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British Standard

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

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DRAFT FOR DEVELOPMENT

DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures —
Part 1.2 General rules — Structural fire design —
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

(together with United Kingdom National Application Document)

ICS 91.040; 91.080.40

DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996

Committees responsible for this Draft for Development
The preparation of this Draft for Development was entrusted by Technical Committee B/525, Building and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee B/525/2, Structural use of concrete, upon which the following bodies were represented: Association of Consulting Engineers British Cement Association British Precast Concrete Federation Ltd. Department of the Environment (Property and Buildings Directorate) Department of Transport (Highways Agency) Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors Institution of Civil Engineers Institution of Structural Engineers Steel Reinforcement Commission

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

This Draft for Development, having been prepared under the direction of the Sector Board for Building and Civil Engineering, was published under the authority of the Standards Board and comes into effect on 15 July 1996 © BSI 03-2000 The following BSI references relate to the work on this Draft for Development: Committee reference B/525/2 ISBN 0 580 25809 2

Amendments issued since publication Amd. No. Date Comments

(c) BSI © BSI 03-2000 i . Uncontrolled Copy.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Contents Committees responsible National foreword Foreword Text of National Application Document Text of ENV 1992-1-2 Page Inside front cover ii 2 v 7 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.

quoting the document reference. particularly in relation to safety. as published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). a proposed revision. the relevant clause and.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 National foreword This Draft for Development was prepared by Subcommittee B/525/2 and is the English language version of ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures — Part 1. These comments will be taken into account when preparing the UK national response to CEN on the question of whether the ENV can be converted to an EN. ease of use and any ambiguities or anomalies. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. ENV 1992-1-2 results from a programme of work sponsored by the European commission to make available a common set of rules for the structural and geotechnical design of building and civil engineering works. This Draft for Development also includes the United Kingdom (UK) National Application Document (NAD) to be used with the ENV in the design of buildings to be constructed in the UK. The aim is to use the experience gained to modify the ENV so that it can be adopted as a European Standard. to enable the ENV to be used for buildings constructed in the UK and the NAD takes precedence over corresponding provisions in the ENV. ENV 1992-1-2 is considered to offer such an alternative approach. This publication should not be regarded as a British Standard. pages 2 to 63 and a back cover. The values for certain parameters in the ENV Eurocodes may be set by individual CEN Members so as to meet the requirements of national regulations. an inside front cover. Comments should be sent in writing to the Secretary of Subcommittee B/525/2. BSI. These parameters are designated by|_|in the ENV. pages i to x. when used in conjunction with its NAD. the ENV title page. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. During the ENV period of validity. Approved Document A 1992. but does not have the status of a European Standard. An ENV is made available for provisional application. reference should be made to the supporting documents listed in the National Application Document (NAD). (c) BSI Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover. 17 July 2003. The publication of this ENV and its National Application Document should be considered to supersede any reference to a British Standard in previous DD ENV Eurocodes concerning the subject covered by these documents. London W4 4AL. where possible. This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had amendments incorporated. by 31 October 1996.2: General rules — Structural fire design. ii © BSI 03-2000 . Uncontrolled Copy. The purpose of the NAD is to provide essential information. 389 Chiswick High Road. draws attention to the potential use of ENV Eurocodes as an alternative approach to Building Regulation compliance. The Building Regulations 1991. Users of this document are invited to comment on its technical content.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 National Application Document for use in the UK with ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI © BSI 03-2000 iii . 17 July 2003.

University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.9 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete flat slabs viii Table N4.2 to other codes and standards x Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. simply supported ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete ix Table N4.6 viii Table N4.6 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for continuous beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete vii Table N4.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Contents of National Application Document Page Introduction v 1 Scope v 2 Partial factors.2 — Minimum wall thickness of non load-bearing walls (partitions) vi Table N4. (c) BSI iv © BSI 03-2000 .8 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete simply supported one-way and two-way slabs viii Table N4.1 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced concrete columns.5 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for simply supported beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete vii Table N4.11 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for two-way spanning ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete with at least one restrained edge ix Table 2 — Reference in EC2-1. Uncontrolled Copy.7 — Reinforced and prestressed concrete continuous I beams: increased beam width and web thickness for conditions according to Table N4. combination factors and other values v 3 Tabulated data v 4 Reference standards x 5 Additional recommendations x Table 1 — Values to be used in referenced clauses instead of boxed values v Table N4.10 — Minimum dimensions and axis distance for two-way spanning.3 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for load-bearing reinforced concrete walls vi Table N4. rectangular and circular section v Table N4.4 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete tensile members vi Table N4.

All the tables in 4. Table N4. c) Trial calculations. Uncontrolled Copy. Table 1 — Values to be used in referenced clauses instead of boxed values Reference in EC2-1.1 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced concrete columns. b) A parametric calibration against BS 8110.1). and in EC2-1.4 (2) Limit to fire resistance for distribution bars along sides of columns 120 min. except where modified by the NAD for that code.1 except where modified by the NAD for that code. The values for partial factors for fire design should be those given in EC2-1.1. (c) BSI 2 Partial factors.2. regardless of whether changes have been made. It has been developed from the following.2 Definition UK values 4.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Introduction This National Application Document (NAD) has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/2.1 to Table N4. c) Other values should be those given in EC2-1.2:1995 are replaced with Table N4. These changes largely reflect the current values in BS 8110.2 except for those given in Table 1 of this NAD. University of Sheffield. rectangular and circular section Minimum dimensions mm Column width bmin/axis distance a Column exposed on more than one side Èfi = 0.1.3 (4) 4. © BSI 03-2000 v .7 5 Standard fire resistance R 30 R 60 R 90 R 120 R 180 R 240 a Normally 150/10a 150/10a 180/10a 200/40 240/50 300/50 150/10a 180/10a 210/10a 250/40 320/50 400/50 150/10a 200/10a 240/35 280/40 360/50 450/50 100/10a 120/10a 140/10a 160/45 200/60 300/60 the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. 17 July 2003. 1 Scope This NAD provides information to enable ENV 1992-1-2 (hereafter referred to as EC2-1. combination factors and other values a) The values for combination coefficients (Ó) should be those given in Table 1 of the NAD for EC2-1. It should be borne in mind that designs should be consistent in their use of UK and CEN standards for all parameters. a) A textual examination of ENV 1992-1-2. For thermal and mechanical actions reference should be made to ENV 1991-2-2 (hereafter referred to as EC1-2. ENVs for actions (Parts of Eurocode 1) have been published.2) and its NAD.5 3 Èfi = 0.2 of EC2-1. the NAD of which refers to BSI publications for values of actions. Since publication of ENV 1992-1-1 (hereafter referred to as EC2-1.11 of EC2-1.1 to 4. Changes in values from those given in EC2-1.2. to avoid unnecessary cross referencing. Where appropriate this NAD refers to them.11 respectively as given below. b) The values for partial factors for normal temperature design should be those given in EC2-1.7 4 Exposed on one side Èfi = 0.7.2) to be used for the design of buildings to be constructed in the UK.2 1 2 Èfi = 0. It is assumed that it will be used in conjunction with DD ENV 1992-1-1.2:1995 have been reproduced. Minimum top reinforcement over span in column strip 10 % 3 Tabulated data Tables 4.2 are shown in bold. supporting standards and test data. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.2.

2 — Minimum wall thickness of non load-bearing walls (partitions) Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum wall thickness mm 2 EI 30 EI 60 EI 90 EI 120 EI 180 EI 240 60 80 100 120 150 175 Table N4.3 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for load-bearing reinforced concrete walls Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.35 Wall exposed on one side Wall exposed on two sides 3 Èf = 0. vi © BSI 03-2000 . (c) BSI Standard fire resistance Minimum dimensions mm Wall thickness/axis distance for Èf = 0. Table N4.2(4) should be noted.7 Wall exposed on one side 4 Wall exposed on two sides 5 1 2 REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 a Normally 100/10 110/10a 120/20a 150/25 180/35 230/45 a 120/10 120/10a 140/10a 160/25 200/35 250/45 a 120/10 130/10a 140/25 160/35 210/45 270/55 a 120/10 140/10a 170/25 220/35 250/45 300/55 a the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. Uncontrolled Copy. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. University of Sheffield.4 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete tensile members Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions mm Possible combinations of member width bmin/axis distance a 2 3 R 30 R 60 R 90 R 120 R 180 R 240 80/25 120/40 150/55 200/65 240/80 280/90 200/10 300/25 400/45 500/45 600/60 700/70 a NOTE For prestressed members the increase of axis distance according to 4.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Table N4.2.

2. © BSI 03-2000 vii .5 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for simply supported beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions mm Possible combinations of a and bmin where a is the average axis distance and bmin is the width of beam 2 3 4 5 Web thickness bw 6 R 30 R 60 R 90 R 120 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.6 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for continuous beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions mm Possible combinations of a and bmin where a is the average axis distance and bmin is the width of beam 2 3 4 Web thickness bw 5 R 30 R 60 R 90 R 120 R 180 R 240 asd = a + 10 mm (see note 2. Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.) bmin 80 a 12a bmin 120 a 25 bmin150 a 35 bmin 180 a 55 bmin 225 a 70 bmin 275 a 80 160 12a 200 12a 250 25 300 45 350 60 450 70 200 12a 300 12a 400 25 450 35 550 50 650 60 80 100 100 120 140 160 NOTE 1 For prestressed beams the increase of axis distance according to 4. For values of bmin greater than that given in column 3 no increase of a is required.2(4) of this Part 1-2 should be noted. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. Uncontrolled Copy. Table N4. 17 July 2003.2(4) should be noted.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Table N4. NOTE 2 asd is the axis distance to the side of beam for the corner bars (tendon or wire) of beams with only one layer of reinforcement. University of Sheffield.2. (c) BSI R 180 R 240 asd = a + 10 mm (see note 2. NOTE 2 asd is the axis distance to the side of beam for the corner bars (tendon or wire) of beams with only one layer of reinforcement.) bmin 80 a 25 bmin 120 a 40 bmin 150 a 55 bmin 200 a 65 bmin 240 a 80 bmin 280 a 90 120 15a 160 35 200 45 240 55 300 70 350 80 160 10a 200 30 250 40 300 50 400 65 500 75 200 10a 300 25 400 35 500 45 600 60 500 70 80 100 100 120 140 160 a NOTE 1 For prestressed beams the increase of axis distance according to 4. For values of bmin greater than that given in column 4 no increase of a is required.

a.9 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete flat slabs Minimum dimensions Standard fire resistance Slab thickness hs 1 2 mm Axis-distance a 3 REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 a Normally 75 95 110 125 150 170 10 25 35 45 50 a 15a the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Table N4. Uncontrolled Copy. Otherwise. viii © BSI 03-2000 . NOTE 3 For prestressed slabs the increase of axis distance according to 4. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.5 3 4 a 1. in columns 4 and 5 for two way slabs relate to slabs supported at all four edges.6 Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum beam width bmin and web thickness bw mm 2 R 120 R 180 R 240 220 380 480 Table N4. they should be treated as one-way spanning slab. NOTE 4 The axis distance.7 — Reinforced and prestressed concrete continuous I beams: increased beam width and web thickness for conditions according to Table N4.5 u ly/lx u 2 5 Two way: 1 2 REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 60 80 100 120 150 175 10a 20 30 40 55 65 10a 10a 15a 20 30 40 10a 15a 20 25 40 50 NOTE 1 lx and ly are the spans of a two-way slab (two directions at right angles) where ly is the longer span NOTE 2 The minimum cover of any bar should not be less than half of required average axis distance.2(4) should be noted.8 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete simply supported one-way and two-way slabs Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield.2.2. Table N4. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI Standard fire resistance Minimum dimensions mm Slab thickness mm hs Average axis-distance One way ly/lx u 1. am’ defined in 4.2.

