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Unit No.

 2
Transmission Characteristics of  Optical Fiber

Transmission Windows in Optical Fiber
• 1st window is at 850nm
– Low loss – Silica fibers – 10 Km repeater spacing – Multimode M lti d  fibers fib  were used d – 140 Mbps – Higher Hi h  attenuation i – Short distance

Transmission Windows in Optical Fiber
• 2nd window is at 1310nm
– Low loss – Silica fibers – 40 Km repeater spacing – Single g  mode as well as Multimode fibers were  used – 2.5Gbps – Comparatively less attenuation – long distance

Transmission Windows in Optical Fiber
• 3rd window is at 1550nm
– Low loss – Silica fibers – 90 Km repeater spacing – Single Si l  mode d  and d M Multimode lti d  fib fibers were used d – Up to 10 Gbps – lowest l  attenuation i – long distance

Attenuation Characteristics of an Optical Fiber

Fiber Attenuation • Loss or attenuation is a limiting parameter in fiber optic  systems • Fiber optic transmission systems became competitive with  electrical transmission lines only when losses were reduced to  allow signal transmission over distances greater than 10 km • Fiber attenuation can be described by the general relation: dP dz = −α P where α is the power attenuation coefficient per unit length • If Pin power is launched into the fiber. fiber  the power remaining  after propagating a length L within the fiber Pout is Pout = Pin exp(− α L ) .

Fiber Attenuation • Attenuation A i  i is conveniently i l  expressed d i in terms of f dB/k dB/km α (dB km )= ⎛ Pout ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Pin ⎠ ⎛ Pin e − α L ⎞ 10 ⎟ log 10 ⎜ = − ⎟ ⎜ P L in ⎠ ⎝ 10 (− α L ) log 10 (e ) = − L = 4 . 34 α − 10 log L ⎛ 10 mW P = 10 mW = 10 log10 ⎜ ⎜ 1 mW ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ = 10 dBm ⎠ 27 ⎛ 10 ⎞ ⎜ P = 27 dBm = 1 mW ⎜10 ⎟ ⎟ = 501 mW ⎝ ⎠ • Power is often expressed in dBm (dBm is dB from 1mW) .

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Attenuation • Due to absorption – Intrinsic – Extrinsic – Atomic defects •Due to radiation • Due to scattering • Linear Li   – Mie – Rayleigh  •Micro bending •Macro bending  • Non linear – – – – SRS SBS CPM FWM .

400 nm. 950 nm & 725nm. .Impurities in fiber material: from transition metal ions (must be in order of ppb) & particularly from OH ions with absorption p p peaks at wavelengths g 2700 nm.Intrinsic absorption (fundamental lower limit): electronic absorption b ti band b d (UV region) i ) & atomic t i bond b d vibration ib ti band b d (IR region) in basic SiO2. . 2.Radiation defects 3 .Absorption • Absorption is caused by three different mechanisms: 1. 3.

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Absorption and Scattering Loss .

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External Losses • Bending loss – Radiation ad at o  loss oss at be bends ds in the t e optical opt ca  fiber be – Insignificant unless R<1mm – Larger radius of curvature becomes more  significant if  th  are accumulated there l t d bending b di  losses l  over a l long distance di t • Coupling and splicing loss – – – – – Misalignment of core centers Tilt Air gaps End face reflections Mode mismatches .

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Bending loss • Macrobending g • Microbending cladding core 23 .

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Transmission medium performance p z=0 z 0 z=L z L Attenuation z=0 z=L Dispersion .

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)  . • In digital systems.• Dispersion of the transmitted  optical signal causes distortion for  both digital and analog  transmissions along optical fibers. • This reduces the fiber bandwidth  and can cause intersymbol  interference ( (ISI). the dispersion  mechanisms h i  cause a broadening b d i   of the transmitted pulses as they  travel along the fiber.

Dispersion • Dispersive p  medium: velocity y of propagation p p g   depends on frequency • Dispersion causes temporal pulse spreading – Pulse overlap results in indistinguishable data – Inter symbol interference (ISI) • Dispersion is related to the velocity of the pulse .

Types of dispersion • Intermodal dispersion (only for multimode  fiber) • Chromatic dispersion = intramodal dispersion – Material dispersion – Waveguide W id  dispersion di i • Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) .

Dispersion mechanisms Intermodal Intramodal / Chromatic • material Atomic resonances Electronic resonances 1 multimode fiber! 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 ν (Hz) • waveguide id .

Intermodal Dispersion • Higher order modes have a longer path length – Longer path length has a longer propagation time – Temporal pulse separation Δτ = ΔL vg – vg is used as the propagation speed for the rays to take  into account the material dispersion .

