)1.sing the 2%< it is possible to achieve a user speed of 89. .9 kbitEs per time slot.9 ( lass &9 and 2% <) F'. 2%& can achieve a user speed of only (.< 89. "ewer network e#uipment can adapt the transfer speed automatically depending on the mobile location. Technology 2$ -2 2$ -2 2$ . 0he following table summarises some possible configurations of .9 hannel encoding is based on a convolutional code at different code rates and . these instead establish a dedicated circuit (usually billed per minute).< ( lass &9 and 4 2%') TD8A Timeslots allocated &O& 8O& )O& <O& )O8 <O& )O8 8ultiple access schemes 0he multiple access methods used in . while the most robust coding scheme ( 2%&) is used when the mobile station (42) is further away from a +02. &9 and 4 2%') &&(.6*2 . but fastest. 5n addition to . 0his is combined with time domain statistical .< 89.

0he network uses the multislot class information for allocating radio channels in the uplink and downlink direction. short message service (242). 5n order to set up a .6*2E3.e. 0his means that slotted !G:-! (2%!G:-!) is used for reservation in#uiries during a contention phase. 2ome high end mobiles.6*2 enabled mobile phone which primarily indicates the ma>imum number of radio timeslots that can be allocated to a mobile phone.8. Addressing ! . multimedia messaging service (442). !ccording to ).multiple>ing? i.. 4ultislot class with values greater than )& are referred to as high multislot classes. ! multislot class can be a value between & to <F. 5t indirectly determines the speed of data transfer in the . ! commonly used multislot class is class &9 for many .6*2 connection is established by reference to its access point name (!6"). 0he multislot class of a mobile phone can be found out by looking at the technical specifications of the mobile phone. packet mode communication. corresponding to a .6*2 mobiles.3 multislot class )8. usually also supporting . and for 5nternet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.6*2E3$.24 time slot.998 (*elease 1).6*2 connection for a wireless modem. 0he first number(F) is the number of downlink timeslots and the second number is the number of uplink timeslots allocated to the mobile station.plink and $ownlink direction. while the up%link uses a scheme very similar to reservation !G:-! (*%!G:-!). optionally a user name and password.402 also support . and very rarely an 56 address. 0he packets have constant length. ! class &9 mobile uses a ma>imum of < timeslots in downlink direction and 8 timeslots in uplink direction. 0he down%link uses first%come first%served packet scheduling. mobile stations . 0he network will automatically configure the for either )O8 or <O& operation depending on the nature of data transfer. 0he !6" defines the services such as wireless application protocol (W!6) access. a user must specify an !6". 8ultislot Class ! multislot class is an important part of a technical specification of a . -owever simultaneously a ma>imum number of F simultaneous timeslots can be used in both uplink and downlink.66 02 <F.6*2E3. 0able +. ! multislot allocation can be represented for e>ample like FO8. which makes it possible for several users to share the same fre#uency channel. all provided by the network operator. and then the actual data is transferred using dynamic 0$4! with first%come first%served scheduling.

of this class support F timeslots in downlink and ) timeslots in uplink with a ma>imum number of 1 simultaneously used timeslots.nder the best reception conditions.6*2 connection offered in 899) was similar to a modem connection in an analog wire telephone network. .3 modulation and coding scheme can be used.:plink T. when the best 3$.6*2 is typically prioritiCed lower than speech.8 kbitEs N &77. i. 5n uplink direction. When more data is transferred in the uplink the network can at any time change the constellation to <O8 or )O).Active T& & & 8 8 8 & ) ) 8 8 ) < ) & < F 8 8 < 1 ) 8 < 7 ) ) < ( < & F ' ) 8 F &9 < 8 F && < ) F &8 < < F )9 F & 1 )& F 8 1 )8 F ) 1 )) F < 1 )< F F 1 :sability 0he ma>imum speed of a . and thus the #uality of connection varies greatly..*+-!.e..*+8ultislot Class Downlink T.8 kbitEs N 8'1 kbitEs. . ) timeslots can carry a bandwidth of )KF'.1 kbitEs. 5f data traffic is concentrated in downlink direction the network will configure the connection for FO& operation. . F timeslots can carry a bandwidth of FKF'.F/ [edit] 8ultislot Classes or . Gatency is very high? round%trip time (*00) is typically about 199%799 ms and often reaches & s. about )8%<9 kbitEs. depending on the phone used.