University of Sheffield. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. the axis-distance a should be increased in accordance with 4. NOTE 2 asd denotes the distance measured between the axis of the reinforcement and the lateral surface of the rib exposed to fire.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 Table N4. in span 5 1 REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 bmin W 80 a a a 15 35 45 60 75 90 a hs 80 a 120 25 160 40 190 55 260 75 350 75 W 200 15a W 250 30 W 300 40 W 410 60 W 500 70 a a a a a 10a 10a 15a 20 30 40 hs 80 hs 100 hs 120 hs 150 hs 175 bmin 100 bmin 120 bmin 140 a bmin 170 a bmin 200 a Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.11 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for two way spanning ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete with at least one restrained edge Minimum dimensions Standard fire resistance 1 mm Possible combinations of width of ribs bmin and axis distance a 2 3 4 Slab thickness hs and axis distance a. Table N4.2. (c) BSI REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 asd = a + 10 mm NOTE 1 For prestressed ribbed slabs. simply supported ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete Minimum dimensions Standard fire resistance mm Possible combinations of width of ribs bmin and axis distance a 2 3 4 Slab thickness hs and axis distance a.2(4) NOTE 2 asd denotes the distance measured between the axis of the reinforcement and the lateral surface of the rib exposed to fire.10 — Minimum dimensions and axis distance for two-way spanning. © BSI 03-2000 ix . Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. the axis-distance a should be increased in accordance with 4. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.2.2(4). in span 5 REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 asd = a + 10 mm bmin W 80 a 10a bmin 100 a 25 bmin 120 a 35 bmin 140 a 45 bmin 175 a 60 bmin 200 a 70 120 15a 160 25 190 40 300 50 400 60 W 200 10a W 250 15a W 300 30 W 400 40 W 500 50 hs 80 a 10a hs 80 a 10a hs 100 a 15a hs 120 a 20 hs 150 a 30 hs 175 a 40 NOTE 1 For prestressed ribbed slabs.

15 mm for prestressing wires and strands.12A) where h1 is the total thickness of concrete slab (See Figure 4. General rules and rules for buildings Thermal and mechanical actions Design for accidental situation of fire exposure Standards for fire tests Fundamental combination of actions Minimum thickness of plain concrete walls Published 1991 Published 1995 Published 1995 Published 1975 Published 1994 Published 1994 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.1 Chapter 4. Structural fire design a) Clause 4. a. a. x © BSI 03-2000 .2 Document referred to Subject area Status Various Various 1. M0.2.DD ENV 1992-1-2:1996 4 Reference standards Supporting standards including materials specifications and standards for construction are listed in Table 2 of this NAD.2). If no special check according to (4) is made in prestressed simply supported slabs (including simply supported ribbed slabs) the required axis distance.4.6) may be assumed as follows: %ap = 5 mm for prestressing bars.1(4) — addition The effective thickness. University of Sheffield. Table 2 — Reference in EC2 Part 1.2(4) Current British practice assumes a less conservative increase in axis distance. should be increased by: 5 mm for prestressing bars.2(14) Current British practice assumes a less conservative increase in axis distance.7 of EC2-1. a.1(1)P 2.2. may be increased by 5 mm for prestressing bars. Uncontrolled Copy. from that given in this clause.12 ENV 1992-1-1 ENV 1991-2-1 ENV 1991-2-2 ISO 834 ENV 1991-1 ENV 1992-1-6 Design of concrete structures.7 (4. of hollow concrete slabs should be obtained by considering the total solid part of the cross-section area as follows: he = h1. a. M is the proportion of concrete cross section area to the total cross section area of concrete slab including voids.2(2) 5 Additional recommendations 5. from that given in this clause. The second sentence onwards of this clause may be replaced with the following: If no special check according to (4) is made in prestressed tensile members and beams the required axis distance. = 15 mm for prestressing wires and strands.2 to other codes and standards Reference in EC2-1.2. 10 mm for prestressing wires and strands. wires and strands.4. corresponding to Ûcr = 350 °C. c) Clause 4. If no special check according to (4) is made in prestressed continuous slabs (including continuous ribbed slabs) the required axis distance. (c) BSI 4. The value of %ap in equation (4. b) Clause 4.7. he. corresponding to Ûcr = 400 °C.3(4) 1. a.2.3(1) 1. should be increased by: 10 mm for prestressing bars. 17 July 2003.4.

After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their comments. Switzerland and United Kingdom. concrete structure.EUROPEAN PRESTANDARD PRÉNORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE VORNORM ICS 91. University of Sheffield.080. fire resistance English version Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures — Part 1-2: General rules — Structural fire design Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. design. B-1050 Brussels © 1995 All rights of reproduction and communication in any form and by any means reserved in all countries to CEN and its members Ref.040.40 ENV 1992-1-2:1995 November 1995 Descriptors: Buildings. Spain. CEN European Committee for Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Europäisches Komitee für Normung Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36. 17 July 2003.00. computation.und Spannbetontragwerken — Teil 1-2: Allgemeine Regeln — Tragwerksbemessung für den Brandfall This European Prestandard (ENV) was approved by CEN on 1994-01-14 as a prospective standard for provisional application. particularly on the question whether the ENV can be converted into an European Standard (EN). Belgium. ENV 1992-1-2:1995 E . Germany. Denmark. CEN members are required to announce the existence of this ENV in the same way as for an EN and to make the ENV available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. No. Iceland. (c) BSI Eurocode 2: Calcul des structures en béton — Partie 1-2: Règles générales — Calcul du comportement au feu Eurocode 2: Planung von Stahlbeton. Luxembourg. Norway. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria. Portugal. Sweden. Greece. Italy. Ireland. Finland. Netherlands. Uncontrolled Copy. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the ENV) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the ENV into an EN is reached. 91. The period of validity of this ENV is limited initially to three years. France.

referencing compatible supporting standards and providing national guidance on the application of this Prestandard. certain safety elements in this ENV have been assigned indicative values which are identified by|_|(“boxed values”). the CEC transferred the work of further development. Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures. these will cover additional technologies or applications. 2 © BSI 03-2000 . Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures. EN 1993. issue and updating of the Structural Eurocodes to CEN. Background of the Eurocode program (4) The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) initiated the work of establishing a set of harmonized technical rules for the design of building and civil engineering works which would initially serve as an alternative to the different rules in force in the various Member States and would ultimately replace them. Uncontrolled Copy. Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures. Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures. EN 1999.1.3 of ENV 1992-1-1. EN 1996. (c) BSI (8) Separate subcommittees have been formed by CEN/TC250 for the various Eurocodes listed above. (12) Meanwhile feedback and comments on this Prestandard should be sent to the Secretariat of CEN/TC250/SC2 at the following address: Deutsches Institut für Normung e. (14) Some of the supporting European or International Standards may not be available by the time this Prestandard is issued. The authorities in each member country are expected to assign definitive values to these safety elements. It is therefore anticipated that a National Application Document (NAD) giving definitive values for safety elements. (2) They cover execution and control only to the extent that is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction products. and the standard of the workmanship needed to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. (11) After approximately two years CEN members will be invited to submit formal comments to be taken into account in determining future actions. Eurocode program (7) Work is in hand on the following Structural Eurocodes. and the EFTA Secretariat agreed to support the CEN work. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. EN 1995.V. (6) CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes. some of the Structural Eurocodes cover some of these aspects in informative Annexes. EN 1994. EN 1998.1. 17 July 2003. These technical rules became known as the “Structural Eurocodes”. and will complement and supplement this Part. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.1 of ENV 1992-1-1 and the scope of this Part of Eurocode 2 is defined in 1. EN 1997. University of Sheffield. (15) It is intended that this Prestandard is used in conjunction with the NAD valid in the country where the building or civil engineering works is located. Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium alloy structures. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design. (10) This Prestandard is intended for experimental application and for the submission of comments. Additional Parts of Eurocode 2 which are planned are indicated in 1. (9) This Part 1-2 of Eurocode 2 is being published as a European Prestandard (ENV) with an initial life of three years. (3) Until the necessary set of harmonized technical specifications for products and for the methods of testing their performance are available.1. (5) In 1990.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Foreword Objectives of the Eurocodes (1) The “Structural Eurocodes” comprise a group of standards for the structural and geotechnical design of buildings and civil engineering works. health and other matters covered by the essential requirements of the Construction Products Directive (CPD). EN 1992. (DIN) Burggrafenstrasse 6 D-10787 Berlin Phone:(+49) 30 2601 2501 Fax:(+49) 30 2601 1231 or to your national standards organisation National Application Documents (NAD’S) (13) In view of the responsibilities of authorities in member countries for safety. will be issued by each member country or its Standards Organisation. after consulting their respective Member States. each generally consisting of a number of parts: EN 1991. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Matters specific to this prestandard (16) The scope of Eurocode 2 is defined in 1.

requirements by authorities will be less prescriptive and may allow for alternative strategies. (18) The provisions of this Prestandard are based substantially on recent CEB and FIP documents.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. © BSI 03-2000 3 .3 of ENV 1992-1-1. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy. These Annexes have been introduced by moving some of the more detailed Application Rules. which are needed in particular cases. (19) This Part 1-2 of Eurocode 2 complements ENV 1992-1-1 for the particular aspects of structural fire design of concrete structures. particular regard should be paid to the underlying assumptions and conditions given in 1. University of Sheffield. out of the main part of the text to aid its clarity. (20) The framework and structure of this Part 1-2 do not correspond to ENV 1992-1-1. (21) This Part 1-2 contains five sections and four informative Annexes. (c) BSI (17) In using this Prestandard in practice. (22) Required functions and levels of performance are generally specified by the National Authorities — mostly in terms of standard fire resistance rating. The provisions in this Part 1-2 have to be considered additionally to those in other Parts of ENV 1992. Where fire safety engineering for assessing passive and active measures is accepted.

