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Classification of electronic components Considering the various applications of electronics, we can be a little surprised only a few basic types of components can be classified into two groups: A) Passive Components. B) Active Components. The electronic circuit will not wor without use of the electronic components. All electronic circuits, however complicated, contain a few basic components. !A) Passive Components: The electronic components by themselves are not capable of amplifying or processing an electrical signal, are called passive Components. "esistors, Capacitors and inductors are basic passive Components. Passive Components can have fi#ed value or various value. The passive Components are used along with active components to construct the electronic circuit. $ithout aid of these components, the electronic circuit is not wor ing. !B) Active Components: The electronic components which are capable of amplifying or processing an electrical signal are called active components. The active components are broadly classified into two groups: tube type and semiconductor type.

Tube devices include vacuum tubes and gas tubes.vacuum tubes include vacuum diode, triode, tetrode, pentode etc., while gas tubes include gas diode, thyratron etc. Cathode "ay Tube !C"T) also comes under tube devices. %emiconductor devices include semiconductor diode, Bipolar &unction Transistor ! B'T), (ield )ffect Transistor !%C"), special diodes such as *ener diode, +ight )mitting ,iode !+),), tunnel diode etc. +et us discuss few basic passive Components. RESISTORS The flow of charge !or current) through any material, encounters an opposing force, similar in many respects to mechanical friction. This opposing force for the flow of electrical current is called resistance of the material. -n the case of resistors, the current is directly proportional to the applied voltage. Thus a register is an electrical component, which has been manufactured with a specified amount of resistance. The resistors are mainly used for two purposes, namely controlling the flow of current and providing the desired amounts of voltage in electric or electronic circuit. The resistance of the material is measured in ohms, for which the symbol is .. The resistors are basically of two types namely linear resistors and non/linear resistors. )ach type is further sub/divided into many types. 0. Linear Resistors: the resistors, through which the current is directly proportional to the applied voltage, are called linear resistors.

The resistance values of such resistors are independent of temperature, voltage and light variations. The linear resistors are of two types, namely, fi#ed resistors and variable resistors. Again the fi#ed resistors are of four types: 0. Carbon Composition resistors 1. Crac ed carbon resistors 2. 3etal film resistors 4. $ire wound resistors The variable resistors are divided into three types: 0. "heostat 1. Potentiometer 2. Trimmers 1. Non – linear resistors: The resistors, through which the current is not directly proportional to the applied voltage, are called non/linear resistors. such resistors have a property that their resistance values change with the variation in applied voltage, temperature or light intensity. The non/linear resistors are of three types: 0. Thermistors !Temperature ,ependent resistors) 1. 5aristors !5oltage ,ependent resistors) 2. Photoresistors !light ,ependent resistors) i!"#"$ %elo& s'mmari(es t)e classification of resistors"

i!"#"* s)o&s t)e s+m%ols for vario's resistors"

#"# RESISTOR COLO,R CO-E 3ost fi#ed resistors are pieces mar ed in several ways: colour coding, straight numerical value, easily translated numerical codes and one numerical code that is incomprehensible without a cheat/sheet. All the carboncomposition resistors are colour/coded to indicate their resistance in ohms. This system is based on the use of colour bands, painted on the body of the resistors as numerical values. )ach colour band stands for a digit. 6enerally there are four bands which indicate the value of that resistor. %ome manufacturers use five bands out of which the first three colour bands give the value of the resistor. The colour used with the code and the numbers they represent are given in table 0.0 Ta%le $"$: Colo'r Co.e of resistors Colo'r Blac Brown "ed 9range :ellow 6reen Blue 5iolet 6rey $hite 6old %ilver Ao Colour Si!nificant -i!it 7 0 1 2 4 ; < = > ? / / / M'ltiplier 0 07 077 0777 07777 077777 0777777 07777777 077777777 0777777777 7.0 7.70 / Tolerance / 08 18 / / / / / / / @ ;8 @ 078 @ 178

whereas a further silver ring means a resistance tolerance of @078. the colour bands are interpreted as follows: i!" #"# Colo'r Co. only then the first three colour bands represent the resistance value as per the colour codeD the absence of fourth band means a resistance tolerance of @ 178. fourth one gives tolerance and the fifth one indicates reliability level of failure rate for which colour code is: Brown E 08 "ed E 7. As shown in the table starting from left to right. -f the third band is gold. Ten O)ms: -n this case. then multiply the first .770 8 Resistance 'n.0 8 9range E 7. The basic code originally called the "3A !"adio 3anufacturersB Association) code is now called the )-AC3-+ !)lectronic -ndustries Association C 3ilitary). if the fourth band is gold ring.70 8 :ellow E 7. the first three bands give resistance value and the fourth one gives tolerance. starting with the band nearest one end."eading left to right. as before. then the first three bands as usual give resistance value. -f there are four bands. Thus. the third band is either gold or silver which serves as fractional multiplier.e for Resistors -f there are three bands. -f there are five bands. it means a tolerance of @ . the first two bands give two digits in the resistance value. the third band indicates the number of following *eros and the fourth band indicates thetolerance.8.

$ire wound resistors. 2. 2. 3easuring and printing. . then it has a tolerance of .8. 1. Carbon Composition resistors 1. 3etal film resistors. )nd connection 4. 4. . -f it is gold. Fowever. i!"#"/ #"/ I0E. Crac ed carbon resistors. The carbon Composition resistor is constructed from powdered carbon. -f it is silver. 3etal spraying. Production of carbon rod. then multiply by 7. $" Car%on Composition resistors: i!" #"1 Man'fact'rin! process: 0. if it is silver.0.70. the fourth band gives tolerance i. -nsulating coating.two digits by 7.e. then tolerance is 078.RESISTORS: There are four basic types of fi#ed resistors as follows: 0..

Power supplies. 3a#imum temperature: 0 .This powdered carbon held together with fillers and moulded into cylindrical shape. i!" #"2 1. These are used in general/purpose electronics eHuipments. to 0 3. 8 to 17 8 Applications: Power control circuits. car%on resistor: 3anufacturing process Preparation of %ubstrate Crac ing .775 9hmic range: 0. Specifications: Power rating: 0C> w to 1 w 5ma#: . to 0 3. Then metal is sprayed for soldered contact. After that insulating material such as sprayed over it. The rod is then sintered in G hydrogenB or G nitrogenB at 0777 7c / 04777c. Crac3e. The metal caps are fitted from both sides. Temperature Coefficient of resistance: @ 0177 ppm C 7c Tolerance: . These have higher voltage withstanding capacity and cost is low. Then colour codes are printed on outer coating.

Then it is heated at high temperature. Then these rods are cut to reHuired si*e. Preparation of ceramic substance consists china clay E . and fiu# E 17 8. The ceramics are used as a %ubstrate. -t has good mechanical strength and can withstand high temperature. Huart* E 278.%piraling of carbon layer (itting of end cap Applying protective coating Printing values lo& C)art Preparation of S'%strate: -t should be good insulator.7 8. Advantages of using ceramic as substrate are that they can be shaped into desired dimensions and coefficient of linear e#pansion can be match with resistive element on the top of it. . This mi#ture is held together with fillers and binders and modulated into cylindrical shape.

. caps: The metal caps are fitted from both sides for connection.Crac3in!: crac ing or pyrolysis is nothing but decomposition of ceramic rod to produce carbon layer. #"Metal film resistor: i) Preparation of substrate ii) . %ubstrate is evacuated chamber. A(C"T circuits.75 9hmic range: 1 .8 to 178 Application: oscillators. Spiralin! of car%on la+er: %piraling is the process due to which spiral grooves are made around cylindrical substrate coated with carbon film.eposition of metal film. Then colour code is printed on outer coating. After that insulating material is sprayed over it. These vapours get deposited in the . This increases the effective length and reduces with. Temperature coefficient resistance: 0777ppmC7c 3a#imum temperature: 01. i!"#"4 Specifications: Power rating: I w to 1w 5ma#: 2. to 11 . 7c Tolerance: @ 7. while substrate is ept at about 277 7c and ept rotating directly over the filament which emits vapours of nicrome molecule. Aicrome is deposited on ceramic substance. The deposition process in vacuum evaporation. The current heats Aicrome filament. ittin! of en. radio amplifiers.

After cooling. +ess accuracy 0. "esistance less than 07 . A thin film of pure carbon is deposited on ceramic body.7 7c to 0=. +ess stability 2. Temperature indicators and presion "eHuirement. to 03 .77 ppmC oc for o#ide films Temperature: 0. After that insulating material is sprayed over it. 4. Comparison: Metal film resistors 0. Better stability 2. Specifications: Power rating: J w to 1 w 5ma#: .form of film. Then the colour code is printed on outer coating. -t is cheap. Car%on composition 0.. 7c Tolerance: 08 to . (itting of end caps: )nd caps are fitted from both ends. Temperature coefficient of resistance: 0. can be manufactured . cannot possible to manufactured . 3ore accuracy 1.8 Application: 3easuring eHuipment .33 circuit.. -t is costly. "esistance less than 07 . 4. the film is spriled to reHuired resistance. . K 177 ppmC 7c for conducting films : @ .775 9hmic range: . A thin film of metal alloy is deposited on ceramic body.. iii) .

The types or wire wound resistor are as follows. Figher wattage wire can be manufactured. resistors: a protective coating of organic lacHuer is provided on resistive wire. 2.5ire 5o'n. %tability poor 4.vanta!es: . Carbon is deposited on resistive rod 1. $ire wound resistors: Car%on composition resistor 0. Thus a bac to bac or bifilar winding is used. there is simple nichrome wire wound on ceramic rod or tube and ad&ustable tapping is fitted. Accuracy less 2. Accuracy more 2. %tability Better 4. $ire wound resistor suffer from high freHuency effect due to winding. $" Open &o'n. 3a#imum wattage is 0 watt.: -n this type. The resistive wire is so protected. The metal caps are fitted from both sides and terminals are welded. /" Vitreo's enamels: A protective coating of vitreous is provided on resistive wire. resister: A protective coating of cement is provided on winding. "esistive wire is would on the insulating rod 1. #" Lac7'ere. resister 0. i!"#"6 $ire wound resistors are constructed by using wire of nichrome wound on ceramic body. *" Cement coate. The different types of protective covering are provided. A.

Above that temperature.7/177ppmC7c 3a#imum temperature: 277 7c for vitreous enamaled.7 w 9hmic range: 0 . Temperature coefficient resistance: . -isa. 017 oc for other type Tolerance: 08 to 078 Application: power supplies. *" Tolerance: Figh 8 tolerance means low accuracy and vice versa. Specifications: 5ma#: .vanta!es: 0.77v Power rating: 0w to . resistor: $" S)elf life: 3any resistors change their value on storage. /" Temperat're Coefficient: Change in value of resistance per unit length of resistance per unit change in temperature. C)aracteristics of fi8e. Cannot be used for high freHuency applications 1. 2" Ma8im'm temperat're of operation: -t is the ma#imum temperature upto which there is no serious effect on the device. -t has high accuracy. the device gets damaged. 1.0. Power control circuits. 2. Temperature coefficient is very small. to 0. 4"Noise: -t is caused mainly by thermal agitation of current carrier in the reister. 1" Volta!e coefficient: -t is change in resistance value per volt of applying voltage. 6ives more power dessipation.7 . #" Sta%ilit+: Change in value of resistance due to storage or wor ing condition. #"1 NON – LINEAR RESISTORS Aon K liner resistors are of the following types: . %i*e becomes large fo7r increasing power dissipation.

These are manufactured from barium titan ate titanium dio#ide.") (ig.0) Temperature dependent resistors or thermistors. iron and uranium are sintered. cobalt. . they have higher stability.> shows the symbol used to represent these resistors. 2. 2) +ight dependent resistors !+.These are made up of semicondactor of ceramic material mi#ture of manganese. Types are: $: Aegative temperature coefficient resistor. *: Positive temperature coefficient resistor $: Ne!ative temperat're coefficient t)ermister:. ni el.70 inch apart. titanium copper. The resistance of bead type is 077Ω to 3Ω. !a) !b) !c) i! " #"$. which are about 7.") or varistors. 1) 5oltage dependent resistors !5. Their resistance depends upon temperature. i! " #"9 Thermister: There are two types of thermister. higher accuracy and fast response. The material is sintered at high temperature and leads are inserted tightly in beads ma ing good electrical contact inside the thermister. Beads:/ They are made by forming small beads of thermister material on two wires. #: Positive temperat're coefficient t)ermister:.

voltage regulators. The resistance value is from .77 Ω to 0.Probs:/ Beads are sealed into the tips of solid glass epo#y rods or the metal case to form probes. $ashers:/ these are made li e disc e#cept that hole is formed in the center that unit can be mounted on bolt. The resistance value is from 7. These types of varistors are enclosed in polycrystalline ceramic with metal contacts and wire leads. 4) +iHuid level detector. tablets. 1) Temperature control 2) (low measurment. Applications of 5.iscs:/ These are made by pressing thermister material under pressure to form flat tablets. The construction of metal o#ide varistors shown is in ( long. . They have very large negative voltage coefficient. Applications of thermisters:/ 0) Lsed for temperature measurment.e.C.":/ . The material is pressed to desired shape and heated at high temperature. * V-R:. 3etal o#ide varistors in which the curve of current/ voltage i. these pieces are sintered and then silvered on the two faces for a lead attachment. .) A. These are used when high power dissipation in reHuired. Minc o#ide and bismuth o#ide are mi#ed with other metal fillers and binders and then pressrd into disc and sintered at temperature above 0177oC. %ilicon carbide varistors in which the curve slope gradually.7 Ω. they are voltage dependent resistors. There are two types of varistors. 1. -5 curve changes more suddenly. 0. i!" #"$$ %ilicon carbide varistors are made from silicon and mi#ed with suitable ceramic binders. "ods:/ these are molded in long cylindrical shape which are 1mm to in diameter and .The varistors are non/linear which depend on voltage i.1Ω to Ω. 2.00 a.

" is photosensitive resistor whose resistance varies with the intensity of light falling on it. Photoelectric ob&ect counter. Pb%. 1).erating of resistor means using much higher wattage resistor than reHuired at higher temperature. The construction of +. then we will ma e and use of two 47 Ω resistor pn parallel each having wattage rating of . the current density increases near to the surface of condcutor. Lsed as protective device against over/ voltage. reHuired value is 17 Ω. -t is minimised by coating the conductor with silver layer. #"4 -ERATIN= O RESISTOR:.and power dissipation is . $hen light is not incident on +. Ω. (or e#ample. The semiconductor materials normally used are cadmium selenide Cd%." is shown in the (ig. Burglar alarms. #"2 S<IN E ECT:A.. 2). Applications of +.. This increases the effective resistance of conductor to a high value. $. the current travels over the surface of the conductor. 5ariable resistors . 4). -t is also called photo/resistive device or photoresistors. +. +ight intensity meter.12 +.":/ Fig 3. This is called s in effect. But in A. decreasing in the centre. Photoelectric relays !on/off switch). with increasing freHuency.":/ 0).."." has resistance greater than 077 Ω which is nown as dar resistance. $hen light is incident on +. At "(. the light sensitive semiconductor material is deposited on ceramic body by using vacuum evaporation techniHues.". current flowing through a conductor has uniform current density over the entire cross/sectional area of conductor. $. 2.0.) +. 2.C. This can be done by using two similar resistor in parallel but the reHuired value of resistance.C.01 !a). the resistance is decreased on few hundred ohms.

These are the components whose resistance value can be ad&usted to any desired value within the given range in the circuit. 5ariable resistors generally have 2 terminals/1 fi#ed and 0 variable. They are used in measuring instrument, electrical instrument, radio receivers, T.5. receivers, etc. They various types are, as per the constructions: 0). "heostat. 1). Potentiometer. 2). Preset. 0). "heostat:/

i!" #"$#: R)eostat -t is variable wire wound resistor of high wattage. 6enerally, it is higher than ; $. for construction, resistance wire made of nichrime is wound on ceramic cylinder and the ends are fi#ed on both sides of fi#ed terminal. The variable terminal is provided by the slider which moves on a metal rod, fi#ed on both the ends as shown in the (ig. 2.02. -n many applications rheostats are used as variable resistors to limit current flow. They are also used as voltage dividing potentiometers. The rheostats are also available for different current and power ratings.

/" Potentiometers: >i: Linear Potentiometers: They are produced by ta ing resistive material of uniform thic ness or resistively over the entire length of element. This gives resistance versus rotation characteristics as a straight line. i!" #"$/ ? fi!" #"$1

>ii: Lo!arit)mic potentiometer: They are produced by ta ing resistive materials of different resistively to ma e total length of element. This gives the resistance versus rotation characteristics as a logarithmic curve. -t is used for volume controlling in radio receiver. >iii: Car%on t+pe potentiometer : i!" #"$2

Two processes are used for maturing: >a: Coate. film: a mi#ture of carbon filler and binders is coated on a ring of insulating material. The contact is of brass or phosphor bron*e. The wiper is connected to shaft. As shaft rotates, wiper also rotates and changes the resistance. -t consists of two fi#ed terminals and one variable terminal. 5ariable terminal is connected to shaft. Specifications: "esistance value: 077. to 07. Power rating N I watt to J watt. Tolerance: @ 178 for 077 . to 03 . 5oltage coefficient: 7.77;8 5. Application: They are used in T.5. in brightness, contrast control and radio and measuring instrument. > %: Mo.'l.e. t+pe: the carbon composition mi#ed is mouided into cavity in plastic base. Application: they are used in test eHuipments, computers, military and industrial applications.

Carbon composition potentiometers are made in linear and non/ linear types. >iv: &ire &o'n. potentiometers: i!" #"$4

>a: t+pe or sin!le t'rn: nichrome wire is wound on flat strip of insulating material such as paper or Ba elite. This strip is then bent into an arc of circle and fi#ed in a Ba elite mould with end plates and with screws. The resistance element has rotating shaft at is center that moves wiper. To dissipate high power former is made up of aluminum with o#ide coating. >%: Aelical &o'n.: a very angle of rotation is obtained with helical wound resistor. The resistance winding is first wound resistor. The resistance winding is first wound on an insulated former. The former is then bent into a heli#. The helical former may be rectangular or circular. i!"#"$6

These potentiometers have highest resolution in smallest space.

Specifications: "esistance range: 01,07,;7,=;,077, 1.; ,07O,;7O and 01;O . Power rating: 077w to 177w Tolerance: @ 18 #"Preset: Presets are variable resistors having three terminals. Its wor ing principle is same as that of a potentiometer, but the rotating shaft is absent. Their value is ad&usted by using screw driver in the slot provided for the purpose. They are available with standard values in J watt or I watt. They differ potentiometer in the method of use. They are generally provided inside the instrument, where they are set for a particular value and should not be changed, as per reHuirement. i!"#"$9

Rectilinear trimmer: -n this, the resistive material is deposited on straight substrate strips. The moving contact is phenolic strip. The slot is provided over the trac to change the resistance by using screw driver. i!"#"*;


Car%on trimmer: -t consists of the mi#ture or the carbon powder, resin and binders which is deposited on insulating ring.

These types of resistors are used for TTl gates. thic film or thin film. Based on the ind of resistor used. present: i!"#"** -n this type nicrome wire is wound on ceramic insulating substrate in the form of arc. . #"6 RESISTIVE NET5OR< %ome manufacture ma e discrete resistors in the form of networ pac . These are made by screening a mi#ture of glass and metal or metal o#ide to a ceramic substrate. they can be single in line pac !.iscrete networ pac s are preferred when e#tra high precision is compulsory and power handing reHuirement is .-P). TTl/39%. 5ire 5o'n. These resistors have better temperature coefficient and resistance to Fumidity. the resistor networ s can be discrete. current limiting and impedance matching.i!"#"*$ >ii: Cermet trimmer: -t is the mi#ture of ceramic and metal. -nterfacing networ s. "esistive networ pac s are made to be mounted on directly on PCB.

. A ceramic material is printed on non/conducting substrate. lower storage and lower cost 1. Spacification of varia%le resistor: $" Car%on composition : 9hmic range: 077 to 073 Power rating: 7. Thic film networ pac s are manufactured by techniHues of screen printing.vanta!es: 0.high and replacement of components act individual level is desired. )asy for mounting particularly for atomic production.: +aw: +inear sine "ange: 07 Tolerance: @ . i!"#"*# A.-P 4. 3a e in order in %-P or . Better tolerance 2. 8 Power arting: 2 $ +ow: cosine "ange: 077 O #" Cermet : +aw: +inear "ange: 07 to .w to 1w Tolerance: @ 178 +aw: linear or log *" 5ire 5o'n.77 O .

Tolerance: @ 07 8 Power arting: 0 $ E0ERCISE 0.<= )..0 !e) 1 3 .< O. 0. 8 !d) 7. write colour code for following resistors: !a) 027 O. 17 8 !c) 0 O. 07 8 !b) =. ...

07. 02. =. 11. $hat are presents and e#plain how they differ from potentiometerP 10. $hat is meant by temperature coefficient of resistance. 0<. !c) Current rating. 0?. )#plain the term spiraling used in film resistors. $hich type of resistors are used in high power applicationsP $hy.. >. 00. )#plain the constructional detail of crac ed carbon resistor. 6ive the constructional details of rheostal. <. 0.. $hat is meant by linear and logarithmic potentiometerP 17. )#plain the constructions of +6". !b) 5oltage rating. )#plain the characteristics of a fi#ed resistor. 01. )#plain the constructions of 5. 2. $hich types of resistors are having better accuracy.". Fow will you select resistor with proper wattage for particular application. metal film and wire wound resister. )#plain terms PTC and ATC.1. ?.(. 0=. %tate the applications of carbon. Composition potentiometer. 04. 6ive the constructional details of carbon. . 4. )#plain why wire wound resister are not used at ". )#plain the constructional detail of carbon composition resistor. )#plain why high power wire wound resister are open wound. )#plain wire wound resistor with respect to following points: !a) Construction. $hich types of resistors are used in high freHuency applicationsP $hy. $hat is meant by tolerance. %tate different methods used to find out value of given resistor. $hat are variable resistorP %tate the various types. . 0>. 6ive constructional details of applications of high stability resistors. 12. !d) Application. 14.

. 20. %tate application of rheostats. 27. )#plain why rheostats posses high wattage. )#plain construction of linear carbon composition type potentiometer. . 1=. 1?. %tate difference between linear and logarithmic potentiometer. 1<. )#plain the constructions of thermistor. )#plain the term multitern potentiometer.1.

all capacitors consist of two parallel facing conductive surfaces or parallel plates separated by an insulating material called dielectric. micromicro farad are generally employed. 1.ELECTRONIC PASSIVE COMPONENTS . 5 E 0 volt. but it is too large for practical purpose. $hen connected to a voltage source. establishing an electric field. 2. 4. Q C E /////// 5 -f Q E 0 coulomb. 0 R( E 0S07/< ( 0 n( E 0S07/? ( 0 p( E 0>07/01 ( The dielectric materials between the plate of the capacitor are of the following types: 0. Fence smaller units li e microfarad !R(). Capacitance: -t measures the ability of a capacitor to store charge. Basicaclly. Thus. the capacity is a charge to potential. -t may be defined as the amount of charge reHuired to create a unit potential difference between its plates.e.II /"$ CAPACITORS Capacitors are electronic which have the ability of storing electrical energy. than C E 0 farad !() farad is the unit used to measure capacitor. Capacitor may be defined as the amount of charge reHuired to create a unit in which the capacitance is measured is a farad. a momentary charging current deposits on the plates. i. Air Ba elite Ceramic (ibre . picofarad !p(). )nergy is stored in this field and may be returned by discharging the capacitor through a load. nanofarad !n().

capacitance values. The voltage ratings or wor ing voltage of the capacitors is the ma#imum voltage at which capacitor may be operated without damage at a specified temperature. The capacitors may be specified by the type of dielectric used. their temperature coefficient. /"# TBPES O CAPACITORS Capacitors are commonly classified on the basis of dielectric material used for their manufacturing. paper capacitors. tantalum capacitors. they can be named as ceramic capacitors.7 5. Capacitor . (ig. i!" /"$: S+m%ols for capacitors /"* IMPORTANT SPCE ICATIONS O CAPACITORS The capacitors are specified on the type of dielectric material used. 6lass 3ica $a#ed paper Polystyrene Porcelain (ig.. =. 4. >.. ?. The capacitors used more commonly in transistor circuits have a wor ing voltage of < volts. 4. capacitance tolerance.0 represents schematic symbols for various types of capacitors. <. their power factor. 9n the other hand. The wor ing voltage pf capacitor varies over the range of few volts to several hundred volts.1 summarises the classification of capacitors commonly used in the electronic field. their voltage ratings. elector capacitors etc. film capacitors. capacitors used in e#tra high tension supply of colour television receivers may have a voltage rating as high as . Accordingly. -t is mainly because of the fast that the characteristics of capacitor depend upon the dielectric.

(i#ed Capacitors 5ariable Capacitors The capacitors may be divided into two groups: !A) (i#ed capacitors and !B) 5ariable capacitors. 4. The )lectorolytic capacitors are of the following types: 0. Tantalum capacitor 1. Plastic or Polyester capacitors 4.2. . which have a definite polarity separated by a thin metal dielectric as shows in (ig. /"/ ELECTROLBTIC CAPACITORS These capacitors are made up of metal plates. 6lass capacitors. Paper capacitors . Ceramic capacitors 1. (i#ed capacitors are divided into two sub/groups !a) )lectrolytic capacitors and !b) Aonelectrolytic capacitors. 3ica capacitors 2.. Aluminium capacitors Aonelectolytic capacitors are of the following types: 0.

Lsually it is in paste form. The capacitor is pac ed in a metal cylinder. $hen a voltage of correct polarity is applied to the capacitor.777 R( in very compact si*e. passing A. A reversal of polarity removes the insulating layer. bloc ing . The cylinder is usually enclosed in a paper tube or cardboard tube. bar or insulatedD some types have all lead wires at one end. They are of two types: !i) Aluminium )lectrolytic Capacitors. it will act as a short circuit or get overheated. Specifications: .C. 4. which saturates a paper. filtering unwanted signals. The metal o#ide film is deposited on one of the metal plate acts as positive electrode or anode.C. The electrolye used is either in a liHuid form or in the form of paste. power supply filter. They are also made in non/polarised version. thereby allowing very high currents. dry out or to be contaminated with atmospheric moisture. a very thin insulating layer of o#ygen atoms between the anode and the o#ide layer. These capacitors are sealed in tubular aluminium cases using typically rubber phenolic end capacitors are securely spun over the elastomer so that capacitor does not lea out. due to e#cessive lea age current and it can e#plode also. !ii) Tantalum )lectrolytic Capacitor >i: Al'mini'm Electrol+tic Capacitors" These low cost capacitors are used in radio and television receivers and consumer audio eHuipments for power supply filtering. current. some types are made with solder tabs instead of wires. Thus these capacitors are nown as polari*ed capacitors. +ead wires are a#ial. The cathode is connected to the cylinder.. in order to insulate it from outside. -f the capacitor is connected with a reverse polarity. turning currents to a specified and bypassing signals etc. They must be connected in a circuit according to the plus !T) and minus !/) ma ing on the bode capacitor. The capacitor is formed by using either a conducting electrolyte as a second electrode o a semiconductor such as manganese dio#ide. These capacitors are used in starting motors.4 The capacitors are made in single or dual sections or in isolated dual sections. The electrolytic capacitors possess a large value of capacitance ranging from 0 R( to 07. bypass and audio coupling applications. current. Application: Bypass. though it can be in liHuid form also. The construction of such a type is shown in (ig.i!" /"# The metal o#ide is a conductive compound having dielectric constant between > and 1..

wide operating temperature range and long reliable operating life. The porous pellet is .ry electrolyte capacitors."ange: 0 R( to 0777 R( Temperature coefficient: 177 ppmCoC (reHuency range: 07 F* to 07 F* 5oltage range: < 5 to 477 5 Temperature range:/ . The electrolytic may be or dry. $:" 5et electrol+te capacitors" The construction of wet slug tantatum capacitors is as follows. The lead wires are welded. tantalum capacitors are e#tensively used in miniaturi*ed eHuipments and computers because of their smaller si*e. good stability. Aiobium is used. The anode and is made up of pure powdered tantalum. These are a new type of electrolytic. Accordingly they are classified as: 0). using tantalum instead of aluminium.. 1)..7oC i!" /"/ >a:: Al'mini'm capacitor constr'ction i!" /"/ >%: Al'mini'm electrol+tic capacitors ii:" Tantal'm electrol+tic capacitors:. The powder is pressed in cylindrical pellet and then ba ed between 0<77 to 1777 oC. to 0. The porous pellet is placed in anodic bath to form an o#ide coating on lead wires are welded. .espite a considerably higher cost than aluminums electrolytic capacitors. $et electrolyte capacitors.

5 Temperature range:. coupling/decoupling. Then a copper or silver coating is give to improve solderability. Above this coating. Then the whole assembly is sealed to avoid lea age.. A carbon and metal film applied over this prepared pellet acts as cathode.(.7ppmCoC (reHuency range: 0 F* to 07 F* 5oltage range:2. Tantalum is the most stable of all anodic film/ forming materials. After the pellet formation a thin coating of tantalum pento#ide is give by electrolysis process.placed in anodic bath to from an o#ide coating on entire spongy surface. and the capacitor have a long life" Applications: Lsed in timing circuits (oil type: A. The electrodes the construction.oC . a manganese dio#ide is giveD first immersing this into manganese nitrate solution and then applying heat to convert the coating into manganese dio#ide. to =. tantalum capacitors are commonly used for low voltage applications in transistor and integrated circuits. The pellet is then put into a metal can whose inner surface is coated with cathodic material and lead is soldered. Although the voltage ratings are lower than for aluminium electrolytics. Specifications: Capacitive range: 0u( to 077u( Temperature coefficient: 0. The electrolytic material between the pellet and cathode is &elly of sulphuric acid or lithium chloride. reforming is unnecessary. They feature larger capacitance in a smaller si*eD longer shelf life and less lea age current. C i!" /"1 >a:D 5et electrol+te capacitor *:" -r+ electrol+te capacitors" The construction of dry electrolyte tantalum capacitors is somewhat similar to that of wet electrolyte 0=.

= !b) i!" /"4 >a:: -isc an.. voltage. .4.1 mfd and the diameters typically measure J inch to U with . layers of foil and glass are inter/layered. These capacitors are costly. t'%'lar ceramic capacitors .isc and tubular types of ceramic capacitors are shown in the (ig. -n such capacitors the ceramic material li e titanium dio#ide and barium titanate is used. shoc and vibration problems. aging. 6lass is drawn into a one/mil thic fle#ible ribbon. They are practically immune to temperature. The usual range of capacitance ratings for these small disc ceramics e#tends from 2 mmf to 1. leads are attached and assembly fused at a high temperature to form a monolithic of great physical strength. Specifications of !lass capacitors: Capacitance range E0. moisture.ifferent si*ed glass capacitors are shown in (ig.i! /"1 >%:: -r+ electrol+te capacitors" /"1 NON-ELECTROLBTIC CAPACITORS $:" =lass capacitors : . The wor ing voltages range from 2 5 for use in solid state circuits upto <777 volts for other applications.C21 inch thic ness.= !a) and their construction is shown in the (ig. +eads are attached to each procedure of preparing disc capacitor.7 p( to 07777 p( 9perating temperature rage E / . i! /"2 : =lass capacitors Aluminium foil is used in place of the tin/lead foil. 4.77 5 *:" Ceramic capacitors: ceramic capacitors are manufactured in many shapes and si*es for a multitude of applications. freHuency. Thin coating of silver compound is deposited on both the sides of the dielectric disc which acts as capacitors plates.o C to 177o C 5oltage rating E 277 5 to . Tubular ceramic capacitors are constructed from ceramic mi#es e#truded through a die to form the tube. 4.< The rugged glass capacitors are stable and durable.

um and foil is of aluminium having thic ness 11. %o these capacitors are used as general purpose capacitors. 4. Paper is thoroughly dried so that all the moisture is removed before impregnating resins.71. This type of capacitor consist of alternate layers of paper and metal foils. protective coating is applied and value is printed.7= at 0 F* Temperature coefficient E >77 ppmCo C (reHuency range E 0 F* to 0777 3F* #:" Paper capacitors: $:" Impre!nate. ends are sprayed with copper so that lug type or e#tended foil type connection can be made. um.>%: Constr'ction of .7. paper capacitor" These are rolled. varnishes for impregnation of paper. Specifications: . After connection. -f the air poc ets are filled with oils and varnishes. ma ing worse insulation..isc from i!"/"4 Constr'ctions of t'%'lar form" Specifications of ceramic capacitors: Capacitance range E 0777 to 0277 p( or 7. Air has lower permittivity and brea down occurs in air first. After rolling. Construction is as shown in (ig. they becomes strong and stable. paper capacitors : Paper is a fibrous material. 6enerally raft paper is used which is having thic ness about =. i!" /"6 Constr'ction of impre!nate.> Application: Paper is low cost dielectric material.. This avoids the possibility of short circuit if single paper contains metal impurities.770 to 07 u( $or ing voltage E 27777 5 Power factor E 7. um to 1. Aormally two paper sheets are used instead of singe sheet.