.. 0"29##-2""6. 0"29## From Wikipedia.. (4e$ruar/ 2 =" 5t has been suggested that this article or section be merged into >i+4i.-C fre#uency bands. 6lease help clarify the article? suggestions may be found on the talk page. search 0his article may be con using or unclear to readers... 0he base current version of the standard is ... 0"29## is a set of standards carrying out wireless local area network (WG!") computer communication in the 8.. ($iscuss) . 0hey are created and maintained by the 5333 G!"E4!" 2tandards ommittee (5333 (98). the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.. ).1 and F .<.. .

&& and +luetooth control their interference and susceptibility to interference by using spread spectrum modulation.-C . (98. (98.-C 524 fre#uency band..&&a uses the F .< .< . +ecause of this choice of fre#uency band.0he Ginksys W*0F<.&&n is a new multi%streaming modulation techni#ue. 0he most popular are those defined by the (98.&&a and (98.&&b) fall within the 8.&&bEg devices under 6art '7 of the F *ules and *egulations.-C 524 band. @) are service amendments and e>tensions or corrections to the previous specifications.. 2ecurity was originally purposefully weak due to e>port re#uirements of some governments. Fre#uencies used by channels one through si> ((98. 0he used segment of the radio fre#uency spectrum varies between countries.&/ and was later enhanced via the (98. (98. depending on the environment.&&g protocols.8/ +etter or worse performance with higher or lower fre#uencies (channels) may be realiCed. while (98.&&b and (98. but (98. for much of the world.&&b and (98.2 Federal ommunications ommission *ules and *egulations. (98.&&g and (98. allowing increased power output but not commercial content or encryption.< . Gicensed amateur radio operators may operate (98.&&b was the first widely accepted one. :ther standards in the family (cSf. which are amendments to the original standard. (98.&& family includes over%the%air modulation techni#ues that use the same basic protocol.&&b and g e#uipment may occasionally suffer interference from microwave ovens. as allowed in 6art &F of the F *ules and *egulations. contains an (98.&&b and (98. operating in the ..&&%&''7 was the first wireless networking standard.&&n.&&bEg radio with two antennas ! ompa# (98. +luetooth uses a fre#uency hopping spread spectrum signaling method (F-22).&&g devices may be operated without a license.2.&&g use the 8. 5n the . which.&&b 6 5 card 0he (98.-C amateur radio band. offers at least &' non%overlapping channels rather than the ) offered in the 8.nited 2tates under 6art &F of the . followed by (98.&&i amendment after governmental and legislative changes.&&g use the direct se#uence spread spectrum signaling ($222) and orthogonal fre#uency division multiple>ing (:F$4) methods.%"55 band. h. respectively.)/ . cordless telephones and +luetooth devices. +oth (98. (98.