4 Verification methods 2.1 Performance requirements 2.4.2 Thermal response 4.7 Slabs 4.2 — Dimensions used to calculate average axis distance am Figure 4.4.2 Actions 2.3 Mechanical response 4.8 — Slab systems for which minimum reinforcement areas according to 4.2 Distinction between principles and application rules 1.1 General 2.6 — Envelope of resisting bending moments over supports in fire conditions Figure 4.3.1 General 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Contents Foreword 1 General 1. and nominal concrete cover c to reinforcement Figure 4.2.2.4 — Definition of dimensions for different types of beam section Figure 4.7.5 Symbols 1.4. 17 July 2003.4 Definitions 1.1 — Sections through structural members.1 General 4.4 Validation of general calculation method 4.1 General 4.2 Temperature profiles 4.5 Tensile members 4.3 Columns 4. University of Sheffield.3 Analysis of parts of the structure 2.1 Figure 3.4.4.6 Beams 4.5 — I-shaped beam with increasing web width bw satisfying the requirements of an imaginary cross-section Figure 4.1 — Coefficient kc(G) allowing for decrease of compressive strength (fck) of silicious concrete at elevated temperature Figure 3. (c) BSI 4.4.1 Scope 4.1 General 3.2 General design rules 4.3 Normative References 1.2 — Coefficient ks(G) allowing for decrease of characteristic strength (fyk) of reinforcing steels at elevated temperature Figure 3.7 — Concrete slab with floor finishes Figure 4.4.10 — Divisions of a wall.3.4 Walls 4.2.3.2.4 Member analysis 2.6 Anchorage 5 Protective layers Annex A (informative) Additional information on material properties Annex B (informative) Temperature profiles and reduced cross section Annex C (informative) Simplified method of calculation for beams and slabs Annex D (informative) A procedure for assessing the structural response of reinforced concrete elements under fire Figure 2. into zones for use in calculation of strength reduction and az values Page 36 37 38 54 58 59 13 15 16 16 19 19 21 23 24 25 27 29 33 34 4 © BSI 03-2000 .2 Tabulated data 4.3 — Coefficient kp(G) allowing for decrease of characteristic strength (fpk) of prestressing steels at elevated temperature Figure 4.4. showing nominal axis distance a.3 (3) should be provided Figure 4.2.4 General calculation methods 4.2.3 Design values of material properties 2.5 Shear and torsion Page 2 7 7 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 14 17 17 17 17 18 20 21 22 23 27 31 31 32 32 35 35 35 35 36 36 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy.1 Scope 1.5 Testing 3 Material properties 3.2 Global structural analysis 2.3 Reduced cross section 4.9 — Reductions of strength and cross-sections found by means of equivalent walls (wall1 and wall2) exposed to fire on both sides Figure 4.2 Concrete 3.6 Units 2 Basic principles 2.3 — Exposure of built-in columns Figure 4.4.2.3 Steel 4 Structural fire design 4. exposed on both sides.1 — Variation of ½fi as a function of ß = Qk1/Gk for different values of Ó1.2.3 Simplified calculation method 4.

Gm is the average temperature along a horizontal section y-y 60 Figure D.3 (6) 27 Table 4. according to Figure A. increased beam width and web thickness for conditions according to 4.5 and Table A. according to Figure A.1 — Temperature profiles in concrete elements. according to Figure A.6. University of Sheffield.8 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete simply supported one-way and two-way slabs 28 © BSI 03-2000 5 .11 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of quenched and tempered prestressing steels (bars) at elevated temperatures. rectangular and circular section 21 Table 4.3 Figure A.17 — Thermal elongation of steel 53 Figure A. and Table A.5.3 Figure A.3 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for load-bearing reinforced concrete walls 22 Table 4.5 and Table A.1 — Positioning the free bending moment diagram MSd. according to Figure A. (fctk) of concrete at elevated temperature Figure A.2 — Layers of thermo-elements assumed free to move axially 60 Figure D.7 — Reinforced and prestressed concrete continuous I-beams.6 Figure A.4 — Stress-strain relationships of siliceous concrete under uniaxial compression at elevated temperatures Figure A.14 — Thermal elongation of concrete 50 Figure A.7 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of hot-rolled reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.6 38 39 40 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.2 and Table A.fi and h (or b) for risk of explosive spalling for normal weight concrete members 54 Figure B. according to Figure A.fi to establish equilibrium 59 Figure D.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Page Figure A.5 — Equivalent temperature values Geff for typical reinforced concrete sections exposed to a standard fire 63 Table 4. 17 July 2003.5 and Table A. according to Figure A.5 — Model for stress-strain relationships of reinforcing and prestressing steels at elevated temperatures (notations for prestressing steels “p” instead of “s”) Figure A. (c) BSI 41 42 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 Page Figure A.1 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced concrete columns.3 — Hypothetical and equalising forces 61 Figure D.8 — Stress-strain relationships for cold-worked reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.2 — Model for compression stress-strain relationships of siliceous and calcareous concrete at elevated temperatures Figure A.5 and Table A.5 Figure A.4 Figure A.1 — Coefficient kct(G) allowing for decrease of tensile strength. according to Figure A.13 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of cold-worked prestressing steels (wires and strands) at elevated temperatures.16 — Thermal conductivity of concrete 51 Figure A.5 Figure A.18 — Relationship between Öc.2.5 and Table A.3 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures.12 — Stress-strain relationships for cold-worked prestressing steels (wires and strands) at elevated temperatures.6 — Stress-strain relationships of hot-rolled reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.2 — Minimum wall thickness of non load-bearing walls (partitions) 22 Table 4.6 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for continuous beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete 26 Table 4.1 Figure A.3 — Reduction in cross section and concrete strength assuming a standard fire 57 Figure C.9 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of cold-worked reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.4 Figure A.5 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for simply supported beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete 26 Table 4. according to Figure A.4 — Final internal self-equilibrating stresses 62 Figure D.4 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete tensile members 23 Table 4.1 — Temperature profiles for beams 55 Figure B.5 and Table A.2 — Temperature profiles for slabs 56 Figure B. Uncontrolled Copy.10 — Stress-strain relationships for quenched and tempered prestressing steels (bars) at elevated temperatures.5 and Table A.15 — Specific heat of concrete 51 Figure A. according to Figure A.

2 — Recommended values for ºc1(G) and ºcu(G) and admissible range of ºc1(G) Table A. 17 July 2003.3 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of hot rolled reinforcing steel Table A.5 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of quenched and tempered prestressing steel Table A. (c) BSI 39 41 43 43 44 44 6 © BSI 03-2000 .10 — Minimum dimensions and axis distance for two-way spanning. simply supported ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete Table 4.9 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete flat slabs Table 4. Uncontrolled Copy.2) Table A.1 — Values for the main parameters of the stress-strain relationships in compression of siliceous and calcareous concrete at elevated temperatures (range I in Figure A.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Page Table 4. University of Sheffield.6 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of cold worked prestressing steel 29 30 31 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.11 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for two-way spanning ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete with at least one restrained edge Table A.4 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of cold worked reinforcing steel Table A.

2. (c) BSI 1. hot gases.2.3 Normative references (1) European standards for fire tests are under preparation. as this clause. 1.1 Scope (1)P ENV 1992-1-2 deals with the design of concrete structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure and shall be used in conjunction with ENV 1992-1-1 and ENV 1991-2-2.4.g. stresses. (4) The application rules are generally recognized rules which follow the principles and satisfy their requirements. Uncontrolled Copy.1 critical temperature of reinforcement the temperature at which failure is expected to occur in reinforcement at a given load level 1. (3)P Part 1-2 applies to structures which for reasons of general fire safety.2 design fire a specified fire development assumed for design purposes 1.2 in ENV 1992-1-1) in respect to the design of structures to fulfil the criteria given in (3)P (e. It provides additions to and identifies differences from the design of structures at normal temperatures.1(6) and 4. Active methods are not included. However. In National Application Documents reference may be made to national or International Standards. distinction is made in this Part between principles and application rules. it does not cover: — structures with prestressing by external tendons — shell structures. excessive heat) beyond designated areas (separation function) (4)P Part 1-2 gives Principles and Application Rules (see 1. 1-3 to 1-6.3 effects of actions E (as described in ENV 1992-1-1. (2) The principles comprise: — general statements and definitions for which there is no alternative. For structural members ISO 834 is generally used. provided it is shown that the alternative rules accord with the relevant principles and have at least the same reliability. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (6) For structures using unbonded tendons reference should be made to 4. are required to fulfil the following criteria when exposed to fire: — avoid premature collapse of the structure (load-bearing function) — limit fire spread (flames. (6) In this Part the application rules are identified by a number in brackets eg.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 1 General 1.4. strains) of the structure to the actions © BSI 03-2000 7 .5) the effects of actions (E) are responses (for example internal forces and moments.4. University of Sheffield.4 Definitions 1. (3) The principles are identified by the letter P following the paragraph number. (5)P Part 1-2 applies to those structures or parts of structures which are within the scope of Part 1-1. (5) It is permissible to use alternative rules different from the application rules given in this Eurocode. 1. 17 July 2003.2 Distinction between principles and application rules (1) Depending on the character of the individual clauses.2. (2)P Part 1-2 applies only to passive methods of fire protection. as well as — requirements and analytical models for which no alternative is permitted unless specifically stated. in terms of required standard fire resistance).2(6).2.

4.9 load-bearing criterion “R” a criterion by which the ability of a structure or a member to sustain specified actions during the relevant fire. is assessed 1. for a specified period of time 1.15 separating members structural and non-structural members (walls or floors) forming the enclosure of a fire compartment 8 © BSI 03-2000 .10 load-bearing function the ability of a structure or member to sustain specified actions during the relevant fire 1.5 fire resistance the ability of a structure or part of it to fulfil its required functions (load-bearing and/or separating function) for a specified fire exposure. Indirect fire actions are not considered.4.14 separating function the ability of a separating member to prevent fire spread by passage of flames or hot gases (integrity) or ignition beyond the exposed surface (thermal insulation) during the relevant fire 1.4.6 global structural analysis (for fire) the analysis of the entire structure.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 1.7 indirect fire actions thermal expansions or thermal deformations causing forces and moments 1.8 integrity criterion “E” a criterion by which the ability of a separating member to prevent passage of flames and hot gases is assessed 1.4 fire compartment a space within a building extending over one or several floors which is enclosed by separating members such. 17 July 2003.4.4. Uncontrolled Copy.4. that fire spread beyond the compartment is prevented during the relevant fire exposure 1. Indirect fire actions are considered throughout the structure Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.13 protected members members for which measures are taken to reduce the temperature rise in the member due to fire 1.4.11 member analysis (for fire) the thermal and mechanical analysis of a structural member exposed to fire in which the member is considered as isolated with appropriate support and boundary conditions. when either the entire structure or only parts of it are exposed to fire.4. (c) BSI 1.4.12 normal temperature design ultimate limit state design for ambient temperatures according to ENV 1992-1-1 for the fundamental combination of actions (see ENV 1991-1) 1.4. University of Sheffield. apart from those resulting from thermal gradients 1.4.4.