0>77 5 Temperature coefficient E T 077 to 177 ppmCoC >%: Metallise. paper capacitors: -n metallised citance range paper capacitor. 7. ma ing worse insulation.71. Air has lower permittivity and brea down occurs in air first. metal !Al) is deposited on one side or on both sides. Paper is thoroughly dried so that all the moisture is removed before impregnating resins. Aormally two paper sheets are used instead of single sheet.7= at 0 F* Temperature coefficient E ppmCoC (reHuency range E 0 F* to 0777 3F* #": Paper Capacitor: $:" Impre!nate.770 to 07 µ( $or ing voltage E 27777 5 Power factor E 7. This avoids the possibility of short circuit if single paper contains metal impurities. There are two types of paper capacitor.8 5oltage range E 477 5. 4. -n first top and bottom orders of paper are left unmetalled. paper capacitors: Paper is a fibrous material. µm and foil is of aluminium having thic ness 11.isc from i!" /"4: Constr'ction of t'%'lar form Specifications of ceramic capacitor: Capacitance range E 0777 to 0277p( or 7. -f the air poc ets are filled with oils and varnishes. varnishes for impregnation of paper.. .. 0177 5.Capacitance range E 0777 p( to u( Tolerance E T/ 0. The construction is as shown in the (ig. <77 5. µm. they become strong and stable. 6enerally raft paper is used which is having thic ness about =. µm to 1. -n second method. the paper is fully metallised e#cept for a castellated trac drawn in middle. This type of capacitor consists of alternate layers of paper and metal foils.? >%:Constr'ction of .

?. >%: Castellate. trac3 i!": Metallise. the metallised is passed between two metallic rollers across which voltage is slightly greater than rated voltage applied. After rolling. 4. After connection. There are two types of metallised paper capacitor. Application: paper is low cost dielectric material. These are used as "( bypass capacitors and coupling capacitors.>. Construction is as shown in (ig. %o these capacitors used as general purpose capacitors. 4. paper capacitor These are rolled. -n first top and bottom borders of paper are left are unmetalled. ends are sprayed with copper so that lug type or e#tended foil type connection can be made. metal !A0) is deposited on one side or on both sides. 0>77 5 Temperature coefficient E T 077 to 177 ppmCoC >%: Metallise.i!" /"6: Constr'ction of impre!nate. <77 5. The construction is as shown in the (ig. paper capacitor: -n metallised paper capacitor. Specifications: Capacitance range E 0777 p( to 0 µ( Tolerance E T/ 0. Before rolling. The spar ing occurs at wea point in the paper and thin metal film evaporates from these spots . protecting is applied and value is printed. 0177 5. -n second method.8 5oltage rating E 477 5. the paper is fully metallised e#cept for a castellated trac drawn in middle.-paper capacitor This type of capacitor has self healing property.

9ne set of plates is stationary and is called stator which is insulated from the shaft of the capacitor upon . Figher temperatures result in lower voltage ratings. the voltage across the capacitor should not be allowed to e#ceed its rating. starting and running motor.7 and 4. a capacitor with a higher voltage rating can be used in a low voltage circuit. -t consists of two sets of metal plates separated from each other by air. to 078 Temperature coefficient E 0.77 5.without damaging the paper.7 voltage ratings. (or most practical purposes. At at high temperature produces aluminium o#ide. Then they are enclosed in plastic or metal case for protection.7 to 177 ppmCo C /"2 SPECI ICATIONS O CAPACITORS >i: Po&er factor: The ratio of resistance to impedance. main surge suppression. The miniature electrolytic with < volts to 1. /"4 VARIAELE CAPACITORS A variable capacitor is whose capacitance can be verified usually by rotating a shaft. which is good insulator. Specifications : Capacitance range E 0777 p( to 0 µ( 5oltage rating E 277 5 to 0. mica and ceramic capacitor voltage ratings are typically 177 to .77 5 Tolerance E T/ 078 to 178 %tability E . it is dissipation factor.. )lectrolytic capacitors are commonly used in 1. volts ratings are often used for transistor circuits. >ii: 5or3in! volta!e >Volta!e ratin!s:: 5oltage rating of a capacitor is given by the ma#imum potential difference that can be applied across its plate without rupturing its dielectric.Cramic capacitors with voltage ratings of of 0777 to 01777 volts are also available. Fowever. Application : -t is used for decoupling.. Both ends are sprayed with metal so that end connection can made. (or general purpose paper. $hen the capacitor are in circuits.C. This property is nown as self healing. Air acts as a dielectric medium. %uch ratings are give for temperature upto <7o C. measured in per cent. The demetallised margin serves as insulator between two electrodes.. 0.

Another type of small variable capacitor which is often used in parallel with the main variable capacitor is sometimes nown as trimmer and sometimes as padder. By rotating the rotor with the help of suitable nob. The spacing between the plates can be changed by means of a screw ad&ustment. the rotor plates can be made to move in or of the stator plates. Corresponding values for padder are 07 p( to . The other set of plates is connected to the shaft and can be rotated.00. -f GnB is the total number of plates and GdB is separation between any two ad&acent plates. Capacitance of trimmers can be changed from 4. -t consist of two small fle#ible metal plates separated by air or mica or ceramic slab as dielectric. Commercial receivers and those used by short wave radio often have a variable capacitor as a gang condenser. -t is called the rotor. -t is shown in the (ig.07.= p( to a ma#imum value of 27 p(. and minimum when they are out. Capacitance is ma#imum when rotor plates are fully in. 4.77p(. 4. A trimmer is shown in the (ig.which it is mounted. -t is primarily used fir ma ing final ad&ustments on total capacitance of the device. the capacitance for air dielectric is given by: $hen two or more such capacitors are operated by a single shaft. the plates are compressed and its capacitance is increased. i!" /"$. As the screw is turned inward. it is nown as ganged capacitor or ganged condenser. then.: =an! capacitor .

Fig. 4.11: Trimmers 5ariable capacitors are used as tunning capacitors in radio receivers. $hen we tune two different stations, we actually vary the capacitance by moving the rotor plates in or out of the stator plates. Combined with an inductor, the variable capacitance tunes the receiver to a different resonant freHuency for each transmitting station. T+pes of frame: >i: E'ilt 'p V"efer (ig. 4.01 !a)W

This type of construction is rigid, thus it provides for freHuency stability and freedom from microphony. The front and bac plates are held together by rigid tie bars. %ometimes the tie bars are of ceramic to provide insulation for stators. (or having gang units, a number of sections can be easily added" >ii: , frame t+pe CRefer i!" /"$* >%:D The frame is one piece pressing. The two end are integral with base plate which carriers stators. !a) Built up type variable capacitor !b)Bent frame type variable capacitor

(ig. 4.01 4.>%T"A-6FT +-A) -A5)"%) %QLA") +A$ AA, %QLA") +A$ 9( 5A"-AB+) CAPAC-T9" The change in capacitance varies with the change in rotation of the vane. The different laws govern the relationship. The (ig. 4.02 shows the law of straight line and sHuare law. "elationship

between the vane si*e !#/a#is) capacitance !y/a#is) is plotted.


i!" /"$# /"9 =AN= CON-ENSER $hen two or more capacitors are operated by single, it is called gang condenser or gang capacitor. >i: Air !an! con.enser: -n this type of capacitor air is used as dielectric medium. -t consists of two sets of interleaved metallic plates !5anes), one of which is fi#ed called stator and other is movable called rotor as shown in the (ig. 4.04.

i!"/"$/" The plates are made from cadmium plated aluminium. The rotor plated are mounted on rotating shaft and grounded to the capacitor frame through a flat phosphor/bron*e spring which presses against the shaft. The rotor plates have slots that ate cut to match the multisection stator when the rotor is turned.

The highest capacitance obtained when rotor plates are fully in or meshed and minimum capacitance when rotor plates are fully out or unmeshed. $e can change capacitance from linear to sHuare or inverse sHuare. >ii: PVC !an! con.enser: This condenser uses P5C as dielectric medium. The plates or vanes are made of cadmium plated aluminium and dielectric spacers used between the plates as shown in the (ig. 4.0;. The rotor is made up of two sections on a common spindle. The total assembly is held together by four screws whose leads are fi#ed to plastic base. Tags connected to screws give connection to the stator through washer placed between spacer. The rotor sections are tag/connected separately to a common base plate mounted on the plastic base material. P5C gang condensers are used in radio receiver and transistor radio receiver because of their small si*e.

(ig. 4.0;: A P5C gang condenser 4.07 T"-33)" CAPAC-T9": The trimmer capacitors are mainly used for the two different purposes in circuit namely to set the value of the capacitance to designed value and other for the tunning. The trimmer capacitors can be constructed using various dielectrics li e air, mica or plastic. 6enerally air dielectric types are used.

$" Air .ielectric trimmer capacitors: They are available in types as moving vantype and concentric cylinder type. 3oving vane type trimmer capacitor is as shown in the (ig. 4.0<. -t consists of one moving vane and one fi#ed vane. (or air dielectric trimmer capacitor relationship between the ratter of vane and change in capacitance is almost liner.

i!"/"$2: T+pical air-space. trimmer capacitor The spacing between the vane is of the order of 7.70 inches for use at lower voltage and upto 7.7; inches for high voltage. (or ".(. use special silver plated brass vance are used. The change in capacitance of about 1 to 2 p( for lower capacitance. The tolerance is about XT078 *" -ifferential rotar+ t+pe: The construction of the capacitor is as shown in the (ig. 4.0=. %haded region shows the effective capacitance due to differential arrangement.

(ig. 4.0=: Construction of typical differential trimmer capacitor The rotor i.e. moving vane is changed so as to change the capacitance of one set of vanes increases while that of other decreases.

0> above.0? . #" Mica compression t+pe: The trimmer capacitors can be used for temperature compensation with air as dielectric but it shows few drawbac s. ( t+pe trimmers: These are also screw type capacitors as shown in the (ig. The mica is used as dielectric having low temperature coefficient.(. mica /" Concentric c+lin.These differential air trimmers are mainly used in variable capacitive voltage dividing where high accuracy is e#pected. 4. 4. 4. which may be eliminated in mica compression type of capacitors.0>: Psotage stamp or single/unit type compression trimmer capacitor The capacitor provides good fine resolution.0> The compacitor is provided with the screw which can be driven to ad&ust the desired value. range. The construction of mica/compression capacitor is as shown in the (ig. 4. The position of the screw trimmer is set ia as shown in the (ig. They can also operate in ".

K outer diameter of element There are used in tunning purpose in T5 receivers. The capacitance can be determined by )+ C!p() E///////////////////// 4.) $here.04 log07 !dC. although they all used the same colour digit code. /"$$ COLO.) These trimmers are sensitive to vibrations. They are mainly used in intermediate freHuency ad&ustments. The central pillar may be made up of material li e ceramics. ) 1" Plastic.T..T. for paper capacitors" .R CO-E OR CAPACITORS 3ost capacitors are plainly mar ed with purchase value. The dielectric used is plastic li e polythene or polytrtrafluoro/ethylene !P. colour code mar ing was more e#rensively used with more than one system of coding. and polarity or outside foil as appropriate. -n the past.i!" /"$9: Concentric-t+pe trimmer capacitor The trimmer capacitor is made up of concentric cylinders of metal with the rotor moving on central pillar. wor ing voltage. There capacitors high.(.ielectric t+pes: These trimmers also have concentric type of construction similar to ceramic trimmer. Ta%le /"$ s)o&s t)e colo'r s+stem 'se. %ome types are colour coded. The compacitors are generally tubular and small in si*e. / permittivity of dielectric l K length of tubular element d / internal diameter of element .

.F *. $.4.Table 4. $.. Ero&n $ Re... -Silver -No -colo'r E$ 3ultiplier $ $.F (ig.1: Colour code for moulded mica capacitor !Capacity given in 33() Colour .17 Table 4.0: Colour code for moulded paper capacitor Colour . $.... * Oran!e # Bello& / =reen 1 El'e 2 Violet 4 =re+ 6 5)ite 9 =ol... $..igit Elac3 ..F --------$.. $..F 1F $.. ------Tolerance *.igit 3ultiplier Tolrtance Class of ..

!e F >N$1. -H*"1 -$1."$ . H. $ H*".2: Ceramic capacitor codes !capacity given in 33() Colou ....".. Oran # $..F characteristics A E C E >MIL: = >MIL: -I >EIA: G >EIA: --- (ig.. * $. Silver ."$ H$F ## >NO##: $"1 -$.10 TAB+) 4.: Bello / $. $.Elac3 Ero&n Re. $..."..$ *. Oran!e Bello& =reen El'e Violet =re+ 5)ite =ol. $. >NPO: .. $ * # / 1 2 4 6 9 --E$ $ $. ---**.. H*. #"# -$.igit 3ultipli Tolerance 9ver Temperatur )#tended r er 07 33( 07 e coefficient range or 33f ppmCoC temperature less %igni 3ulti/ / piler ficant Elac3 . // // // // // . -$ MM F Ero& $ $.F $F *F #F -1F >ELA: ----1F>MIL: $... 4. ... n MM Re. /"4 - . -H*F 41 >NO41: *"* -$.

.. .& =ree n El'e Viole t =re+ 5)it e Silve r =ol."$.". --- -- -- -- -- -- -- (ig. >N/4. .. F -- >N**. I$.$ . >N41. I$. >P$.: 4"1 ----=eneral p'rpose ? %+-pass co'plin! I$.: -##. 4.: I#.. -H. I$ I$.: -41. MM -H1F ---H$."1F --H. 1 2 4 6 9 ----.: -/4..11 Note: )-A / )lectronic -ndustriesB Association 3-+ / 3ilitary "3A / "adio 3anufacturesB Association E0ERCISES . >PO#."*1 MM H$". >N##..: -- $.

C)apter---.raw and e#plain metali*ed paper capacitor.raw and e#plain impregnated paper capacitor.raw and e#plain Al electrolytic capacitor. $. /" . 6" $hy electrolytic capacitor have polarity.1" CAELES@ CONNECTORS AN. 1" . $$" $hich type of capacitor used for stating and running of motor. 2" . #" .5IRES . 9" $hich electrolytic capacitors will you prefer for large time constant and why.raw and e#plain the capacitor used for tunning in transistor used radio receiver." .$" $hat is a capacitor P Classify the various type. *" .raw and e#plain tantalum electrolytic capacitor. 4" $hich type of capacitor has ma#imum cCv ratio. $*" $hat is the purpose of trimmer.raw and e#plain ceramic disc capacitor.

$hen additional companies are licensed to manufacture the connector family. f. but some of the common ones can be discussed. new trade names are often deviced. in increased at higher temperature.. 1" Ra. m. 1"* A. $" Temperat're: . recording studio television. it should have larger heat dissipating mass. The factors which are to be considered while selecting the connectors are often deviced. signal. 2" Ins'lation: Preinsulated terminals must be used.CONNECTORS Connectors have been aptly described as sources of trouble &oining two pieces of electronic eHuipment. -t is very difficult to cover all available connectors in this section. These connectors are specially designed for use in audio and other low level signal applications such as test instruments. which shows up as a spurious low level . computer and medical electronic instruments. /" Corrosion: The two most damaging types of corrosion that may occur in terminals are atmospheric and galvanic.iation: Properties of most common plastic insulating material degrade drastically under prolonged e#posure. computers and medical instrumentation. C. Broadcast Audio Connectors are made by Philips and Abu&a and have become the standard microphone and general audio connectors . home tape recording and amature use. They can be classed in two grade !i) commercial and !ii) broadcast.0..ifference in thermal e#pansion rates of terminals and wires gives ruse to stress problem.-IO CONNECTORS %ome common audio connectors are shown in (ig. (amilies of commercial and industrial connectors are usually developed by a single company to meet a particular need. *" C'rrent: Terminal current carrying capacity must be more than wire. Broadcast includes use in interconnecting broadcasting. #" Volta!es: )#tremely high operating voltages reHuire special consideration for insulation spacing. military and aerospace electronic eHuipment. -n this section let us discuss some common connectors used in industrial. Commercial includes high fidelity. Atmospheric corrosion especially o#idation. . Two dissimilar metals or alloys in contact at elevated temperatures can generate a thermal e.

1"# PAONE PL. They are made with three.for broadcasting and recording. They are shown in (ig. !iii) Turned soc et. contacts range from two to seven. . !iii) Banana type. Jac3s The 0C4Y diameter plug is considered to be standard for industrial. !ii) Bifercated plug. *inc or light/weight moulded plastic. !ii) Closed end rolled soc et. !i) %olid pin plug. Plugs are also manufactured to a diameter of 7. i!" 1"* P)one pl'!s an.17< inch to be used in con&unction with 0C4Y plug for polari*ing. i!" 1"$ : A'.io connectors : A great variety of styles and shell is available. These can be grouped into si# main connectors Miniat're A'. 1@/ R" " CONNECTORS .1. four or five contacts and in a considerable variety of case styles. %hells are aluminum alloy. diecast.. %oc ets are also of 4 types listed below : !i) 9pen end rolled soc et.GAC<S These connectors are used for a lot of thing besides plugging in earphones and telephone switch boards. !iv) "olled spring type plug. military and telephone audio interconnection. Phone plugs and &ac s are made in several si*es as reHuired for different applications. !iv) 3ultiple spring wire soc et. 'ac s panels and patchcords provide unlimited fle#ibility in interconnecting audio eHuipments in broadcast and television stations and sound recording studios.=S AN. !v) 3ultispring wire plug.

". 3ost of these connectors are designed with a nominal impedance of . Crimping reHuires an assembly tool. )ach type of cable has optional termination techniHues. Cable connectors terminated three types of cables/fle#ible. the connector si*e should be appro#imately the cable si*e. &oints are made by using what are nown as connector plugs and soc ets. but clamping is a very fast and reliable means of terminating semi/rigid cables.(. Connectors using the clamping method do not reHuire special assembly tools and connectors may be replaced replaced if damaged without restripping or changing or changing the length of cable. A higher voltage rating necessitates increasing the creepage path from the center conductor to the other conductor. (. (or optimum electrical performance !minimum mismatch). semi/rigid or semi/fle#ible and rigid. Bayonet connectors have the ability to Huic ly connect or disconnect a circuit. "adio freHuency connectors are manufactured in several series which have dissimilar characteristics. these connectors may be terminated with non/.7 ohms and are used with cables of the same impedance.7/ohms cables if used at low freHuencies. The outer conductor of a semi/rigid cable is terminated by either soldering or clamping. The latter has a limiting effect on the operational freHuency range because of the resulting mis/match in impedance at the connector cable entry. Threaded connectors generally have better electrical performance and can withstand high vibration levels without producing e#cessive noise. inter/connecting routes incorporates semi/ permanent &oints to allow disconnection and reconnection at will. -n general. The voltage and power handling capability of connectors are dependent on many factors. Fowever. -n soldering connectors are usually less . where the mis/match due to the connector is negligible. inter/connection id the art of conveying high freHuency signals from one device to another with minimum loss and distortion. %oldered connectors are usually less e#pensive than clamp connectors. and it is chiefly these and their associates cables. operating freHuency range decreases as the connector si*e increases. This is accomplished by telescoping the interface dielectrics and counterboring the dielectric in the cable entry portion. -n soldering the connector body is soldered to the cable &ac et with low temperature solder. These ". the most important of which are si*e and cable entry design. The outer conductor of the fle#ible cable is terminated either by a clamping device or by crimping. The outer conductor of a semi/rigid cable is terminated by either soldering or clamping. -n most practical situations.

A typical BAC connector is shown in figure . BAC connectors are i!" 1"# : ENC Ea+onet co'plin! connector 5ery popular and are e#tensively used in test eHuipments because of their rapid connectCdisconnect loc ing type feature.2. light. The BAC is generally used with fle#ible cable. Amphetroni# and Comel. connectors are broadly divided into following type: !a) BAC connectors !b) TAC connectors !c) A connectors !d) 3F5 connectors !e) C connectors !f) %C connectors !g) Aanohe# connectors !h) %3C connectors !i) %3A connectors !&) %%3A connectors ! ) %3A connectors !l) LF( connectors These connectors are manufactured by )lcom. The tendency for the connector to roc on two bayonet pins is an undesirable feature at radio at freHuencies. for acceptable performance. >a: ENC connectors: These connectors are small. since the interface cannot be sufficiently lightly located with the bayonet bloc system for higher freHuencies to be handled adeHuately. Connectors are available with non/captive center contacts. They possess overlapping dielectrics and wiping outer contact. weather proof.. but clamping is a very fast and reliable means of terminating semi/rigid cables. The outer shield is terminated by either clamping or crimping. which are soldered to the center conductor of the cable. . .The upper freHuency is generally limited to 2 6F*. The ".7 ohms nominal impedance bayonet loc ing Huic disconnect connectors.(.e#pensive than clamp connectors. weight.

other non/. light/weight and have a .44 inch.7 ohms cable. These medium si*e .7 ohms connectors are weather/proof.7 ohms nominal impedanceC the TAC e#hibits good screening efficiency and is usable to 00 6F* and upto 0. This connector is screw coupled and has an air interface.!%: TNC connectors: These connectors are similar to BAC connectors e#cept that they use a threaded instead of bayonet coupling.7 ohms impedance cables may be terminated. The power handling ability of the type A is restricted because of its air dielectric and small line si*e. Both captive and captive and non/captive contact designs are available.. Both captive and non/captive center contacts are available. They are small. use a threaded coupling and are rated at 0777 5rms. however.4. The center conductor of the cable is soldered to the contact and the outer conductor is secured by either clamping or crimping. i!"1"/" TNC connector The center conductor of the cable is soldered to the contact and the outer conductor is secured by means of a clamping mechanism.C !7 F*) to 00 6F* and are considered to be precision connectors. A typical TAC connector is figure . the center conductor being supported by a polyteterfluoroethylene !PT()) or polystyrene bead. Connectors are made for cable si*es between 7.. 9ne of the A/type connectors is shown in figure . They have e#cellent electrical characteristics from .00 inch and 7. 6F* in some cases. >c: KNL connectors: the type K A/connector series was probably the earliest and the most popular microwave connector until recent years. i!" 1"1": T+pe N-Connector .. weather/proof.. These connectors are primarily designed fir use with .

These connectors are capable of handling a pulsed signal if about . -t is shown in figure ..< i!" 1"2 : T+pical MAV Ea+onet co'plin! connector !e) Type K C K Connectors are designed for use with cables from ..= >f: T+pe – SC – connector : The %C K connector is most rugged type.77 volts for the BAC.C. i!" 1"4 : T+pe – C –Ea+onet connector The offer e#cellent electrical performance from . They are similar to connectors e#cept that the overall length is greater than that of BAC and the male connector has a pro&ecting dielectric. But it cannot be used in environments where it could be sub&ected to high levels of shoc and vibrations.>.. The deep shrouding of the cable dielectric limits the use of this series to 5F( freHuencies and below. The C/type Bayonet coupling type alongwith its dimensions is shown in figure .: T+pe MAV connectors: These connectors are specially designed for use of high voltage.777 volts compared with . yet discussed and is i!" 1"6 : T+pe SC-connector . The type K C features a two pin bayonet coupling and overlapping dielectrics. to 07 6F*.C0< into to =C> into diameter in a Huic connect/disconnect application.

i!" 1"9 : T)e Nano)e8 connector >):T)e SMC-connectors : The %3C connectors are designed for the use of military applications.. : T)e SMC connector >i: T)e SME connectors: The %3B connectors are identical in si*e to the %3C.C0< inch diameter to =C> inch diameter and for cables down to =C21 inch diameter.7<> inch to 7.%imilar to type C/connector. .4 6F* usable freHuencies.21 inch diameter and semi/rigid cables upto 7. This type of connector is shown in figure . These connectors are designed for use with fle#ible cables from 7. -t is shown in the (-6. The freHuency range is upto 00 6F* for cables from . the upper freHuency limit is reduced to 4 6F*. -t gives good high density pac aging consistent with reasonable electrical performance. A typical %3C style is shown in (igure .. They wor satisfactory upto 01.?. and allows a much higher pac aging density than %3B and %3C with miniature fle#ible or semi/rigid cables.07. These are designed for the use with fle#ible cables from 7. . an initial deposit of copper and nic el is used to prevent diffusion and corrosion.. $ith gold. i!" 1"$.21 inch in diameter and semi/rigid cables upto 7. They are recommended for use in moderate environmental conditions at freHuencies upto 07 6F*.7<> inch to 7. >!:T+pe Nano)e8 connectors : This series is a micro/ miniature version of the %3B and %3C series.040 inch diameter. e#cept that it has the advantage of a threaded coupling. The Aanohe# is currently a selectors connector series and is manufactured in brass with a gold or nic el electroplating. These connectors are specially designed for use in military applications.>.040 inch diameter. but features a snap/on connectors are designed for the use the same dielectric material as that of %3C.

Because of the coupling mechanism of the %3B.01. and may be used on fle#ible cables ranging from 7. with semi/rigid cables upto 0> 6F*. These connectors i!" 1"$#: SMA connecto Are available in many styles and it is much suitable for interconnection between microwave integrated circuits. A typical %3B snap/on style connector is shown in figure . to 0> 6F* freHuency range. -t hive reliable electrical performance from .C..11 inch at freHuencies upto 01.This series is probably the most popular miniature microwave connector.4 6F*.02.72 inch to 7.7 ohm impedance cables of type fle#ible and semi/rigld. -t has a butt dielectric interface and a screw coupling mechanism.00 i!" 1"$$: SME connector >J: SSMA connectors: %%3A connectors are the microminiature style and can be used for . A typical %%3A connector is shown in figure . A bode of these connectors is made from chemically passivated stainless steel or gold plated beryllium copper with passivation or gold plate.. -t is a smaller version of %3A. 9ne of the .. i!" 1"$*: SSMA connector >3:SMA connector: -t is shown in figure . -n is used for microwave communication eHuipments. the freHuency range is limited to a ma#imum of a 4 6F*. -t is specially used where high performance is needed.. %ome cases it can also be used upto 1< 6F*.

3ost LF( connectors have fi#ed center contacts that are soldered to the center conductor of the cable. Crimp connections are also available.most common cables for use with %3A connector is the 7. type. Automatic Test )Huipment !AT)) of the data system industry uses these connectors are broadly divided into: $" Two/part rectangular. This is because the rectangular form shape is far more adaptable to optimi*e the shape available in modern methods of electronic pac aging.LTICORE CONNECTORS 3ulticore connectors are broadly divided into two groups: >a: 3ultiway rectangular connectors. These connectors wor satisfactorily upto 277 3F* and are rated for ma#imum . >l: .77 voltage rating.040 inch semi/rigid. >a: M'lti&a+ rectan!'lar connectors: These connectors are widely used in electronic industry for connecting the main circuit to the input devices. and !b) 3ultiway circular connectors. or more contacts. *" Lniversal !interface). A rectangular pin out grid simplifies contact identification which aids servicing and is also more suited to automatic methods of wiring. "ibbon and flat cable can more readily be terminated to a rectangular pattern of pins. 3ostly rectangular form of connectors are used in industry and consumer products. $" T&o-part rectan!'lar connectors: These are wide variety of two/ part rectangular connectors carrying form as 07 to 17 to as many as 0<. and /" Telecommunication connectors. #" . The bodies of %3A connectors are generally of stainless steel. gold plated or passivated.A connectors: These connectors are cheap and designed for use in low freHuency range. These connectors are specially used in video tape recorder or video cassette record. These connectors are normally supplied with same means of mechanical assistance for the i! 1"$/: t&o-part rectan!'lar connector . 1"1 M.

i!" 1"$1: t+pe connector The standard range of N. The contact may include standard wire crimp type.. There are a number of connectors available which have combination of cavity si*es to power and signal contacts to be carried in the same housing. amps. Fe contact used in these connectors ta es several forms. the most common being the round pin and soc et. coa#ial and even fibre optic connectors. This allows a higher pac aging density of contacts and these connectors are available with 0<.. this having considerable advantages where peripheral is supplied from a central power supply contained in the main unit. wire wrap. but using 7. #" M-N t+pe connectors: N. %uch a connector is shown in figure . <1.71 mm.3ating operation.04. .0.Y type connectors is based around a pin and soc et combination of contact.Y type connectors have been used for some considerable time and widely used in both data processing and telecommunication industries.. which is adeHuate for most normal electronics applications. which engages with a nut in the second/half to pull the two halves together. 1<. the contact diameter being 0. This means that variety of circuits may be interconnected using the same connector loaded with a number of different types of contacts. These contacts are designed carry currents as high as 2. however. A type connector is shown in figure . (or less demanding applications. 44. a range of connectors available with same basic layout. They are normally used for inter/ connectors between eHuipment or between different sections of the same piece of eHuipment and are available in si*es from ? to 2= ways. these connectors are now available in all plastic versions which offer a low cost. => and 074 contacts positions. This mechanical assistance is most commonly a &ac ing screw in one/half of the connector. a number of connectors nave been developed which will accept a whole range of contacts. *" .=1 mm diameter pin. There is.niversal >interface: connectors: $ith the advent of connectors which accept NCrimp insertable and removableY contacts. The disadvantage of this of connector is the lac of Nwiping actionY which in normal connectors helps to clean the contact area during the mating operation.

e. meaning that the same basic connector can be used or clips.0<. *" 3edium density !miniature Bayonet) circular connectors. $" Stan. styles variations and pin arrangements and ready availability from vendors. and a connector has been developed to accept wiring from both incoming wires and outgoing e#tension wires which give reliable interconnection with relatively low cost. i!" 1"$2: Telecomm'nication connector" >%: M'lti&a+ circ'lar connectors: Circular connectors have been in use since early this century and their development has led to the three basic groups: $" +ow density !standard threaded circular) connectors. the <4 way. These reHuirements are becoming more comple# with the introduction of electronic e#changes.0= !a) shows two of the many varieties.0= !b)... t) cable to PCB in both a vertical and ?7 o configuration loc ing being again available in both screw and clip version. The connector has simple leaf contacts giving wiring action and low insertion forces.. This range of connectors is also available in wide variety of mounting types. even upto the largest si*e of connector. They are now widely used in military aerospace and industrial applications because of their low cost. broad range of si*es.. uniform high Huality.ensit+:: This family of connectors begins as NAAY !Army Aavy) connectors and were originally designed for aircraft use. i!"1"$4 >a: connector constr'ction ./" Telecomm'nication connectors: The telecommunication industry has developed a range of connectors to suit own reHuirements. including mail order distributors. (igure . #" Figh density !sub/miniature). The connector construction is shown in the (ig. circ'lar connectors >lo& . A typical telecommunication connector is shown in figure . ma ing hand mating possible.

i'm .ensit+ 7'ic3-. Connectors for special applications are available.isconnect circ'lar connectors . They as mil /C K >2=12 series 0 and series 2.isconnect circ'lar connectors: These subminiature connectors provide greater contact than is available in miniature circular connectors.*" Miniat're Ea+onet circ'lar connectors >Me.. They include "(. these connectors are used eHuipments.ensit+ 7'ic3-.filtering versions with pressure water K tight pin contacts and glass header hermetic connectors for high pressure water K tight reHuirements.0> #" Ai!) .. A typical miniature bayonet circular connector is shown in figure . These connectors are made in two series using different shell designs series 0 !long) and series 1 !short). used in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.0? /" i!" 1"$9: Ai!) . Although both series use the same inserts.ensit+:: i!" 1"$6: Miniat're %a+onet circ'lar connector Bayonet connectors can be mated and demated faster than eHuivalent connectors with rhreaded couplings. A typical high density Huic / disconnect circular connector is shown in figure . the two series cannot be intermated because they have different shell ey positions.