-C band is heavily used to the point of being crowded.C/ n :ct 899' 8. 5n practice.&&a is less than that of (98. )1. 8 & 89 11 &99 ))9 F-22 F 1. F7.C/ 4ain article: 5333 (98.-C band with a ma>imum net data rate of F< 4bitEs.1/ &89. plus error correction code. & )( &8F &<9 <19 $222 )1. 8<.<EF < :F$4 &F. F< &.&&a signals are absorbed more readily by walls and other solid ob@ects in their path due to their smaller wavelength and. &<. 78.&&bEg. 5n theory.&&a a significant advantage. -owever.-C band gives (98. )F &&F &89 )'9 a 2ep &''' 89 &(.&&a standard uses the same data link layer protocol and frame format as the original standard.citation needed/ 2ince the 8.< 89 & $222 )( &8F &<9 <19 && &.'.8. at higher speeds. b 2ep &''' 8.<.8. F. (98. which yields realistic net achievable throughput in the mid%89 4bitEs. 8(. 1. &(.&&b. -owever..y/ %% %% F.7.< . cannot penetrate as far as those of (98. 19. :F$4. 8. '.1/ <). <9 79 8)9 8F9 (89. using the relatively unused F . '9.&&b will reduce speed to F 4bitEs or even & 4bitEs at low signal strengths). but an :F$4 based air interface (physical layer).F.<>) (8<>) stream needed] needed] streams (8bit!s)[5] (m) ( t) (m) ( t) $222. &F9.999 &1.< 89 &. 1F.citation needed/ [edit] 0"29##b . as a result.&&b typically has a higher range at low speeds ((98. 5t operates in the F . 8&.7. )9. this high carrier fre#uency also brings a disadvantage: the effective overall range of (98. S Jun &''7 8. & :F$4 ).999.8/ 8odulation range *rotocol (.*rotocols 0"29## network standards v T d T e Appro'imate Appro'imate Data rate indoor /utdoor Allowable 0"29## per [citation [4] &re=9 $andwidth range[citation +elease 8.< 89 &8. 89 79 8)9 8F9 (89. (98. '.(. g Jun 899) 8.y/ <(. &)F. (98. &8. 8<.&&a%&''' 0he (98. <F.). F< 7. <(. 8.&&a often has the same or greater range due to less interference.

+luetooth devices. due to the desire for higher data rates as well as to reductions in manufacturing costs. since (98. 0his works in the 8. supporting a and bEg in a single mobile adapter card or access point.&&b. $evices operating in the 8. activity of an (98.&&g devices suffer interference from other products operating in the 8.&&g network.< . +y summer 899). Channels and international compatibility 2ee also: Gist of WG!" channels .&&b products appeared on the market in early 8999.&&b participant will reduce the data rate of the overall (98.&&b%&''' (98. or about 88 4bitEs average throughput. (98.< .&&g%899) 5n June 899).< .< .-C range include: microwave ovens.4ain article: 5333 (98. (98.&&a. (98. baby monitors and cordless telephones. well before ratification. $etails of making b and g work well together occupied much of the lingering technical process? in an (98.-C band.&&g. Gike (98. however. most dual%band (98.&&b is a direct e>tension of the modulation techni#ue defined in the original standard.&&g network .&&g standard was rapidly adopted by consumers starting in January 899).&&b (compared to the original standard) along with simultaneous substantial price reductions led to the rapid acceptance of (98.&&b has a ma>imum raw data rate of && 4bitEs and uses the same media access method defined in the original standard.&&b). a third modulation standard was ratified: (98. [edit] 0"29##g 4ain article: 5333 (98.&&g hardware is fully backwards compatible with (98.&&b as the definitive wireless G!" technology.-C band (like (98. 0he dramatic increase in throughput of (98.&&aEb products became dual%bandEtri%mode. for e>ample wireless keyboards. but uses the same :F$4 based transmission scheme as (98. 5t operates at a ma>imum physical layer bit rate of F< 4bitEs e>clusive of forward error correction codes.7/ (98.&&b hardware and therefore is encumbered with legacy issues that reduce throughput when compared to (98.-C band.&&b devices suffer interference from other products operating in the 8.. 0he then%proposed (98.&&a by U8&R.