4. the standard temperature-time curve.4.4. 17 July 2003. — Parametric: Determined on the basis of fire models and the specific physical parameters defining the conditions in the fire compartment.19 support and boundary conditions description of restraints at supports and boundaries for structural modelling 1. Indirect fire actions within the sub-assembly are considered.17 structural members the load-bearing members of a structure including bracings 1.g. e. where relevant 1. They may be either — Nominal: Conventional curves.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 1. Uncontrolled Copy.16 standard fire resistance the ability of a structure or part of it (usually only members) to fulfil required functions (load-bearing function and/or separating function) for exposure to heating according to the standard temperature-time curve.4. University of Sheffield. sub-assembly analysis is equivalent to member analysis.18 sub-assembly analysis (for fire) the structural analysis of parts of the structure exposed to fire in which the respective part of the structure is considered as isolated with appropriate support and boundary conditions. (c) BSI 1.4. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.21 temperature-time curves gas temperatures in the environment of member surfaces as a function of time. 1. adopted for classification or verification of fire resistance.4. but time-dependent interaction with other parts of the structure is not considered NOTE 1 Where the effects of indirect fire actions within the sub-assembly are negligible. sub-assembly analysis is equivalent to global structural analysis.23 thermal insulation criterion “I” a criterion by which the ability of a separating member to prevent excessive transmission of heat is assessed © BSI 03-2000 9 .22 thermal actions actions on the structure described by the net heat flux to the members 1.20 temperature analysis the procedure to determine the temperature development in members on the basis of thermal actions and the thermal material properties of the members and of the protective layers.4.4. for a stated period of time 1. NOTE 2 Where the effects of indirect fire actions between sub-assemblies are negligible.

.fi(t) at a given time t.6 Units (1) Temperature G in degrees Celsius (°C) Temperature difference in kelvins (K) Specific heat c in joule per kilogramme per kelvin (J/kgK) Coefficient of thermal conductivity Æ in watts per metre per kelvin (W/mK) 10 © BSI 03-2000 ....fi strain of the reinforcing or prestressing steel at temperature G. minutes in standard fire exposure E 30 or E 60.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 1. a member meeting the thermal insulation criterion for 30.fi design load bearing capacity (resistance) in the fire situation Rd..fi(0) ratio of design effect of actions in the fire situation to the design resistance of the structural element at time t = 0 Öc.. a member meeting the load-bearing criterion for 30.fi/Ed ratio of design effect of actions in the fire situation to that in normal design ºs.fi partial safety factor for a material in fire design ½fi = Ed.. or 60.fi compressive stress of concrete in fire situation Ös...fi steel stress in fire situation G temperature [°C] Gcr critical temperature [°C] Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. or 60.. Uncontrolled Copy.fi design effect of actions in the fire situation Ed design effect of actions for normal temperature design Rd.fi design strength or deformation property in the fire situation a axis distance of the steel from the nearest exposed surface c specific heat (characteristic value) [J/kgK] fck(G) characteristic value of compressive strength of concrete at temperature G for a specified strain fpk(G) characteristic value of strength of prestressing steel at temperature G for a specified strain fsk(G) characteristic strength of reinforcing steel at temperature G for a specified strain k(G) = Xk.(G)/Xk reduction factor to describe a strength or deformation property at temperature G t time of fire exposure (min) YM. a member meeting the integrity criterion for 30. minutes in standard fire exposure I 30 or I 60.. 17 July 2003. or 60.. Æ thermal conductivity (characteristic value) [W/mK] Èfi = Ed.. University of Sheffield..5 Symbols The following symbols supplement those given in ENV 1992-1-1: Ed. minutes in standard fire exposure Xk characteristic value of a strength or deformation property for normal temperature design Xd. R 30 or R 60. (c) BSI 1..fi/Rd.

fi — strength and deformation properties for structural analysis Xd. (2) Where rules given in this Part 1-2 are only valid for the standard fire exposure. Reference should be made to the relevant product specifications.3) where Xk(G) is the characteristic value of a material property in fire design. they shall be designed and constructed in such a way that they maintain their load bearing function during the relevant fire exposure — Criterion “R”. — no integrity failure due to cracks. E and I as follows: separating only: E and I loadbearing only: R separating and loadbearing: R. (2)P Where compartmentation is required.2 Actions (1)P Thermal and mechanical actions shall be obtained from ENV 1991-2-2.fi = Xk(G)/YM.fi = Xk(G) YM. fck and fyk) for normal temperature design to ENV 1992-1-1 k(G) = Xk(G)/Xk is the reduction factor for a strength or deformation property dependent on the material temperature — see 3. (4)P Members shall comply with criteria R.3 YM.2) (2.fi is the partial safety factor for material property in fire design (2) For thermal and mechanical properties of concrete and steel reinforcement the partial safety factor for fire design should be taken as (2. 17 July 2003.3 Design values of material properties (1)P Design values of thermal and mechanical properties (Xd.fi (2. this is identified in the relevant clauses. shall be designed and constructed in such a way that they maintain their separating function during the relevant fire exposure. including joints.fi if an increase of the property is unfavourable for safety Xd. E and I (5) When using general calculation methods (see 4. University of Sheffield.g.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 2 Basic principles 2. 2. i. the members forming the compartment.1 Performance requirements (1)P Where structures are required to have mechanical resistance under fire conditions. generally dependent on the material temperature Xk is the characteristic value of a strength or deformation property (e. which are large enough to cause fire penetration by hot gases or flame — Criterion “E” — no insulation failure due to temperatures of the non-exposed surface exceeding ignition temperatures — Criterion “I”. (3) Criterion “I” may be assumed to be met where the average temperature rise over the whole of the non-exposed surface during the standard fire exposure does not exceed 140K and the maximum temperature rise of that surface does not exceed 180K.fi = k(G) Xk/YM.2 and 3. (c) BSI 2. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.fi) are defined as follows: — thermal properties for thermal analysis if an increase of the property is favourable for safety Xd.1) © BSI 03-2000 11 .e. Uncontrolled Copy.4) the deformation criteria should be used where separating members or protective measures are affected by the deformation of the load bearing structure. holes or other openings.

depending on ß = Qk1/Gk.4.2 are based on the standard temperature-time curve. (3) The global structural analysis should take into account the relevant failure mode in fire exposure.4. which is the ratio between the main variable and permanent actions applied to the structure. (4) As an approximation to performing a global structural analysis for t = 0.0| 2. including access areas) for which a value of|0.4. it shall be verified that Ed.4. the temperature-dependent material properties including stiffness. They are based on models which determine the temperature development within the structure and the mechanical behaviour of the structure. and effects of thermal expansions and deformations (indirect fire actions). (2) Tabulated data given in 4.6|may be used. (5) As a simplification ½fi =|0.3 Analysis of parts of the structure (1) As an alternative to the global structural analysis of the entire structure for various fire situations.ß)/(YG + YQ.1.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 YM.2 Global structural analysis (1)P For the global structural analysis.fi(t) is the design effect of actions in the fire situation. The simplified and general calculation methods may also be used with parametrical temperature-time relationship.ß) (2.fi(t) u Rd. Uncontrolled Copy. 2.fi = ½fi.fi =|1. where the sub-assemblies are exposed to fire and analyzed in accordance with 2.0] + Ó1. (2. see ENV 1991-2-2. effects of (permanent and variable) actions at supports and boundaries may be obtained from the normal temperature design by using Ed. except for load category E as given in ENV 1991-2-1 (areas susceptible to accumulation of goods. a structural analysis of parts of the structure (sub-assemblies) may be performed.4) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI where Ed.6) is graphically represented presented in Figure 2.4 are suitable for global structural analysis. University of Sheffield. Equation (2. (3) Effects of (permanent and variable) actions at supports and boundaries may be assumed to correspond to those in ENV 1992-1-1.1 General (1)P The fire resistance of a concrete structure may be determined by any of the methods given in 2.1.fi(t) (2. that their interaction with other parts of the structure can be approximated by time-independent support and boundary conditions during fire exposure.6) Values of Ó1. determined from the general rule given in ENV 1991-2-2.5) 12 © BSI 03-2000 .fi(t) is the corresponding design resistance at elevated temperatures t is the relevant duration of fire exposure (2)P The structural model adopted for design to this ENV 1992-1-2 shall reflect the expected performance of the structure in fire exposure. 2.4. including indirect fire actions Rd.7|should be used.i are given in ENV 1991-1. 17 July 2003.4 Verification methods 2. see ENV 1991-2-2: ½fi = ([1.4.Ed where Ed is the design effect of actions from ultimate limit state design to ENV 1992-1-1 using the fundamental combination ½fi is a reduction factor.2 to 2.2 (2) Sub-assemblies should be specified on the basis of the potential thermal expansions and deformations such.5. (4) General calculation methods given in 4.

When the actual steel stress and temperature are known more accurately. fire design may be based on the results of tests. In some cases simple checks of the load level and additional detailing rules are also required.3 and 4. University of Sheffield. Where different conditions apply. in general. © BSI 03-2000 13 . (5) Tabulated data.2. (2) Combinations of testing and calculations may also be used.5 Testing (1) As an alternative to the use of calculation methods. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.4 Member analysis (1) The support and boundary conditions of members corresponding to those in ENV 1992-1-1 may be used. be taken into account for member analysis.4. The tabulated data method consists of simple checks of dimensions of cross-sections and of axis distances of the reinforcement.3 and 4. the values in the tables may be modified.1 — Variation of ½fi as a function of ß = Qk1/Gk for different values of Ó1. they are identified in the relevant clauses.4. (3) The effects of thermal expansion need not.3 (4) also applies to member analysis.4 respectively are suitable for analysis of parts of the structure.4 respectively are suitable for verifying members under fire conditions.1 2. 4. Uncontrolled Copy. (4) For verifying standard fire resistance requirements. 2. (c) BSI Figure 2. simplified or general methods given in 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (6) Simplified and general methods given in 4. (2) 2. member analysis is sufficient.4.

for parametric fires) may be applied.2). These values may also be used for the evaluation of the critical temperature of reinforcement when adapting tabulated data for critical temperatures other than 500 °C (see 4. should be used (see Figure 3. University of Sheffield. and of the characteristic strength of reinforcing and prestressing steels are given in this section.2) (2) The reduction of the characteristic strength of a prestressing steel as a function of the temperature G is allowed for by the coefficient kp(G) for which: fpk(G) = kp(G)fpk(20 °C) (3. (3) Values for the reduction of the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. (5) The material models given in 3.2 and 3.2). The values at the higher temperatures shown dashed in Figure 3. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.3) (3) Where ks(G) and kp(G) are taken from documented data they should be derived from tests performed under constant stress and variable temperature (transient tests). Uncontrolled Copy. Reference may also be made to appropriate documents. 17 July 2003.3 Steel (1) The reduction of the characteristic strength of a reinforcing steel as a function of the temperature G is allowed for by the coefficient ks(G) for which: fsk(G) = ks(G)fyk(20 °C) (3. provided solutions are within the range of appropriate experimental evidence. 14 © BSI 03-2000 . They may be considered as conservative values for other types of concrete. Figure 3. (4) Additional information on thermo-mechanical properties for general calculation methods is given in Informative Annex A. (7) The standard fire conditions are defined between 20 °C and 1 200 °C. (4)In the absence of more accurate information the following ks(G) values should be used for reinforcement (see Figure 3.1) (2) In the absence of more accurate information the following kc(G) values.2 and Figure 3. the properties are also defined between the same limits.1). They may be used with the simplified calculation methods.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 3 Material properties 3.3 are given as indication only. (6) Alternative formulations of material laws (e.1 General (1)P In fire conditions the temperature dependent properties shall be taken into account. (2) The material properties at 20 °C should be assessed according to ENV 1992-1-1. applicable to concretes with siliceous aggregates.g.0 kc(G) = (1 600 – G)/1 500 kc(G) = (900 – G)/625 kc(G) = 0 for 20 °C u G u 100 °C for 100 °C u G u 400 °C for 400 °C u G u 900 °C for 900 °C u G u 1 200 °C 3.2. (c) BSI 3.1.3 below should only be applied for heating rates similar to those appearing under standard fire exposure until the time of the maximum temperature. kc(G) = 1.2 Concrete (1) The reduction of the characteristic compressive strength of concrete as a function of the temperature G is allowed for by the coefficient kc(G) for which: fck(G) = kc(G) fck(20 °C) (3.