PC Eoar. board to fle#ible cable and board to chassis interconnections. e. imparting to . )ach section of the individual bifurcated contacts is different in width.10 !c) are performed and pre/loaded so that a specific is applied to the foil fingers when PC board is inserted into the connector.10 !a) has low contact resistance and is used for single sided board applications because it has only terminal point that e#tends through the rear of the insulator.. board to wire. (inally the bifurcated contact arrangement shown in individual bifurcated contacts is points of contact on each foil finger.. The first is the type with contacts that mate with a row of fingers on the single sided board whereas the second mates with rows of fingers on both sides of the board.!e connectors Are shown in figure .. )ach section in figure . Two piece connector consists of a male plug and a female contact arrangement. (or the edge/receptable type. two/contacts arrangements are necessary. Assembly time is increased with this connector but it is recommended when the unit is sub&ected to high vibration. Connectors are also specified in terms of female contact design.10 !b) provides for contact to double sided boards. These can be separated into two general categories: $" Board edge plugs and *" "eceptables. The ribbon type contact design shown in figure . The edge/receptable or finger/recepiable type connector consists of a mounded insulator containing a number of female type contacts accept the edge of the PC board.10.. which must contact the foil fingers e#tending to the edge of the board.: PC %oar. %everal contact for single and double sided reHuirements i!" 1"*. )ach upper and lower pair of contacts have individual terminal pins that may be used independently or soldered together with a &umper wire.. connectors: PC board connectors are available for board.10 !d) furnishes two points of contact on each foil finger. The tuning for design shown in figure . )lectrical contact is made when these two connectors are mated. 9ne section is mounted to the PC board and the other section is attached to a chassis or another PC board. The cantilever contacts shown in figure .

they tend are plated with a gild alloy to a thic ness of 17 to 077 millionths of an inch. however.17 inch. $ire wrap style allow for more rapid assembly. or beryllium copper. The eyelet and dip solder types afford the most sound electrical connections and are recommended for use where vibrations are e#pected.each its specific resonant freHuency. $hen cost is ma&or factor. bron*e. The number of contacts per connector may vary from < to .uring a period of vibration it would be e#pected that at least one leaf will always be in contact with the foil. phosphorus. Phosphorus bron*e contacts are superior in spring retention characteristics but they are slightly more e#pensive and have a higher contact resistance than brass. i!" 1"*$ The connectors &ust discussed are typically constructed of either brass. %everal contact terminations through the top or rear of the connector are shown in figure . with a resulting cost savings over the solder types.. i!" 1"**: T+pical connector terminations Connectors have contact spacings that vary from 7. the most common being an on/center spacing of inch. Beryllium/copper contacts. . brass is the least e#pensive.07 to 7.11. owing to aging and continual insertion and removal of the PC board. degenerates spring tension. %ince the material used in the construction of the contacts for these connectors are relatively soft. overcome all the disadvantages of the brass or phosphorus bron*e type. -t does. although more e#pensive. These split contacts also ensure positive contact of these should be any non/uniformity in finger thic ness. The crimped tapered pin style allows for easy and rapid modification or repair of assembled connectors.

(or the board to be inserted into the connector when this type of eying is used. 1"2 CONNECTORS Specifications of connectors: $" Contact resistance: -t is measured as voltage drop from end to of mated contacts with rated current flowing through the many as 077 and will naturally. .o&n volta!e: -t is ma#imum voltage that conductor can handle without damage. i!" 1"*#: P"C" %oar. The leading end of the board that is inserted into the connector is chamfered at the 4. depend on the number of contacts reHuired on the PC board. This configuration allows the board to be inserted easily into the connectors and reduces the possibility of the foil fingers lifting on boards that are freHuently removed and replaced . -nsertion type connectors for thic er boards are also available. #" Ins'lation resistance: -nsulation resistance is the resistance between contact and bode of connectors. To insert the board into connector in the correct position a plastic or metal polari*ing ey is inserted either between pairs of contactor or beside in slots provided for this purpose. The type of ey that is positioned on the insulator beside contact pairs is sometimes preferable because it does not reduce the number of available contacts by one set. 5oltage drop from end to end C. degree angle on both edges. a notch in the leading edge of the board at the fingers must align with the align with ey. 3ost manufacturers design their connectors to eHually well with either 0C0< or 0C21 inch thic PC boards. E ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// "ated current flowing through contact *" Erea3.".

.(.7 K <77 . . ohm characteristic impedance for proper matching. Coa#ial cable is designed specifically to transit ". i!" 1"*1 : T&in core ca%le The cable are defined by few figure of merits li e characteristic impedance. The construction of a coa#ial !coa#) cable is shown in (ig.=. current carrying capacity. and !1) twin core cable.-t is a measure at amount of lea age current that flows through material. >a: C)aracteristic impe. with the outer insulating &ac et isolating the shield from ground. -t is similar in construction to shielded wire. energy from one point to another.ance: -t is defined as the impedance offered by an infinite line per unit length. -nsulation material and thic ness is controlled with e#treme accuracy during manufacture to produce cables processing . $here.. 1"4 CAELES There are mainly two types of cables : !0) coa#ial cable. Mo E 1=< log /////////// . fle#ibility.7. 5o Mo E /////////////////////// -o $here. The characteristic impedance can be written as. with ma#imum loss !attenuation). E distance between the two wires d E diameter or the wire generally for parallel transmission line it ranges from 0. and ?. -n almost all circumstances coa#ial cables are better than twin core cables. 5o E applied voltage -o E input current The characteristic impedance of the parallel line is give as. . . The ma&or difference between coa#ial cable and shielded wire is in their electrical characteristics. 1. etc.14.

3ineral insulation. -mpedance is obtained. .). ////// +4 +. <. 07 .ance ca%le: A large plastic core is covered by wire braid. Aormally two or three cables of =.77 2114 K <4>77 277 / 0142. 1.(. Ta%le 1"$: Parameters of coa8ial ca%les S+stem Noice c)annel 2<77 07>77 02177 1=77 re7'enc+ %an. 1.To 0. (lat cable. P.4> 2014 K <7.T.(or coa#ial line: Mo where. The parameters are as given in the Table . . . %heathed cable. $" Ai!) temperat're ca%le: Figh temperature cable are of two types depending upon insulating material used... Repeator spacin! 1 mile 0 mile 0 mile 4. . 3ineral cables are heavy and rigid and can be used upto 477 o C" They can be used upto 177 3F*. insulation. 3A( .T. Figh temperature cable. Printed cable.). +. are used in parallel. E 02> ////////// log d d E diameter of nner conductor . fle#ible and upto 177 o C" *" Lo& impe.<4 K 0=. >. >c: le8i%ilit+: The fle#ibility of the transmission line is defined according to the CC-TT standard. +ow noise cable. m . 4. =. +ow impedance cable.) 01 3F* CC-TT 1"6 TBPES O CAELES 0. Figh impedance cable.. 2. 0.. P. The term is mainly applicable for the unshielded coa#ial cable. E diameter of outer conductor Z E diameter constant of material >%: C'rrent carr+in! capacit+: -t is the ma#imum capacity of the transmission line to carry the current without diction.(. "ibbon cable. cables are light.0.

i!" 1"*2: Lo& impe. 3ulticolour ribbon cable used for interconnection between different PCBs and control panels. This cable is fle#ible. !b) 3ulticolour. !a) %ingle colour. then inductance per unit length is increased and characteristic impedance can be increased. %ingle colour and used to connect the peripherals of computer. "ibbon cable consists of si# or twelve conductors which are parallel and struc together.ance ca%le" /" Ri%%on ca%le: There are two types of ribbon cable.ance ca%le: Figh impedance cable is obtained by inner conductor is helically wound. i!" 1"*6: Ri%%on ca%le 1" lat t&in ca%le: -t consists of two conductors which are held apart at distance by polyethylene insulation. i!"1"*9 . i!" 1"*4: Ai!) impe.ance ca%le #" Ai!) impe. -tBs standard impedance is 277 .. These are used to connect television set to antenna.

. paper covered telephone cable are used in all the organi*ations of telephones and telegraphy. Ca%le >Al'mini'm-pol+t)ence Ca%le:: This type of cable consists of flat or corrugated aluminium foil used longitudinally with a overlap over the cable core and the outer sheath is made of blac polythene. ca%le: 5arious type of composite sheathed telephone coa#ial cable are used in our country. -n telephone cables following types of materials are generally used as insulating materials: >i: Paper ribbon. The construction of Alpeth sheathed cable is shown in (ig. a new type of sheath material is prepared which consists of layers of aluminium and polythenc. . ca%le: -t consists of conductor deposited on plastic films. These are flat and fle#ible. 6" S)eat)e.: Alpet) s)eat)e. +ead sheathed. >iv: (oamed polythenc. >i: T)e Alpet) S)eat)e. Aluminium foil is not bonded to polythene.27 i!" 1"#. >iii: %olid polythene. Aow K a / days instead of lead.2" Lo& noise ca%le: these are made by insulating coating covered by semiconductor material. The power rating of printed cable is very small. >ii: Paper pulp. The following types of such cables are used in telephone field. 4" Printe. These are used where spacing is the importance. To produce printed cable etching techniHues are used. ca%le . %heath. Aerials are prepared using these cables.

The tape is soldered continuously at the longitudinal seam.. i!" 1"#*: Stalpet) ca%le >v: PASP >Pol+t)ene-al'mini'm: S)eat)e.21 e#cept a film of polythene copolymer is bonded to the outside of aluminium foil. e#cept that an inner sheath of polythene under the longitudinal . A sectional view of %talpeth cable is shown in (ig. i!" 1"#$: s)eat)e.20. These are never installed underground buried systems.21.: -t has a sheath of flat or corrugated aluminium foil used tape longitudinally without any overlap. The coated corrugated steel tape is used. .>ii: Pol+t)ene-al'mini'm Pol+t)ene S)eat)e. . The polythene sheath and aluminium foil are bonded during e#trusion of the polythene sheath. A sheath of blac polythene is used. Ca%le: -t is similar in construction to that of %talpeth cable shown in (ig. These are similar in construction as shown in construction as shown in (ig. PAP 'se. Ca%les: These cables are nown as PAP sheathed cables. fiat or corrugated aluminium foils are used longitudinally with an overlap. An overlapped seam of the foil is sealed against moisture. . Pol+t)ene Al'mini'm S)eat)e. The steel tape ma es the cable. 9ver the cable core.. The sheath is formed of blac polythene.. The sheath is formed by inner sheath of polythene. Ca%le: -t is similar in construction as shown in (ig.21.. >iv: Stalpet) >Steel Al'mini'm Pol+t)ene: S)eat)e. ca%le >iii: Alpet) an. .

-t is composed of a number of small gauge wires twisted together. The conductors are insulated with dry insulating paper. T+pes of &ire: $" Tinned wire *" %tranded wire. >vi: Ca%le Paper Ins'late. .(. -t is bright silver in colour which stops the formation of copper o#ide !Cu91). or other small appliances. 1"6 5IRE $ire is a bar conductor. polythene sheath for being buried directly are very important for material problems. To cover the conductor insulation or sleeves are used.foil aluminium is used in the cable. These cables can be buried directly underground. #" +it* wire /" %il cotton covered wire 1" )nameled wire $" Tinne. due to lightning or other damage. *" Stran. &ire: The bare !open) of copper is coated with solder alloy of lead and tin. . cable. The paper tape is used loosely around the conductor in a form of heli# with an overlap to prevent metallic contact. These cables are also used in local telephone areas.nit T&in &it) Composite Steel Al'mini'm: Pol+t)ene S)eat2): The general construction and characteristics of paper insulated unit twin cable with composite steel. clean and scale/free solid wire of annealed high conductivity copper of &ire: $" "esistance of inductor. *" $inding of inductor. +ead sheathed paper insulated unit twin cables are used in -ndian telephone department. #" $inding of transformer. The conductor of the cable is chosen of a bright. /" ". i!" 1"## .e. aluminium. 1" To connect different electronic components and devices. The inner sheath of polythene provides lighting protection and wor as water seal for core in the outer sheath a faulty condition. &ire" %tranded wire is fle#ible wire is fle#ible wire used in power cord a radio or television receiver.

&ire: Copper wire is covered with single or double layers of cotton or sil . Then insulation resistance is measured between inner conductor and outer conductor for . resistance of a conductor can be made to approach the . circuit will offer the same resistance as in . &ire: Copper wire is covered with coating enamel which is usually dar brown or blac . resisted in parallel at their end and insulated throughout their length from each other. TAE VARIO. >ii: Volta!e test on . The stranded wire is called a +it* Conductor. The cable should withstand it without any brea down. the cable is passed through a high voltage system.S TESTS ON A CAELE >i: On line spar3 test: At the time of insulation covering. such a stranded wire.C.C.C. but is restricted to a thin later on the surface. 1"$. circuits.. The freHuency of applied voltage is ept between 47 to <7 F* and the rate of increase of test voltage should not e#ceed 1 5 per second. This effect is nown is nown as the s in effect. seconds..ue to this reason of s in effect in A. Lnscreened cables are immersed in water for 0 hour and test voltage is applied between conductor and water. thic wires are discarded and wires having a large number of strands are used.77 5 T . Thus.ielectric: Figh voltage as per specification is applied between the inner conductor and screen for a specified time.C. /" Enamele. These are used hoo up electronic components. These are used or winding of inductor and transformers. when used in A.#" Sil3 or cotton covere. 1" Lit( &ire: The effective A. comprising fine lin mesh which can detect any electrically wea points on insulation sheath. )ach strand is of small diameter and has little s in effect over its cross/section. .7 5 is applied between conductor and insulation system for 0 minute T / .. A rapidly alternating current does not penetrate far into the interior of the conductor.C. >iii: Ins'lation resistance: A direct voltage of . circuit.

(. 9scillator is used as a single generator.(. MA(: 5.(. 9f filter the harmonics from passing through the cable. Characteristic impededance is the arithmetic mean of local Characteristic impededance along the length of cable. osc. The brea down occurs at the surface of the conductors and the effect of corona is eHuivalent to increasing the effective diameter of the conductor corona is accompanied by power loss and there is flow of current due to corona. A specimen of 0 meter length is sub&ected to gradually inception voltage until C9"9AA is detected. amplifier without inserting cable.coa#ial cable. This phenomenon is termed as C9"-AA and is accompanied by hissing noise. 3i#er is used to heterodyne the above two freHuencies to give a beat freHuency to give a best freHuency of 27 3F*. The luminous envelope surrounding the conductor is composed of air which has become ioni*ed and become conducting due to effect of high electrostatic stress. %imilarly the voltage is decreased until corona e#tinction voltage is observed. >vii: Mean C)aracteristic Impe.(. -.'ctor resistance: "esistance of each inner conductor should be measured with direct current and its value corrected to a temperature of 17o C" >v: Capacitance meas're. this should not be less than =. The output of mi#er is give to -. >vi: Corona .(.isc)ar!e test: $hen alternating potential between two parallel conductors increases beyond a certain limit.F.ance On: The characteristic impedance is defined as the impededance seen at the input of an infinite cable. cable and its also to calculate impedance of the system. amplifier. +ow pass filter is used at the output of 5.F. 1"$$ SLEEVES .(. at $ 3A(: 3easurement of capacitance give an idea about the losses in ". 5F( is used to generate e#actly 27 3F*. Test voltage E 277 5 and the rate of increase of voltage is .7 5Csec. >iv: Con. The difference between new and previous readings is attenuation loss is dB. a point is reached when a pale violet glow appears on the conductor surface. amplifier is tuned to 27 3F* to give ma#imum deflection. A certain reading is obtained an -. This voltage reading is nown as inception voltage. The cable is inserted and the new reading is obtained.. >vii:Atten'ation meas'rement at *.777 ohms per 27 meters at room temperature.

The glass sleeve is manufactured by passing glass fibre on multispindle machine. 1. 2. #" . $" Sil3: -mpregnated sil is used for sleeve. The sleeving may by braided with wire. $$" $rite short note on audio connector. Figh temperature ceramic covering.raw and e#plain "( cable with two core. T+pes of sleeves: 0. 2" $hich are the uses of wire. %leeves provide screening. /" 6ive the constructional details and ribbon cable. $. 4" $rite short note on +i type wire. The rolled tube is heated and cooled. 9" )#plain . E0ERCISE $" $hat is cable. 1" $hich are different types of wire.CTOR AN. The strip is rolled on mandrel of si*e eHual to internal diameter reHuired. #" Ai!) temperat're ceramic coverin!s: Ceramic sleeves are used for high temperature and flam application. are cut in ?7 cm strips. %tate the characteristics and application of cable. 6lass. series connectors. %il . IN-.raw and e#plain coa#ial cable. $*" )#plain uses of plugs and soc ets." $rite short note on edge connector.TRANS ORMER .%ingle stranded conductor may sometime be used with sleeves. 6" $rite short note on BFC and TAC connector. *" . *" =lass: 6lass is used for sleeve for moderate temperature.

A . A counter ). dt . This property of the coil due to which it opposes any change of current through it is called inductance !+). and !iv) -nversely as core length.0 we can say that + varies: !i) directly as relative permeability of the core material. !iii) directly as sHuare of the number of turns of the coil. l is the length of the core.(.it is used to introduce inductance reactance into circuit.CTORS -t is another basic passive circuit component commonly used in electrical and electronic circuits.2"$ IN-.m. such as in power supply filters. then it is found that: di e E+.f. due to which a counter e. -nductors serve a 5arity of purposes. This inductance of a coil is given by the following e#pression: +E Ro Rr AA1 XXXXXXXXXXXXX + $here R7. oscillators. -t is nothing but a coil of conducting wire wound on a core or former of some suitable material.3. the number of turns of the coil. -t is measured in henry !F). is induced in it. %uppose current through an inductor is changed at the rate of di C dt. Rr are the absolute and relative permeability of the core material. tuned circuits and freHuency discriminating filters. A is cross/sectional area of the core. -t is found that whenever current through an inductor changes. which tends to oppose this change. !ii) directly as core cross/sectional area. (rom eHuation <. is induced in it.

m.f.m.'ctance: when two coils placed close to each other.f. induced in a coil due to the change of its own flu# lin ed with it. then the flu# lin ed with its own turns will also change.m.f. .m. then + E 0F.f. -f current through the coil is changed. The opposition offered by a resistor to the flow of current is termed as resistance. and that e. which induces bac e. in the other coil.m.or e +E !diCdt) if diCdt E 0 ACs and e E 05. A coil has an inductance of one henry if the e. The change of current in one coil produces induced e.f.'ctive reactance: reactance of a coil is called inductive reactance and it is denoted by [+ and is given by: [+ E 1 \ f. and therefore controls a source of alternating e. Self-In.m. + E ] + $here GfB is the freHuency of applied e.m.f.'ctance: This is the e. That e.f. In.f.f.m. in hert* !F*) and G+B is inductance of the coil in henries.m. "esistance dissipates energy in the form of heat while reactance diminishes current by setting up an opposing e.m. induced in it is one volt when the current is changing at the rate of one ampere per second. is nown as mutual inductance. "eactance is the opposition presented by a pure coil ! or a capacitance ) to the flow of comple# current ! alternating current ) through it. $ithout wastage of electrical energy. M't'al in. is nown as self induced e.f.

<. (ormer is a device on which the coils are actually wound. an air/ core inductor has the least inductance for a given number of turns and core length. (ormers are made of insulating materials such as ceramic. This is because of air all the magnetic lines produced by the changing current do not lin with every turn of the coil D many of them are lost in the surrounding space.0 !a) and its symbol is shown in fig. Air K core inductor consists of number of turns of conductive wire K wound on a former made of plastic or cardboard.0 !b) i!" 2"$ . A typical air/core inductor is shown in fig.CTORES The following types of inductors are in use. 3 E 3utual inductance O E Coefficient of coupling +0 _ +1 E -nductance of two coil. <.'ctor: core is the space available inside a former. the value of the inductance in air/cored coils is much reduced. %ince there is nothing but air inside the coil.3 E O ^+-+1 $here. plastic or cardboard. 2"* TBPES O IN-. Thus. They are: !i) Air/core inductorD !ii) -ron K Core inductor !iii) (errite/core inductorD >i: Air-core in. pa#olin.

To construct the air/core conductor. GrB is the outside radius of the coil in inches.l $here G+B is inductance in microhenry !RF). radius of former plus half the depth of the winding. %uch a winding is nown as a single layer simple winding. -t is wound from the bottom to its top and then the starting and ending terminals are anchored at tags fi#ed at the two ends of the former. <. r . A1. ( $here.e. the wires are wound on the appropriate former in one layer. + E inductance in microhenry " E mean radius of the coil in inches i. M'ltila+er coils: -n winding a 3ultilayer coil. -t is shown in fig. the straight forward method is to wind the wire along the former in one layer and then to wind another layer above the first layer in the reverse direction until the starting point of the winding is again arrived at the end so on for such coils. The inductance G+B is given by: + E r.1 i!" 2"* The inductance G+B of single layer core coil is given appro#imately by: r1 # A1 + E /////////// ?r T 07.

$hen the space inside the former of coil is filled with solid iron or laminated iron core.e. l E winding length in inches d E depth of the winding in inches. -n order to avoid eddy current loss.'ctor: -ron is a ferromagnetic material. when a current flows in a coil. the iron becomes magneti*ed and adds its own flu# lines to those produced directly by the current. -n addition. -nstead the lines of flu# produced by the alternating current complete their path through the iron. >ii: Iron – core In.e. Fence total flu# lin ed with coil increases i.e. the iron is laminated i. the core not only goes through the centre of the coil but also surrounds it on its two . the lines of flu# produced by the AC flowing in a coil find a much easier path through the iron and do not tend to lea to the outside of the coil. the inductance of the coil is much greater in an iron cored coil than in an air cored coil of the dimensions.( E ////////// lTd $here. made up of thin iron laminations pressed together but insulated from each other by varnish. The iron K core has been found to wor more efficiently particularly at low freaHuencies if it is in the form of a closed core i. i!" 2"# The iron K cored inductors are also commonly nown as cho e.

<. <. (errite possesses high magnetic permeability and high resistiveity to eddy currents. <.RE O MERIT KPL The Huality of figure of merit of a coil is measurement in terms of its Q value.4 !a7. The symbol to represent ferrite K core inductor is shown in fig. i!"2"/ 2"# I=. the ferrite core e#hibits a minimum eddy current loss. <.sides as shown in fig.4. !iii) (errite K core -nductor:/ (errite is an artificially prepared non/metallic material using sintered iron o#ide with other metal ions to control magnetic properties. -f the coil of wire is wound on a soil core made of highly ferromagnetic substance called ferrite. [+ E the reactance of the inductor " E the resistance of the inductor .2 GlB is the length of the coil in inches. the symbol to represent an iron core inductor is shown in fig. . The ferrite core is used in coils in the freHuency range covering audio freHuencies and radio freHuencies upto 077 3F*. + Q E /////// E //////// E ///////// " " " //////////////!<. -t is given by: [+ ]+ 1 \ f.2.ifferent types of ferrite Kcore inductors are shown in fig.=) $here. GAB is the number of turns of wire.

) many power supplies use filter cho es of . a pulse of electron flow will be produced when the anode of a diode becomes positive or forward biased. i. at the freHuency of the source.(.. >i: ilter c)o3es: one application of the inductors is in the smoothening of the pulsating . resistance of a coil as compared to its inductance. -n tuned receiver circuits a high Q coil is preferred because !i) it increases sharpness of tuning.e. current produced by rectifying the alternating current to the direct current..2 amperes. The current increase from *ero to a ma#imum value induces an e.CTORS >CAO<E COIL:: Cho ing inductors may be classified according to their use. The cho e is an inductance in series with an e#ternal " to prevent the AC signal voltage from developing any appreciable output across ". Choc s.(..f. !iii) ". A typical filter cho e has many turns of wire wound on an iron core !fig. Across which limits the delays the ma#imum value of current. $hen conduction stops. -n the circuit of fig. Choc s.. <. Thus pulses of current will be smoothed out to produce a fairly constant direct current. !ii) A. (or this application the inductor is referred to as a filter cho e. to 17 henries capable of carrying upto 7.C.As seen. ma es the tuned circuit more selective !ii) it additionally increases its sensitivity.<. the inductance tends to eep the current from changing to *ero. They are: !i) (ilter Choc s.m. higher is its H factor. i!" 2"1 . 2"/ CAOC<IN= IN-.C. smaller the .

-n the circuit of fig. i!"2"2 >iii: Ra. Cho es is about 7.(. the lower inductance filter cho e can also be used as audio freHuency cho es. fre7'enc+ c)o3es >R" " C)o3e:: As the freHuency increases into radio freHuency range.1 F to 04.(.= !a) compare this reactance to the 0. cho es can be used when it is desired to prevent A. function of the cho e is to prevent A. current is bypassed around the . current from flowing one part of the circuit to another. g ohm reactance of the fre7'enc+ c)o3es >A" " C)o3e:: since audio freHuencies are not much higher than the ripple freHuencies of the rectifier supply !. !<.(.<. cho e of 0 mF will produce a reactance of <1>7 ohms.(.C. -n the circuit of fig. source. naturally the ". mF. i!"2"4 . current will ta e the path of the least opposition through capacitor CD Fence the ". <. A.C.>ii: A'. the inductance need for cho ing or bloc ing purposes becomes smaller at 0777 F* ".7 F*).770 mid bypass capacitor c.70 millihenry at 077 3F*.(.(. )ven less inductance will be reHuired for a cho e as the freHuency increases and the same <1>7 ohms of reactance can be developed by 7.. The inductance range for ".(.. current from entering the .

i!"2"6 2"2 TRANS ORMERS Intro. <.'ction: Transformer is a device which converts alternating current at high voltage into low voltage into low voltage and vice versa. $inding of many ". circuits.(.> drawn for a constant value of + if f E 7. The windings are commonly built up in a number of sections. with different Q value is shown in fig. Circuit.? for toroidal inductors. <. +) states that there is a linear increase in inductive reactance of a coil as the freHuency of applied A.(.. This eHuation ![+ E ] + E1 \ f.C. This means that inductance has no steady state effect or opposition to current in . This is represented in the graph of fig.C.ENCB RESPONSE O AN IN-. + is inductance . cho es have solid or powered iron cores the smaller inductance types for the very high and the ultra high freHuencies use plastic or steatite cores.CTOR The variation of inductance with freHuency or the variation of GQB with freHuency has great importance in A. G]B is angular freHuency.C. 2"1 REP. then inductive reactance is *ero. cho es are left e#posed. +. $indings of small cho es are usually of very small gauge sil covered copper wire. Another freHuency response for different +. The transformer wor s on the . As we have seen that [+ E ] + E1 \ f. but some of the smaller types having flat windings are enclosed.C. where f is freHuency in hert*. each section being several lagers deep but not very wide as a means to reducing capacitance that would e#ist between wire turns. circuit design.%ome ". This eHuation is valid for sinusoidal A. source increases.

its varying magnetic field induces voltage in +0. the coil +.m. both the potential and current types. in the second coil. An important application of mutual inductance is found in iron core power transformers. . which is particularly adaptable to variable voltage operation.07. -n the transformer the changing current in one coil can induce an e. A special transformer with the output voltage the same as the input. These have the ability to step up or step down alternating voltages ma ing possible the economic distribution of electric power between generator and customer. is used for isolation purposes where supply voltages grounds can cause problems when wor ing with grounding eHuipment. -n fig. does so without change of freHuency and does it by electromagnetic induction. The two coils +0 and +1 have mutual inductance. (inally. 2"4 PRINCIPLE O OPERATION $hen two coils are placed so close to each other the e#panding and collapsing magnetic flu# of one coil.principle of mutual inductance. are designed especially for transforming the high voltage and current in distribution systems for the safe measurement of power. Another type is the auto K transformer. The winding +1 is not connected to +0 but the turns are lin ed by magnetic field. these two coils are said to have mutual inductance 3. is connected to a generator that produces varying current in the turns. -nstrument transformers. They can also transform load resistances to affect matching for ma#imum power transfer purposes. we can say that the transformer is a static piece of device that the transformers electric power from one circuit to another having mutual inductance with it. <. i!" 2"$.f. in brief. A varying current in +0. Then. because current in one can induce voltage in the other.

i!"2"$$ -f one coil is connected to an A. source an alternating flu# is set up in the laminated core. The two coils posses high mutual inductance. voltage cannot be steady current cannot produce induced voltage. -t should be noted that a steady . -f the second coil is closed.RNS RATIO The ratio of the number of turns in the secondary to the number of turns in the primary is called turns ratio of the transformer.C.Consider the core type transformer shown in fig. A% Ao. a current flows in it and so electric energy is transferred from the first coil to the second coil..00.C. it consists of two highly inductive coils which are electrically separates but magnetically lin ed through an iron core of low reactance. 3ost of which is lin ed with the other coil. <. The first coil in which electric energy is fed is called secondary winding.of turns of secondary coil Turns ratio E /////// E/////////////////////////////////////// Ap Ao.of turns of secondary coil $" Volta!e ratio: with unity coupling between primary and secondary . the voltage induced in each turn of secondary is the same as the self K induced voltage of . 2"6 T.

*" C'rrent Ratio: with *ero losses assumed for the transformer.each turn in the primary therefore the voltage ratio is in the same proportion as the turns ratio 5% ////////// E 5p A% /////////// Ap //////////////////////!<. 1 i. i.ance Ratio: The ratio of primary impedance to secondary in a transformer eHual to the sHuare of the turns ratio.e. $hen the number of turns of secondary are less than the primary. the secondary voltage is less than the primary voltage. in such a case it is turned as step/down transformer. the current ratio is the inverse of voltage ratio. #" Impe. the power in the secondary windings eHuals the power in the primary windings.e.>) $hen the secondary has more turns the secondary voltage is higher and the primary voltage is stopped up .e.this type of transformer is nown as step/up transformer.?) -p ///// -s 5s E /////// 5p ////////////////////////////// 9r !<. 5p -p E 5% -% //////////////////////////////!<. i. voltage step/up in the secondary means current step/ down. Mp ////// Ms E Ap ! /////// ) As . and vice versa.07) Thus.

pulse and tuned type.e. . . transformers can be classified according to . Pout )fficiency E /////////// [ 077 /////////////////////////////// !<. communication.5p Ap ////// E ! /////// ) /////////////////////////////!a) 5s As . -s Ap ////// E ! /////// ) //////////////////////////////// !b) -p As -multiplying eHuation !a) and !b) 1 5p ////// [ 5s i.00) Pin 2"9 TBPES O TRANS ORMERS 6enerally transformers used in electronic eHuipment can be classified into power. But. Mp ////// Ms E Ap ! /////// ) As -s ////// E -p Ap ! /////// ) As 1 /" Transformer Efficienc+: )fficiency is defined as the ratio of power out to power in stated by a formula.

5oltages. <. autotransformers.) A typical power transformer used in bridge rectifier is shown in fig.02 i!"2"$# Aow a days because of solid state devices a step/ down power transformer is used.7 5oltage all each side of the center tap). Atypical transformer designed for this purpose has secondary voltages .. current transformers. 5oltages necessary for the conversion of . A typical transformer designed for this purpose has secondary voltage =77 5olt !2. A typical transformer is designed for the input supply to the primary as 127 v A. %ome typical uses of transformers are as power transformers. This is step/up type and it is shown in fig. i!"2"$* The same transformer has other secondaries low voltage for the vacuum tube filament. potential transformers. Sin!le p)ase mains po&er transformer: it is of either step/up or step/down type usually they have laminated core and have one primary winding but several secondary windings insulated from each other.their applications. They are commonly used in the power supply of electronic eHuipments and provide various A.C. +et us study some main types in brief.C.<.C. filament transformers.04 . the output across the secondary is 145 !01 5olt on each of side of the center tap. 0. transistor power transformers.

There are two types of auto K transformersD .0.i!" 2"$/ There are two types of winding of a transformer. <.. )ach lamination is coated with an insulating varnish and the total core is pressed $ith high pressure . The two windings are in layers and fit over the center section of the core. >i: Core t+pe transformer is shown in fig. !i) Core type transformer winding.0< i!"2"$2 #" A'to-transformer: As shown in fig. an auto K transformer consists of one continuous coil with a tapped connection such as terminal GCB between the ends at terminal GAB and!: The shell type construction also consists of similar laminations.0=. This is shown in fig. <.<.The primary and secondary windings are placed on each side of the common core i! 2"$1 !ii: S)ell t+pe transformer &in. !ii) %hell type transformer winding. as seen a core type transformer is made up of a pac age of thin rectangular silicon steel laminations.

o&n a'to –transformers i! 2"$4 -t is also very adaptable to variable voltage operation by using a sliding contact li e a wire wound potentiometer !fig.!i : Step –'p a'to –transformers >ii:Step –. Fowever. <.0>). efficient and usually costless with only one winding. -n fig <.0= !a) the auto Ktransformer steps up the supply voltage between GaB and GcB and is connected across Part of the total turns .with three times the turns for the secondary voltage 5s is three times 5P i! 2"$6 -n fig <. Also note that the . Autotransformers are used often because they are compact.0=the auto Ktransformer steps down the primary voltage vp Connected across the entire coil. Then the secondary voltage is ta en across less than the total turns. The turns ratio and voltage ratio apply same way as in a conventional windings.0>. The auto Ktransformer is also nown by trade name variac .while the secondary voltage 5s is induced across all the turns . while the secondary is across the load resistance "+.A variable auto Ktransformer is shown in figD <. The winding that connects the voltage source to supply power is the primary. Fowever. the same wire si*e must be suitable for both the primary and secondary. an auto K transformer does not faction as a simple voltage divider.