Intermodal dispersion L θc n1 n2 X Tmin distance L n1 = = = L⋅ c velocity c n1 n1 Tmax = L ⋅ c ⋅ cos θ c Ln12 = c ⋅ n2 n2 cos θ c = n1 t T max − T min Ln 1 Δ n Ln 1 Δ n LNA 2 = δTs = ⋅ ≈ ≈ n2 c c 2 n1 c [ns / km ] .

1/δTs ‐δTs/2 ∞ δTs/2 δT s time − ∞ ∫ p i ( t ) dt = 1 = − ∫ δ 2 p i ( t ) dt s T 2 rms pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion  σ 2 s = m 2 − m 12 ∴ m1 = 0 1 d dt δTs 2 zero mean δTs m 2 = − δTs 2 ∫ 2 t2 σ 2 s 1 ⎛ δTs ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ∴ σ s L ( NA ) = 2 n1c 2 Ln 1 Δ L ( NA ) 2 = = 2c 3 n1c 4 3 .

km BL = 100 GHz GHz.Dispersion has less effect in single mode fibers BL = 20 MHz.km km 1 BT = 2τ .km BL = 1 GHz.

Km .g. Max. Bopt. 1) 5MHz 2) 6. A MMGI Fiber exhibits total pulse broadening of 0.L product for the fiber. Estimate : 1.1 μs over  a distance of 15 Km.67ms/Km 3) 75 MHz.Numerical e. 3. possible bandwidth on the link assuming no ISI 2 The pulse broadening /unit length 2.

1 0 0 1 1 1* 1 1 1 δT < T = B ⇓ BL < a certain t i value l 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 . one uses  the following criteria: the pulse broadening δT must be less  than the pulse width T.Due to the dispersion. • To get an order of magnitude of the dispersion effect. there is pulse broadening • B is the bit rate and T the bit duration.

     .Dispersion has two origins • Intramodal or chromatic dispersion: describes the pulse  broadening due to the finite spectral linewidth of the sources  and occurs in all types of fibers : − Material dispersion (the refractive indices of the core and  the cladding change with wavelength) − Waveguide dispersion (E changes with wavelength) − Profile dispersion (index profile changes with wavelength) • Intermodal dispersion: describes the pulse broadening due to  the propagation delay differences between the propagation  modes in multimode fibers.

• The group velocity is given by: dω Vg = dβ • The group delay is given by: l dβ τg = = l Vg dω • It is important to note that all above quantities depend both on frequency & the propagation mode .

ω c = β n1 dω c = vg = dβ N g vp = 1 dβ N g = = Group delay = τ g = v g dω c 1⎡ dn ⎤ = ⎢n1 − λ 1 ⎥ dλ ⎦ c⎣ dn ⎤ 1⎡ material dispersion delay τ m = ⎢n1 − λ 1 ⎥ ⋅ L c⎣ dλ ⎦ d 2n ≠0 dλ2 .Material dispersion • It occurs when the phase velocity of a plane  propagating p g g in the dielectric medium  wave p varies nonlinearly with wavelength.

Material dispersion • Pulse broadening due to material dispersion σm = σλL c d 2 n1 λ dλ2 σ λ L ⎛ d 2 n1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = σλL M λ 2⎟ ⎜ c ⎝ dλ ⎠ • Material dispersion parameter λ d 2 n1 M= c dλ2 ps / nm − Km .

3 1.6 1.6 ‐50 ‐100 0.4 1.2 1.8 2 .Material dispersion tends to become 0  at longer l  wavelengths l h 250 200 150 dispersion 100 50 0 0.8 1 1.

Overall dispersion Chromatic dispersion and Intermodal  dispersion σT = σ +σ 2 C 2 n .

Kasap. An input light will travel along the fiber with Ex and Ey polarizations having different group velocities and hence arrive at the output at different times © 1999 S. We can take x and y axes along these directions.O. Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall) .Polarization Mode dispersion Intensity t Output light pulse z n1 y // y C Core Ex Ey Ey Ex Δτ = Pulse spread Δτ n1 x // x t E Input light pulse Suppose pp that the core refractive index has different values along g two orthogonal g directions corresponding to electric field oscillation direction (polarizations).

where I is the intensity of Optical wave wave.Kerr effect Temporal changes in a narrow optical pulse that is subjected to Kerr nonlinearity in A dispersive medium with positive GVD GVD. n = n0 + n2 I Kerr nonlinearity in fiber. .

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Dispersion‐shifted fiber 40 20 1.4 1.2 1.6 wavelength (μm) 50 T-fiber (triangular) r .5 Dtot Dispersion-shifted fiber Dw Dispersion-shifted fiber n(r) 1.55 Dm SiO2 fiber \ \ D (ps/n nm/km) 0 -20 -40 -60 1 1.3 1.1 1.

3 1.55 m SiO2 D (ps/nm/km) 20 \ D tot DFF 0 D w DSF -20 n(r) -40 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.6 wavelength (μm) W-fiber 51 r .Dispersion‐flattened fiber 40 D 1.