-C in the .< .<&8 .&&/.<() . typically &. and && is typical there too.raphical representation of Wi%Fi channels in 8.-C.-C to which Japan adds a &<th channel &8 4-C above channel &).-C band .<99S8. 2pectral masks for (98. >LAN channels. constrained in part by how each country allocates radio spectrum to various services. !t one e>treme. 4ost other 3uropean countries are almost as liberal as Japan. 1. while "orth !merica and some entral and 2outh !merican countries further disallow &8 and &). for e>ample.2. etc.-C band is divided into &) channels each of width 88 4-C but spaced only F 4-C apart. disallowing only channel &<.<98S8. (98. &&. !vailability of channels is regulated by country. while at the other 2pain initially allowed only channels &9 and && and France allowed only &9. &. the actual allocations being. !nother is that channels &%&) effectively re#uire the band 8.-C in the . analogously to how radio and 0H broadcast bands are sub%divided but with greater channel width and overlap. 8.&&g channels &%&< in the 8. ' and &) in 3urope although &. &8 and &) (now both countries follow the 3uropean model of allowing channels & through &).-C band (98. :ne conse#uence is that stations can only use every fourth or fifth channel without overlap. 4or more details on this topic? see List o. 8.<78 . with channel & centered on 8. Japan permits the use of all &< channels (with the e>clusion of (98. For e>ample the 8. and in theory.-C and &) on 8.< . F.<9&S8.<()F . 0he mask re#uires that the signal be attenuated by at least )9 d+ from its peak energy at V&& 4-C from the centre fre#uency.&& also specifies (in lause &7) a spectral mask defining the permitted distribution of power across each channel. 1 and && in the !mericas.L. +esides specifying the centre fre#uency of each channel.<()F ..&&gEn from channel &<).<999S8.&8/). the sense in which channels are effectively 88 4-C wide.&& divides each of the above%described bands into channels.<7)F .

and &9). Frames are divided into very specific and standardiCed sections. $ata and 4anagement are various frame types defined in 5333 (98. &. 5f transmitters are closer together than channels &.&</ &rames urrent (98. 1. 0his way. ontrol and management frames set these values to Cero. 1. more channels are available. 0ype and 2ub type are combined together to identify the e>act frame.&)/ -owever. the &S1S&& guideline has merit. it is often assumed that the energy of the channel e>tends no further than these limits. 0hey indicate whether a data frame is headed for a distributed system.&&. ToD. urrently used protocol version is Cero. the signal on any channel should be sufficiently attenuated to minimally interfere with a transmitter on any other channel. and && are =non%overlapping= is limited to spacing or product density. $ue to the near%far problem a transmitter can impact a receiver on a =non%overlapping= channel. !lthough the statement that channels &.2ince the spectral mask only defines power output restrictions up to V&& 4-C from the center fre#uency to be attenuated by %F9 d+r. :ther values are reserved for future use. • *rotocol ?ersion@ 5t is two bits in siCe and represents the protocol version. but only if it is close to the victim receiver (within a meter) or operating above allowed power levels. 2ome frames may not have payload portion. Type@ 5t is two bits in siCe and helps to identify the type of WG!" frame. 8ore &ragment@ 0he 4ore Fragmentation bit is set most notably when higher level packets have been partitioned and will be set for all non%final sections.and &romD-@ 3ach is one bit in siCe. ontrol. First 8 bytes of 4! header is a frame control field that provides detailed information about the frame.&& standards define =frame= types for use in transmission of data as well as management and control of wireless links. 1. !ll the data frames will have one of these bits set. 5t is more correct to say that.. -owever communication within an 5+22 network always set these bits to Cero. 7.. payload and F 2. -ub Type@ 5t is four bits in siCe. • • • • . 0he sub fields of the frame control field is presented in order. overlapping channels may be used under certain circumstances. and &&. <. given the separation between channels &. overlap between the channels may cause unacceptable degradation of signal #uality and throughput. and && (for e>ample. 3ach frame has a 4! header. 2ome management frames may re#uire partitioning as well.