(.0?.<. !iii) -ntermediate freHuency !-. A typical isolation transformer is shown in fig. #"Isolation transformers: when the number of turns of primary is ept eHual to the number of turns in the secondary. transformers. >i: A'. in power applications the. transformers. i!"2"$9" /" Classification of transformers accor.).).in! to fre7'enc+ ran!e over &)ic) t)e+ operate: The transformers used in electronic circuits can be classified according to the freHuency range over which they operate such as: !i) Audio freHuency !A.C.0?.<. isolation transformers reduce the possibility of electrical shoc from eHuipment that has its chasis connected to one side of the 1175 A.(.) range of . Fence isolation transformers have a 0 to 0 turns ratio.). fig.(.io fre7'enc+ >A" ":@ transformers: they are designed to operate the audio freHuency !A. transformers. -t is also nown as light dimmer or dimmerstat.line. Another form of isolation transformer is used in audio freHuency eHuipment to bloc direct current from the following stages. !ii) "adio freHuency !". That is Ap E As or Ap ////// As E 0. the formation is isolation transformer.(.autotransformer has only three leads compared with four leads for the transformer.

and thereby obtain ma#imum power transfer.10).17) in order to obtain ma#imum power transfer. have laminated core and usually smaller than mains power transformers. These transformers are generally classified as input. isolation is also provided !fig. watts) winding resistance ?such as 1277 ohms and > ohms) and freHuency range under specified load conditions. An input transformer is rated for primary C secondary impedance ratio !eHuals sHuare of ratio of primary C secondary turns). i!"2"*$ .17F* to 17 F*. because the primary resistance is always much greater than the secondary resistance. output.7 3$) for winding resistances. An input transformer is used to match the output impedance of a transducer to the input impedance of an active device such as transistor or vacuum tube. Power handling capability !such as . some transformers use other forms of lead identification or no identification. Fowever." 9utput transformers are used to match the output impedance of an amplifier to the input impedance of a spea er coil. and for freHuency range !such as 177F* to 07OF*). or similar source of audio or vedeo energy.. <. for power handling capability ? such as 0.C. !as shown in fig. fi!" 2"*. -nput transformers are magnetically shielded in most cases to minimi*e pic /up of stray fields. An output transformer is rated for primary C secondary impedance ratio. inter/stage and driver types. The active device may be a microphone. tape playbac head. <. . Aote that an ohmmeter test serves to identify the windings on an output transformers. phono cartridge. 3any manufacturers use the standard colour code for leads.

An interstage impedance ratio. -n case of doubt an A.river transformers are comparable to interstage transformers. greater core cross section and minimum lea age flu#. The reason for this is that .-nterstage transforms are used to match the output impedance of an active device to the input impedance of another active device.river transformers are rated for primary and secondary impedance ratio. Then the transformer starts wor ing into a comparatively low resistance. ma#imum permissible primary current. test must be made to determine turns ratio. This reHuires good regulation if the output waveform is to be undistorted. 3ost secondaries are center/tapped. A driver transformer does not wor into a current loadD instead it wor s into essentially an open circuit until grid current starts to flow near the pea of the driving waveform. An interstage transform and it is sometimes possible to distinguish between primary and secondary coils on the basis of . . because driver transformers are generally used in class B amplifiers. the core cross K section is considerably less for a given audio power rating. Although a driver transformer can be used in place of an interstage transformer. the design of a driver transformer is characteri*ed by low winding resistances. . primary and secondary windind resistance and freHuency range. resistance measurements. depending upon its particular applications. $hen the primary is center K tapped. The primary of the driver transformer may or may not be center K tapped. a class B amplifier must be operated in pushpull to avoid serious distortion. the reverse is not true.C. These interstage transformers are used in the audio section of both vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers. -n turn.C. e#cept that they are reHuired to supply grid current !or base current) to the driven stage. freHuency response and winding resistances..

current branches from the center tap and the two paths cancel out in so for as their magnetic fields are concerned. That is.e.! c) . These are used in the inter carrier sound section of T. freHuencies K1<1 F*. F*. Interme.e.! d) .7/4=. 3ost of the ".(. .iate re7'enc+ > I" : Transformers : They are designed to operate at high freHuencies i.(. F* and 0477/0<77 F*.7/1=.!e) and !f )..(.These can be classified into capacitively tuned and permeability tuned types .C.there is no possibility of core saturation by the . 4. 3F*.<.. transformers are designed for three principal -.( transformers..5. Typical radio freHuency transformers are shown in (ig re7'enc+ >R" : an.C. and 0.!b) .A permeability tuned transformer contains ad&ustable ferromagnetic cores in the primary and secondary windings. >ii:Ra.11 !a ) . transformers have either one or both of the windings tuned i. they form a resonant circuit which wor s best at one particular freHuency. Fence. 4. in con&unction with capacitor.77 F*. current demand when T)bb ! T5cc) voltage is introduced at the center tap of primary. or -. the . -. the transformers are also termed as collectively tuned transformers. above audio range and are referred as ". i! "2"** A capacitively tuned transformers contains trimmer capacitors connected in parallel with the primary and secondary windings . transformers are also manufactured with a center freHuency of 4. -. F*.(. Their range of ad&ustment is generally specified. such as 1. Their main function is to provide a specified bandwidth at a particular center freHuency.(.

OF*. a radio receiver that employs 4.(. transformer is similar to that of an -.3. i!"2"*# The bandwidth is defined as the number of F* between =7.(. receivers.(.receivers. (. 9ne transformer has a center freHuency of 07. <.(.. transformers operate at high freHuency compared with -.(.(. P( is commonly utili*ed. ". and -. 5ariable !gang) condenser with a ma#imum value of 2<.(. transformers have a center freHuency of 07. transformers designed !fig. transformer. transformers in a single shield can.= 8 ma#imum points on the freHuency response curve for the transformer. transformers with center freHuencies in the range from 2? 3F* are used in the vedio -.. with provisions for tuning both cores from either end of the shielded can. transformers in the same eHuipments. Transformers consists of two separate -.(.. transformers are also rated for bandwidth. -.o to 0=77 F* operates in combination with a variable capacitor that resonates its primary andCor secondary over the given range.OF*.3. 3iniature -.(. but operated at higher freHuency !(ig.. the e#ternal appearance of an ". transformers that tune from .11 V e W ) for use in printed circuit boards are permeability tuned. (or e#ample. ".(.(. section of T. As seen from fig.12 shows the definition of bandwidth for tuned transformers used in radio eHuipments.= 3F* and the other has a center freHuency of 4.(.3. (.(. K A.<. <.7 to 0=77 F*. transformer that tunes from .<. 9ther -.the ground lugs on the shield serve also for mechanical mounting of the transformer. transformers. -f transformers ordinarily utili*es ".(.11!e)) ".(. composite -. and -.(. . (ig. An ".= 3F*.11. 9scillator transformers are similar to ".5.(.

in turn the overall response of both the transformers provides the rating bandwidth of the -.<. these transformers are generally oil ..1.T.transformers used in A. so that very tight coupling is obtained. Baffler transformer is fabricated by winding the primary and secondary wires besides each other.78 of ma#imum points on the freHuency response curve. $hen greater bandwidth is reHuired than is provided by the transformer characteristics. section of a T. i!"2"*/ Transformer used in the -. receiver or a radar receiver do not provide the full bandwidth of the amplifier. as shown in fig. or 2 F* or a tuned transformer with a center freHuency of 0>77 F* and bandwidth of 1.14 various communications receivers may employ -. A ferromagnetic core is provided to ad&ust the center freHuency of the baffler transformer.(.5. <. a resistor of suitable value is connected in shunt with the primary winding. amplifier.(.F. F* may be utili*ed. broadcast radio receivers usually have a bandwidth of appro#imately 07 F* tuned receivers have a bandwidth of appro#imately 177OF*.. and the measurement is often made at . transformers with a center freHuency of 077OF* and bandwidth of 1. (or this reason. i!"2"*1 1" Ai!) Volta!e transformers >E")"T": : the main reHuirement is designed ).3.(. with stagger tuning as shown in fig. is to provide ! proper and sufficient insulation to avoid corona discharge.

Lsed for generating and amplifying small pulses.1.e. -n ). There are two main types of pulse transformers. Pulse transformer is also rated in terms of primary and secondary winding ratio. i!"2"*4 . pulse transformer is placed in oil filled container which carries heat. it is used in [/ray and high voltage . -n second type. terminals have different voltages. -n first type. in secondary winding amplitude of pulse will be doubled than that of at primary and at another secondary the amplitude of pulse is same as that of at primary.. power supply. 0:1:0 i.C.ue to different tappings. i!"2"*2" 2" P'lse transformer: A pulse transformer is used to transmit voltage or current pulses with specific reHuirement on wave K shape fidelity and as electrical isolation transformer.emerged type.5.T. circuit after rectification. li e 0:0:0. 0. 0:0. %imilarly. 0:1. A pulse transformer is rated with pulse width and not in terms of freHuency response more inductance is reHuired to increase pulse width. (or power transformer.F. e. 1. ).g.5. Rs. pulse width is about 7. for primary and secondary windings. To reduce eddy current losses high permeability laminated core is used in pulse transformer. .F. used in rador transmitter. %econdary windings have tapering connection to avoid brea down between end of secondary and core. e. Application: -t is used in T. The different voltages are used for different sections which are supplied to different sections of T.g. the separate sections of bobbins are provided.T.

%ince it is a conductor. so more current is reHuired in coil to maintain its magnetic field. the circuit diagram is shown in the fig. This Current is shown as eddy current.+ C'rrent Loss: -n iron core.<. i!"2"*6 2"$. 4" C'rrent Transformer: The current transformer is also called as series transformer. *" A+stersis loss: The Fystersis loss results from the additional power needed to reverse the magnetic field in magnetic material. pulse transformer is used in computer circuit. current transformer is used to get accurate and constant current transformation ratio. to microwave tubes. alternating current induces voltage in core. and this current is produced due to induced voltages.LOSSES IN TRANS ORMER: $" E. The eddy current represents the wasted power dissipated as heat in core eHual to -1".Applications: To match voltage and impedance of pulse forming nCw. circulating current flow through iron core. eddy current flu# opposes the coil flu#. This area represents Fystersis. i!"2"*9 . -t is placed in series with high current and steps the current down..

SE.!: To reduce line K coupled interference by reducing the interwinding capacity. magnetic shielding is used in transformer. i!"2"#. 2"$*LAMINATES . high permeability. -t is achieved by enclosing the transformer in single. !1) )lectrostatic shielding. 2"$# TBPES O LAMINATES !0) )+ type. !4) )) type. .ue to lamination.) L.type. i!"2"#$ . electrostatic shielding is used between primary and secondary windings of transformer. >$: Ma!netic s)iel. because the resistance of core increases with laminated core. )ddy current losses are reduced. >*: Electrostatic s)iel. aluminum as a wrap around or between the coil of a transformer. -t uses a high conductive material such as copper. !.OR TRANS ORMER )ddy current losses are high due to low resistance of core material if single core is used. !2) ( type.2"$$SAEIL-IN= O TRANS ORMER There are two types of shielding: !0) 3agnetic shielding. nic el/iron!: To reduce radiated type interference. !<) Pot Core. !1) + type.

01. $hy ). )#plain variable transformer. $hich type of core is used for antenna coil. )#plain the losses in transformer. %uggest suitable appropriate core for low freHuency inductor below 17 F*.raw and e#plain the construction of Air/cored inductor. 04. )#plain pulse transformer and current transformer. Fow eddy current losses are minimi*ed in transformers.T. ?. $rite short note on A(T and "(T..raw and e#plain power transformer. -ron/cored inductor. $hat are applications of the transformer. . . $hy ferrite cores are used in high freHuency cho es and transformer. 0<. . (errite cored. 02.E8ercise 0. <. )#plain to increase inductance cores are used. $rite short note on A(C. 2. =. 1. which is used for impedance matching.. filter chec s. $hat is transformerP +ist various types of transformers.efine of a coil. 0>. 0. 07. )#plain transformer. is oil emerged type. . 00. 4. .F. 0=. $hat are inductorsP 6ive classification with e#ample. >.

P.C.-P switch Push switch Pro#imity switch 3embrane switch. !b) %P. The area of contacting surface also limits the amount of current can be carried without e#cessive heating.S5ITCAES@ RELABS AN. the closed switch has very little resistance. there is always some resistance present. The slide type is suitable for PCB mounting. =. !d) . A. !c) . They are of two type K the slide type and toggle. %lide switch: !a) %P%T. Commonly all switches are manually operated devices.0 !b). $hen the switch is open. it offers infinite resistance and no current can flow in the circuit. !d) . 4"# TO==LE AN. The ma#imum current can flow in the load. !c) .T.SLI-E S5ITCA $" Sin!le pole sin!le t)ro& >SPST: s&itc): -t can connect or disconnect one side of a lone on a single wire circuit.T. "oc er switch "otary switch 3icro switch . i!" 4"$ .P. -ts current rating is from 0 A to .P%T.-ISPLABS 4"$ S5ITCAES Intro. %ince switch operation depends on the surface of two pieces of metal ma ing proper contact. A while voltage is from < 5 to 27 5. The switch is put in series with voltage source and its load. -n the 9A position. %ome toggle switches are manufactured for 5 ACC.T.P%T.T. !b) %P. 4"* TBPES O S5ITCTAES $" *" #" /" 1" 2" 4" 6" 9" Toggle switch: !a) %P%T.'ction: An electrical switch is a device for opening and closing or for rerouting an electrical signal through a circuit.0 !a) while toggle %P%T is (ig =. %lide type %P%T is shown in (ig. with practically *ero voltage drop across the switch.

i!" 4"# /" -o'%le pole =. %uch a switch can also be two poles . A slide switch !. -ts function is 9A/9(( control of .T is shown in (ig. =.C.T switch in (ig. it is similar to %P%T switch e#cept that it switches both the sides of a two wire line at once.The toggle switch has wide application in low current solid slate devices.2 !a) and toggle !.4 !a) while slide . instruments and test apparatus. They can used upto 0 3F*.o'%le t)ro& >-P-T: s&itc): %uch a switch has two poles and can be moved either to the right or to the left.4 !b).P%T switches acting together. Toggle .T switch is shown in (ig. A slide %P.1 !b) #" -o'%le pole sin!le t)ro& >-PST: s&itc): As shown in (ig.2 !b).P.T is shown in (g. i!" 4"/ .P.P%T) is shown in (ig. The symbol to represent . -t may also be used as two single pole switches acting together. *" Sin!le pole .P. =.4 !c).1 !a) while toggle %P. =.P%T) switch is shown in (ig.=.2 such as switch has only one position of closure but contacts simultaneously. =. -n fact. =.o'%le t)ro& >SP-T: s&itc): i!" 4"* %uch a switch has two 9A positions.T switch is shown in (ig. computer.

silver alloy contacts. subminiature and microminiature. -ndustrial grade rotary switches are suitable for all types of test and industrial eHuipments and heavy use consumer products. i!" 4"1 . phenolic insulation and sta e assembly. %witch designs and materials are fairly standardi*ed. T.5. Construction generally includes a leaf spring detent.7 hour salt spray test are used in their construction. The life rating is usually 07. instruments. The life rating or dual ball detents. =. The different types have been shown in (ig. silver plated brass contacts. These switches can are stillthe first choice for most selector switch applications. These switches are manufactured in different si*es and shapes.. tape recorder. entertainment and other consumer products and industrial eHuipments with light use. Commercial is the economy grade rotary or slide switch suitable for home. A three band radio receiver reHuires three position band switch.S5ITCAES These switches are used in radio. heavy duty. These switches have been in use for a long time and are still the first choice for most selector switch applications. These switch can be broadly classified as power. insulation other than phenolic bolted construction and a finish that will withstand . These switches are slide type or rotary type.. to select a particular circuit. miniature.4"/ ESN.777 operations.

T types. Their typical current are 1 to 07 A and the voltage ratings are from 017 to <77 5. . Are subminiature roc er switch.P%T. sealed units.AL – IN – LINE >-IP: S5ITCAES This switch contains a number of single throw switches as show in the (ig.4"1 MICRO S5ITCAES These switches are of different types. in medical instruments. The advantage of this type of eys on eyboard is that they can be made as very thin. =. %P. The nylon construction provides double insulation for e#tra safety.P%T.=.9. Their temperature rating is between / 1. . The middle layer has a hole under each ey position. -t is a miniature switch which is designed for installation on PCB. =. 4"2 -. The bottom layer has a conductive line of silver in running under each column of eys. The top layer has a conductive line of silver in running under each roe of eys. and illuminated roc er switch. They are suitable far both low level and power switching applications. Their insulation resistance is greater than 07 megaohms.77. =. o C to =?o C" %ome common types of micro switches are shown in the (ig.T. .>.777 operations. The toggle micro is %P%T. They may be enclosed in nylon case. i!" 4"4 s&itc) 4"4 MEMERANE <EB S5ITCAS These switches are really &ust a special type of mechanical switch. The . and in other messy .-P switch is used for individual circuit switching or for encoding a binary code in computer circuiting. They withstand for 0. They are used often used on cash registers in fast food restaurants. $hen you press a ey you push the top in through the hole to contact the bottom silver in line. which consists of a three layer plastic or rubber sandwich as show in the (ig.<.

-t consists of plastic roc er with better area. eyboards varies over a wide i!" 4"6: A mem%rane 3e+-s&itc) 4"6 ROC<ER S5ITCA "oc er switch is improvement to toggle switch.SA E. finger/tip pressure uniformly and prologs the life of mechanical part. i!" 4"9 4"9 P. -t uses spring to connect and disconnect the metal contact and whole assemble is enclosed in insulating bode. -t is used for high current in servo/stabili*ers. . but its rugged operation has it increasingly popular. -t reHuires more space on the panel.ue to plastic roc er. LP% control circuits and C5T%. .applications.TTON S5ITCA Push to 9A push to 9((: $" P's)-to-ON: -t consists of two fi#ed metal contacts and one variable metal contact. The life/time of membrane range.

the metal bar moves away from contact and circuit becomes opened.$hen button is pushed inward. i!" 4"$. the circuit becomes closed. -t offers a wide range of operating distance and modes of operation. the circuit becomes open because the spring pushes metal bar in the reverse direction away from contact. PRO0IMITB S5ITCA This is photo/operated or electromagnetic operated switch. Aormally open normally closed. . types are available. *" P's)-to-O : -t is having similar structure that of push/to K9A e#cept two fi#ed metal contacts and one variable contact. $hen the metal bar meets contact point. the moves towards contact and ma e the contact. This is capable of connecting or disconnecting an electric circuit when any metallic ob&ect is brought close to its sensing face. circuit becomes closed. $hen button is released. $hen button is released. -nductive pro#imity switches do not reHuire any physical contact for their operation. $hen button is pushed inward. i!" 4"$$ 4"$. 4"$$ IMPORTANT TERMS $" Operatin! time: This is the time interval between the closing of energi*ing circuit and instant of first closing of a ma e contact or brea contact.

The load may be rated at 1175 A. the armature is attracted by the coil.. Continuity now e#ists between armature and lower contact. The normally closed contact provides continuity between the armature and the upper contact when he coil is deenergi*ed. A spring holds the armature in this position.04 !b) shows the symbol used to represent the relay in the circuit. $hen rated voltage is applied to the coil. "elays are manufactured in a great variety. (ig. -n a typical relay a P.*" Release time: This is the interval between energi*ing circuit of monostable relay after switch 9(( and instant of first opening of a ma e contact or first closing of brea contact.C.C. of 015 at &ust few milliamperes is sufficient to energi*e or pull in the relay. #. 3ost relays are electromagnetically operated. and . each variety of relay is used in widely dissimilar applications. i!" 4"$# 4"$# TBPES O RELABS 6reat variety of relays are available in the mar et. Current through a coil generates a magnetic field that attracts an armature. 9ne common type of relay has a normally closed and a normally open contact as shown in (ig.02 !a). Eo'nce time: -t is the interval of between the first and final closing or opening contact.. the armature is drawn downward. relays are available. A wide variety of A.C.. 9peration is in the millisecond range. Classification by application is very difficult.'ction: A relay is a that function as an electrically operated switch. brea ing the normally closed contact and ma ing the normally open contact. The following types of relays are arranged in the order of increasing speciali*ation: 0. 6eneral purpose !common) relay . =. and 0 A or more. which in turn closes or opens the electrical contacts. 4"$$ RELAB Intro. =.

%tepping relay 00. 4"$/ =ENERAL P.Coa#ial relay 01. Telephone relay 4. =. these movable contacts brea their connection with one set of fi#ed contacts !normally closed) and close a connection to previously open contacts !normally open).04.Fybrid relay. P. a spring returns the armature to its original position.1.C.%olid state relay. . %ensitive relay <. it is shown in (ig. Crystal can relay =. Card actuated relay . and 04. -t is an electromagnetic relay. board relay 07. To prevent the armature from remaining stuc to the end of the core because of . the yo e being shaped so that the magnetic circuit can be closed by a movable piece of iron called the armature and a set of contacts.ry reed relay >. 3ercury wetted reed relay ?. $hen the relay coil energi*ed.-nstrument relay 02. along with its different parts.. The armature is hinged to the yo e and held by a spring in such a way that there armature is attracted to the iron. i!"4"$/: Parts of !eneral p'rpose electroma!netic rela+ The parts of the relay are of iron core and its surrounding coil of iron yo e which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flu#. $hen electric power is removed the coil. Power relay 2. )lectrical switching contacts are mounted on the armature.RPOSE ELECTORMA=ETIC RELAB These is a low cost electromagnetic rely which is adaptable to many application and is not special in any way.

Lnenclosed dry reed are also available . 4P.T.ry reed relay are widely used for counting selection and logic control system and for isolating input and output eHuipment interface. 14. A reed relay is a combination of one or more reed switches.remnant magnetism a separator made of non/magnetic malarial maintains a small NresidualY air between the armature face and the core. 01. 2P. These relays are also nown in (ig. The capsule is either filled with a dry inert gas or evacuated. . 017 and 147 volts. i!" 4"$1: =eneral p'rpose rela+ 4"$1 -RB REE. The electrical life of such relay is about 0777 operations..C. 14. These relay are made in standard miniature and subminiature si*es. relays are <.0. relay are <. biasing permanent magnets are also included. 01. !ii) Type B Kpolari*ed. %tandard voltages for . The rated coil power for such relays is 0177 m $. The end wire terminals are soldered to the terminal tags and no &oint is used during the coil winding as it brea s due to e#pansion of wire material. Then it is powered with rubber compounds or impregnated varnish to protect it from moisture. The relay coil bobbin/wound with insulated enameled copper wire.7C to =77C. Phosphor bron*e is widely used for contact strips to give good contact without spar ing process. -n some types.. each of which enclosed in a hermetically sealed glass capsule. A. The current rating for contact is 0 A to . and 007 volts.RELABS A dry reed is also nown as a reed relay.T. The hollow relay coil surrounds the capsule is either filled with a dry inert gas or evacuated. The operation time mechanical life for such relays is 07 million operations. =. They can be operated safely within the temperature range 4.T. 4>.They are of the following types: !i) Type A Kmechanically biased. . The hollow relay coil surrounds the capsule or group of capsules to ma e a multiple relay . They are available !contact standard) in %P%T. for A. . and an electromagnetic coil. 4>.P. magnetically biased.C.

the magnetic field of the coil will e#ceed the magnetic field of the biasing magnet and will cause the contact to recluse. usually with gold or rhodium or have precious metal contacts inlaid welded or bra*ed. . and they fle# towards each other and ma e contact. the coilBs magnetic field cancels the magnetic field of the biasing magnet and the contacts open.@ ma!neticall+ %iase. $ith sufficient flu# density. (or reliable switching. magnetically biased.0<) two overlapping ferromagnetic reeds are sealed into the ends of a narrow glass tube with their free ends overlapping in the centre.!iii) Type C K mechanically biased. =.: -n this most common %P%T K A9 capsule configuration !as shown in (ig. !iv) Type K-5 polari*ed. >ii: T+pe E –polari(e. %ince the reeds are ferromagnetic. i!" 4"$4: T+pe E – ma!neticall+ %iase. the e#treme ends will assume opposite magnetic polarity when in magnetic field.r+ ree.0=. rela+ . i!" 4"$2: -r+ ree. $hen the coil is energised in proper polarity. -f e#cessive voltage is applied to the coil.: This type of reed relay is shown in (ig. some overdrive is necessary. T+pe A mec)anicall+ %iase. attraction between the reeds overcomes their stiffness. the result is an %P%T K AC contact set. =. -f a Type A switch capsule is biased to the closed position with a small permanent magnet. Contact areas are either plated. >i: T+pe A –mec)anicall+ %iase.

the magnetic attraction is stronger between the normally open contact and the movable contact then it is between the movable and normally closed contact. but both the stationary contacts are identical. that is. This type at reed relay is shown in (ig.@ mec)anicall+ %iase. This produces the switching action.>iii: T+pe C – mec)anicall+ %iase. the movable reed is positioned so that pressure is e#erted on the normally closed contact. (ig.T switch capsule contains one complaint reed and two rigid stationary contacts. . with no magnetic forces applied to it. To limit the magnetic attraction between the normally closed contacts.0>. rela+ $hen the relay coil is energi*ed.@ T+pe C -@ Polarise. -n this reed switch configuration the complaint movable reed is similar to that in the mechanically biased switch. .: The %P. i!" 4"$6: T+pe C – Mec)anicall+ %iase. =. the normally closed stationary contacts have a pad of non K magnetic material welded or bra*ed to it K performing essentially the same function as a residual screw of a telephone relay. =. Before it is used into the glass. is mid K point between the two stationary contacts. >v: T+pe C – mec)anicall+ %iase.: This type of reed is shown in i!" 4"$9: -r+ ree. The movable reed is centre K stable.r+ ree.0?. There is no non K magnetic residual pad on the normally closed reed.

microprocessor it and telephone e#change. ree. so that one of the contacts is disconnected V(ig. i!" 4"*$: erre. =. To close the contact the current pulses are applied to series aiding coils.RELAB -n this form of reed relay. -t provides automatic latching action.: Merc'r+ Vette. ree. This relay is very fast and current pulse of very short duration is reHuired to operate relay. 4"$2 MERC. rela+ .17 !b)W.17 !a). $hen the relay coil is energised with proper polarity. =. the central reed is attracted towards the right.REE. some of the mercury flows up the reed to wet both the movable and fi#ed reed contact surface as shown in (ig. To disconnect.REE. The reed is nic el plated and grooved with capillary channels so that the whole surface becomes wetted. -n this relay. reverse pulse is applied to single coil. The main drawbac of this type of relay is it must wor in vertical position.ue to cushioning effect of the mercury there is a virtually no bounce or chatter. By capillary action. i!" 4"*. the central reed is ept in mercury pool which is free to move between two fi#ed strips also of magnetic material. rela+ 4"$4 ERRE. the magnetic state is controlled by pulses of current through its associated winding. the combination of the complaint contact moves from the normally closed contact to normally open contact.REAB -f used ferred reed relay. $hen the current through the coil is passed. %mall ad&ustable permanent magnets are used to bias the reed to one side of the other. hermetically K sealed glass capsules similar to those used in dry reed relays are stood on end with a pool of mercury at the bottom.RB – 5ETTE.A permanent magnet is positioned to hold the movable reed against one of the stationary con. . This type of relay is used in computers.

Quic reset. *" Ins'lation resistance: -t is the resistance between contact and body of the switch.isplays are comprised of one or a multiple of digits or characters.'ction: . . optical coupler or transformer. Ao mechanical inertia.. -n solid state relay. )ach display position is. 4. state rela+: 0. A. -n digital instruments.vanta!es of soli. 2. response is developed by electronic component without mechanical motion.isplays are most useful devices used to display alpha numeric characters from A to M and numericals from 7 to ?. are arranged either as a rectangular bar segment array or a dot matri# array. +).4"$6 SOLI. resistance of a switch contact pair in the closed condition at specified load. .c. +ow maintenance.. output device indicates the . constructed from individual sections. #" Contact volta!e: -t is the admissible ma#imum voltage between open contacts of a switch . 4"$9 IMPORTANT TERMS $" Contact resistance: Contact resistance is steady d. in turn.STATE RELAB %olid state relay consists of a solid state switching device driven by either an amplifier. -ISPLAB -EVICES Intro. Figher sensitivity. 4"*. 1. 4"*$ TBPES O -ISPLABS A number of methods may be employed for the display of a digital Huantity. <. (ast response.

There are many ways of classifying digital display units. The number of digits corresponds to the significant figures needed to represent the value. The display can be planer i. single digit displays. The basic element in a digital display device is the display for display a single digit.12 shows a seven segment display.11 shows a multiple digit consisting of .igital . 9ne of these is selected and activated in accordance with the range selection controls of the instruments.e. =. and 4. (ig. i!" 4"**: M'ltiple . 1. =. $" Se!ment . A digital display device may receive digital information in any such as analog form but it converts that information into decimal form. Thus the display device indicates the value directly in decimal digits. but a group of single digit display. depending upon whether numeric or alphanumeric are reHuired. The non K planer displays include gaseous discharge li e Ai#ies and displays using illuminated +ucite sheets.isplay . %ome instruments have automatic range selection. -lluminated dot matri# type. because a multiple digit display is nothing else. representing the number to be displayed. 6aseous discharge type segmental displays. . -lluminated segmental type.ispla+ A single digit display is capable of indicating the number from 7 to ?. (ig. The input to the digit display is a code indicating the particular to be displayed or the e#citation of one of the ten inputs.ispla+s: The segment displays may be either = or 04 segment ones. entire readout different planes. There is usually a provision for a decimal point between each of the numerals.value of measured Huantity as a decimal display.isplays using rear pro&ection. The planer displays may be 0. commonly referred to Auto K ranging.i!it .evice. This is done by using a . 9ne of the methods of classifying them is based upon the format used. 2. .

14. are used for illuminating each segment. c. !c) and is used to display numeric characters.ispla+ The diagram shows how alphabet A and number > are displayed by illuminating proper segments. Lsing 3an =0. =. e. or +C. e. segments a. numbers 7 to ? can be displayed.14 shows another fourteen segment display unit to display Alphanumeric characters. S = dot matri# is used for display of Alpha K numeric characters and it is show in (ig. This is as shown in (ig.i!" 4"*#: Seven Se!ment -ispla+ This is used for numeric display only. and g. (igure =. both numericals and alphabets. b. i!" 4"*/: o'rteen se!mental . c. -t is shown in figure =. !a). Another system using 1= dots is shown in (ig. A .1. to display number nine. !b). *" -ot Matrices: . i. f. (or e#ample. 3an =1 segment display. f and g should be illuminated. a.1. =.1.ot matrices may be used for display of numeric and alpha K numeric characters. A seven segment display forms the digit to be displayed by illuminating proper segment from the group. -t consists of seven segments. +). d. b. i!" 4"*1 . A 2 S . =. d. dot matri# is used for display of numeric characters only.

1=.ispla+: A cut !sectional) view of typical rear pro&ection display is shown in (ig. the first glow spot of the ne#t decade is actuated. 9ne lame at a time is illuminated.isc)ar!e t+pe .EE . )ach lamp is coupled to its own sets of double lenses. They permit simplified circuitry with fewer components in electronic counters as compared with the neon ban of lamps in which each lamp lights a numerical in a column arranged from 7 to ?. Position indications are mar ed on a ring e#ternal to the tube. The moving glow spot within the tube advances one position for each input pulse and thus always indicates total pulse per decade. #" i!" 4"*2: Rear proJection t+pe .e !lo& transfer t'%e: This type of display tube permits digital indication by means of a neon glow !neon gas discharge) which may assume one of the ten discrete position in a circular pattern.ispla+" Col.*" Rear proJection . The first of these lenses is a condensing lens and has a numerical inscribed on it which pro&ects on the common sources after passing through a pro&ection lens.ispla+ 4"** NI0IE T. The second neon glow in line readout consists of a compact tube in which the numerals 7 to ? are formed as electrodes.i!ital . )ach limp is lightened by e#ternal switching. causing the numeral associated with its lens system to be indicated. $hen the total counts reach the last figure. cat)o.1<. i!" 4"*4: =aseo's . -t uses 01 lamps. =. -t is show in (ig. =.