2. ks(G) = 1.0 ks(G) = (6 650 – 9G)/3 500 ks(G) = (1 200 – G)/5 000 for 20 °C u G u 350 °C for 350 °C u G u 700 °C for 700 °C u G u 1 200 °C For compression reinforcement in columns and compressive zones of beams and slabs the strength reduction at 0.2.3).ENV 1992-1-2:1995 For tension reinforcement in beams and slabs where ºs. Uncontrolled Copy. ks(G) = 1.0 kp(G) = (850 – G)/750 kp(G) = (650 – G)/500 kp(G) = (1 000 – G)/4 000 kp(G) = 0 for 20 °C u G u 100 °C for 100 °C u G u 250 °C for 250 °C u G u 650 °C for 650 °C u G u 1 000 °C for 1 000 °C u G u 1 200 °C for 20 °C u G u 100 °C for 100 °C u G u 250 °C for 250 °C u G u 600 °C for 600 °C u G u 1 000 °C for 1 000 °C u G u 1 200 °C For prestressing steel wires and strands: Figure 3.fi W 2 %. Curve 1).2 % proof strain should be used as given below (see Figure 3. Curve 2).1 — Coefficient kc(G) allowing for decrease of compressive strength (fck) of silicious concrete at elevated temperature © BSI 03-2000 15 . This corresponds to the values given in the tables in 4. the strength reduction may be used as given below (see Figure 3. For prestressing steel bars: kp(G) = 1. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield.0 ks(G) = (1 100 – G)/1 000 ks(G) = (8 300 – 12 G)/5 000 ks(G) = (1 200 – G)/5 500 for 20 °C u G u 100 °C for 100 °C u G u 400 °C for 400 °C u G u 650 °C for 650 °C u G u 1 200 °C Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.2.fi < 2 % when using the simplified or general calculation methods.0 kp(G) = (1 600 – G)/1 500 kp(G) = (700 – G)/500 kp(G) = (1 000 – G)/3 500 kp(G) = 0 kp(G) = 1. (c) BSI (5) In the absence of more accurate information the following kp(G) values should be used for prestressing steel (see Figure 3. This also applies for tension reinforcement where ºs.

Uncontrolled Copy.2 — Coefficient ks(G) allowing for decrease of characteristic strength (fyk) of reinforcing steels at elevated temperature Figure 3. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI Figure 3.3 — Coefficient kp(G) allowing for decrease of characteristic strength (fpk) of prestressing steels at elevated temperature 16 © BSI 03-2000 .ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield.

4. (6) When using tabulated data.5) and anchorage details (4.1 of ENV 1992-1-1 [see 4. Special precautions should be taken to protect the anchorages.1). type of aggregate. (5) Where local experience indicates increased susceptibility of lightweight concrete to explosive spalling relevant documents should be used to determine member size. (4) The tabulated data takes into account requirements to prevent explosive spalling for all exposure classes in Table 4. If calcareous aggregates are used in beams and slabs either the minimum dimension of the cross-section or the minimum value of the axis distance. explosive spalling shall be avoided by appropriate measures.4. protective layers may be taken into account (see Section 5).4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 4 Structural fire design 4.e.6).1 Scope (1) In absence of more precise methods for structural fire design (i. For lightweight aggregate concrete with an oven dry density of up to|1 200|kg/m3 the reduction may be |20 %|.2. © BSI 03-2000 17 .18. Therefore. The following rules refer to member analysis according to 2. simplified calculation method). 17 July 2003. (5) Unless stated otherwise when using tabulated data no further checks are required concerning shear and torsion capacity (4.2 — simplified calculation methods for specific types of members. For densities between|1 200|kg/m3 and |2 000|kg/m3 linear interpolation is permitted [see also 4. (4) As a rule a check of explosive spalling is not required for members designed to exposure class 1 of Table 4. except for non-load bearing walls (see 4.4. the risk of explosive spalling can be assessed on the safe side by using Figure A. (3) In the absence of more accurate data. see 4.2 Tabulated data 4. (2)P Where necessary. Uncontrolled Copy. The tables apply for the standard fire exposure as defined in 1. general calculation method.1 of ENV 1992-1-1.1(5)]. see 4. of reinforcement may be reduced by|10 %|.1). For more accurate assessments. (6) For prestressed members with unbonded tendons the danger of progressive collapse should be considered which may occur with excessive steel elongation due to heating (see appropriate documents). 3.3 above. (2) The tables have been developed on an empirical basis confirmed by experience and theoretical evaluation of tests.1 General (1)P This section deals with the following design procedures as indicated in 2.2.2. More specific tabulated data can be found in the product standards for some particular types of concrete products.1. tightness of concrete and heating rate should be considered. (3) The values given in the tables apply to normal weight concrete-made with siliceous aggregates (see ENV 1992-1-1. see 4. moisture content.4. (c) BSI 4.1 — detailing according to recognized design solutions (tabulated data). sub-assemblies or the entire structure. a.1 (2)P to (4)] and no further check is required. this data is derived from approximate conservative assumptions for the more common structural elements. reference should be made to the tabulated data given in this section. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.3 — general calculation methods for simulating the behaviour of structural members. University of Sheffield.

1) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.fi for the actions in a fire situation (Ed.1 (500 – Gcr) (mm) (4. the Table 4. corresponding to the reduction factor ks(G) = Ös.15 (see 2. If no special check according to (5) is made in prestressed tensile members. (7) For tensile members or beams where the design requires Gcr to be below 400 °C the cross sectional dimensions should be increased by increasing the minimum width of the tensile member or beam according to Equation (4. given in the Table 4.prov is the area of reinforcement provided Ed. see 1.fi/fpk(20 °C) using Figure 3.fi/fyk(20 °C) using Figure 3. Gcr.3) where %a is the change in axis distance in millimetres: %a = 0. (4) For prestressing tendons the critical temperature for bars is assumed to be 400 °C and for strands and wires to be 350 °C.3 for prestressing steel. using the approximate Equation (4. modification of the required axis distance a. for critical temperatures of reinforcement other than 500 °C may be carried out as follows: a) evaluate the steel stress Ös.2 of ENV 1992-1-1) As.fi is the design effect of actions in the fire situation. (c) BSI 18 © BSI 03-2000 .3.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 4.15 [see Equation (4.2 General design rules (1) Requirements for separating function (Criterion E and I.2) may be applied analogously. (3) In order to ensure the necessary steel protection (covers.2. b) evaluate the critical temperature of reinforcement Gcr. bmod W bmin + 0.3.2.2) where: Ys is the partial safety factor for reinforcing steel.8.fi/Rd. Rd. corresponding to Gcr = 400 °C 15 mm for prestressing wires and strands.req is the area of reinforcement required for ultimate limit state according to ENV 1992-1-1 As. a.fi. should be increased by 10 mm for prestressing bars. For unbonded tendons critical temperatures greater than 350 °C should only be used where more accurate methods are used to determine the effects of deflections. axis distance) in tensile zones of simple supported members. Equation (4.4). Table 4.fi/Ed may be assessed using 2.2)] where Ed denotes the design effect of actions according to ENV 1992-1-1.8.5 and Table 4. Ys = 1. (2) For loadbearing function (Criterion R).4) (4.3 (4) and (5). are based on a critical steel temperature of Gcr = 500 °C. except for those with unbonded tendons.2). (4. University of Sheffield.fi) using Equation (4.3) (6) The above approximation is valid for 350 °C < Gcr < 700 °C.0 where: Ed. the minimum requirements concerning section sizes and heat protection (axis distance) of steel have been set up in the tables so that Ed. Table 4.3) may be considered satisfied where the minimum thickness of walls or slabs accords with Table 4. beams and slabs the required axis distance.fi = 0. Column 3 (one way).fi is the design load-bearing capacity (resistance) in the fire situation.4. 17 July 2003.2 (Curve 1) for reinforcement or kp(G) = Öp. (5) For tensile and simply supported bending members. Gcr is the critical temperature of reinforcement at which yielding becomes imminent under the actual steel stress Ös. corresponding to Gcr = 350 °C. Uncontrolled Copy. for the new critical temperature.4. c) adjust the minimum axis distance given in the Tables.7Ed and Ys = 1. This assumption corresponds approximately to Ed.8 (400 – Gcr) (mm) (4.5 and Table 4. For prestressing steel.4.fi u 1. Column 3.

(c) BSI Figure 4. The average axis distance may be determined by Equation (4. This requires using a more accurate method such as that given in Annex B. wire) “i” ai is the axis distance of steel bar (tendon. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. reference should be made to appropriate documents. (13) When reinforcement is arranged in several layers similar to Figure 4. and nominal concrete cover c to reinforcement (12) The nominal values of axis distance a to a steel bar. (11) Symbols used in the tables are defined in Figure 4. should not be less than the minimum values given in the Tables below. and where it consists of either reinforcing or prestressing steel with the same characteristic strength fyk and fpk respectively. wire or tendon. 17 July 2003.5). used in the Tables are less than that required by ENV 1992-1-1 and should be considered for interpolation only. University of Sheffield. When reinforcement consists of steels with different characteristic strength Asi should be replaced by Asi fyki (or Asi fpki) in Equation (4. An alternative to increasing the width according to Equation (4. (8) Values given in the Tables provide minimum dimensions for fire resistance in addition to the detailing rules required by ENV 1992-1-1. (4.5) where: Asi is the cross sectional area of steel bar (tendon.1 — Sections through structural members. wire) “i” from the nearest exposed surface. (9) Linear interpolation between the values given in the Tables is allowed.1.5).2 — Dimensions used to calculate average axis distance am © BSI 03-2000 19 . the average axis distance am should not be less than the axis distance a given in the Tables. (10) In situations for which the Tables do not apply.2. Figure 4. Some values of the axis distance of the steel.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 where bmin is the minimum dimension b given in the Tables. related to the required standard fire resistance.4) may be to adjust the axis distance of the reinforcement in order to obtain the temperature required for the actual stress. Uncontrolled Copy. showing nominal axis distance a.