.&1/ -tandard and amendments Within the 5333 (98. etc. 5t is toggled to one after a frame has been decrypted or if no encryption is set it will have already been one. ! station sends a *02 frame to as the first step in a two%way handshake re#uired before sending data frames.• +etry@ 2ometimes frames re#uire retransmission. within the body. *e#uest to 2end (*02) frame: 0he *02 and 02 frames provide an optional collision reduction scheme for access point with hidden stations. 0he access point uses this bit to facilitate stations in power saver mode. 5t indicates that at least one frame is available and addresses all stations connected. 0he 02 provides collision control management by including a time value for which all other stations are to hold off transmission while the re#uesting stations transmits. the sending station will resend the frame. $ata frames carry packets from web pages.&& control frames include: • • • !cknowledgement (! L) frame: !fter receiving a data frame. and for this there is a *etry bit which is set to one when a frame is resent.. *ower 8anagement@ 0he 6ower 4anagement bit indicates the power management state of the sender after the completion of a frame e>change.roup. !ccess points are re#uired to manage the connection and will never set the power saver bit. lear to 2end ( 02) frame: ! station responds to an *02 frame with a 02 frame. Frames and fragments are not always sent in order as it causes a transmission performance penalty. A. /rder@ 0his bit is only set when the =strict ordering= delivery method is employed.</ the following 5333 2tandards !ssociation 2tandard and !mendments e>ist: . • • • • ontrol frames facilitate in the e>change of data frames between stations.*@ 0he W36 bit is modified after processing a frame. 8ore Data@ 0he 4ore $ata bit is used to buffer frames received in a distributed system. 2ome common (98. 5f the sending station doesnDt receive an ! L frame within a predetermined period of time. 0his aids in the elimination of duplicate frames. files. the receiving station will send an ! L frame to the sending station if no errors are found. 5t provides clearance for the re#uesting station to send a data frame.&& Working .

Community networks With the proliferation of cable modems and $2G. For e>ample.nit (usually abbreviated 0.&&%&''' with ( amendments made it necessary to revise already agreed upon te>t. 0his denotes a third type of document.&&a: F< 4bitEs. additional guidelines associated with a revision had to be followed.-C *F and infrared . !mendments are created by task groups (0. e>cept for *ecommended 6ractices (98.5*/ standard (&''7).&& to support F.. !s far as the 5333 2tandards !ssociation is concerned.&&: 0he WG!" standard was originally & 4bitEs and 8 4bitEs.m also provides clarification and interpretation to industry on published documents. 0"29## followed by the date that it was published. . 5333 (98.F and && 4bitEs (&''') -tandard or amendmentB +oth the terms =standard= and =amendment= are used when referring to the different variants of .&& followed by a non%capitaliCed letter.&& is the responsibility of task group m.. ! 6ortal provides access to the WG!" by non%(98.&& are used to specify aspects of wireless local%area networking operation. . "ew versions of the . a =revision=...pdating (98. 0.< . all the others listed below are !mendments to this standard.&&%*3Hma. 5333 (98.&&a and 5333 (98. For e>ample 5333 (98. (rather than the nearly%e#ual millisecond).) is used to indicate a unit of time e#ual to &98< microseconds. 5n order to create a new version.&&0. !lso the term =6ortal= is used to describe an entity that is similar to an (98. shipping products in 899&) 5333 (98. !s a result.&&F and (98.&&b: 3nhancements to (98..-C standard (&'''.&&%8997 was (98. there is an ever%increasing market of people who wish to establish small networks in their homes to share their broadband 5nternet connection..bridge.• • • 5333 (98. F .&&b.. 0he comple>ity of combining (98.&&%8997 is the only version currently in publication. 0. 0"29##. "umerous time constants are defined in terms of 0. 0he working title of (98.&& G!" 20!s. 0"29## were published in &''' and 8997. +oth the task group and their finished document are denoted by (98. 0ime .m combines the previous version of the standard and all published amendments.. Nomenclature Harious terms in (98.&.. and may be unfamiliar to some readers. 8. 0he standard is updated by means of amendments. there is only one current standard? it is denoted by .).

.4any hotspot or free networks fre#uently allow anyone within range. to connect to the 5nternet. 0here are also efforts by volunteer groups to establish wireless community networks to provide free wireless connectivity to the public. including passersby outside.