1? shows the circuitry of Ai#ie tube.7 to 0>7 5 ) are reHuired to produce low discharge. -t is non K planer type display. and there are ten separate wire cathodes. L%A. a simple gas discharge diode is formed which lights the selected digit . After a negative voltage is applied to the selected cathodes. Aeon gas is usually employed and it gives an orange red glow when activated. (ig. each in the shape of a numeral from 7 to ?. i!" 4"*9: Circ'itar+ to -rive Ni8ie . a glow discharge is produced. The circuitry driving the ni#ie tube is simpler than that for seven segment displays. mA. Fowever high voltages !0. -t is cold cathode glow discharge tube. which is popularly nown as Ai#ie which is the trade name of 3Cs Burroughs Corporation. A gauge with a positive voltage supply function as an anode.The basic construction of a digital indicator tube us shown in (ig. other colours are available when different gases are used.1>. The display wor s on the principal that when a gas brea s down !ioni*ed). The current reHuired is of the order of 0 to . Fowever. =. i!" 4"*6: Ni8ie t'%e The transistor gate is usually employed at each cathode so that the desired numerical can be switched on. =. The electrodes are enclosed in a glass filled envelope with connecting pins at the bottom. There is one anode and 07 cathodes.

the seven segment monolithic device can be produced. digital watches. then it is referred as common cathode seven segment +). arsenic and phosphorous. input to the =4040 is decoded as ground on one of the 07 output lines. i!" 4"#$ . -t consists of seven +). %uch a circuit is needed for each decimal digit. =.: -eco. )ach BC. panel meters. orange and invisible infra K red rays. display. the +). display. the ground on the output line of =4040 can be applied to the display device. then it is nown as common anode seven segment +). is perhaps the most important of the display devices available today for use in -nstrumentation systems.-river Circ'it for Ni8ie t'%e: A circuit used to display the number from 7 to ?. Lsing seven such diodes. The +). . using Ai#ie tube and a =4040 decoder -C is shown in (ig.rivin! a Ni8ie t'%e 4"*# LI=AT EMITTIN= -IO-E >LE-: -ISPLAB A relatively new family of display devices utili*es light emitting diodes.s whose cathodes !or anodes) are connected to a common terminal.27. display. etc. is a PA &unction device which emits light when a current passes through it in the forward direction. i!" 4"#.s that radiate visible radiation are used in instrument displays such as calculators.20 shows common cathode type +). -f all the cathodes are connected to a common terminal. To display a decimal digit on a discrete display device. +). -f anodes are connected to common terminal.20 !a) shows a common anode type +).s can be manufactured to radiate red. =. green. By using elements li e gallium. display and =. This ground then causes the neon gas around a particular cathode to ioni*e. The +). (ig.

7= is a common anode type +). and ground. -t is shown in (ig. i!" 4"#* >a: 4//2 .e . .river for common cat)o. (A. Fere also. (A.s are . As before.I. >c: 4"*/ 4//2 . Q . d. %o digit < shows itself on the seven segment +). -river circ'it for LE. c. where +). -f. f and g to conduct as the corresponding transistors go saturation. d. for e#ample. . 3an >7 is common cathode +). =.CRBSTAL -ISPLABS >LC-: +iHuid crystal is a state of matter between between a solid and a liHuid..ispla+ LIP. the =44< forces +).ispla+: The -C =44< is a seven segment decoder driver that can be used to drive seven segment +).er .. +C. input is 7070.e . e. display. c.s a. is common cathode type display.77. display. the internal logic forces +). The common cathode type uses a current limiting resistor between the source !T 5cc) and +).s a. if the BC.ispla+ The -C =44< drives a common cathode +). the BC. display.21 !b). The input is 7007. input is converted to the reHuired output by the logic circuits inside the =44<.river circ'it for common ano. -n it a =44< drives a common anode indicator. f and g to conduct and number % will displayed on the screen.s are used in similar applications. the internal logic converts the BC.21 !a). display. The current resistors are included in -C itself. -t is shown in (ig.The common anode type has to be connected to a current limiting resistor between each +). input to the output that is reHuired.

used. =. A typical segment +C. The front plate has a photoetched conductive coating. Effect -ispla+: This type of display is more complicated. it causes the incident light either to be . the electric field causes the molecules to scatter. the molecules realign perpendicular to the glass plates again. $" -+namic scatterin! t+pe LC-s: A dynamic scattering display consists of two glass plates with a liHuid crystal in between. (ield effect type.22 !c). -t has glass plates. Thus a dynamic scattering display produces light display segment on a dar bac ground. i!" 4"## The liHuid crystal than reflects the surrounding light and appears mil y white. -f the voltage is removed. Lsually. =. and 1. =. *" iel. The conductive coating on the lower electrode is common to all electrodes while the upper segments are independent. The display is designed so that when one of the segments is energi*ed. (ig.ynamic scattering type. the bac plate is coated with a thin transparent layer of conductive material. There are two types of +C. The liHuid crystal materials may be one of the several organic compounds which e#hibits optical properties of a crystal though they remain in liHuid form. a liHuid crystal and polari*ers. The liHuid crystal is sealed between two glass surfaces which have transparent conducting coating on them.s.42 !a) and !b). These applications are a display of numeric and alpha K numeric characters in dot matri# and segmental display. $hen no voltage is between the plates. This ind of display produces dar characters on a light bac ground. . But when the voltage is applied between the plates as shown in (ig. the display is transparent. -n such a case. such as seven segment pattern. The polari*ers are fi#ed on front and bac sides perpendicular to each other. : 0.22 !b) shows the molecules perpendicular to the plates. molecules of liHuid crystal align themselves either perpendicular or parallel to the glass plates and appear transparent. is shown in the (ig.

i!" 4"#/ A.IT OR -OT MATRI0 ALPAA – N. =. !b). to 01 in the matri# format. A typical dot matri# alpha K numeric display system is shown in (ig.code is one of the codes of other symbols. =.ot matri8 arra+ >%: -river circ'it for Alp)a – n'meric . S = array is reduced from 2. so that a particular +).C. Fence matri# units are always multiple#ed though seven elements may be addressed at a time.transmitted or to be reflected.vanta!es: -f it is operated as . display systems use a matri# array of diodes usually . The alpha K numeric characters are shown by a code of a given word length.ot matri# alpha K numeric +). both numbers as well as alphabets are displayed due to electric inputs. *" -ts turning off is slow. )ach code provides a uniHue row address and column address. in . !a)).ispla+ s+stem i!" 4"#1 . =. (ig. its life K time will be small. S = array may be energi*ed !(ig. -n such alpha K numeric display. the display may be either silvery or blac depending on the +C. S = or ? S = and the appropriate dot matri# character generator.MERIC LE. energi*ed electrode appears silvery in colour. The A%C-.SISPLABS . -n the former case. #" -f the surrounding light is poor. -n the latter case. >a: 1 R 4 . shows that the number of +).2. 4"*1 -RIVER CIRC. $" -t can be operated only in a limited temperature range.2.. 3ultiple#ing several characters as a numeric unit produces further reduction.2..s in the . A si# bit code represents the different characters. the visibility is also poor. produced by the ey board. /" -ts reliability is less.

$" *" #" /" 1" 2" 2" <. +ife/time is limited to . "eHuires e#ternal or internal light source Aot applicable. green colours.. 4" 4" =. 9perating voltage is 2/17 5 A. yellow. LE$" 0. 5iewing angle is 0.7 to .. "esponse time is . "eHuires 07/1. C. contrast ratio between display element and the bac ground surroundings is governed by brightness of the display unit itself and by the brightness of surrounding light. +ife/ time is 077777 hrs." (ront style K = to 0<D $. Ao emission. Can operate temperature range/ 47 to >. *" 1. . segmentsD dot matri#. a character 4 is displayed.7.< 5 to . +imited to temperature range K 17 to <7oC.7o $.oC. (ront style K = to 0< dot matri#. orange.'ctor Imp'rit+ Colo'r 6aAs Mn -nfrared . /" 4.The above type of alpha K numeric display is usually available in such a form that it can be connected to the source of A%C-signals.777 hrs.? LCLC"eHuires 07/ 177 `$ power per digit.77 ns.C. 6ives off visible light when it is energi*ed #" 2.. Contrast Ratio >CR:: (or +). 5. "esponse K time is . Bd / Bs C" E /////////////// Bs $here. Semi-con. Comparison %et&een LE. The C" can be e#pressed as. e#ternal illumination is reHuired. -n the diagram. 9" ?." 07. 9perating voltage is 0. Bd E Brightness of display Bs E Brightness of surroundings (ollowing table gives regarding the emission of colour and material used in +). 1" .7 m $ power per digit. 5ery good brightness.7/177 ms. )mits red. decoder and multiple#es directly without any further connections. 9" 5iewing angle is 077o. 6" 6" >.

4" $hat is relay a %tate the different types of relay. )#plain the construction of rotary band switch. !c) . 6aAs7. !d) "oc er switch !e) Pro#imity switch. display. E8plain N8ie t'%e" $" *" #" /" 1" 2" C)apter-6 .0.1.<) P!7. 6" )#plain the constructional details of general purpose relay.6aAs 6aP 6aP 6aP 6aAs!7. $rite shot note on toggle switch.>.1. .%iC %iC %i A A. $.escribe constructional feature and application of following switch !a) 3icro switch. $*" $hat is difference between planer and non/planer display.A Mn9 A A A A -nfrared 6reen :ellow "ed "ed 9range Amber :ellow :ellow E0ERCISE $hat is switch a +ist the different types of switches. 0.P7.P7. )#plain slider switch. display. $#" )#plain +).<. $$" . 9" )#plain ferried relay and dry reed relay..P7.=. display. !b) 3embrance switch. $hat are the uses of slider switch. 6aAs7.ifferentiate between common anode and common cathode +).-P." Compare +)9 and +C9 display.4) 6aA%7. $/" )#plain +).

-f reHuired.EATERIES The term G)lectroacoustic transformer is used for all those devices which convert sound waves to electrical signals and vice versa. At the receiving end. both microphone and loudspea er can be termed as G)lectroacoustic transducersB. -n the following paragraphs. a receiver collects this signal and converts it bac to sound waves using G+oudspea ersB or GFead phonesB. the electrical signal can be further amplified and transmitted to for/off places using transmitter or cables. loudspea er converts electrical energy into appropriate sound energy. microphones can be classified into following seven types: !0) Carbon 3icrophone !1) "ibbon 3icrophone !2) 3oving 3icrophone !4) Crystal 3icrophone !. 9n the other hand.epending upon the material used and wor ing principle. the sound wave or energy is converted to an eHuivalent electrical signal. Fence. types and principle of wor ing.) Ceramic 3icrophone !<) Capacitor 3icrophone !=) )lectret 3icrophone 6"*"$ Car%on Microp)one . Thus."MICROPAONES SPEA<ERS AN. we shall learn more about their classification. 6"$ MICROPAONES G3icrophonesB are electromechanical transducers !)lectroacoutic transducers) that convert changes in air pressure !sound energy) into corresponding changes in electrical signal !electrical energy). 6"* TBPES O MICROPAONES . in case of a microphone.

granules would separate! move apart). when it is pac ed in the form of powder or fine granules. A varying current in turn generates an induced e. Thus.Carbon.1. $hen sound waves are incident on the thin and highly fle#ible metal diaphragm.ue to these vibrations. -nstead. it is set into vibrations. it acts fairly as a resister. -f pressure be increased on loosely/ pac ed carbon granuals. resistance is developed depending upon the incident sound waves. a varying proportional pressure is applied on the carbon granules which are pac ed between the carbon bloc and the diaphragm.m. in the coil +0. >. The microphone is connected in a circuit consisting of a battery and a coil as shown in fig. >. i!"6"$ The construction of the microphone is as shown in the fig. . in solidstate. is a good conductor of electricity. if the pressure decreases. i!" 6"* .0 above.f. Fowever. then due to increase in contact area of granules. This is the basic principle of operation of a carbon microphone.and the resistance would increase. resistance decreases.

$hen sound waves are incident on the metallic ribbon. i!"6"# 6"*"# Movin! coil microp)one .f. This ribbon is fi#ed or clamped at its ends only so that it is. !2) 6entle trebble roll/off !4) Ao GpoppingB problem. it begins to move bac and forth in the magnetic field. Thus. free to move bac and forth within the magnetic field of the magnet. is in direct correspondence with the incident sound waves ! speech).m. The metal diaphragm is suitably damed by cotton wool to avoid any significant resonance effects.-t reHuired the e.m.m. 6"*"* Ri%%on Microp)one: "ibbon 3icrophone or G5elocityB microphone consists of a thin. < mm wide and . %alient features of ribbon microphone are: !0) (lat response over the GaudioB range !1) )#cellent high freHuency response. This movement of the ribbon cuts the magnetic flu# and hence an e.7/077 mm long !0. can be further stepped up using a transformer. the sound energy is converted into proportional electrical signal. other wise. resistance) suspended between the two poles of a permanent magnet. is induced in the ribbon such that the freHuency of the induced e.f. stretched duralumin ribbon.f.

for indoor and outdoor applications. both. is induced in the coil C. A light cylindrical former of insulating material is wound on a coil GCB &ust behind the diaphragm. the sound waves incident on the diaphragm ma e it to move in and out faithful to the incident sound waves. the light diaphragm of stiff cardboard or plastic material has circular corrugations pressed into it.f. !2) Figh sensitivity. This construction ma es it elastic !spring action) and so. The coil attached to the rear of the diaphragm also starts vibrating in the strong magnetic field. !4) Figh Huality reproduction. !1) %mooth and e#tended freHuency response. >. $hen sound waves !speech) are incident on the diaphragm. it moves in and out. this e. when slighest of pressures is applied at its center. Thus.m. This former and the coil fit into the gap of an annular magnet as shown in the figure. is a faithful reproduction of the sound waves in the electrical form.vanta!es: !0) These microphones are rugged and reliable. 6"*"/ Cr+stal Microp)one .m.i!"6"/ This microphone has a light diaphragm shaped hollow cone which is clamped to a case around its outer rim as shown in fig. The magnetic lines of force are cut and an oscillatory e.4.f. it moves in and out. A.

Crystal is sandwiched between the metal plates. As evident from fig.c. This voltage !proportional to the incident sound waves) is pic ed up by metal plate electrodes G)B and amplified further..m. the movable plate vibrates to and fro in accordance with the incident sound waves. $hen sound waves are incident on the diaphragm. To start with. the capacitor is ept charged to a certain potential difference by a d. $hen mechanical force is applied to opposite faces of such crystals.i!" 6"1 The principle of operation is based on the pie*o/ electric e#hibited by a number of crystals such as Huart*. The lower end of the metal sandwich is fi#ed to the microphone housing while the upper part is free to move. This results in an alternating voltage being developing across the crystal. is generated. tourmaline. voltage termed Gpolari*ing 5oltageB. 6"*"1 Capacitor microp)one The transducer element in this case is the parallel K plate capacitor having one movable plate. This microphone has a very good sensitivity and can even be used in hearing aids.f. >. an e. $hen sound waves are incident on this capacitor. is directly proportional to the e#tend of deformation or applied forceC pressure. The movement of the movable plate increases or decreases the charging capacity of the . This voltage being developed across the crystal.f. the center of the diaphragm is attached to a drive pin whose other end is in contact with a pair of metal plates.. rochellesalt atc. it vibrates to and fro and e#erts mechanical pressure on the crystal proportional to the sound waves.m. The magnitude of e.

-SPEA<ER The function of a loudspea er is e#actly opposite to that of a microphone. )#cellent (reHuency response 2. This is a specially designed capacitor which can hold its starting charge for years there by eliminating the need of a separate polari*ing voltage source. 4. 6"*"2 ELECTRET MICROPAONE -t is Huite similar to any capacitor microphone e#cept that it does Aot reHuire a polari*ing voltage for its capacitor. -t is a device !9r transducer) which converts a varying electrical signal buc into a proportional sound signal !identical to one received by the microphone) 6"#"$ MOVIN= COIL LO. This voltage fluctuation is e#actly in line with the incident sound energy and thus.-SPEA<ER . i!" 6"2 SI=NI ICANT CAARACTERISTICS 0.capacitor thereby producing voltage variations across the plates of the capacitor. )#cellent transient response dye to e#tremely small mass of diaphragm. 6"# LO. +ow distortion. the sound waves are converted to proportional electrical signal. The transducer element is a self/polari*ed capacitor called Gelectret capacitorB. )#tremely high impedance of the order to 1.

which in turn produces vibration of the diaphragm. -t consists of a fairly large diaphragm of stiff paper or aluminum alloy which is mounted on a large si*e baffle board. i! 6"4" The moving coil or the speech coil is wound on a light cylindrical former of cardboard.>. %ince a single diaphragm can not give a good response for both. This force is dependent on the input varying current from the microphone. called woofer other. in turn is firmly fi#ed to the diaphragm. This to and fro motion of the diaphragm produces sound waves proportional to the electrical signal from microphone. one diaphragm called woofer. The force ma es the coil to vibrate. . it is acted upon by a mechanical force in accordance with (lemingBs left/hand rule. Thus. The front side of the conical diaphragm gives out compression waves &ust when the rear side emits rarefaction. A moving coil loudspea er resembles a moving K coil microphone e#cept that its diaphragm is much larger. The baffle +oral prevents intermi#ing of these rarefaction and compressions. called tweeter produces high freHuency sound waves. $hen the amplified output from the microphone is made to pass through this coil. The coil can move in and out parallel to its a#is in the strong radial field of the electromagnet.=. high Huality loudspea ers are fitted with two diaphragms loosely coupled to each other using a fle#ible collar. The construction details of a moving coil loudspea er are as shown in fig .. produces low freHuency sounds while the other. low and high freHuencies.

-f a combination of spea ers is used then the freHuency response is improved and made uniform. -t is used to produce good output at low freHuency end. To provide uniform response and appropriate out put signals the spea ers are provided with compensating.6"#"* 5OO ER AN. This helps to overcome distortion. The high freHuency signals are passed to tweeter while low freHuency signals are passed to woofer respectively. The two way cross/over networ for woofer and tweeter is as shown in the fig.> i!"6"6 The component +0C0 forms the low pass filter while +1C1 forms high pass filter. The woofer is a spea er having large diameter and heavy cone. the good Huality hi/fi sound systems use combination of woofer and tweeter. >. The tweeter is a spea er having light cone and small diameter. The woofer and tweeter are generally used with two/ way cross/over networ . 6"#"# Aorn Spea3er . 6enerally. -t provides good output at high freHuency end. Thus instead of a single spea er. The high freHuency range is divided into two ranges nown as cross/over freHuency.T5EETER The basic freHuency response of the spea er shows distortion at Figh freHuency and low freHuency end.

to provide a change of acoustic impedance of dense diaphragm material to low air impedance of dense diaphragm material to low air impedance. >.Forn loudspea er is mainly employed when higher efficiency is reHuired in the acoustic system. The horn is a tube varying cross/section having different terminal areas. The impedance transforming action is controlled by the ratio of mouth to throat diameter.'ction: cell an. The cell is fundamental unit as shown in the fig. +arge throat horns are used for low freHuency loudspea er system. The battery may consist of number of electrochemical cells.amental The battery can be loo ed upon as an electrochemical power source. %atter+ f'n.? i!"6"9 The straight and folded horns of large and small throats are also shown. Forn shape or taper affects the acoustic transformer response. 6"/ EATTERIES 6"/"$ Intro. >. 5arious horn drivers are as shown in the fig.07 . while small throat horns are used for wide freHuency.

f.a+Ls Secon.m. -t is important to note that applied voltage should be always greater than the bac e.m.a+Ls irst La&: -t states that the mass of ions liberated at an electrode !cathode or anode) is directly proportional to the amount of charge that rasses through electrode. is applied to the electrodes of the cell at certain p. voltage of the cell decreases giving out energy. . ara. produced in the electrolyte due to absorption of ions. The cells may be connected in series or parallel to obtain the reHuired output voltage as shown in the fig.>. current starts to flow.f.ue to the discharge.i!"6"$. These ions try to go bac in the electrolyte which gives rise to polari*ation.m. Polari(ation or %ac3 e"m"f": $hen the p.d. it discharges by sending the current.f. The polari*ation or bac e.00 i!" 6"$$ The principle of cell is based on (aradayBs laws of electrolysis. La&: -t states that for the same amount of electricity. . the mass of ions of different substances liberated is directly proportional to its chemical eHuivalent weight. -isc)ar!in! Process: $hen the cell is fully charged. These attracted ions reaching respective electrode are absorbed. -t gives rise to positive and negative ions. of otherwise the electrolysis cannot ta es place. The cell in turn consists of anode and cathode. is the opposing e. ara. placed in the some ind of electrolyte. The positively charged ions are battracted towards cathode while negatively charged ions are attracted towards anode.d. 6"/"* c)ar!in! an.

uring charging of opposite reaction as that of discharging ta es place.ue to charging the voltage increases and energy is observed by the cell. +ead acid . Secon.i!"6"$* . i!"6"$# . +eclanche cell cell: The basic cells are power or energy generating devices. secon.are e#amples of primary cell. chemical action is not Cell: The cell in which energy can be included with the hlp of e#ternal source are nown as secondary cell. The cell converts one form of energy into other. These cells cannot be charged again i. 6"/"# -ifference %et&een primar+ an. The cell can be classified as primary cell or secondary cell.e. The *inc/chlorine cell. Primar+ cell: The cell can be said to primary if the stored energy inherentlypresent in the substance. electrochemical type etc. The cell may be solar type.

These cells can be charged again. The separators are used to isolate positive and negative plate. are e#amples of secondary cells. The plates of the cell have two functions namely it protects the fragile active material and it helps in conduction of the electric current.. the separator should have good mechanical strength. Their construction is more or less similar.04 shows the lead/acid battery. Aic el/cadmium cell etc. 6"1 TBPES O EATTERB 6"1"$" Lea. Eatter+ -t is an e#ample of secondary battery. glass wool material etc. The secondary batteries may be classified further as portable batteries. Constr'ction: fig. The materials used for the separator are li e microporous plastic.>. The positive plates are generally plante plates while negative plates are faure or pasted type. . separator an electrolyte and container. i!"6"$/ The important parts of the battery are positive and negative plates. so that it remain rigid. The grid is coated with materials li e lead pero#ide or sponge lead. These two plates must be electrically separated from each other. -t is consists of number of cells. The separators are in the form of thin porous materials.cell.aci. The plates are in the form of grid of cast antimonial lead alloy. else the internal short circuit may ta es place. Plates: Cells uses positive and negative plates. industrial batteries and stationary batteries. The secondary batteries use secondary cells for construction. Separations: The large numbers of negative and positive plates are used in the battery.

-t depends on parameters li e last charging time. Pb%94 T %94 T 1F19 Pb91 T 1F1%94 Open Circ'it Volta!e: The open circuit voltage of the battery is same as full load voltage for fully charged battery it is appro#imately 1.Electrol+te: The positive and negative plates are immersed in electrolyte. can be used.7 5CCell. Pb%94 T 1F19 Pb T %94 Pb%94 This shows discharge of the battery on the other hand. filter caps. Specific !ravit+: the specific gravity of electrolyte helps to find charge of the battery.) Container: The container is the outer body of the battery in which the other parts are being placed. while %94 ions move to anode as in chemical reaction. F1 ions move to cathode. e#ternal connecting strips for contact etc. specific gravity of electrolyte and temperature. glass etc.d. %atter+: when the sufficient p. The container has various parts li e bottom grooved support bloc s. (or the charged battery the Pb T F1%94 . applied between the anode and cathode due to the electrolysis of the F1%94 the current flows from cathode to anode in which F1 ions move to anode and %94 ions move to cathode. Pb%94 T F1 At anode. during charging. connecting bars. At anode the chemical reaction is Pb91T F1 T F1%94 At cathode. (or lead acid battery dilute sulfuric acid is used as an electrolyte. The materials li e ebonite !hard rubber) ceramics. At cathode. terminal bars. C)emical reactions in lea. !9ne part of sulfuric acid T three parts of water. so as to protect them.

. The specific gravity of dilute sulfuric acid used as electrolyte shows relationship with charge as. 0.ischarge -isc)ar!e: $hen the battery delivers current to the load. The capacity of the battery is a function of the plate area of all the plates. electrolyte is placed. -n these poc ets active chemical i. The poc ets contain many fine perforations. aci. e. Ampere–)o'r ratin!: the capacity of the battery is measured in the ampere K hour !Ah).1>7 specific gravity 0778 charge 0. theoretically it can deliver one ampere current for 017 hours. The plates of nic el plated steel are flat and contain parallel row of small poc ets. it discharges due to the discharge.027 specific gravity .e. the specific gravity decreases. The construction of the cell is similar to the )dison cell. The electrolyte is potassium hydro#ide !O9F). But as battery is discharged slowly.1. The positive and negative plates of the cell are as shown in the fig. >.e. Application of lea. a %wede developed another storage cell as nicel/cadmium cell.0.117 specific gravity . 6"1"* Nic3el-Ca.7 specific gravity =. it may shoe a variable capacity. %atter+: They are used for lighting purpose in remote ruler areas. 017 amperes for one hour or any other combination of ampere and hours that when multiplied together gives 017. The positive element is nic el hydro#ide while negative element uses cadmium hydro#ide.78 charge 0.specific gravity of electrolyte is high.g.8 charge 0.0<7 specific gravity 5ery little useful capacity 0. a 017 ampere battery i.mi'm Eatter+ -n 0>?? $aldemac &uger. (or lead acid battery the anode and cathode changes the colour. . while as battery discharges.

The nic el/cadmium battery uses advantages of the lead acid battery and )dison battery. Ai!9F)1 T 19F At cathode. -t has lowest self/discharge rate. on the other hand negative element becomes cadmium hydro#ide. -f the cell is charged.ue to this cell is vented to permit the escape of gases.i!"6"$1 The battery is constructed by stac ing many plates cells to increase the capacity. $hen the cell is discharged. during discharge. reaction is Ai!9F)4 T 1O At cathode. The material used as separator may be li e polystyrene or glass rods between the plates.uring charging. C)emical reactions: The electrolyte splits into the positive O ions and negative 9F ions. . . the positive element becomes nic elous hydro#ide. At anode. Cd T 19F . the charging process generates o#ygen gas at positive elementD while hydrogen gas at negative element. the positive element is again changed to nic elic hydro#ide and negative element to metallic cadmium. at anode. The container is made up of the steel or hard plastics. Cd!9F)1 T 1O Cd T 1O9F Cd!9F)1 Ai!9F)1 T 1O9F Ai!9F)4 The above chemical changed show that when cell is discharged. after it is fully charged. -t is rugged and long active life.

the recharging current must be supplied with the help of d. Tric3le c)ar!in!: This method is specially used for the emergency battery applications. Constant Volta!e C)ar!in!:/ as the name suggests. This method in general reHuires high time. while negative terminal to negative plate. The general battery charging is as shown in the fig. Content C'rrent C)ar!in!: -n this method of charging the charging current is ept constant by means of variable e#ternal resistance. The charging rate of the battery should be decided by considering the N gassingY or the heat.s: the battery is a direct current device. The specific gravity of electrolyte increases.>.0= . C)ar!in! Met)o. in this method voltage is ept constant which results into high current. it looses the charge slightly.c.uring the recharging of the battery positive electrode and negative electrode is reconverted to its original. Though the battery is idle or open circuit.-t may be used in automobile and other vehicles. The disadvantages of nic el/cadmium cell is higher initial cost. tric le charging. To compensate this charge tric le charging is used. This leads to faster charging. The charging of reHuires positive terminal is connected to positive plate. . $hen it run down and must be recharged. The various methods used for charging of the battery are constant current charging constant voltage charging. generator.

aci. an. $hen the battery is highly discharged. nic3el-ca. the care must be ta en that vents are ept open. Cell lead pero#ide %ponge lead .=. the charging current is utili*ed for the reformation of the plates and little N gassingY becomes high and cannot be reduced. Average 9perating 5oltage Lea. -nternal "esistance .5 Nic3el Ca. internal resistance and resistance of rheostat and current meter.. .uring charging of the battery. Positive plate 1. Comparison of lea.ilute F1%94 +ow 0.mi'm Cell Aic el hydro#ide Cadmium hydro#ide Potassium hydro#ide 5ery low 0. the specific gravity of electrolyte is measured to find weather battery is fully charged.Aegative plate 2.i!"6"$4 The general battery is connected to the battery rheostat and current meter. )lectrolyte 4.15 .mi'm cell: Parameter 0. the rheostat is so ad&usted that current meter shows < amp which is rate of charging. aci. -f the battery contains si# positive plates. The voltage of the generator should be high enough to overcome the opposing electromotive force of the battery.

$hat is meant by microphoneP +ist the different types of microphone 1. C)apter------9 INTE=RATE-EVICES CIRC. )#plain constructional details of horn type. )#plain constructional details of moving coil. 2. $hy different spea er are needed for different freHuency range in an audio system. <. . )#plain the construction of ni/cd Battery. )#plain constructional details of cone type loudspea er. =. ?.E0ERCISE 0. Compare primary battery and secondary 07. )#plain constructional details of crystal carbon microphone. >. )#plain constructional details of crystal microphone.. )#plain the construction of lead acid battery 00.ITS ANS.NT . 4.R ACE MO. )#plain constructional details of ribbon microphone.

mm and covering a surface area 0 to 07 mm S 0 to 07 mm containing both active and passive components. '.%. -Cs have the followings: $" E8tremel+ small p)+sical si(e: 9ften si*e is thousandth times smaller than a discrete circuit. $eight and si*e are of great importance in military and space applications. ?.vanta!es of ICs: As compared to standard printed circuits which use discrete components. They are also transferred as microelements or micromodules. N3icroelectroniceY is a branch of electronics which deals with miniaturi*ation of discrete components.CIRCITS An integrated circuit !-C) consists of a singe silicon crystal.CTION -n early 0?<7Bs. it drastically cuts down the weight of the circuit. -ntegration allows comple# circuits consisting of many transistors. . typically 7. though in consumer applications. Oilby was the first to develop an integrated circuit K a single monolithic %i chip. Fe was soon followed by "obert Aoyce who successfully fabricated complete -. resistors. resistors and capacitors to be included in a chip of semiconductor or on a small insulation substrate. we integrate large number of components on small area of %i chip.1 INTE=RATE. including the interconnections on a single silicon chip.9"$ INTRO-. *" Ver+ small &ei!)t: %ince manufacturers can pac much circuitry into an -C pac age. has led to the development of microelectronic circuits nown as integrated circuits !-Cs) which are so small that their actual construction is done by technicians using microscopes. This drive for e#treme reduction in the si*e of electronic circuits. in which active and passive circuit elements were fabricated by successive diffusion and deposition. -n ma ing -Cs. The fabrication of -C technology is referred to as microelectronic technology. A techniHue which is used to reduce the si*e of the circuit or to integrate the number of components on a single small chip. A. a new field of microelectronics was born primarily to meet the reHuirement of 3ilitary which wanted to reduce the si*e of its electronic eHuipment to appro#imately one/tenth of its then e#isting volume.) occupies more space.C.1. is referred to as microelectronics. diodes. etc. capacitors. A circuit using discrete electronic components !transistors. they are not always the primary consideration. The various components and their inter/connections are distinguishable only under a powerful microscope.

ue to mass production. 2" Lo& po&er cons'mption: Because of their small si*e. -Cs are more suitable for low power operation than bul y circuits.vanta!es of ICs: Besides the advantages described above. 4" Eas+ replacement: -Cs are hardly ever repaired. *" They are Huite delicate and cannot withstand rough handling or e#cessive heat. /" E8tremel+ )i!) relia%ilit+: This is perhaps the most important advantage of an -C and is die to many factors. it is more economical to replace them than to repair them. According to fabrication techniHue. This has been possible because all the components are fabricated simultaneously and there are on solder &oints. Figher reliability means that -Cs will wor individual transistor. #" +imited range of values of passive components with wide tolerances and difficulty in circuit ad&ustments. slight fluctuation in applied voltage malfunctions -C operation. -isa. they can classified as: .#" Re. using discrete components. 9"# CLASSI ICATION O ICs There are several ways of categori*ing -Cs as to their use and method of fabrication. their chance of stray electrical pic /up is practically nil. According to their uses and applications. Fence. they can be classified as: $" 3onolithic -Cs *" Thic and thin film -Cs. an -C costs as much as an individual transistor. and #" Fybrid or multi/chip -Cs. They are: $" -t is very difficult to fabricate inductors or coils. 1" S'ita%ilit+ for small-si!nal operation: As the number of components of an -C are located very close to each other in on %i/wafer. it ma es them very suitable for small signal operation.'ce. /" As they operate on low voltage. This is also due to small 9AC9(( switching speeds. -Cs have certain disadvantages. cost: The reduction in cost per unit is due to the fast that all the circuit components are fabricated in or the wafer at the same time and also because hundreds of similar wafers are produced simultaneously. 1" +arge resistor cannot be fabricated as it reHuires larger chip area which is adverse of economy. .

/" +inear -Cs. These -Cs are not formed within a silicon wafer but on the surface of an insulating substrate such as glass or ceramic material. Thus. capacitors) are formed through thic or thin film techniHues on the insulating surface. 3oreover. They are freHuently used in: !a) 9perational amplifiers. (. The active elements !transistors.) and passive components !resistors. #" A+%ri. (.igital -Cs. !b) %mall/signal amplifiers !c) +arge/signal !power) amplifiers !d) ". transistors. diodes) are added e#ternally as discrete elements to complete a functional circuit. such circuits are formed by interconnecting a number of individual chips or by a combination of film and monolithic -C techniHues. or M'ltic)ip ICs: As the name implies. /" Linerar ICs: +-Cs are also referred to as analog -Cs because their inputs and outputs can ta e on a continuous range of values and the outputs are generally proportional to the input. T)in ilm ICs: The essential difference between thic film and thin film is not their relative thic ness but the method of depositing the film. so hat they can be interconnected to form the complete electronic circuit. etc. amplifiers !e) 3icrowave amplifiers . capacitors) are all formed in the silicon slice by diffusing impurities into the selected regions to diffusion operations are carried out on the top surface of the silicon slice and also the element contact regions are formed on the same surface. 3ore details of these -Cs have been discussed in the ne#t article. *" T)ic3 an. (ilm techniHues are then employed to form passive components on the %i91 surface. All the components are automatically part of the same chip. and 1" . -n such -Cs. monolithic circuit is built into a single stone or single crystal. and -. using monolithic techniHue which is subseHuently covered with an insulating layer such as %i91. only passive components !resistors. active components are formed within a silicon wafer. -n this the active components !diodes. Connections are made from the film to the monolithic structure through G$indowsB cut in the %i91 layer. +-Cs find wide use in military and individual applications as well as in consumer products. $" Monolit)ic ICs: The word mono means single and litho means stone. These discrete active components are freHuently produced by using monolithic process.