Uncontrolled Copy. However.nom = ai – %ap where: ai is the actual axis distance of the tendon considered %ap is an allowance for the different critical temperatures of reinforcing and prestressing steel. in a partially prestressed member).7|in all cases. distribution of the bars along the sides of the cross-section is required for a fire resistance higher than|90|minutes. However. including second order effects. beams and slabs with concrete covers c W|50|mm to the main longitudinal reinforcement. (5) The dimension b in Table 4. applies to columns which lie flush with wall of the same standard fire resistance or to protruding columns if that part of the cross-section embedded in the wall is able to carry the whole load. no reduction of the minimum column width b [see 4. a more accurate value may be obtained using Equation (4. University of Sheffield.fi(0) where: ½fi = Ed. generally by tests. YM = 1 and t = 0 (3) For concrete made with calcareous or lightweight aggregate.3 (4)].02|Ac.3. bending. 4.5)]. The effective length lo.1 for columns exposed to fire on one side only (Column 5). for the cover to surface reinforcement reference should be made to ENV 1992-1-1.7) (4.1 (3)] given in Table 4.4. that falling off does not occur within the period of fire resistance.3 (6) and (7). 17 July 2003.1 a load level in the fire situation Èfi has been introduced accounting for load combinations and the design column resistance to compression and.5) as a nominal value given by: ai. Any opening in the wall should not be nearer to the column than the minimum dimension b given in Table 4.3 Columns (1) Fire resistance of reinforced concrete columns may be satisfied by the use of Table 4. is assumed to be equal to the actual column length lcol (notation as in ENV 1992-1-1. this rule does not apply to lapping zones.1.fi/Rd.2.5). Where necessary.fi(0) = ½fi Ed/Rd.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (14) Where reinforcing and prestressing steel is used simultaneously (e. Rd.7): Èfi = Ed. (2) In Table 4. Èfi may be taken as|0.3.g. (16) In tensile members. (4. %ap may be assumed as follows: %ap = 10 mm for prestressing bars = 15 mm for prestressing wires and strands (15) The minimum axis distance for any individual bar should not be less than that required for R 30 and not less than half the average axis distance [see Equation (4. surface reinforcement should be provided in order to prevent the fall off of the concrete unless it can be justified.6) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. the axis distances of the prestressing steel should be introduced in Equation (4. (c) BSI 20 © BSI 03-2000 . (4) In columns where As W|0.1 is permitted. 4.1 and the following rules. Column 5 for the standard fire resistance required (see Figure 4.2.fi/Ed [see 2. possibly.3). 4.1. Otherwise it should be treated as a column exposed to fire on more than one side.fi(0) denotes the design resistance calculated according to ENV 1992-1-1 with lo = lcol.

2. (2) If calcareous or lightweight aggregates are used the minimum wall thickness given in Table 4. rectangular and circular section Minimum dimensions (mm) Standard fire resistance Column width bmin/axis distance a Column exposed on more than one side Èfi = 0.7 4 R R R 30 60 90 |150/10| |150/10| a |150/10| |240/35| |280/40| |360/50| |450/50| |100/10|a |120/10|a |140/10|a |160/45| |200/60| |300/60| |150/10|a |180/10|a |200/40| |240/50| |300/50| |180/10|a |210/10|a |250/40| |320/50| |400/50| |200/10|a R 120 R 180 R 240 a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 NOTE t × b is the load bearing part of the cross section Figure 4. (3) To avoid excessive thermal deformation and subsequent failure of integrity between wall and slab.2.1 Non load-bearing walls (partitions) (1) Where the fire resistance of a partition is only required to meet the thermal insulation criterion I and integrity criterion E.5 3 a Exposed on one side Èfi = 0. University of Sheffield.2 below. the minimum wall thickness should not be less than that given in Table 4.2 may be reduced by|10 %|.1 the axis distance a may be reduced to a value not less than the nominal cover required by ENV 1992-1-1.1 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced concrete columns. Linear interpolation of the axis distance may be used for values b/bmin between 1 and 1.3 (4) does not apply. 4.2.4 Walls 4. For such situation 4. © BSI 03-2000 21 .2 1 2 Èfi = 0.4. the ratio of clear height of wall lw to wall thickness t should not exceed|40|. (c) BSI (6) Where the actual width or diameter b of column is at least 1.3 — Exposure of built-in columns Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Requirements of axis distance may be disregarded. Table 4.7 5 a Èfi = 0. Uncontrolled Copy.2 times the minimum value bmin given in Table 4. 17 July 2003.2.

7 wall exposed on two sides 5 REI REI REI 30 60 90 |100/10|a |110/10|a |120/20|a |150/25| |180/45| |230/60| |120/10|a |120/10|a |140/10|a |160/25| |200/45| |250/60| |120/10|a |130/10|a |140/25| |160/35| |210/55| |270/70| |120/10|a |140/10|a |170/25| |220/35| |300/55| |360/70| REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. (3) 4. (3) and (6) also apply for load-bearing solid walls. 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Table 4. (3) The cross-section of tensile members should not be less than 2bmin2. where bmin is the minimum member width given in Table 4.2 — Minimum wall thickness of non load-bearing walls (partitions) Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum wall thickness (mm) 2 EI 30 EI 60 EI 90 EI 120 EI 180 EI 240 |60| |80| |100| |120| |150| |175| Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.2.4 should be increased by 10 mm.3 and the following rules are applied.2 Load-bearing solid walls (1) Adequate fire resistance of load-bearing reinforced concrete walls may be assumed if the data given in Table 4.3 may be used.4. (2) For plain concrete walls (see ENV 1992-1-6) the minimum wall thickness values given in Table 4. For the assessment of the reduced elongation reference is made to appropriate documents.5 Tensile members (1) Fire resistance of reinforced or prestressed concrete tensile members may be assumed adequate if the data given in Table 4.2.3 (2). (c) BSI 4.35 wall exposed on two sides 3 wall exposed on one side 4 Èf = 0.2. Uncontrolled Copy. (2) Where excessive elongation of a tensile member affects the load bearing capacity of the structure it may be necessary to reduce the steel temperature in the tensile member to 400 °C. University of Sheffield.4 and the following rules are applied. 22 © BSI 03-2000 . In such situations the axis distances in Table 4. Table 4.3 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for load-bearing reinforced concrete walls Minimum dimensions (mm) Standard fire resistance wall exposed on one side 1 2 Wall thickness/axis distance for Èf = 0.4. 17 July 2003.

5 d2 W bmin (4.5] which fulfils the minimum requirements with regard to fire resistance and which includes the whole reinforcement can be drawn inside the actual cross section. Uncontrolled Copy.2. (5) The effective height deff of the bottom flange of I-shaped beams with varying webs [Figure 4. i. For beams.6 Beams 4. (c) BSI For prestressed members the increase of axis distance according to 4. (3) Values in the Tables are valid for the cross-sections shown in Figure 4.4 applies.6.4 (b)] the minimum value b relates to the centroid of the tensile reinforcement.1 General (1) Adequate fire resistance of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams may be assumed if the data given in Table 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Table 4. 4.4 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete tensile members Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions (mm) Possible combinations of member width bmin/axis distance a 2 3 R 30 R 60 R 90 R 120 R 180 R 240 |80/25| |120/40| |150/55| |200/65| |240/80| |280/90| |200/10|a |300/25| |400/45| |500/45| |600/60| |700/70| Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Figure 4.e. the upper side is insulated by slabs or other elements which continue their insulating function during the whole fire resistance period.8) where bmin is the minimum value of beam width according to Table 4. 4.5 This rule does not apply if an imaginary cross section [(a) in Figure 4.2.6.2.4 — Definition of dimensions for different types of beam section (4) For beams with varying width [Figure 4.2(4) should be noted. © BSI 03-2000 23 . Rules (5) to (8) ensure adequate cross-sectional dimensions to protect the reinforcement. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. exposed to fire on all sides.2.4 (c)] should not be less than: deff = d1 + 0. University of Sheffield.7 together with the following rules are used. (2) The Tables apply to beams which can be exposed to fire on three sides.4.5 to Table 4. 17 July 2003.

5 for simple supported beams.5. for standard fire resistance of R 30 to R 240.2 does not exceed|15 %|.5. 2. 24 © BSI 03-2000 . see Figure 4.6 provides minimum values of axis distance to the soffit and sides of continuous beams together with minimum values of the width of beam. 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.2. (2) Table 4. and Column 3 of Table 4.4 applies. For this reason the axis distance asd to the side of beam for corner bar (tendon or wire) in the bottom of beams with only one layer of reinforcement. should be increased by|10| mm for widths of beam up to that given in Column 4 of Table 4. (c) BSI Figure 4. (9) Higher temperature concentrations occur at the bottom corners of beams.3 Continuous beams (1) Table 4.8) bmin is the minimum beam width given in Table 4. (7) For flanges with b > 3.6.6 for continuous beams.6 and the following rules apply for beams where the moment redistribution according to ENV-1992-1-1.2. Uncontrolled Copy. for the relevant standard fire resistance. each span of a continuous beam should be assessed using Table 4.6.5 — I-shaped beam with increasing web width bw satisfying the requirements of an imaginary cross-section (6) Where the actual width of the bottom flange b exceeds the limit 1.4.2 Simply supported beams (1) Table 4.3. 17 July 2003. or the detailing rules of this Part 1-2 are not followed.9) where: deff is given by Equation (4.5 for simply supported beams. 4.5 bw [see (6) above for definitions] 4. (8) Holes through the webs of beams do not affect the fire resistance provided that the remaining cross-sectional area of the member in the tensile zone is not less than Ac = 2b2min where bmin is given by Table 4.6.4 (c)].5 provides minimum values of axis distance to the soffit and sides of simply supported beams together with minimum values of the width of beam. for standard fire resistances of R 30 to R 240.4 bw. [bw denotes the actual width of web.5 below. the axis distance to the reinforcing or prestressing steel should be increased to: (4. University of Sheffield. In the absence of a more rigorous calculation and where the redistribution exceeds|15 %|.2.

ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (3) The area of top reinforcement over each intermediate support for standard fire resistance of|R90|and above.5x/leff) where: x is the distance from the section considered to the centre line of the support (x u 0.10) Figure 4.3/eff) As. 2.10) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.req(0) × (1 – 2.2.6 — Envelope of resisting bending moments over supports in fire conditions © BSI 03-2000 25 . Uncontrolled Copy.req(0) is the area of top reinforcement required over the support. for up to a distance of|0. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. (4.3|/eff (as defined in ENV 1992-1-1. (c) BSI Explanation: (1) Diagram of bending moments for the actions in a fire situation at t = 0 (2) Envelope line of acting bending moments to be resisted by tensile reinforcement according to ENV 1992-1-1 (3) Diagram of bending moments in fire conditions (4) Envelope line of resisting bending moments according to Equation (4.2) from the centre line of support should not be less than (see Figure 4.req(x) = As. according to ENV 1992-1-1 As.5.2.6): As. Where leff varies in the adjacent spans it should be taken as the greater value.req(x) is the minimum area of top reinforcement required in the section considered but not less than As(x) required by ENV 1992-1-1.

For values of bmin greater than that given in Column 3 no increase of a is required.2. University of Sheffield. For values of bmin greater than that given in Column 4 no increase of a is required.5 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for simply supported beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions (mm) Possible combinations of a and bmin where a is the average axis distance and bmin is the width of beam 2 3 4 5 Web thickness bw 6 R 30 R 60 R 90 bmin = |80| a = |25| bmin = |120| a = |40| bmin = |150| a = |55| bmin = |200| a = |65| bmin = |240| a = |80| bmin = |280| a = |90| |120| |15|a |160| |35| |200| |45| |240| |55| |300| |70| |350| |80| (see note below) |160| |10|a |200| |30| |250| |40| |300| |50| |400| |65| |500| |75| |200| |10|a |300| |25| |400| |35| |500| |45| |600| |60| |500| |70| |80| |100| |100| |120| |140| |160| Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. asd is the axis distance to the side of beam for the corner bars (tendon or wire) of beams with only one layer of reinforcement. Table 4. 17 July 2003. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. where additional bonded top reinforcement over intermediate supports is provided to ensure static equilibrium under fire conditions.6 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for continuous beams made with reinforced and prestressed concrete Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions (mm) Possible combinations of a and bmin where a is the average axis distance and bmin is the width of beam 2 3 4 Web thickness bw 5 R 30 R 60 R 90 R 120 R 180 R 240 bmin = a = |80| |12|a |160| |12|a |200| |12|a |250| |25| |300| |35| |400| |60| |500| |70| |200| |12|a |300| |12|a |400| |25| |500| |35| |600| |50| |700| |60| |80| |100| |100| |120| |140| |160| bmin = |120| a = |25| bmin = |150| a = |35| bmin = |220| a = |45| bmin = |380| a = |60| bmin = |480| a = |70| asd = a + 10 mm (see note below) For prestressed beams the increase of axis distance according to 4.2(4) should be noted. Uncontrolled Copy.2(4) should be noted. 26 © BSI 03-2000 .2. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. (c) BSI R 120 R 180 R 240 asd = a + 10 mm For prestressed beams the increase of axis distance according to 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Table 4.6 applies to continuous beams using unbonded tendons only. asd is the axis distance to the side of beam for the corner bars (tendon or wire) of beams with only one layer of reinforcement. (4) Table 4.

7 — Reinforced and prestressed concrete continuous I-beams.7.11) Explanation: (1) Concrete slab (2) Flooring (non-combustible) (3) Sound insulation (possibly combustible) h1 + h2 = hs as given in Table 4.7). (c) BSI Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum beam width bmin (mm) and web thickness bw (mm) 2 R 120 R 180 R 240 |220| |380| |480| 4.2.2.7. (2) The minimum slab thickness hs given in Table 4.2. where VRd2 is the design shear resistance of the compression struts according to ENV 1992-1-1. if both the following conditions exist: a) no bending resistance is provided at the end support. for a distance of 2h from an intermediate support unless it can be shown that explosive spalling will not occur using Figure A. 17 July 2003.8 ensures adequate separating function (Criterion E and I). the beam width and web thickness should be increased for standard fire resistances |R 120 – R 240|in accordance with Table 4.18.5 to Table 4.4 Beams exposed on all sides (1) Table 4.7.2. 4. Uncontrolled Copy.4. University of Sheffield.6.3 (6) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Floor-finishes will contribute to the separating function in proportion to their thickness (see Figure 4.5.2. (6) In order to prevent a concrete compression or shear failure of a continuous beam at the first intermediate support.4 (c)] should not be less than the minimum value bmin in Table 4. © BSI 03-2000 27 .2. If loadbearing function (Criterion R) is required only the necessary slab thickness assumed for design to ENV 1992-1-1 may be taken. (4. 4.or TT-shaped beams. Table 4. either by the joint or beam (for the purposes of this clause ENV 1992-1-1.7 Slabs 4.7. increased beam width and web thickness for conditions according to 4.2.3 also apply for the flanges of T.8 and together with the following rules are applied.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (5) The web thickness of I-shaped continuous beams bw [see Figure 4.6 and Table 4. Table 4. Columns 2 to 4. — the cross-sectional area of the beam should not be less than Ac = 2b2min Where bmin is given by Table 4.2 (1) does provide moment resistance when incorporated in a joint which can transfer moment).3. and b) Vsd > 2/3 VRd2 at the first intermediate support.1 General (1) Fire resistance of reinforced and prestressed concrete slabs may be considered adequate if the values in Table 4.7 — Concrete slab with floor finishes (3) The rules given in 4. 5.2 and 4.8 Figure 4.1.7.2.6.6.7 apply: however — the height of the beam should not be less than the minimum width required for the respective fire resistance period.

ENV 1992-1-2:1995

4.2.7.2 Simply supported slabs (1) Table 4.8 provides minimum values of axis distance to the soffit of simply supported slabs for standard fire resistances of R 30 to R 240. (2) In two-way spanning slabs, a denotes the axis distance of the reinforcement in the lower layer. Table 4.8 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete simply supported one-way and two-way slabs
Minimum dimensions (mm) Standard fire resistance axis-distance a slab thickness hs (mm) 2 one way two way: ly/lx u 1,5 3 4 1,5 < ly/lx u 2 5

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

1

REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240

|60| |80| |100| |120| |150| |175|

|10|a |20| |30| |40| |55| |65|

|10|a |10|a |15|a |20| |30| |40|

|10|a |15|a |20| |25| |40| |50|

lx and ly are the spans of a two-way slab (two directions at right angles) where ly is the longer span. For prestressed slabs the increase of axis distance according to 4.2.2(4) should be noted. The axis distance a in Column 4 and 5 for two way slabs relate to slabs supported at all four edges. Otherwise, they should be treated as one-way spanning slab. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.

4.2.7.3 Continuous slabs (1) The values given in Table 4.8 (Columns 2 and 4) also apply to one-way or two-way continuous slabs. (2) The rules in 4.2.6.3 (2) and (3) for continuous beams also apply to continuous slabs. If these rules are not followed each span of a continuous slab should be assessed as a simply supported slab using Table 4.8 (Columns 2, 3, 4 or 5 respectively). (3) A minimum negative reinforcement As W|0,005|Ac over intermediate support should be provided if the following conditions apply: a) normal ductility steel is used (see ENV 1992-1-1, 3.2.4.2) b) in two-span continuous slabs, no restraint to bending at end supports is provided by design provisions according to ENV 1992-1-1 and/or by adequate detailing [see, for example, ENV 1992-1-1, 5.4.3.2.2 (2)]. c) no possibility is given to redistribute load-effects transverse to the span direction, such, for example, intermediate walls or other supports in span direction, not taken into account in the design (see Figure 4.8).

28

© BSI 03-2000

ENV 1992-1-2:1995

Explanation: (a) Span direction of slab (b) Large extent of system without cross walls (c) No rotational restraint provided

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Figure 4.8 — Slab systems for which minimum reinforcement areas according to 4.2.7.3 (3) should be provided 4.2.7.4 Flat slabs (1) The following rules apply to flat slabs where the moment redistribution according to ENV 1992-1-1, 2.5.3.5.4 does not exceed|15 %|. Otherwise axis distances should be taken as for one-way slab (Column 3 in Table 4.8) and the minimum thickness from Table 4.9. (2) For fire ratings of|REI 90|and above, at least|20 %|of the total top reinforcement in each direction over intermediate supports, required by ENV 1992-1-1, should be continuous over the full span. This reinforcement should be placed in the column strip. (3) Minimum slab-thicknesses should not be reduced (e.g. by taking floor finishes into account). (4) The axis distance a denotes the axis distance of the reinforcement in the lower layer. Table 4.9 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced and prestressed concrete flat slabs
Standard fire resistance 1 Minimum dimensions (mm) slab-thickness hs 2 axis-distance a 3

REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240
a

|150| |200| |200| |200| |200| |200|

|10|a |15|a |25| |35| |45| |50|

Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.

4.2.7.5 Ribbed slabs (1) For the assessment of the fire resistance of one-way reinforced and prestressed ribbed slabs, 4.2.6.2, 4.2.6.3 and 4.2.7.3, Table 4.8, Columns 2 and 5, apply. (2) For two-way reinforced and prestressed ribbed slabs, adequate fire resistance may be assumed if the values in Table 4.10 and Table 4.11, together with the following rules, are applied.
© BSI 03-2000

29

ENV 1992-1-2:1995

(3) The values in Table 4.10 and Table 4.11 are valid for ribbed slabs subjected to uniformly distributed loading. (4) For ribbed slabs with reinforcement placed in several layers, 4.2.6.1 (4) applies. (5) In continuous ribbed slabs, the top reinforcement should be placed in the upper half of the flange. (6) Table 4.10 is valid for simply supported, two-way spanning ribbed slabs. It is also valid for two-way spanning ribbed slabs with at least one restrained edge and standard fire resistances lower than REI 180 where the detailing of the upper reinforcement does not meet the requirements in 4.2.6.3 (3). Table 4.11 is valid for two-way spanning ribbed slabs with at least one restrained edge. For the detailing of the upper reinforcement, 4.2.6.3 (3) applies for all standard fire resistances. Table 4.10 — Minimum dimensions and axis distance for two-way spanning, simply supported ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Standard Fire Resistance 1

Minimum dimensions (mm) Possible combinations of width of ribs bmin and axis distance a 2 3 4 slab thickness hs and axis distance a in span 5

REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 REI 120 REI 180 REI 240

bmin = a = bmin = a = bmin = a = bmin = a = bmin = a = bmin = a =

|W 80| |15|a |100| |35| |120| |45| |160| |60| |W 220| |75| |280| |90| asd = a +|10| |120| |25| |160| |40| |190| |55| |260| |70| |W 200| |15|a |W 250| |30| |W 300| |40| |W 410| |60| |W 500| |70|

hs = |80| a = |10|a hs = |80| a = |10|a hs = |100| a = |15|a hs = |120| a = |20| hs = |150| a = |30| hs = |175| a = |40|

For prestressed ribbed slabs, the axis-distance a should be increased in accordance with 4.2.2(4). asd denotes the distance measured between the axis of the reinforcement lateral surface of the rib exposed to fire.
a

Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control.