Fence. Polis)in! >Cr+stal c'ttin!:: Fighly refined silicon.igital -Cs include circuits as: !a) +ogic gates !b) (lip/flops !c) Counters !d) Cloc chips !e) Calculator chips !f) 3emory chips !g) 3icroprocessors 9"/ MONOLITAIC IC AERICATION SEP.!f) 3ultipliers !g) 5oltage comparators.igital -C contains circuits whose input and output voltages are limited to two passive levels K low or high. 1" -i!ital ICs: . A difficulty is that the concentration of atoms in the molten material is very munching greater than in the regular diamond lattice of the crystalline form. melt temperature and other e#ternal factors. depending on the pulling rate.ENCE (ollowing are the steps involved in fabricating the monolithic -Cs: !a) Crystal growth !b) $afer slicing and polishing !c) Burried layer diffusion !d) )pita#ial growth !e) -solation region formation !f) Base regions and resistor formation !g) )mitter region formation !h) Component interconnection !i) Pac aging >a: Cr+stal !ro&t): The seHuence begins with a single crystal ingot of silicon. >%: 5afer Slicin! an. . The process consists of pulling the crystal from a melt of doped molten silicon. though free from impurities. %ingle crystal silicon can be prepared by controlling free*ing of a melt. -t is so because digital signals are usually binary. This precludes method of crystal growth in crucible which would result in a . the pulling of crystal results in a formation of cylinder. is still polycrystalline. The diameter of the cylinder varies from 2C4cB to 4BB. it is to be processed to become single crystal. and !h) 5oltage regulators.

particularly for successful epita#ial layer growth at the ne#t stage. A wafer of integrated circuits after currying and brea ing into individual chips is shown in (ig. are Huite rough.-f the temperature and withdrawal rate are correctly chosen. is added to the melt before the crystal is pulled to produce the reHuired p/type silicon substrate material. There still e#ists surface damage to a depth of around 17 Rm. Fence. the liHuid/solid interface remains near the surface of the melt and a long single crystal is pulled from it. -t is removed with a chemical etch.7 mm diameter and about 7. silicon crystals of around . A wafer of . This process is also carried out in an inert atmosphere !argon or helium) to prevent o#idation. whereas larger diameter crystals have commercial advantages can be grown.'al c)ops . . %ubstrate slices typically 7. employing an acid mi#ture. which can sometimes be simultaneous with the final polishing stage. The melt temperature is then reduced slightly until silicon begins to free*e on the cooler seed crystal. Are finally removed by an additional chemical etching stage. 9"$: Silicon &afer after c'ttin! an. the silicon wafer ta es the following form. ?. are cut with a diamond saw from the single crystal ingot !bar).7 mm long can be produced. A further refinement is that both melt and puller are continuously related to produce a more homogeneous crystal. )ach chip is used to produce one -C. The slices thus cut.0.ifficulties may be encountered because of resistivity gradient across finished slices. Correct orientation of the surface of the slices with respect to crystal planes is important.0 mm thic can be divided into about <77 chips.material containing many dislocations. consisting of nitric acid to o#idi*e the surface and hydrofluoric acid to dissolve the o#ide. A controlled amount of acceptor impurity !Boron). they are lapped to remove saw mar s and to produce a flat surface. By this method. which is then slowly withdrawn. After completing the above process.ivi. The C*ocharals i method obviates this difficulty. using aluminium abrasive powders of decreasing grit si*e down to around 1 Rm deep.0 mm thic . 3onolithic -Cs are usually fabricated on p/type substrate so it is necessary to introduce acceptor atoms into the single crystal silicon at the same stage. A correctly oriented seed crystal is partly immersed in molten refined silicon. %rea3in! into in. This process is nown as crystal cutting.7 mm diameter and 1. The slices are then polished mechanically on a wheel to mirror/li e finish.

the o#ide is removed in certain selected regions. they begin to diffuse into silicon. By photolithographic techniHue. The gas decomposes and the impurity. atoms are deposited on the wafer. highly conductive layer. photolithography. The wafer is e#posed to an atmosphere. the wafer is sub&ected to diffusion process which is carried out at 0077o C. >. $here windows e#ist. The epita#ial layer is doped by adding small amount of the GnB type impurity in gas steam during growth. the impurities are deposited on the silicon surface and because of elevated temperature. containing a silicon compound which decomposes at high temperature. is passed over the surface of the wafer.: Epita8ial =ro&t): The GnB type silicon layer is grown on the surface of the wafer by means of epita#ial growth. the surface is then e#posed to o#ygen or steam. the o#ide prevents the impurities from reaching the silicon surface. $here no windows e#ist in the o#ide. following the burried layer diffusionD all o#ide is removed from the wafer surface. . After that. La+er -iff'sion: %i91 layer is grown on the wafer by heating the wafer to a high temperature of about 0077 o C. thereby forming an GnB type. A gas containing an GnB type impurity such as arsenic. These selected regions act as windows through which impurities can be deposited on the silicon surface. >e: Isolation Re!ions ormation: %uccessive o#ide growth.>c: E'rrie. where transistors are to be placed. deposing silicon atoms on the wafer surface. This layer is called Gburried dyerB which is used to reduce the collector resistance of the transistor.

o#ide growth. >): Component Interconnection: Contact windows are opened in the o#ide layer for connections to be made to the component. then the base is p/type. Aow let us discuss how a particular circuit shown in (ig. Resistor ormation: The same steps are repeated i. -f non/transistor is to be fabricated. i!" 9"* .1 !a) is fabricated in an -C. After sealing. ?. These walls separate devices to be fabricated from each other. >i: Pac3a!in!: (inally the wafer is bro en up into small chips or dice.steps and diffusion are now carried out to put isolation walls. photolithography and diffusion. The wire leads are used to contact the aluminium pattern on the chip to the header lead. Fence p/type diffusion is carried out by ma ing the base which also serves as resistor where resistor is reHuired in the circuit. >!: Emitter Re!ion ormation: The emitter is n/type for npn transistor and hence GnB type diffusion is carried out after o#idatiobn and photolithography. Fence. Aluminium is vacuum evaporated over the entire surface and the interconnecting contacts are formed by a photolithography step in which unwanted metal is etched away. isolation walls are of p/ type. each of which contains a single circuit and the dice is then mounted on the case or header. the circuit is tested and is ready for use. >f: Ease Re!ions an. -solation is achieved by reverse biased p/n &unction. e.

a fourth metallic !aluminium) layer !. -n the regions where diffusion is to ta e place. processes and design principles which constitute a highly developed semiconductor diffusion and plannar technology. The second layer !B) is thin layer of n/type material which is grown as a single crystal e#tension of the substrate. This thin layer of n/type has a thic ness of . (inally. and resistors and they are made by diffusing p/type and n/type and all other elements are constructed with one or more of the processes reHuired to ma e a transistor.>a:: A circ'it containin! a resistor@ t&o . This is chosen for discussion because it contains typical components. leaving the rest of the wafer protected against diffusion. ?. the %i9 1 layer must be sub&ected to a photolithographic process. a resistor. The fundamental structures of an -C is shown in (ig. These elements are . diodes. The word N monolithic N is derived from the 6ree 39A9% meaning N single N and +-TF9% meaning N stone N. ?. let us discuss the basic fabrication seHuence of constructing monolithic -C. diodes and a transistor.1 !b) and consists of four distinct layers of material. Thus a monolithic -C is built into a single stone or single an. +et us consider again a circuit in (ig. This layer is of about < mils thic . To permit selective etching. to 1. the %i91 layer is etched away.1 !a). All the active and passive components are built within the thin n/ type layer using a series of diffusion steps. These components are transistors.) is added to supply the necessary interconnections between components. capacitors. The bottom layer !A) is p/type silicon and serves as a substrate or body upon which the -C is to be built. -n this section. it is necessary to distribute impurities in certain precisely defined regions within the second !n/type) layer. Rm. The monolithic -C is one in which all circuit components are fabricated into or top of any bloc s of The selective diffusion of impurities is accomplished by using %i91 as a barrier of material !C) is silicon dio#ide and it also provides protection of the semiconductor surface against contamination. a transistor The fabrication of -Cs is based on materials. i!" 9"* >%:: Cross-sectional vie& of t)e circ'it" -n the fabrication of all the above elements.

?.. %i91 has the fundamental property of preventing the diffusion of impurities through through it.iff'sion i!" 9"# >. The removal of %i9 1 region is done by means of photolithographic etching process. The wafer is now sub&ected to the so/called isolation diffusion.the components encountered in -Cs. i!" 9"# >a:: Epita8ial !ro&t) i!" 9"# >%:: Isolation .iff'sion i!" 9"# >c:: Ease . a single p/type crystal ingot of the order of =. which ta es place at the temperature and the time/ interval reHuired for the p/type impurities to penetrate the n/type epita#ial layer and reach the p/type substrate. %i9 1 is grown by e#posing epita#ial layer to an o#ygen or steam atmosphere while being heated to about 0777o C. After polishing and cleaning. The sections thus . The rod is very slowly pulled out of the melt under carefully controlled conditions. 9ne side of each wafer is lapped and polished to eliminate surface imperfection before proceeding with the ne#t process.. the wafer is shown with o#ide removal in four different places of surface.2 !b). a thin layer of %i91 is formed !about 7. micrometers is grown into a n/type substrate. Rm) over the entire wafer as shown in (ig.iff'sion transistor i!" 9"# >e:: Al'mini'm metalli(ation $" Cr+stal =ro&t) of t)e S'%strate: A tiny crystal of silicon is attached to a rod and lowered into a crucible of molten silicon to which the acceptor impurities have been added. As shown in (ig. The monolithic -C is formed by the seHuence indicated in (ig. to 1. The remaining %i9 1 region serves as a mas for the diffusion of acceptor impurity !Boron). The ingot !bar) is subseHuently sliced into round wafers appro#imately < mils thic to form the substrate upon which integrated components are to be fabricated.2 !a). *" Epita8ial =ro&t): An n/type epita#ial layer typically .7 cm long is grown. #" Isolation -iff'sion: The ne#t process is isolation diffusion. cm in diameter and . ?.2 as described below.:: Emitter . ?.

9"1 TAIN AN.2 !c). as the ohmic contact. ?. -n this way. shown in (ig. as shown in (ig. using aluminium. or interconnecting metal. using vacuum deposition of a thin even coating of aluminium over the entire wafer. . and &unction capacitors. ?.2 !a) have been formed in the preceding steps. a fourth set of windows is opened into a newly formed %i9 1 layer. leaving the desired pattern of interconnection. ?. 2" Al'mini'm Metalli(ation: All p/n &unctions and resistors for the circuit of (ig.2 !d) are often made into n/regions to which a lead is to be connected. ?. To ma e these connections. if any.2 !e) at the points where contact is to be made.iff'sion: A layer of o#ide is again formed over the entire surface and the mas ing and etching processes are used again to open windows in the p/region. are formed the transistor base regions as well as resistors and anode of diodes. Their purpose is to allow electrical isolation between different circuit components.TAIC< ILM CIRC.ITS $hen resistors and capacitors are made e#ternal to the monolithic %i/chip. The interconnections are made first. The photoresist techniHue is now applied to etch away the unwanted areas of aluminium.uring the diffusion of phosphorous a heavy concentration of nT is formed at the points where contact with aluminium is to be made. Though these openings are diffused.uring this process. The p/type impurities !boron) are diffused through these openings. -t is now necessary to interconnect the various components of -C as dictated by the desired circuit. diodes and transistors. n/type impurities !phosphorus) for the formation of transistor emitter.2 !d). a new layer of o#ide is formed over the wafer and the photolithographic process is used again to create the pattern openings shown in (ig. 1" Emitter . They are thin and thic film techniHues.iff'sion: . and a large concentration of phosphorus prevents the formation of a p/n &unction when the aluminium is alloyed to form an ohmic contact. as shown in (ig. additional windows $ 0. Aluminium is a p/type impurity in silicon. the cathode regions for diodes and &unction capacitors. $1 shown in (ig.formed are called isolation islands or isolated regions. /" Ease . ?. two types of techniHues are generally used. ?.2 !e) between resistors. The passive elements are fabricated and interconnected by thin film or thic film process. .

. varying in thic ness between 01. therefore a large of resistors is possible. The source material may be liHuid or solid.vanta!es: 0. 2. A. . Thin film resistors generally e#hibit smaller temperature coefficient of resistance. Both thin and thic film techniHues lies in the manner the same type of components.777 Ao . S 074 Ao . we ta e tanchnology while discussing thin film processes. S 074 Ao to <1. Thin film resistors and capacitors have much stay capacitance and lea age currents.. The capacitance of thin film capacitor made with suitable dielectric material. Because tantalum is presently most versatile thin film material for passive -C components. thin films are evaporated onto a substrate ept in a bell &ar. 1. (or fabricating resistors and capacitors either on the same substrate or on a separate substrate. -n case of solid. The main difference between the two processes lies in the manner by which the film is formed. capacitors. 1. This method is used only to fabricate passive components li e resistors. but the processing methods are different for each case.vanta!e: The only disadvantage of the thin film passive component is the additional process steps needed in their fabrication. the method is costly. 9"1"* Easic Processes in t)in film Tec)nolo!+ The following are the different methods used in thin film formation. 4.. 9n the other hand. thic film techniHue consists in depositing on a substrate by screen and fire methods of film material. -isa. is not voltage dependent. $" Vac''m Evaporation: -n this method. Therefore. %heet resistivity of the film may be chosen independent of other design consideration. Fence. !0 Ao E 0S07/>cm) is deposited by vacuum or vapour deposit method on an insulating substrate such as glass or ceramic.. the evaporation . Both thin and thic film techniHues lies in the manner by which the film is formed. ect. Thin film resistors and capacitors need not be biased for isolation purpose. componebts fabricated by these techniHues have different characteristics. -nterconnection of components in -C.9"1"$ T)in film Tec)nolo!+ The proce seHuence.7 Ao to of t)in ilm Tec)nolo!+: 0. by which the film material with a thic ness varying between .

i!" 9"/: T)in film . ?. $hen a negative high voltage is applied to the cathode. The apparatus used for this process is shown in (ig. to 07/< torr. a thin stream of inert gas. -n this method. The plasma consists of positive argon ions and electrons. This high voltage is applied to a cathode.eposition %+ sp'tterin! . The film deposited on the crystal changes its freHuency. Figh current is passed through a tungsten filament which is ept in contact with source material. such as argon. thus the thic ness can be determined directly. Tantalum. made up of a material to be sputtered and deposited on the substrate.eposition %+ vac''m evaporation The bell &ar is highly evacuated to the order of 07 /. 3any different materials such as gold. -t tantalum deposition is to be reHuired on the substrate. The positive argon ions are attracted to the cathode and they bombard the cathode with sufficient velocity so as to release atoms of cathode material. *" Cat)o.. This vapour is radiated in all directions. then the cathode is made up of tantalum and substrate is made up of ceramic or glass.).. The source !evaporant charge) gets heated and vepour is formed. aluminium and %i9 1 may be deposited by this method on the substrate with good adhesion. These atoms of tantalum cathode deposit on substrate. is let into the evacuated bell &ar.e Sp'tterin!: -t is also referred to as glow discharge sputtering or impact evaporation. These are monitored by placing a Huart* crystal oscillator.process is ?. i!" 9"1: T)in film . The process is shown in (ig. tungsten and molybdenum are generally used as a refractory material !material having high 3. plasma is formed. (ilm thic ness and rate of deposition are the important which control the characteristics of the film.P. The vapour gets deposited on the substrate which is cool and ept away from the source. nown as sublimation.4.

Sp'tterin! $" $ith vacuum evaporation techniHue. Cu and Au are the most common metals which can be deposited in this manner. hence it is suitable for refractory material. This plating techniHue is also suitable for insulating substrate.: -n this process. #" -n the sputtering techniHue forms of film material can be produced by altering the sputtering process in proper ways i. /" Vapo'r P)ase -eposition Met)o. potential is applied detween them which Are ept in an electrolyte solution. process. Ai. !a) )lectroplating. 1" Platin! Process: There are two types of plating processes. -n electroless plating the metallic coating is achieved without the use of current. this is not possible. A. C. 9"1"# Comparison %et&een Vac''m Evaporation an. They are. by controlling voltage between cathode and anode and chamber pressure.%puttering is a cold process. the film deposited by sputtering method is uniform and permits a wider range of process control by the use of alloys and reactive glass. e. >a: Electroplatin!: -n this type of plating. 9n the other hand. and !b) )lectroless plating. . the substrate to be plated at the cathode terminal of the plating apparatus and is immersed in an electrolyte solution. But in evaporation process. "eactive gas is added to argon in the sputtering chamber to modify the chemical composition of the deposited layer. *" The thic ness of the film can be controlled by crystal oscillator in evaporation method. much thic er film can be deposited in a reasonable time. the halide compounds of the material to be deposited are chemically reduced and resulting metal atoms are deposited on the substrate. The metal to be plated is anode and the substance to be deposited is cathode. The volatile metal halides li e aluminium chloride A-C-1 or %ilane %iF4 can be deposited by this process. while wider control is possible in sputtering method.. >%: Electroless platin!: The involves reduction of a metal ion by simultaneous o#idation of a chemical reducing agent. .

resistive thin film can be deposited and patterned the substrate. Then nic el is evaporated over aluminium to prevent migration of aluminium into alumina !A. This acts as dielectric. a desired thic ness alumina !A. tin o#ide and chromium. The second capacitor is formed by sputtering another tantalum film on the substrate.9"1"/ T)in film Components T)in ilm Resistors: Lsing any one of the techniHues described above.io8i. The dielectric Ta19 is deposited on it. using thin film technology is increasing while the lower limit of thic ness of film.e ilm Capacitor: To fabricate tantalum o#ide film capacitor. 9ver this film. hence these resistors are generally specified in terms of sheet resistance !"s).. li e their counterpart. The resistor patterns are generally *ig*ag type. #" Silicon . tantalum. C. The substrate is silicon dio#ide layer of the -.e >SiO*: Capacitor: -n this. Rm ) to <1.1. 9ther resistor thin materials are tantalum nitride. A thin layer of !%i91) on the silicon substrate is formed is formed by o#idation. T)in ilm Capacitors: Thin film capacitors. This serves as one plate of the capacitor. first a thin film of tantalum metal is sputtered onto a substrate. first a thin film of aluminium is deposited on substrate which acts as one plate. Thin film resistor values are determined by the length to width ratio of the resistor area and the ohms per sHuare value of the material. 9"1"1 T)ic3 ilm Tec)nolo!+ The term thic film implies thic ness in the range 01.77 Ao !<. rhenium and deposited film. The most commonly used thin film resistors are made from nichrome. The most popular among thin film capacitors is tantalum film capacitor. a low resistivity silicon substrate acts as one plate.192) dielectric. consist of two conductors separated by a dielectric.192) is deposited. using thic film . +et us discuss few thin film capacitors.issipation capability is a function of the resistor area. The nic el is again evaporated over the dielectric which acts as another plate of the capacitor. This acts as a dielectric. $ith the advance in technology. the upper limit of thic ness of films. This is because of the fact that tantalum film capacitors have a reasonably high capacitance per unit area. Rm ). A film evaporated aluminium forms the top plate of the capacitor. $" Tantal'm O8i. *" Al'mina Capacitor: -n this capacitor. . %uch capacitorBs fabrication is compatible with hybrid -Cs.777 A o !01.

the cost of the resulting product by this techniHue is less than that obtained by thin film techniHues. The firing temperatures change from . 9"1"4 T)ic3 ilm Components 6enerally thic film techniHue is used for ma ing good Huality resistors and conductors for connections of the discrete components in an -C. the liHuids of the paste dry out and the firing process begins. o#idi*ed and evaporated. $here thin film are deposited by vacuum or vapour methods. The screen is then ept on the substrate and is carefully aligned. There are actually four to eight separately controlled *ones. thereby becoming a permanent part of the overall ceramic structure. a clear distinction between the two technologies can be maintained by referring to the radically different processes used in each. The remaining paste material consisting of the metal particles spread uniformly throughout and fired with glass or ceramic particles into a frit. $" Sil3 screenin!: The sil screening reHuired in this techniHue is stretched on an aluminium frame and the screen is then coated with a photo/sensitive emulsion or photo/resist. Circuit components are then deposited on the substrate through a screening process for which a wide variety of tools are available. which involve totally different eHuipments and materials. The electrical characteristics also depend on the type of paste. . This leaves the screen clear where the thic film is to be deposited and bloc ed by the fi#ed emulsion elsewhere. and 1. (iring. Therefore.uring the firing process. . These processes are simpler than the methods used to form thin film. fuses with the substrate. They are: 0. The paste type depends on whether resistors or conductors are to be deposited. %eparate screens are used for the conductor and resistor areas. thic film are deposited by screen and fire methods. e. (iring process is carried out in an electrical furnace or iln in a controlled manner. 9"1"2 Easic Processes in T)ic3 ilm Tec)nolo!+ Thic film technology involves two basic processes. *" irin!: After the thic film paste has sil screened onto a ceramic substrate. i. the characteristics of the components fabricated by the two technologies differ. %il is decreasing. the organic binders of the thic film past are burnt out. This is e#posed through a photographic mas and then developed. Fence.77 oC to 0777oC. Because of this overlap in thic ness ranges.

#" Thin film resistor are reHuired when very stable. The most common material used for cermet paste are palladium silver or palladium o#ide and glass composition. are the most widely used type of resistors.'ctors: Conductors for thic film application are fabricated from metal glass composition.E >METAO-: This method is capable of producing large si*e crystals at a high growth. whereas thic film components are made by screening and firing process. (or tolerance better than 0 per cant. The process is i!" 9"2: C(oc)rals3i tec)ni7'e of cr+stal p'llin! . e.. 9"2 TAE COOCAALS<I TECANIP. 4" Thic film resistors can be mechanically trimmed to provide close tolerance .T)ic3 ilm Resistors: Cermets i. thin film resistors must be used. The conductor composition consists of finely divided suspension of either palladium silver. 2" Thic film resistors are less susceptible than the thin film resistors to damage by heat and handling during bonding of active semiconductor chip to the substrate. precision resistors are reHuired. /" Thin film resistor are more suited for high freHuency wor because of their low capacitance per unit area 1" Thic film resistors are cheaper than film resistors.Tolerance of 0 per cant may by obtainted for thic film resistors during production by tailoring with air/abrasion eHuipment. or platinum gold powder plus a glass frit in an organic vehicle which renders the paste suitable for screening. ceramic in an organic material added to render paste suitable for screen deposition. Rm or more in thic ness. 9"1"6 Comparison %et&een T)ic3 film an. platinum silver. But the most common material used is gold platinum composition. *" Thin film components are usually less than 0 Rm thic while film components are generally 01. Con. film Components $" Thin film components are vacuum deposited or vapour deposited or sputter deposited.

The chemical reaction involved in epita#ial growth of pure silicon is hydrogen reduction of silicon tetrachloride !%iC-4) as given below: i!" 9"4: Apparat's for t)e !ro&t) of epita8ial la+er . which is dense and viscous when molten. -n the process. -n method. A typical arrangement is shown in the (ig.g. The C*ochrals i method is widely used in growing %i. As the liHuid column suspended from the seed passes into the region of lower temperatures. floats on the surface of the molten 6aAs to prevent As evaporation. it is necessary to rotate the crystal or crucible to avoid radial non/uniformity due to possible asymmetrical temperature distribution. it solidifies into a crystal that repeats the crystalline structure of the seed. The bottom of the seed is allowed to melt so that it can fuse into material. the epita#ial process is used to grow a layer of single crystal silicon as an e#tension of an e#isting crystal wafer of the same material. a layer of B1 92.0=. a seed crystal is lowered into contact with the material held molten in a crucible. The seed is then slowly raised to pull out the crystal. "otation of the crystal as it is pulled also helps to stir the melt. -n -C fabrication. it is necessary to prevent volatile element !e. 6e and some of the compound semiconductors. This growth method is called liHuid/encapsulated C*ochrals i !+)C) growth. 9"4 EPITA0IAL =RO5TA The word Nepita#y N comes from the 6ree word epis meaning layered and ta#is meaning ordered. -n pulling compounds such as 6aAs from the melt. As) from vapori*ing. (or a crystal to be grown. )pita#ial growth is performed in a special furnace called a reactor into which finished silicon wafers are inserted and heated to ?77 o 0777oC. ?.Onown as crystal pulling.

called stencil of reHuired dimensions. The photoetching method used for this removal is shown in (ig. At the input of reaction chamber a control console permits the introduction of various gases reHuired for the growth of appropriate epita#ial layers. Fydrogen is bubbled through the volatile silicon compound.=. This negative. are unaffected by the acid.= shows the apparatus for the production of epita#ial layer. the resist mas is removed with a chemical solvent !such as hot F1%94) and by means of mechanical abrasion process. By e#posure of the emulsion to ultra/violet rays through the mas . This permits formation of an almost abrupt step p/n &unction between the substrate and the epita#ial layer. The mas is now ta en out and the wafer is unpolymeri*ed portions of the photo/ resist film and leaves the surface the pattern as shown in (ig. ?. is placed as a mas over the photo/resist. A large blac and white layout of the desired pattern of openings is made and than reduced photographically. (. causing it to vapouri*e. ?.4 reHuires the selective removal of %i91 to form openings through which impurities may be diffused. $hich removes the diode from the areas through which dopants are to be diffused. The chip is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid. After etching and diffusion of impurities. ?. Those portions of %i91 which are protected by the photo/ resist.%ince it is reHuired to produce epita#ial films of prescribed impurity concentration. it is necessary to introduce impurities such as phosphine for n/type doping or biborane for p/type doping into silicon tetrachloride. the wafer is coated with a uniform film of photosensitive emulsion. 9"6 PAOTOLITAO=RAPAB The monolithic techniHue described in article ?. The silicon wafers are ept on rectangular graphite rod called a boat. The boat is inserted to the reaction chamber and graphite is heated inductively to a temperature of about 0177oC. induction coil. i!" 9"6 .= !b). . The apparatus consists of a long cylindrical Huart* tube encircled by ". (ig. the photo/resist becomes polymeri*ed under the transparent regions of the stencil. The emulsion which was not removed in development is now fi#ed or cured so that it becomes resistant to the corrosive etches used ne#t.uring this process.

They comprise around ?7 per cant of the total production costs because of the highly s illed labour involved to carry out fairly slow tas and because of pac age costs. These bonding techniHues would be used by the manufacturers where assemblers might operate bonding machines. The conventional method is to bond an individual wire to each element. and encapsulating the whole unit. Pac3a!in! Material: 6old or gold plated copper or aluminium conductors are used for bonding. one wire at a time. The pac aging processes are relatively very e#pensive. Plastic material is cheaper but it cannot stand high temperature. 9"$. To provide a convenient means for interconnecting many individual pac aged circuits. .'ction: The final series of production steps involves bonding the circuit chips or semiconductor device to a header in a suitable pac age connecting the circuit bonding pads to the e#ternal leads of the pac age. which can be more e#pensive than the semiconductor device or -C chips they contain.71. Transistors and integrated circuits must have wire leads bonded from their semiconductor elements to a metal frame for connection to e#ternal circuits. PAC<A=IN= O -ISCRETE COMPONETS A pac age has four basic functions: 0. Ceramic body is also for encapsulation. mm diameter is used for binding the -C chip to lead. (or pac aging thermoplastics or O95A" alloy or aluminium are used. 1 To provide adeHuate mechanical protection. 6old wire of 7.9"9 IC PAC<A=IN= Intro. 2. To protect the sensitive semiconductor device from e#ternal environment that could degrade the circuit performance.

%ome of the common styles of pac ages are described below. Comparative pac age cast. ?. 1.07 All the dimensions shown in the figure are in milimetres. metal envelope with the collector connected to the shown in (ig.4.. TO . The transistors in T9/ . )nvironmental capacity. This type of pac age is also used for power -Cs. 4.# Pac3a!e: The T9 /2 pac age is generally used for power transistor. Comparative interconnecting cost. The choice of a suitable pac age is wide and is dependent on the application and Huality of the finished product. 2. the pac ages must dissipate this heat to the surrounding air. ?. They are: 0. or conduct it to a heat sin . The metallic bode is generally made of aluminium alloy or O95A" alloy.: -1 metal envelope for transistor pac3a!es . The type of pac age to be used for a particular application is generally evaluated on the basis of five factors. -t dimensions of some common T9 styles are given below. The metallic part is made up of steel.imensions are in mms: TO – 1 Pac3a!e: This is a round metal can type pac age. Transistor or TO St+le Pac3a!e: The transistor or T9 style header is more economical alternative. Comparative system si*e. The semiconductor device encapsuled inside the metal can. Component density per unit volume. . i!" 9"$. -t is shown in (ig. To act as a path for heat resulting from power dissipation in the -C. i!" 9"9: To – # pac3a!e >All .? along with dimension.

?. i!" 9"$*: $.-P is preferred PCB.ual -n/line Pac age G . Again.00 shows T9 K . This is a great advantage of this style. Because of this drawbac G. > lead pac age. . The pac age must provide perfect shield to the circuit from e#ternal light radiation and magnetic field. -t should also provide electrical insulation between chip circuit elements and yet the thermal resistance from the circuit to its environments should be as low as possible. All dimensions are in mm. i!" 9"$#: A $* lea. ?. i!" 9"$$: TO – 1@ 6 lea. lea. style pac age used for an -C is shown in (ig. style pac age used for an -C is shown (ig. All the dimensions are in mm.. TO – 1 pac3a!e IC Pac3a!in! t+pe: The -C pac age must be mechanically strong enough to withstand stresses during manufacturing. pac3a!es for IC" A 07 lead T9 K . The metallic T9 K metal can provid electromagnetic shielding for -C chip which cannot be provided by ceramic or plastic pac age.01. TO – 1 st+le pac3a!e A 01 lead T9 K .02.(ig. ?. this difficult to solder into circuit boards by conventional flow solder techniHue. -t should provide good electrical contact between chip circuit and leads. because of the close spacing of its > leads.

0< shows the typical dimensions. 1. The pac age occupies smallest area. dissolved in glass to glass. *" lat Pac3a!e: The pac age is made up of a sHuare or rectangular enclosre.P. The ma#imum dimension is 07 mm d < mm d 0. %uch a pac age shown in (ig.-P) pac age. (ig. application and Huality of the finished product. is used. (lat pac age 2. ?. . the outside surface of metal o#ide dissolves into glass surface. ?. ?. The solder glass sealing is used to seal. This has high mechanical strength and provides good insulation and good thermal conductivity. made up of an alloy of aluminium Al 292 and 3g9. Ai and Co). alloy of (e.0. i!" 9"$1: $2 terminal -IP or -IL pac3a!e (ig.e. made up of metal O95A" !i.. This type of pac is originally designed for aerospace applications. The seal used for these products is glass seal with o#ide buffer between glass and metal. there are three types of pac ages in use.-P pac age. 6enerally > pin. This type of pac age is generally used alongwith the -C base. 0. 04 pin. . A special composition glass with a low 3. forming a continuous transition from metal o#ide. The main difficulty is that once fi#ed. -t also provides hermetic sealing to the -Cs. The pyrocream solder glass seals to glass metal and ceramics. $" T)e TO-st+le pac3a!e: This type of -C pac age has been already discussed in the last article. T9 style or "ound 3etal Can type pac age.04. it is very difficult to detatch the same.uring seating process. %i91.2 mm. The whole assembly is fitted with leads of typical alloy.epending upon the choice. i!" 9"$/: lat Pac3 #" -'al In-line Plastic Pac3a!e >-IP:: The body of this type of pac age is generally made up of plastic or ceramic.ual -n/line Plastic !. (lat pac s are normally flow soldered to multilayered PCBs. They are. . 0< pin or 47 pin lead configurations are common. shows 0< lead plastic .

After this the lea age tests are carried. >%: T)ermal s)oc3 test: (or this test.i!" 9"$2: P)+sical . The test has no effect on device wor ing.imensions >all in mms: TO – 4. The bode is made up of metal. it will lea into the spectrometer chamber. 3ost of the tests are non/distructive. minutes. >a: Aermetic seal test: The pac age is immersed in helium under pressure of 4 gCsHuare cm for about <7 minutes and helium is allowed to lea through. i!" 9"$4: TO – 4. . Theta the pac age is ta en to a mass spectrometer chamber which is evacuated. .0=. if helum lea s. cycles are completed.. The change of temperature is between 1=oC to 027oC. the device is ept for a sudden temperature change for about 0. $ith the help of spectrometer it can be detected and measured. %uch 0. and then returned to room temperature bac . ?. A typical > K lead T9 K =7 pac age is shown in (ig. Can T+pe: This another pac age style transistor type. minutes. The pac age is then brought to room/temperature and then its temperature is reduced to K .uring the cycle. Can T+pe Pac3a!e Testin!: The finished product has to undergo following tests. oC and held at this temperature for about 0.

SMT The %3T is sophisticated method of design.. After this. of the board. Three/four times this process is done. layout parts.>c: Lea.(T). weight etc.esign (or 3anufacturability !.erin!: The device must withstand the immersion of leads into molten solder metal for about 0. the substrate design and fabrication is followed. %3T provides high yield and reliability of the component. The (ig. insertion type.esign (or Testability !. test pac ing etc. The PCB assembly . seconds. The %3T is generally implemented for the reduction in the si*e.NT -EVICES 6enerally uptill we have seen the circuit board design as through hole type i. i!" 9"$6: Comparison of -IP an.0> shows the comparison of the . build and test the product with electronic components which are mounted on the surface of the circuit board without holes for the leads. placement.: Sol. The temperature of soldering metal is ept at 1<7oC. >.e. it reHuires concurrent engineering i.o by a force of 1. 9"$$ S.R ACE MO. ?. 5arious parameters are controlled carefully with the principle based on . before product is made.(3) and .7 gms. manufacturing test and mar eting people will together concern themselves with broad.e. fati!'e: The leads are deflected through 4.-P and the %3T !%urface 3ount Technology). the pac age is tested. -n the %3T when the circuit design is finali*ed. 9"$* MEANIN= O TAE S.NT TECANILI=B As in %3T no holes are meant for the leads. design.R ACE MO.

board.0?. the solder paste is applied to the component pads on the board. i!" 9"$9 T+pe I: -t uses %3. top and bottom. the parts is placed and is dried this assembly is sent for the through hole technology.configuration using %3. 9"$# A-VANTA=ES O TAE SM- . This means the eHuipment itself will pic the part from reel or tray and place it at appropriate pad location on board. -t is allowed to dry and through hole components are placed.s are classified into three categories as shown in the (ig. -n this type the wave soldering is carried out not with conventional method but it uses dual/wave machine. The components are mounted and wave soldering is carried out. (or type -. The components can be placed on either side of the board. The adhesive is placed on the each %3. %uch type of board can soldering with help of reflow soldering techniHue. This shows that it is produced by combination of %3T and TFT.s as well as through hole components.s only. T+pe III: -n this type the through hole components are placed on the top side while bottom side uses %3. the process is carried out on automated eHuipment. -n this step the temperature of assembled board is increased so that solder can reflow and &oint is created. The components can be placed on the both sides i. -n this way all the ports are being appropriately placed then the assembly is sent for reflow oven. 6enerally passive components and %3. (or type --.board fabrication %3. (or fabrication of the type .e.s are placed on the bottom side. ?. Then active and passive parts are being placed in the paste. -t uses wave soldering techniHue. as well as through hole technology is used. T+pe II: -t use %3.board adhesive is placed on the board.s and small active components.

(ig. 9"$1 S. !v) 5arious pac aging possibilities. through hole technology these parameters are not present and component placement machine can detect difference.10 shows plastic lead chip carrier !P+CC) for small -Cs and Huad flat pac age !Q(Ps). i!" 9"*.NT -EVICES The surface design provides resistors. 9therwise component will not be perfect. !ii) "eduction in circuit board si*e weight. -t reHuires high accuracy in  Component pad design.  PCB art wor and fabrication. The advantages are: !&) "eduction in circuit board si*e. !iii) "eduction in number of layers of board. ?.-t is mainly used as it gives miniature component si*e. 9"$/ -ISA-VANTA=ES O TAE SM-s The fabrication of the component depends on its placement by the mounting machine. The end terminals are used to connect it to the boardCland.R ACE MO.17. capacitors and other passive devise in two terminal pac age as shown in the (ig. ?. !iv) "eduction in trace length on the board. The %3. !vi) Can operate faithfully at high freHuency. i!" 9"*$ . 9n the other hand.  Accuracy of adhesive deposition. -Cs are available in variety of pac ages from > pins to 177 pins or high.

power etc.  Cost. type -. solder land.11. (ig. ." The land pattern is as shown in the (ig.s footprints i. The substrate design must ta e into account placement of component.s will be used to form type -. voltage. 9"$4 SOL-ERIN= PROCESS AN. ?.9"$2 LAN. the hard copper pattern commonly called as lan.RESISTOR@ CAPACITOR AN.PATTERN PARAMETERS O SM. ?.  The amount of the current passing through placement machine and wave soldering.e.  .ICs The fabrication of PCB demands for the correct component layout. (ollowing points should be considered during design:  $hat are number of components. The %3T process reHuires the %3. i!" 9"** The various footprint patterns are available in data boo s. solder resists etc.or --.esired si*e of the final product.11 !b) shows the land pattern of the -C in the typical Huad flat pac age.  Thermal parameter. (ig. -n %3.TESTIN= The circuit design and analysis reHuires to find out weather all %3.11 !a) shows the general consideration having %3.s land design is an important issue.. ?. The board may into small parts according to the operating freHuency.board.

The process of the adhesive application to the substrate is as shown in the (ig. power dissipation.  -t should be non/corrosive.s.  -t should be electrically non/conductive. termination thic ness.board adhesives are reHuired to place the %3. 9"$6 A-AESIVES -n the surface mount techniHues to type -. As all electronic components generate heat when used. pac age is small then heat carrying capacity is also less. The adhesive remains on the surface throughout. thermal characteristics of substrate should be considered. -f the %3.  -t should be hemically inert. %9-C are developed to ma#imi*e heat transfer to substrate.  Thermal coefficient of e#pansion should be similar to substrate.uring design the &unction temperature. ?.The design of the land pattern of the %3. . The selection of adhesive needs parameters to be considered as follows. i!" 9"*# Adhesive is applied with the help of sHuee*e such that adhesive dot height is greater than substrate metal height and %3. thermal resistance.and type --.  -t should be removable for rewor repair. 9"$9" SOL-ER PASTE . the temperature rises and it affects the reliability and failure rate of the semiconductor. The %3T pac ages li e P+CC.12 !a) to !e). reHuires thermal considerations also. Adhesive are dried with oven heating or with L5 light. with special arrangements li e integral heal spreader.

The solder paste is tested for the sphere si*e as it is important to find out whether it is comparable with the smallest %3. 5arious steps involved in reflow soldering as shown in the (ig. The ma e/up for the solder paste is as shown in (ig.1. Lneven sphere si*e provide uneven heating during reflow process and create defective &oints. 9"*. i!" 9"*1 .E The %3. The flu#es can also be used similar to TFT. ?. The various causes for the solder &oints may be due to.14. The soldering can be carried out by batch type or conveyori*ed oven. SOL-ERIN= TECANIP.  poor solder paste Huality. ?. i!" 9"*/ -t shown that solder paste consists of many microscopic balls of solder with film of o#ide coating.. port.s are place in the soldered part and reflow soldering is carried. -n such case is discarded. The other paste called silver paste uses ?</ 4 tin and silver. The deposition of the paste may be carried out with the help of spring or by screen or stencil printing techniHue give good result.s are fabricated. -t is seen earlier that paste is deposited on the bass and the different types of %3.s are soldered with techniHue called reflow soldering. it is divided into four steps.%3T reHuires good Huality &oint formation to increase the reliability.  solder paste deposition problem. The %3.  component lead problem.  incorrect solder pads ect. The solder paste used for %3T uses <2/2= eutectic tin/lead composition of the solder.

9"*$ ASSEMELB O SM-s The assembly of %3. >i: 9ptimum passage for solder fillet. components and solder paste is preheated. . The wetting time used may be of 27/<7 sec. i!" 9"*2 (ig. while &oint is discarded if angle is less than ?7o . -t helps in evaporation of the solvent and flu#es. -r+in!: Components are allowed to dry.1<. -n this step the substrate. ?. The temperature maintained is about 0>2oC. -ts open angle is greater than ?7o. The solder &oint is inspected with the criteria as shown in the (ig. wetting both components leads and board pads. Coolin!: %older paste is cooled below the liHuids point forming acceptable solder &oints. ?. >ii: +ess trac si*e and footprint area. >iii: 3inimised board area. ?.1< !a) shows that solder &oint is good. This reduces o#ides. >v: AdeHuate interport clearance for placement and test eHuipment. should ta e into account following points.Pre)eat (one: -t is the first step of reflow soldering.1< !b). Reflo&: -n this step temperature of the solder paste is increases liHuidus point and reflows. -t the angle is E ?7o &oint is said to acceptable as shown in the (ig. The temperature of the solder paste is about 117oC. >iv: AdeHuate distance between components.

E0ERCISE 0. in which port is moved into the solder paste and &oint to substrate..The port is placed by port placement eHuipment li e in/line placement eHuipment. . <. simultaneous placement eHuipment.. $hat is meant by %3.C. 4. $rite short note on -... $hich are the pac age of %3.C. C)apter-$. RINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS . pac age. 2. $hat are the advantages and disadvantages of %3. =. )#plain the types of -.C. Then appropriate soldering techniHues are used. )#plain the soldering techniHue of %3.. )#plain the manufacturing process of -. 1.

The remaining copper and the base material from the complete printed circuit board. -n production. given a high rate of reablity in production. The final shape is developed by etching.CTION A printed circuit is an electronic circuit mounted on a base material. All the circuits are uniform in layout. The type and shape of the actual electronic circuit are limited only by the imagination of the person designing the board. -t is abbreviated as PCB. The electronic printed circuit gives this same appearance although the circuit is actually a thin layer of copper.CON-. The base is also mounted device used to fasten the complete pac age to its case. the problem of material selection and Huality . but he must also be familiar with the design concept and with the philosophy behind the eHuipment. or conductor. that is chemically removing some copper from the surface of a blan board.CTIN= MATERIALS Although the number of different printed circuits base materials in common use is finite. component parts are often inserted by machine into the finished board. The name printed on the base material.$. The printed circuit board has been developed by the electronics industry so that mass production techniHues could be applied to electronic assemblies using PCBs. eliminating the wiring errors common to hand wired electronic circuits. -n ordinary printing. The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information on the board before one can go on to the artwor preparation. The shape of copper is determined by the layout or art wor reHuired for actual circuit. in the circuit. component parts li e resistors $."* EASE AN. The copper foil acts as the wire."$INTRO-. At etched or printed circuit consists of a thin layer of copper foil. in is deposited on the paper. The circuit made of copper foil is so thin that it needs a base to support it. The detailed circuit diagram is very important for the layout designer. Fundreds of similar circuits can be manufactured by this method. The final circuit is shaped by etching the copper in a chemical.

polyesters. The commonly used resins are phenolic. Amongst the various papers. !a: iller: fillers are continuous webs of materials such as paper. These materials also have low chemical resistance. The commonly used fillers are a variety papers or glass in various forms such as cloth and continuous filament mat. !C)Copper coil. the structure so formed is referred as copper/ clad laminates or a copper/ clad laminate are: !a)(iller. The glass filler is generally in the form of cloth woven of filaments. The vast ma&ority of printed circuits are made with paper/ based laminates because these are low priced. etc. >C: Copper Coil: The copper foil which forms the surface of a copper/ clad laminate is manufactured by the process of electrode position. epo#y.control is almost limitless. But aluminum is difficult to solder and silver is a costly material. have good electrical and mechanical properties but they are restricted with respect to type of filler applied. The commonly used conducting materials are copper. polytetrafluorethylene !Teflon) etc. a thin copper deposit gradually builds up into an integrate sheet of metal foil which can be grealluy peeled off from the cylinder surface of the point where the cylinder surface comes out of the plating bath. $hen the copper foil is pressed or fi#ed on insulating base material !laminate). !B)"esin. A thin film of pure copper metal is deposited on to a slowly rotating corrosion resistantmetal cylinder whose lower portion is immersed in a copper rich electrolytic plating both. cloth. As the cylinder slowly rotates in the bath. too. 6lasscloth will produce a laminate with a very high mechanical strength and very low moisture absorption. polyester. rag paper provides an electrically better laminate than the one made of alphacellulose paper. ragor their combinations.and are used for this purpose are craft. aluminum and silver. The laminate is the base material used to manufacture the laminates. hence copper or silver/coated copper conducting material is most commonly used for the manufacture of PCB. alphacellulose. . The laminate can be simply described as the product obtained by pressing layers of a filler material with resin under heat and pressure. As the cylinder whose lower portion is immersed in a copper rich electrolytic plating bath. %econd advantage is that it is easily operated on machine. >%: Resins: The fillers described above are embedded in a matri# of a resins are phenol/ formaladehyde resins long e#perience with these has led to an almost perfect understanding of their behavior epo#ies which are comparatively recent and are much cosllier but they e#hibit superior electrical and mechanical properties which are retained under not and humid conditions. glass.

flame resistance and appearance. it is therefore. molecular structure. Laminate: A copper/ clad laminate. must have a good copper to base laminate bond strength. corrosive atmosphere. similarly most of the electrical properties vary with changes in freHuency. flatness. Apart from this. All electrical and mechanical properties are affected by environment conditions such as humidity.. resistance to hot solder or peeling. temperature. aging. Theranges of dissipation factor for laminate of 0 3F1 should lie beth 7.. y. dielectric constant dissipation factor.ielectric strength: dielectric strength is the ability of an insulating material to resist the passage of a disruptive discharge produced by an electric stress under specified conditions. -t is the ratio of the capacitance of the laminate under test and capacitance of the same electrode system with air replacing the laminate as dielectric medium.ielectric constant of 0 3F1 for a standard laminate should lie in the range of 1 to . !d) Ins'lation Resistance: -nsulation resistance of a base laminate is the ratio of voltage applied to the current flowing in the base laminate. The side surface of the copper must be smooth and Lniform. such measurements sure reported in terms of surface and volume resistively. etc. !a) . y to 4. a designer of PCB may need data on a wide spectrum of laminate properties such as dielectric strength. )lectrical properties of a laminate depend upon the electrical properties of the filler.7>. the cured resin and the by/products of the caring reaction. >%: -ielectric Constant: This is also referred to as permittivity.77> to 7. .. surface and volume resistance foil to base band strength. Thesurface resistance must lie in the range of varies with freHuency temperature and moisture absoried in the laminate. . water absorption.Properties Of Copper.777 megaohms.Cla. The standard value for copper clad laminate should lie between 0. This depends upon chemical composition. is also considered at the time of production.777 to 07. >C: -issipation actor: The dissipation factor is the ratio of parallel reactance to paralled resistance. degree of moistening freHuency and wave from of voltage applied. necessary to understand the behavior of insulating materials when sub&ected to various environmental conditions li ely to be encountered in use. cleanliness and roughness of surface.Thedissipation factor of laminate as such is not a constant factor. Properties li e punchability. apart from its electrical and physical properties. thic ness of the specimen. degree of material.

<mm laminate should lie in the range 01.777 to <7. The value lies. >e: Copper To E'se Laminate Eon.4 Thevolume resistively of a laminate should lie in the range of 0#07 < to 0#07 megaohm/ cm. These laminates are usually light brown or dar brown in colour. $. immersed in distilled water for a specified period !14 hours) at a specified temperature !17 to 1. the filler paper used in manufacturing Phenolic K laminate must be of bleached variety to get a transparent laminate. [[[PC. The value for 0.777. >!: 5ater A%sorption: The amount of water absorbed by a sample of specified si*e. The above properties are the electricalproperties of the laminate. !a) P)enolic Laminates: Phenolic resins consist of a solution of reaction product of phenol and formaldehyde in a solvent.0 to 0 percent. used in the eHuipment. for 0. pressure or stress) which a laminate strip will stand without faucture !brea ). etching.<mm thic laminate. These laminates are stable enough under a variety of conditions to suit a ma&ority of applications. in the range of 7. plating and heat cycling is prescribed to ensure this aspect. it is necessary that the laminate with stands the processing conditions. Commercially available grades are hot punching variety."# TBPES O LAMINATES >EASE MATERIALS: Aational electrical manufacturers association !A)3A) has various types of laminates obtained by the use of different filler and corresponding matching resin. >): lame Resistance: The electronic industry is becoming concerned with the problem of inflammability of materials. when supported at ends and loaded in the center.e. Testing of properties such as that resistance to hot solder.c) is reported as water absorption in milligrams. . $hen translucency is e#pected. The Phenolic resins are reinforced with paper fillers for copper K clad laminates. room temperature punching variety and resistant variety corresponding to A)3A grades of [[[P. hence they are opaHue. -t e#pected to ma e laminates more flame/resistant. >f: le8'ral Stren!t): This is a measure of the force per unit area !i. The gain in weight can also be e#pressed as the percentage of increase over the initial weight. bond strength and its retention after stimulated digressing. C)aracteristics: To ensure satisfactory performance of copper/clad laminate during PCB processing and component assembly. Aow let us discuss clad laminate.

They are tough. . 6lass epo#y laminates.and ("/1 respectively. The colour of this laminate is pale green and it is semi/transparent. 5olume resistively E4. 3oisture resistance is poor as compared to epo#y laminate.. Fere are two types of epo#y laminates in use. They have poor arc resistance 4. 9rganic solvents do not affect them. These laminates are hard to machine and usually not suitable for punching operations.. 01. The cost of glass e#p. 0. # 07 to 07 2. . They are attac ed by strong al alis. .1 5Cmm 4. 0.ielectric constant at 0 3F* E4 to . 0=. 00. .ielectric strength E01 to 10.70 to 7. 6ood mechanical strength.#07 megaohm 4 = 1. Figh al ali resistance. A recent development ma es use of a continuous filament glass mat as reinforcement. They are: 0.72 <. -isa.. Ao effect of wea acids. (le#ural strength E 0077 to 1=77 OPCcm >.vanta!es: 0.C ?. 6ood moisture resistance. This again is reacted with suitable hardness and accelerates to give a crosslin ed product. Arc resistance E0. %light effect of strong acids. >c: Pol+ester Laminates: Polyesters are solutions of . 04..74 to 7. 2. 02. !b) Epo8+ Laminates: 6enerally epichlorohydrin and a bivalent phenol is reacted to give the base resin. 1. Properties: . %light effect of organic solvent. paper epo#y laminates. epo#y laminate is more as compared to paper epo#y laminate. They have no acid effect. 1. -n epo#y paper laminates.. 6ood electrical properties.vanta!es: 0. They give good adhesion. 0<. 07. A. 1.issipation factor at 0 3F* E 7. $ater absorption E 7. 5ary strong acids react on them. are manufactured using epo#y resin as resin and glass fiber as filler. to 0>7 1 =. -nsulation resistance E 0#07 to .

They do not show good mechanical properties as compared to phenolic and epo#y !g) Melamine Laminates: They can be manufactured by using melamine resins and glass fabric. !f) Silicon Laminates: These laminates are manufactured by using silicon resins and glass mat or fibers. carbon. humidity and freHuency variations. They are not used in electronic industry. !h) Pol+ami. low mechanical strength. They are e#clusively used with glass fiber reinforcement. -isa. They wor upto a temperature of 0<.l'oro-Et)+lene >PTEE:: it is a thermoplastic which when reinforced with glass gives such types of laminates. They have good electrical properties upto 1. !d) -ill+ P)t)alate Laminates: they are glass reinforced and used almost e#clusively as insulation in electronics. it is difficult to obtain a good copper foil to base material bond."/ LIST O MAGOR SPECI ICATIONS TO COPPER-CLALAMINATES B% K British %tandard -% K -ndian %tandard .e Laminates: This is one of the best heat resistant polymers. Commercially available polyester. . %ilicon resins contain silicon. 1.ue to such properties PT)) laminates are often used for 5F( and LF( !microwave) applications. !e) Pol+-tetra. 2. -t has low dielectric constant and low dissipation factor under a wide range of temperature. They have better copper to base bond strength at soldering temperature. 1. They have good arc and tract resistance. A ma&or disadvantage is poor dimensional stability. They show good water resistance. glass laminates are of ("/< grade of A)3A.vanta!es: 0. $. 1. They show high insulation resistance. The most significant property offered by these laminates is a high arc/resistance. the laminates find use in military and aerospace applications and in special multilayer circuits. Properties: 0. Properties: 0. The electric strength is very low.unsaturated polyester resins in copolymerisable monomers such as styrene etc. o#ygen and hydrogen.when reinforced with woven glass fabric. They have good heat resistance. 7C without any damage.7 7C.

2.ry board. +oo at schematic diagram. $hen light is held over the mas and board. . which is on the film master. The following steps are involved in this process: 0. The original artwor is used to ma e a mas . +ayout artwor 1. . 9ther areas are not hardened and will etch away rapidly. 0. the resist material reacts to the light. -t produces eHual or better results by forming a resist on the surface of the blan board photographically. The light source is removed. %creen printing $. (ind the position of inputCoutput terminals and the common lines. and 1."1"$ P)oto-Printin! Tec)ni7'e Photo printing is an e#tremely accurate process.. The artwor is used to prepare the foil on the board for etching. Photo/printing is the method of pattern transfer of PCBs used in professional applications.IT EOAR-S The transfer of the conductor pattern.evelop board <. Then fi# the positions of the component to be used for the circuit.efense) 3-+ K 3ilitary %tandard !L%A) A)3A K Aational )lectrical 3anufacturers Association !L%A). -t is easier and less e#pensive to do this layout on a sheet of paper than on the copper foil. $. The artwor for the circuit must meet two basic criteria. 3a e photographic mas .CTION O PRINTE.. Prepare photo/resist. prepared with a photo/resist material. La+o't Art&or3: The purpose of artwor preparation is to develop for the final circuit board. )#pose board. .-A K 6erman %tandard -)C K -nternational )lectro/technical Commission '%% K &oint %ervice %pecification !3inistry of . onto the copper/clad laminate is done by two methods. The mas is placed on the top of a board.CIRC."1 PRO-. There is no need to paint over or remove any artwor from the board. 3ista es are easy to correct with an eraser. 4. Photoprinting. This hardens the resist where it is e#posed to light. The first thing reHuired when ma ing a layout for a PCB is a good schematic diagram of the circuit you plan to ma e. and the board is put in a developing solution. They are: 0. !a)-t serves as a master to reproduce the electronic circuit on the .

0 !a) shows several common template styles.board. A point to eep in mind while laying out the board artwor is spacing between lines or conductors. as arc over may occur if two lines are too close together. These templates are available in scales of 0:0. thus eliminating the need of measuring individual terminal positions. to 7. inch for a range of upto 0. and !b)-t must allow enough space for all the parts to be mounted on the board. -n commercial circuit development. (ig.75. constructed of plastic. viewing of the parts when designing a board. The camera is used to reduce the artwor to its final si*e. These parts will be on the base side of a single sided board. or pea A.C. transistor pin arrangement and common -C patterns. -f the voltage difference is above . .0 and 7.771 inch per volt spacing is ept.71. then 7. 9ne of the most convenient ways of laying out the circuit board is to use a grid paper !li e a graph paper). Two types of aids in developing component +ayouts that are readily available.7. provide component outlines such as resistors capacitors. This paper is used to ma e a rough wor ing drawing of the circuit.. 3ost electronic circuit boards use a 7. 9ne of the easiest methods of laying out the circuit board pattern is use grid paper as an underlay.77 it is 7. %pacing between conductive paths depends upon their voltage difference. for 0. Certain parts such as transistors and -Cs have their leads arranged in a definite order. These templates. As the voltage increases.07/inch grid.1:0 and 4:0. are layout templates !models) and precut component outlines. The in used to print the grid lines is usually light blue or blac .7. the spacing must also increase. inch.0 to 277 it is 7. Oeep in mind while laying out a circuit board that the parts mount on the bac side of the board. inch.0 inch. (irst mar the tracing paper with an outline of the circuit board to ensure that the artwor and the board end up the same si*e. .77 volts. The spacing starts at 7. The grids are used as a guide in laying out the final artwor . The si*e of the artwor will depend upon whether a copy camera is available. the artwor is made twice or four times larger than the true si*e. Oeep in mind while laying out a circuit board that the parts end up the same si*e.07. and for 270 to .C. and it is easy to overloo this bac wor . -t is available with ruled lines spaced at 7. Place a sheet of trac ing paper over the grid.01.

without doing a lot of erasing or redrawing at this stage. there may be conductor pattern crowding occurs when component placement forces many conductor paths to lie close together.0 !b) can easily constructed i!"$. and conducting paths are electrically correct. The dolls can be repositioned. pencil and scissors in any of the desired device and component si*es and shapes.07. 2. (or this. Lsing a second sheet of paper allows the designer more leeway when attempting to connect all the reHuired points on the layout of the board. +ines representing wires are drawn on this sheet rather than the one with the parts on it. )ven though the component layout appears. Proficiency in obtaining both component and a conductor path balance simultaneously reHuires considerable layout e#perience and practice."$ >%:: paper c't-o't >. Lpon completion of the component and conductor pattern layout. the final wor is developed on a sheet of tracing paper.i!" $. that is ma ing inefficient use of the total foil area. if necessary. 9nce the component parts are positioned and connecting lines drawn. 1. Component spacing must be consistent with any specified spacing tolerances.olls: (rom thin cardboard with the use of a scaled template. )ach point of contact for a part is mar ed. %ome people prefer to lay another sheet of tracing paper on the top of the one on which the parts are laid out. Lse of the intercepts of the grid system to position leads for components and e#ternal . the grid system used to align and orient components is an immeurable aid. the following observations should be notedD 0. resulting in nonuniform conductor density. such as those shown in fig. These outlines cut by using cardboard papers are sometimes referred to as dolls. the component and conductor pattern composite drawing enables the designer to readily observe both the sides of PCB simultaneously and therefore determines the effect of any layout modification on either side of the board."$>a:: -raftin! templates Component outlines.

"1"* -irect Resist Materials 3ethods of laying out a resist directly onto the copper foil of the copper/clad PC board include using commercially prepared tape and dots. which is not acted upon chemically by the ateching solution. paint. These two methods are called the photosensitive process and the . Tape an. mar3 pa. such as resistors. should be uniform to enhance the appearance of the board and result in a more systematic drilling seHuence. which must be clean and able to accept the artwor . %ome of these methods are easier than others. After the artwor has been completed. some ma e better loo ing boards. 4.sS >%: IC pa.irect Process.. The larger si*es are used in the process discussed here.1 !b). therefore. i!" $. -ot Process: 9ne commercially available set of materials uses precut and shaped tapes/ and dots made of paper or plastic. %pacing among similar components.connections is also e#tremely helpful in minimi*ing mis/ alignment of the eventual taped conductor pattern artwor . protects the surface beneath it form the action of the etch out. 07. %ome use light sensitive materials to form resist. These are shown in fig. The board can be prepared for the etching solution in several ways. 'niversal circle %oar. rubon forms and in . several more steps remain. The artwor has to be transferred from the layout to the surface of the surface of the blan board. $.s Fow do you get the layout on the copper foil to match your artwor P Lse your good &udgement of spaces and distances and always refer to the artwor you have prepared. The companies which ma e the tape and dot sets also sell templates matching the tapes. -t. These materials resist the echants. nail polish. These are pressure/adhesive tapes. %ome are less e#pensive.s@ el%o&s an. pa. 9ther methods use a resist that is applied directly to the surface of the board."*: >a: Tape an. dots and other standard shapes you plan to use. These aids provide a Huic and accurate method of developing artwor masters. hence .

This simply means rubbing the resist material on the board with a smooth/tipped device. "emember that they represent the pads used as mounting pads for component parts. After the in is dry. The position of lines used as conductive pattern can be slightly different from that on the artwor . %tart with the circles and pads to which parts are to be connected.spacing of components and lines is fairly critical but need not be an e#act science. $. $hen they have all been laid out. The artwor is drawn with pen and special in on the surface of the blan copper board. you should see an outline of the artwor on the copper.o not move the board until you are certain the in is dry.drawing the artwor becomes much simpler. Lse a ball/ point pen or hard pencil to trace the artwor . Lse the artwor as a guide and place the dotsD where they appear on the artwor . chee the board for brea s in the resist and touch them up. Be sure you have the necessary material on hand to remove the resist in case you need to change the artwor before etching. they must be burnished. After the forms and tape have been positioned. anyone using this method must have a very steady hand. Lsing the artwor as a reference. Place a sheet of carbon paper directly over the cleaned copper foil. Another way of solving this problem is use carbon paper to transfer the artwor to the surface of the board. connect the dots and pads with lines for conductive paths. -f necessary. %tic it on the copper foil directly over the place indicated by the tracing carbon. After the board is etched. (ailure to burnish means that areas which should be foil when a good burnishing tool. Place the artwor on the top of the carbon paper. select a form of proper shape. The special in available for this purpose is called resist in . the resist remover solvent should be used."1"# Art&or3 to prepare PCE %+ P)oto-Printin! Tec)ni7'e The artwor reHuirements for the photographic processes are similar to those used for direct process. . Certain chemicals are used to remove etchant. $hen you remove the artwor and the carbon paper. All the methods described above can be used successfully to ma e a resist pattern on the copper foil. The artwor is prepared. trim both the carbon paper and the artwor to the si*e of the board. Lse an artistBs nife to transfer the adhesive tape and dot. as before. The same . Try paint or resist in to correct the minor problems. Another method of putting resist on the blan circuit board is to use artistBs pen and special in . but any nife of a smooth firm rubbing tool will wor .

which are blac on artwor . -t is dar in areas that are blac on the original. T)e Positive Art&or3: A Photographic positive is shown in fig. 3ost commercially available materials use negative mas . the positive loo s e#actly li e original artwor . the )#cel circuits process. depending on the type of resist material used on the board. which would normally be white on the artwor . . %ome photographic processes reHuire a negative mas and others reHuire a positive mas . i!" $.4. while clear areas appear in places. The process used to ma e the mas is the same in other cases. it is the opposite of the artwor which is also shown. 07. The e#ception."/: Positive Art&or3 -t is important to understand these terms. used a positive mas . Blac surfaces appear in areas. Both positive and negative resist materials are available. $. The negative is a true opposite of the original artwor . i!" $. This is the only difference in the process. the only ma&or difference being the material on which the artwor is laid out."1"/ Ma3in! t)e P)oto!rap)ic Mas3 The Photographic mas is positive or negative. 07.layout rules apply.2. The terms negative and positive refer to the type of artwor and have nothing to do with polarity of operating voltage in a set. -t is clear where the artwor is white or clear."#: ne!ative is t)e opposite of t)e art&or3 Art&or3 Master Ne!ative: A photographic negative is shown in fig.

Allow it to dry in open air. The artwor is made by placing a sheet of mylar !plastic) over the top of the artwor model. Processes t)at . . Another method is PCT transfer film process. Commercial tape and dots are placed on the mylar sheet. The transfer film is supplied with a bac ing sheet. Fere. The paper will start to ball up and wash off very Huic ly. The film is applied directly to the surface of the artwor . 9rdinary blac in can be used to draw artwor . The .o it carefully for the first time. Another advantage of this process is that the image on the e#posed board us very easy to see and inspect. Ae#t. once it is place. !Ooda "esist) OP" is available in the mar et for this purpose.oes not . put the artwor in a pan of warm water for about 0. wash the film under warm running water.3as /ma ing processes fall into two categories : !a) and The original artwor is destroyed as a part of the process. Process t)at .estro+ t)e Ori!inal Art&or3: The lift off techniHue is the lift tact process. Tape the artwor down on a smooth solid surface. Aot much time is reHuired for the total process. The process also removes air bubbles. The completed mylar sheet becomes the artwor mas . 9nce the paper is removed. -t cannot be lifted or repositioned. The materials reHuired to produce the mas are available in the mar et. The first step is to remove the bac ing. -t is a plastic film to remove the printed artwor . the process is similar to lift tact process and procedures are the same. correct errors or correct pads. Areas which will be etched become green. Air bubbles do not adhere to the in and cause gaps in the artwor if they are not removed. !b) The artwor is not destroyed. Cut the film to the appro#imate si*e of your artwor . Artwor from a boo or maga*ine can also be used. Lse the tip of your finger. very gently rub or peel the paper off the film.estro+ t)e Ori!inal Art&or3: This process uses a board with positive photoresist on it. The film is be used. to 17 minutes when the time is up. "emove the bac ing material from the film and discard it. Areas to remain on the board are blue. The film is now burnished to ma e it stic .

Ta e it out of the developing solution and rinse it under warm water.third advantage is that all chemicals are water/soluble. A developing surface on which the wor is done. a 1=. $hen all the resist in the bac ground has been removed. developer and etchant are brought from the company. %et the bulb 0>BB away the copy area. Place a sheet of glass on the top of the artwor . -t is not possible to buy the resist. hot water will not be used as it removes the resist from the board. +et it dry. The ey to this process is a film produced by the 2 3 company primarily for use in the printing industry. pour some developer into a glass or plastic tray. A source of L5 light and a frame hold to the artwor is also essential. The photoresist coated board should be wor ed in reduced light. (luorescent lights will damage the board. -t is first decided which type of mas is reHuired to be made. The type of film reHuired for the PC process is negative opaHue. and coat the board the board. )#posure is made with the number two photoflood lamp. Artwor may consist of tape. is also reHuired. the board is ready for a final inspection and any minor touch/up reHuired to correct the error is done. The developer is mi#ed with water at about 27oC. The unit capable of being used for e#posure of the film and later the photosensiti*ed circuit board is . -t is used to ma e the positives and negatives reHuired for offset printing. The time for e#posure is ept about 07 to 0. i. These are no to#ic fumes. positive transparent and negative film mas s. :ou can transparency of the original artwor and use it as a positive of the artwor . The reHuired chemicals. The printed circuit industry can ta e advantage of these techniHues because ma ing an offset printing plate is very similar to ma ing PCB. 6ently about 1 to 2 minutes. A positive of the artwor is placed directly on a pre/ sensitised board. A standard bulb is used. Place the board in the tray up. the board is done. And dots but the necessary drawing can also be done with pen and ordinary blac in . $hen dry. minutes. The board is ready for etching. -f the board does not appear to be completely e#posed at the end of the prescribed time. This colour ey process can produce negative uansparent. Ae#t. e#pose it longer. To speed up the process. #M-Colo'r <e+ Process: The artwor for this process may be made of any material as long as the material does not allow the light to pass through it.e. $ L5 sun lamp instead of photoflood lamp is used. This forces the artwor and the board into close contact with each other.

After the film is e#posed."1"1 Preparation of P)otoresists The ne#t step is to preVare a blan circuit board covered with a photosensitive resist.eveloper is poured onto the sheet a bloc of wood covered with a wiping pad is used to spread the developer around the film. %tart the e#posing process by ma ing a sandwich consisting of artwor .7 oC for ten minutes. 07. Ta e the board for board for the application of photoresist on it. it must be developed. giving a bad negative. $hen e#posed and developed. $. spun or sprayed on the surface of copper. To carry the process accurately a photo/timer is used. An e#posure frame is to hold the sandwich firmly together. . The photoresist is a light sensitive liHuid. Blot the film dry with an absorbent paper. "everse the pad on the bloc to give a clear surface and complete the process. the photoresist forms a resistive positive on the board. As a final step. -f the film and artwor is not held tight. i!" $. "esist is available in liHuid form or in a spray can. the colour ey film and a bac ing sheet. . A negative of tour original artwor should be on the film the anti ready for the ne#t step. This is dine to remove the traces the of traces of grease. -t is rolled. The blan circuit board can be cut to its final si*e at time. oil or copper o#ide from the board. After spraying. )ach type of photosensitive material has its own ind of developer. "inse the board under water. The photographic negative is placed on the top of the prepared board. The copper surface is cleaned. Precaution is ta en so that light does not enter from the sides of the mas .ry the board in oven at . Precaution is ta en so that light does not enter from the process accurately a photo/time is used. This will produce a uniform coating of resist on the board. rinse both the sides of the sheet of film under room temperature water. -t can cause one area to bleed into another. The film is placed on a sheet of glass in a tray. narrower than intended.. +ight can creep into areas where it does not belong. spray hori*ontally and move upward at the end of each pass with the spray.shown in (ig. dry the board in . -t can also be used under the red or yellow safety lights. recommended for photographic processing.. The positive is in the shape and form of the conductive paths reHuired for the finished board. This spill/ over of light ma es the lines on the negative. "ough edges cleaned up with a file."1: Li!)t 'nit to e8pose t)e p)oto!rap)ic mas3" 2 3 K colour ey film can used in normal room light for short period of time. %tart to spray the liHuid resist from the bottom side of copper.

place the board on the table with the sensiti*ed side/up."1"6 inal 5or3 an. The developing solution must be compatible with the resist.. "emove the board from the tray. .uring the e#posure period of . the resist on the board must be hardened by . The developer is poured into a tray of glass or metal because most developers react to plastics. it is no longer sensitive to light. $or ing in subdued light. The weight of the glass will hold the negative tight against the surface of the board.7 seconds to <7 seconds."1"4 -evelopin! t)e Eoar. This reaction sets the resist. the photoresist reacts to the light."1"2 E8posin! t)e Eoar. Centre it under the lamp. $. 9n not touch the copper side of the board. $. -t will result in a board of poor Huality. so that any developer on the surface of the board can drain on to the towel. After all corrections. it is developed. The developer and resist must be purchased from the same company. 07. -n this procedure. The developing time must be ept about . Place a piece of glass plate over the negative and board. "oc or agitate the tray during development to eep the fluid moving over the surface of the board. The photo/sensitive resist is e#posed &ust the way the negative was. Aormal room light can be used for all future wor on the board. %tand the board up as a piece of paper towel.7oC for 07 to 0. -r+in! Careful use of an artistBs nife will remove any e#cess resist material. minutes. Carefully place the negative of the artwor on the surface of the board.oven at about . A paint brush and a liHuid resist are used to ma e additions to the circuit on the board.. $. light will lea into ad&acent areas. the lamp is brought near the board. to < minutes. Place the board in the developing solution. The above process can be done in any light tight room. 6enerally. 9nce the board is e#posed. -f the negative is not tight against the board. 9nce the board is developed. Lse the same e#posure unit shown in (ig. The resist is soft when the board is first removed from the developer.

2.. nylon.drying. 4. A piece of film larger than the circuit board is placed film/side down !plastic bac ing/side up) on the top of paper. This film consists of layer of photosensitive film and a clear plastic bac ing.eveloper. A blac sheet of paper is placed on the e#posure board. the board is ready for etching. This process produces a positive of the circuit on the copper foil. The resist in is forced through openings in the stencil onto the surface of the blan board. Bloc out solution. and . After processing. The stencil is produced and attached to a fine mesh. The base of the printing board is larger in area than the frame. This film is soluble in water until it is e#posed and developed. The e#posure process is very similar to that used to ma e photographic negative. This process is done at room temperature. -ndia). The frame is hinged on one end of the base of printing board. The screen process uses a resist in applied through a stencil or mas to the surface of the blan circuit board. the film is water soluble. . A rubber sHuee*e. A piece of screen fabric material is stretched tightly over the frame. A ma&or source of this material and related serene process suppliers is the Llano Company !L%A) and $oodpec -ndustries !Bombay. The resist paint or in . The artwor is placed on the top the film. )#posure is about > minutes using a number two photoflood lamp. They are all held in with a piece of untinted glass. the board is sent for etching. $hen dry. A Pre/sensitised film is used to ma e the screen stencil. The should be about 0> inch above the film and glass. %pecial frames are available in the mar et to hold this screen."2 SCREEN PRINTIN= PCB production by photographic printing method is e#pensive though accurate. but to a much smaller degree. the film is put in a tray of developing solution for about ?7 seconds. Preparation of Screen: A light rectangular wooden frame is used for this purpose. The following eHuipments are used for screen printing process: 0. metal. polyester or sil screen. After e#posure. $. Commercial screens are often made of a fine wire mesh. These companies produce several types of screen stencils. 1. Photosensitive film. 9nly the developer . After this.

the film stencil must be held on a flat surface and must be raised up higher than the surface you are wor ing on. 9nce the film is placed in the solution. the screen is set aside to dry. 9nly clean newsprint will wor successfully.. 6ently wipe the newsprint with a soft cloth. it becomes useless. The stencil film is attached to the screen. %creen preparation chemicals are also available from +unar Caustic Pvt. Lse gentle water flow. fresh developer is reHuired. After 14 hours. Place a pad of unused on the top of the screen. the developer must be protected from light. At this time. This process reHuires several minutes to complete. . +td. This reHuires about one hourBs time. the solution becomes sensitive to light. This is shown in (ig. The purpose of this process is to wash out the film and remove the areas which will permit the in to be printed onto the circuit board. -t is sold in two pac ages identified as Fi/(i A and B developer. This will firm the serene stencil.o not use printed paper for the pad. . The weight of the frame is sufficient to press screen material onto the soft film emulsion. Fold it under a strong light. This will ma e the soft emulsion wor up onto the screen. 6ently lower the screen and frame onto the film. the glass used to hold the film during the rinse process is convenient.available from the above companies be used. . The developing solution is light sensitive as it is prepared. the film is removed from the tray of developing solution. Lse a hard build up about IY. The tray holding the film and developer must be agitated during development. $hen the emulsion is dry. Tough up with a small paint brush and bloc out material thinned with water. Bombay. PuneD "aman -ndustries. !Aewsprint is a paper used for printing newspaper). The direction state that the temperature of the. The film has to be cooled. This will wash away the une#posed emulsion on the film.onBt apply pressure. The result is a negative mas . -n order to achieve good adhesion. The wash/out water should flow over the stencil. but the film in the tray emulsion/side up. the bac ing material is carefully peeled oft the film. 07.<. . The developer life is 14 hours. attached to the screen. After the wash/out is finished. "eturn the film to a flat surface. otherwise it will damage the film. Chec the screen for lea s in areas which should be protected.eveloping solution should be between 47 oC and 4<oC. change the newsprint until it no longer shows any green film colour. After the reHuired time. 9nce the moisture is removed by this method. Placing the side down in the bath may ruin the wor . -t is washed in running warm eater. but any solid flat surface can be used.

9n the other hand. This means that the clean up may be delayed with oil based products. This shown in (ig.Printin! Ease Preparations: $e have now a screen to which a stencil is attached. %ome use a water based in . 07. %ometimes a small piece of double/ sided tape is placed in the centre to hold board on place. 07. 9ne pass of the in over the negative part of the screen should do if you have used enough in . +ower the screen and frame so that the screen rests firmly on the copper foil. Pieces of cardboard or scrap circuit boards are tac ed in place on the base board !see (ig. and others use a lacHuer or oil base. Aow. surrounding the blan board. Areas which are to appear on the board as conductor or pads arc clear.=). preferably the ind used for screen printing. Lsing a hinge with a removable pin will ma e cleaning easier. The registration guides are placed on three sides of the area.>. copper/side up in the registration area of the base. A piece of stiff cardboard may be substituted for the sHuee*e. the resist on the PC board. There is no bloc /out on the screen in these places. There are several different inds of in resists available. Carefully lift the board from the registration area on the base."4 The screen frame is held to the printing board base with two hinges. 6ently lift the screen frame. i!" $. and pull the in over the negative part of the screen. Continue pass over the negative into a bloc /out area. place a clean blan board. The board with resist pattern on the circuit should be seen in all its glory. Pour some of the resist in or paint on the screen in one of the bloc ed out areas. lacHuer based in dries faster and thus speeds up the . for actually printing. %et it aside to dry. Ta e a rubber sHuee*e. The ne#t step is to prepare printing base. the board is ready for etching when the in on it is dry. The blan board is placed on the printing frame in e#actly the same place each time the registration guides are used to ensure good registration. 9il base much slow drying than lacHuer base in .

manual. The ne#t step is to clean the board and send it for etching. these holes must be drilled. the concentration wea ens because the soluble cupric and ferric ions precipitate out of the solution. . (erric chloride crystals of . )tching is the process of attac ing and removing the unprotected copper from the PC board to yield the desired conductor pattern."6: Screen printin! process $. in the form of sludge that tends to settle on the bottom of the etching vat. 3ethods of etching include tray roc ing. . Theoretically. Chromi acid. (erric chloride The most common etchant used in industry is ferric chloride !(eC-2). 2. .ILLIN= OPERATION The PCB gives the holes to ta e the various components that will be mounted on it. any one of the following solutions is used to etch a board. This consists of a tray of pyre# glass. $ith greatest precision. tray roc ing is the simplest one. The speed of drill is an important consideration with maintaining the si*e and location of holes with reHuired tolerance and minimi*ing deformity at their edges. $. with the temperature maintained reasonably constant. attached to a powered roc ing table."6 -. depending on production volumes. Then the PC board is ept on the glass marbles which are ept in the tray along with the etchant solution. 0. -deal etching condition reHuires that the etchant be heated to a temperature of between <7oC to =7oC. A whole stac of boards can be drilled using various &igs and bushes.ry etchants and also liHuid etchants are available. the length of time reHuired for etching will be consistent. and spray etching.overall processing time of the board. 9ut of these. -f powered roc ing table is not available. Ammonium persulphate. i!" $. -n industry. semi/automatic or pneumatically/controlled drilling eHuipments are used."4 ETCAIN= TAE EOARAll the wor done so far has been to prepare a blan copper board for etching.uring the etching process. Cupric chloride. Aever use itchen utensils for holding etching solution. Are mi#ed in water to ma e a total solution of 0 litre. -t is a cheap chemical and least dangerous and easily available in mar et.77 gms. 1. and 4.

%older is an alloy of metals that melt at low temperature. soldering is done. the drill is at 0. >i: Soft Sol. At the place where the molten solder comes in contact with the hard metal. a high/speed steel can be used at >777 rpm or less. tight &oint or a permanent electric contact resistance. it melts. Bra*ing is similar to soldering and it provides a stronger &oint than soldering. Sol. Prior to soldering. (usible alloy metals are used for this purpose.777 rpm. These solders have melting temperature of <77 oC to >. %ince the solder has a much lower melting point than the metals to be &oined. it uses tungsten carbide bit at about 0. (or high precision. the laminate is uncovered in PTF. and !ii) Fard %olders.erin! allo+s:: %oft solder used e#tensively in electronic eHuipment construction is an alloy of principally tin and lead. $hen holes are drilled in a PCB.7oC. %oft solders have melting points upto 477 oC. spreads over it and fills in the gaps between the metal parts.77.ers >%ra(in! allo+s:: Fard solders are used for bra*ing process. &igs are used to punch all holes in PCB. the solder diffuses into the base metal which dissolves in the solder and this an intermediate layer that after hardening fastens the parts together into an integral assembly.7 to =78.777rpm. $. %olders are traditionally divided into two groups: !i) %oft %olders. hardness and melting point of the solder. The amount of tin contained in soft solder ranges from . the metal portions are to be &oined and the solder must be heated. %oft solder is differentiated from hard solder by tin content and lower melting point.. -f accuracy is not important. >ii: Aar.ers >Sol. comple# physiochemical process ta es place. The molten solder wets the metal. To provide a conducting layer within the holes electrodeless copper plating is used. Among hard . (oe epo#y/glass laminates. The tin/lead determines the strength. while the metals remain hard. The plate is coated with palladium and immersed in an electrolyte containing copper ions. $ith the help of solder.(or paper laminates. %oldering is a method of &oining two parts or more than two parts of metals."9 SOL-ERS %olders are special alloys used to obtain a mechanically strong.

(or most hand wiring and printed circuit board applications.78 bismuth. (or this reason. *inc alloys and silver base compositions. (or hand wiring purposes. has a composition of 2=8 lead and <28 of tin.8 cadmium. #" Tin-Lea. This is this alloy is a mi#ture of lead and tin.Ls Allo+s Sol.8 lead. This type of solder is used in construction. The larger si*es are used for general purpose wor and the smaller for delicate soldering applications such as printed circuit board: and solder cup/type pins found on certain connections.. %older for electronic applications is available in bars. 1. wire. the liHuidBs temperature is raised compared to binary > >Sn-S%:: (rom the metallurgical eHuilibrium theory for the binary tin/antimony alloy system. *" Tin-Antimon+ Sol. most widespread are copper.:: The solders with additions of bismuth and cadmium have a still melting point. This solder contains .8 tin and 01. this type of solder is commonly used because of its e#cellent wetting action.solders..72 to 7. There are different types of solders used for different applications. -t has a composition of .er >Sn-P%:: This is sift solder. spools and special forms such as pellets. Sol.78.7? inch in diameter are used.-Antimon+ Sol. 01. sheets. wiring of electronic instruments. 1" Tin-Silver >Sn-A!:: . The presence of antimony generally restricts the flow of solder.8 %b and ?. it can be solid solution in tin.8 >Sn-P%-S%:: (or the most commonly used antimonial tin/lead solder with a tin content of 27 to ..oC. solder wire is available with a core containing flu# in specific amounts to promote sound solder connections. They are used wherever a lowered soldering temperature is reHuired. 3ost commonly used solders are as follows: $" Tin-Lea. -t is a soft solder. flu# core solder wire is used almost e#clusively for electronic applications. -t has a melting temperature of merely <7. /" 5oo. rings and washers. 5arious purposes reHuire different compositions of solders. solder wire ranging from 7. Aow/a/days.

-t has melting temperature of 0?>oC.08 of tin. L. 18 silver 0 and 08 used.8 silver.. cast irons. an alloy of ?=8 lead. and !iv) improve the ability of the solder to spread over the surfaces to be soldered. Chloride of *inc is used as a flu# on steel. $hen the &oint is heated. The o#idation increases as the metal is heated and severely interferes with the solvent action of the solder. Tin is added because of the poor wetting of lead. -t is a soft solder. 2" Tin-Lea. ConseHuently. They are used to: !i) dissolve and remove o#ides and contaminates from the surface of metals to be soldered. This is a hard solder. Silver Sol. !iii) reduce the surface tension of the molten solder."$.8 tin. while commercially prepared flu# is used for soldering copper and >Sn-On:: This type of solder is specifically used for soldering of aluminium.0ES (lu#es are au#iliary materials used in soldering. $hen applied to the &oint. the parts must be thoroughly cleaned before the flu# is applied. the presence of flu# also prevents o#idation in addition to lowering the surface tension of the metals. The interaction of metal parts with the atmosphere results in thin layer of o#ide on their surfaces. nic el. thus preventing alloying and the formation of an electrically continuous &oint. $. A higher silver content results in a very steep rise in liHuidous temperature.. tin beeswa# rosin or any of the . Tin/*inc solder has >. lead and galvani*ed iron. "osin or *inc chloride may use as a flu# for soldering lead. 4" Tin-Oinc Sol. the flu# arrac s the o#ides and suspends them in a solution where they float to the surface the soldering >Sn-P%-A!:: (or solder &oints which must possess strength at elevated temperatures. stainless steel.This is hard solder which has the composition of 2. ?<. brass. They are chemical agents that aid in soldering by removing thin films of o#ide present on the metal surface to be soldered. !ii) protect the metal surface and the molten solder form o#idation. (or soldering sheets of metal. -ts sole function is to remove the o#ide film. thereby increasing the wetting action. the o#ide must be removed. *inc. -t is important remember that flu# is not a cleaning agent for removing grease or other contaminants.?8 and ?0. (lu#es are used for this purpose. (or optimum soldering result.

There are three ma&or classifications of flu#es: 0. $hen hand soldering. 0. 9rganic !acids and bases) flu#es 2. Fowever. 3any organic flu#es and converted to an inert residue rather thermal decomposition. Core si*es are available that provide a ratio of rosin flu# per unit volume of solder of form 7. They are corrosive at room temperatures near the melting point of the solder. chloride and organic flu#es are not recommended for use in electronic construction. They are essentially non/corrosive at room temperature as pure rosin type are often preferable if a higher of flu# activated such as in dip or ware soldering. They absorb the moisture from the atmosphere and strongly react with acids even at room temperature. Lsing soldering iron !Fand soldering). there is no significant advantage in using multiple core since it is essentially the volume ratio !amount of flu# to solder) that determines optimum soldering conditions.74 inch and 2. the proper amount of flu# can best be applied with the use of flu#/core wire solder. ConseHuently they attac the o#ide film during the heating cycle."$$ SOL-ERIN= There are two methods of soldering. wetting and flowing action of the solder. "osin flu#es The chloride type are the most active !highly corrosive) flu#es.78 alcohol may be used as flu# for this purpose. %ometimes *inc chloride with . $. These activated rosin flu#es are much more corrosive than pure rosin when heated and present the appearance of an instantaneous melting.<8 to 4. This form of solder contains a core of solid flu# in a single or multiple core. They do not absorb moisture and are difficult to remove. 9rganic flu#es are slightly less active than the chloride and are used mainly for confined areas in which fast growing time is important and corrosion problems are not critical. (or the above reasons. Chloride !inorganic salts) flu#es 1.commercially prepared pastes or liHuid flu#es are considered good. These ration can be obtained nor any si*e wire solder.48. The rosin type flu#es are used almost e#clusively because of their non/corrosive characteristics at room temperature. -ndications are that <7C47 rosin flu# !<78 tin T 478 lead flu# core wire) core solder with a diameter of 7. . but are inactive when room temperature is reached. "osin flu#es are available with activating agents greatly improve their activity.<8 flu# is ideally suited for hand soldering printed circuit boards and other electronic precision wor .

(or earthing and heat sin mounts. $ave flu#ing. dissolved in organic. flu# is applied to the PCBs.erin!: This is used small/scale production. The ma&or advantage of mass soldering techniHues. 4. 2. (or high production rates. particularly for assembling PCBs. . 1. <. as the source of heat as well as of filler metal. -nitially. . The flu# is usually resin type. where the secondary wave is of foamed flu#.ipping the board onto the surface of a bath with fluid. by passage over a standing wave of liHuid flu#. each component and contact is fi#ed to PCB. )ach degreased lead is tinned. Brushing. %praying using a special spraying cabinet. 3ethods used to apply flu# include: 0. "olling. The most important mass soldering techniHues employ some form of immersion or contract with a molten bath. in contact with a plastic foam rubber roller impregnated with wa#. sol. $ to 1. *" Mass Sol. ma ing all these contacts manually would be a very slow and costly tas . $" Aan. iron used. A cooling spray used immediately after solder &oint has been established and finally. apart from the high productivity. (or normal component 0. Components are mounted are mounted on one side of the boards so that their connecting leads pass through the component holes. . $ K <7 $ is used. (or -Cs 07 $ is used. flu#ed and heated at its PCB pad..1. 3ass soldering.erin! or iron sol. 3ass soldering techniHues are much used in electronic industries. By using solder iron.erin!: 3ass soldering incorporates those techniHues by which large number of &oints are made simultaneously using a solder bath. solder iron of 2.e. but mass soldering can provide an economic solution. is that a more rigorous control is possible over all the individual stages of soldering. The wattage of soldering iron depends upon the thic ness of solder pad and contact leads. (oam flu#ing. These leads are then soldered to the conducting trac s on the boards. i. the e#tra contact lead is snipped off with a cutter.

are conveyed across the crest of the solder wave by a conveyor system which follows a straight line path. solder penetrates and is retained between them by capillary forces. The use of solder wave brings the advantage of a virtually o#ide/free surface being continuously generated on the solder. The solder bath temperature is normally within the range of 117oC to 1<7oC for binary tin lead alloys close to eutectic composition. -n simple dip soldering.o to 0. . after passing over the usual flu#ing and drying sections. the preflu#ed assemble is lowered vertically onto the clean solder surface until it ma es contact and is then immersed in solder bath to the reHuired depth.ip soldering. against the wave types for certain geometrics. while airflu# and flu# vapour are dislodged by the rapid movement of the solder. i!" $. the PCBs are usually heated to remove the bul of solvent prior to soldering.(or flu# coating. double crested. The temperature may be increased from 2. The solder pot is usually made of cast iron or steel and is electrically heated. $ave soldering. flat topped or unidirectional solder flow. 1. . . There are three methods of soldering PC boards in mass production.o) in order to assist solder drainage after the boards have passed the wave !(ig. This path may be inclined upwards at a small angle to the hori*ontal !.?). 07. the common methods are dip and wave soldering. They are: 0. 2."9: 5ave sol.7oC to 477oC for lead rich alloys for a high liHuids enamelled copper wire. solder is pumped out of a narrow slot create a standing wave in the solder bath.rag soldering. -n wave soldering instead of lowering the boards onto a bath. But. and whenever the interstices are sufficiently narrow. The boards.erin! The drainage and distribution of solder may also be improved by choosing a particular waveform. The surfaces become wetted by the solder.

: Correct mo'ntin! of t&o lea. automatic lead bending machines are used with a through/put of thousands of components per hour. but large scale production of all these operations is done by machine automatically. The bent lead should fit into holes perpendicular to the board so that any stress on the component lead &unction is minimi*ed.07 shows ways of lead bending for a#ial 1 lead components. components" The lead bending must be done using a suitable bending device.uring bending the components lead. Aon/polarised 1/lead components are mounted to give the mar ing or colour code."$* SELECTION AN. Polari*ed 1 lead components such as electrolytic condensers and diodes have their leads bends in a manner to show the polarity symbol on the top. The bending of the a#ial component lead is done in a manner to guarantee an optimum retention of the component on the PCB while a minimum stress is introduced on the solder &oint. 07. A simple hand/held device is available in the mar et for this purpose. i!" $. Components are generally mounted on only one side of the PCB. Assembly techniHues can vary widely from case to case. the components side is usually opposite to the ma&or conductor pattern/side. 07.MO.$. . unless otherwise detached by special design reHuirement. -n double sided PCBBs. Automation plays an important role where manual labour is the main problem. The component orientation can be both hori*ontal as well as vertical but uniformity in reading directions must be maintained. %mall scale production is mainly done by hand wiring. . $here large Huantities of boards have to be assembled. %uch a system is illustrated in (ig.00. no damage to the component should occur. the same orientations throughout the board.NTIN= O COMPONETS The careful assembly of the PCB is as relevant for the final eHuipment reliability as the circuit design or PCB design and fabrication. After mounting for easy reliability. (ig."$.

Mo'ntin! of Transistors: -t is recommended that while mounting transistor.01. should be well insulated to avoid short/ circuit.. Those components dissipating more heat be clearly separated from the board surface. 'umper wire reHuired to be connected between the points. transistors. This must be avoided. i!" $. the sleeves or spacer should be used. capacitors. the &unctions of the transistor will be damaged. is determined during the design the PCB. coated or sealed component also mounted in such a way a to provide certain length along the leads. during soldering. The vertically mounted resistors should not flush to the board surface to avoid strain on the solder &oint as well as on the component lead &unction due to different thermal e#pansion coefficient of lead and board materials.The uniformity in orientation of polarised components li e diodes. . 07."$* -n case of flush to board mounted components over conductors. i!" $. a conformal coating of the finished PCB is recommended to prevent the formation of moisture traps which traps which could be harmful to electrical functioning of the circuit. -f these components are mounted on the top very close to the PCB. -Cs etc. due to solder heat. The hori*ontally mounted resistor must touch the board surface to avoid lifting of solder &oints along with the copper pattern under pressure on the resistor body."$$: Component orientation %ome other mounting recommendations have been illustrated in (ig.

Chemicals mostly used in the cleaning media are: 0. that are mounted in such a way that there is a gap between PCB and transistor. These are first mounted and leads of the soc ets are soldered. Trichlorotrifluoroethane. oils."$# INAL PROTECTION $ith the soldered PCB. environmental dust and other processing materials. +ead cutting after soldering is still common in smaller industries where hand/soldering is used. After completion. (luorinated hydrocarbons. the e#tra portion of the lead must be cut and then soldered. greases. -t is recommended that before soldering the leads.. After the removal of chemicals offers advantages as well as disadvantages. metals and other constructional materials. <. must be with a cutter. the -C is transferred on the soc et. 9nly a careful testing in relation with the final reHuirements will reveal the economically optimum choice. The cleaning of the PCB is done by using organic solvents. 4. 9nly a careful testing in relation with the final reHuirements will reveal the economically optimum choice. Acetone. plating salts. Alcohols. 2. Consider an e#ample. $. 1. After the component mounting and soldering."$/ ENVIRONMENTAL TESTIN= )nvironmental testing is necessary because eHuipments are used in different climatic conditions. . The -C soc ets are available in the mar et. Among the contaminants we find the flu#. Aromatic hydrocarbons. the e#tra part of the lead coming out.e/ionised water plus detergents. $. many contaminants can be found which may produce difficulties with the functioning of the circuit. Aliphatic hydrocarbons. chips of plastics. Mo'ntin! of ICs: -t is never e#pected to put the -Cs directly on the PCB and then soldered. different electronic eHuipments operate perfectly on free*ing or hot . )ach one of these chemicals offers advantages as well as disadvantages. =. The problem usually arises at a much later date rather than during the final functioning testing of the board in the factory.To avoid the damage. industry or military electronic. .

condition. The eHuipment undergoes continuous cycle of heat, humidity or both. %uch eHuipment is tested for most severe condition of temperature and humidity in a climati*ing chamber. The testing includes a cold cycle test, dry/heat cycle test and damp/heat cycle, both high humidity are maintained and brea down points are noted. The various test conditions are maintained continuously over steady cycle or repaid cycle. Lse of these tests indicating operating condition. $;"$1 RELIAEILITB The reliability of a component is nothing but an ability to perform a reHuired function without failure under stated condition for a stated period of time. The reliability of a component gets affected at four stages. 0. ,esign 1. Production 2. %torage 4. Transport operation. As the reliability increases, cost of repairs goes down while design and production cost goes up. i!" $;"$#: Man'fact'rin! cost a!ainst relia%ilit+ c'rve


AIL,RE (ailure is nothing but the termination of ability of a component to perform function. The variation of failure rate 5s time is shown graphically in (ig. 07.04 it is nown as NBath TubY because of its shape. i!" $;"$/

The failure rate of component can be found by operating large number of components for long time and number of failures occur. $" E'rn- in or Earl+ fail're: Burn/in failure is the initial period of high failure rate. *" fail're or 'sef'l perio.: Lseful period nothing but the early failure levels off to constant value. #" 5ear o't fail're: $ear out failure is nothing but after useful period, the failure goes up.

$;"$4 TBPES O AIL,RE 0. $hether the has completely bro en down or slightly deviation from the specification. i.e. complete failure or partial failure. 1. (ailure of component due to inherent wea ness or misuse by user. 2. (ailure has been sudden or gradual. $;"$6 MTTR OR MEAN TIME TO REPAIR 3TT" is defined as the mean time ta en to diagnose the fault, locate it and repair. 3TT" must be as small as possible. $;"$9 MTT OR MEAN TIME TO AIL 3TT( is the reciprocal of failure rate. (ailure rate is the ratio of number failures to number of components hours. 1 MTTF = Failure rate




3TT( is average time that system will run before failing. 3TB( of complete system is calculated by finding the sum of failure rates of all components. Consider a circuit using two components p, H. The total failure rate is (" E (" !p) T (" !H) The circuit failure is denoted by, 0 0 3TB( E ////////// E /////////// (" ‍ $;"*$E0PLAIN TAE PROCESS O MAN, ACT,RIN= A PCE The various steps involved in the fabrication of PCB are as follows: 0. Artwor preparation. 1. Printing 2. )tching. 4. ,rilling.


Art&or3 preparation" The purpose of artwor preparation is to develop a layout for the final circuit board. -t is the first and the most important step as the placement of various components and conductor thic ness is decided in this step. t is easier and less e#pensive to do this layout on a sheet of paper than on the copper foil directly. Artwor is always prepared from the component side of the PCB, ta ing the help of circuit diameter. 3ista es are also easy to correct with an eraser. *" Printin!: This step involves transferring of the artwor into the copper clad. There are three methods of printing : !0) ,irect resist method, !1) Photoresist printing, !2) %creen printing. (or small number of PCB !0 or 1) direct resist method is used. This method involves stic ing etch/resist pattern and taps on the copper clad as per the solder side view of the artwor . After stic ing process is completed, the PCB is ept under pressure so that etch resist pattern and tapes adheres perfectly to the copper clad.

#" P)otoresist printin!: -n this method, photosensitive material !OP") is applied to the board as a thin film. The photoresist when e#posed to ultraviolet light hardness or polymerises and it becomes insoluble to certain chemical solvents nown as developers. Fere the developer dissolves the portion, which is mar ed or which is not e#posed to light. The pattern that is to be drawn on PCB is transferred to a mas and mas is ept on PCB. Aow it is sub&ected to ultraviolet rays. The mar ed portion is washed away in developer leaving wanted copper pattern on board and removed photoresist. Screen printin!: -n this process a resist in surface of the blan circuit board. /" Etc)in!: This step involves removal removes of unwanted copper from copper clad. The most common etchant used is ferric chloride !(eCl2). The copper clad is dropped in solution. After half an hour, the PCB is ta en out and washed in clean water. 1" -rillin!: The last step is drilled of PCB after removing the etch resist tape and pads. The hole ares drilled according to the diameter of respective components leads. %o the drill/bit dimensions should be &ust a little more than the component leat. 2" Sol.erin!: +ast step involves to solder various component on the PCB. is through stencil or mas to


0. 1. 2. 4. ;.

)#plain the laminates used for PCB. )#plain the fabrication steps involved in PCB. $rite short note on screen printing. )#plain drilling operation. )#plain soldering techniHue.


)#plain the use of flu#. =. >.<.efine 3TBT and 3TT(. . $hat is meant by environmental testing. .