30

© BSI 03-2000

and correct data for material properties corresponding to it are used. anchorage failure and lack of rotational capacity will have a lower probability of occurrence than failure caused by bending moments. (2)P The method is applicable to structures subjected to a standard fire exposure until the time of maximum gas-temperature.3. 4. (c) BSI REI 120 REI 180 REI 240 For prestressed ribbed slabs. reduce the concrete cross section. Uncontrolled Copy.0|in fire design.1 General (1)P The simplified calculation method described below determines the ultimate load bearing capacity of a heated cross section.12) © BSI 03-2000 31 .ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Table 4.2(4).2. the axis-distance a should be increased in accordance with 4. (3)P The procedure is also applicable for the calculation of the ultimate resistance at a specified time for any other fire exposure. asd denotes the distance measured between the axis of the reinforcement lateral surface of the rib exposed to fire.3.2. 4. University of Sheffield. and to compare the capacity with the relevant combination of actions.3 (11) and (12) is assumed to be|1. this Part 1-2 only provides temperature profiles and material data for the standard fire exposure up to the time of maximum gas temperature. if the temperature profiles corresponding to that exposure are known or calculated. However.2. the strength and the short term modulus of elasticity of concrete and reinforcement and then calculate the ultimate load bearing capacity of the construction with the reduced cross section in accordance with the rules of ENV 1992-1-1.1.11 — Minimum dimensions and axis distances for two-way spanning ribbed slabs in reinforced or prestressed concrete with at least one restrained edge Standard Fire Resistance 1 Minimum dimensions (mm) possible combinations of width of ribs bmin and axis distance a 2 3 4 slab thickness hs and axis distance a in span 5 REI 30 REI 60 REI 90 bmin = |W 80| a = |10|a bmin = |100| a = |25| bmin = |120| a = |35| bmin = |160| a = |45| bmin = |310| a = |60| bmin = |450| a = |70| |120| |15|a |160| |25| |190| |40| |600| |50| |700| |60| asd = a +|10| |W 200| |10|a |W 250| |15|a |W 300| |30| hs = |80| a = |10|a hs = |80| a = |10|a hs = |100| a = |15|a hs = |120| a = |20| hs = |150| a = |30| hs = |175| a = |40| Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. (5) Structural members should be detailed so that spalling. Thus the design compressive strength of concrete in fire design is fcd(G) = kc(G) fck(20 °C). (4) The procedure is to first determine the temperature profile of the cross section.3 Simplified calculation method 4. shear or axial loads. a Normally the cover required by ENV 1992-1-1 will control. (4.4. see 2. (6) The reduction factor µ given in ENV 1992-1-1.

9 c) and the flange of Figure 4. Figure 4.9 a).3. where the width is less than the height. 17 July 2003.9 d). Uncontrolled Copy.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 4.9 d). and the flange of Figure 4. The profiles are conservative for most other aggregates. University of Sheffield. (2) The temperature profiles given in Annex B are acceptable for determining the temperatures in cross-sections with silicious aggregate and exposed to a standard fire up to the time of maximum gas temperature. but the web of Figure 4.9 f) is also related to the equivalent wall in Figure 4.9 a).9 b).3 Reduced cross section (1) It is assumed that the isotherms in the compression zone of a rectangular cross section are parallel with the sides. see Figure 4. Figure 4.9 f)].2 Temperature profiles (1) Temperatures in a concrete structure exposed to a fire may be determined from tests or by calculation. the value of az is assumed to be the same as that calculated for the sides [see Figure 4.9 d). (5) The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity of the reduced concrete cross section are assumed to be constant and equal to that calculated for the point M.9 f)]. Where two opposite faces are exposed to fire the width is assumed to be 2w [see Figure 4. Figure 4. (2) The fire damaged cross-section is represented by a reduced cross-section by ignoring a damaged zone of thickness az at the fire exposed surfaces. but not in general for other than the standard fire exposure.3. Figure 4.9 c) is related to the equivalent wall in Figure 4.9 e) and Figure 4.9 b). (3) For a rectangular shape exposed to fire on one face only the width is assumed to be w.9 f) is related to the equivalent wall of Figure 4. M corresponds to any point in the middle plane of the equivalent wall. The temperature profiles given in Annex B may be used where more accurate information is not available.9 f)]. as shown in Figure 4. (c) BSI 32 © BSI 03-2000 . This means that az may be different for the flange of a T shaped. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.9 e) and the web of Figure 4.9. For any rectangular part of a member an equivalent wall of thickness 2w is considered for which the thickness az is calculated. cross section. from that of the web of the same cross section [see Figure 4. For example the slab in Figure 4.9 f). The thickness az of the damaged zone and the reduced properties of the concrete should be determined separately for each rectangular part of a cross section. 4. (4) For the bottom and ends of rectangular members exposed to fire.

14) The short term value of modulus of elasticity does not take account of the effect of creep or transient strain (that part of the thermal expansion resisted by compressive stresses).9 — Reductions of strength and cross-sections found by means of equivalent walls (wall1 and wall2) exposed to fire on both sides (6) The reduced compressive strength fcd(GM) at the point M in a member exposed to fire on both sides is fcd(GM) = kc(GM) fck(20 °C) where GM is the temperature at the point M. The reduced short term modulus of elasticity at this point is Ecd(GM) = (kc(GM))2 Eck(20 °C). (4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.13) © BSI 03-2000 33 . (The value of Ecd(GM) cannot be derived from Annex A where creep and transient strain are included in the data). Where second order effects for columns and walls need to be considered the method given in ENV 1992-1-1 should be used with this value of the modulus of elasticity and the reduced cross section of this clause. (7) The damaged zone az is estimated for an equivalent wall exposed on both sides as follows: a) The half thickness of the wall w is divided into n parallel zones of equal thickness. c) The corresponding reductions kc(Gi) of the compressive strength of the concrete are determined. b) The temperature is calculated for the middle of each zone. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI Figure 4. (4. University of Sheffield. where n W 3 (see Figure 4. Uncontrolled Copy.10).

17 July 2003. (10) Beams and slabs might become over-reinforced. see Annex B. walls and other constructions where second order effects may be calculated using Equation (4.0035/kc(GM) (4. (c) BSI Figure 4.17): (4.18) within the limits of the reduced cross section. even if it is placed outside the reduced cross section. d) The mean reduction coefficient incorporating a factor (1 – 0. may be calculated using Equation (4. The reduction of the modulus of elasticity of a bar may be assessed as equal to the reduction of the 0. exposed on both sides.2 % with the corresponding stress reductions should be applied.2/n) which allows for the variation in temperature within each zone.15) e) The width of damaged zone for beams.2 % is assumed for the reinforcement. the short term value of ¼cu.max may be assessed as ¼cu. University of Sheffield.2 % stress of the bar. it should be verified that this larger strain occurs at the ultimate limit state under fire conditions. For bars in tension an increased stress as an effect of a larger strain may be taken into account.10 — Divisions of a wall.15): (4. (11) In situations where a larger strain than 0. Uncontrolled Copy.17) (8) The reinforcement is taken into account with reduced strength and modulus of elasticity according to the temperature of each bar.max = 0.16): (4. For the analysis of this.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 34 © BSI 03-2000 . into zones for use in calculation of strength reduction and az values The reduced compressive strength and the damaged zone z may be estimated by means of Annex B for a standard fire exposure until the time of maximum gas temperature or by means of the following procedure.16) where kc(Gm) denotes the reduction coefficient for concrete at point M. For columns. slabs and members subjected to in-plane shear may be calculated using Equation (4. (9) For compression bars a strain of 0.

shall be considered. insufficient rotational capacity.1 General (1)P General calculation methods may be used for individual members.2 Thermal response (1)P General calculation methods for thermal response shall be based on the acknowledged principles and assumptions of the theory of heat transfer. (5) The total strain º may be assumed to be: º = ºth + ºload + ºcreep + ºtr where ºth is the thermal strain. University of Sheffield.15) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 4. ºload is the instantaneous stress-dependent strain ºcreep is the creep strain and ºtr is the transient strain (4.4 General calculation methods 4.3 Mechanical response (1)P General calculation methods for mechanical response shall be based on the acknowledged principles and assumptions of the theory of structural mechanics. may conservatively be neglected. for sub-assemblies or for entire structures and for any type of cross-section. (4)P Any potential failure mode not covered by the general calculation method shall be excluded by appropriate detailing (e. (c) BSI © BSI 03-2000 35 . 4.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 4. (2)P The thermal response model shall consider: a) the thermal actions evaluated according to ENV 1991-2-2. local buckling of compressed reinforcement. the mechanical response of the model shall also take account of geometrical non-linear effects. 17 July 2003. (2)P The deformations at ultimate limit state implied by the calculation methods shall be limited as necessary to ensure that compatibility is maintained between all parts of the structure. (4) The temperature profile in a reinforced concrete element may be assessed apart from the presence of reinforcement. shear and bond failure. (3)P General calculation methods may include separate sub-models for the determination of: a) the development and distribution of the temperature within structural members (thermal response model). c) the contribution of protective layers. (2)P General calculation methods shall provide a realistic analysis of structures exposed to fire. damage to anchorage devices). (3) The influence of moisture content and of migration of the moisture within concrete or protective layers if any.4.4. b) the mechanical behaviour of the structure or of any part of it (mechanical response model). (5)P General calculation method may be used in association with any heating curve. Uncontrolled Copy. (5) The effects of non-uniform thermal exposure and of heat transfer to adjacent building components may be included where appropriate. provided that the material properties are known for the relevant temperature range. (4)P The effects of thermally induced strains and stresses both due to temperature rise and due to temperature differentials. b) the temperature dependant thermal properties of the materials as specified in relevant documents (see Annex A).4.g. taking into account the changes of mechanical properties with temperature. They shall be based on fundamental physical behaviour leading to a reliable approximation of the expected behaviour of the relevant structural component under fire conditions. if any. (3)P Where relevant. spalling.

ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 4.3.5. sub-assemblies or entire structures exposed to fire may be assessed by plastic methods of analysis (ref. 17 July 2003.1 (4)]. A reduction in shear strength should be taken equivalent to these tensile stresses. its contribution may only be significant for calculation of deflections after a fire. thick beams. Uncontrolled Copy. special consideration should be given where tensile stresses are caused by non-linear temperature distributions (e. (8) The plastic rotation capacity of reinforced concrete sections should be estimated in account of the increased ultimate strains ºcu and ºsu in hot condition. etc).1 may be applied. ENV 1992-1-1 may be applied directly to the reduced cross section. In the absence of more accurate information concerning the reduction of the tensile strength of concrete. (c) BSI During fire exposure the creep strain may be disregarded. University of Sheffield.g.3).5 Shear and torsion (1) The shear and torsion capacity may be calculated according to the methods given in ENV 1992-1-1 using reduced material properties and reduced prestress for each part of the section. negative bending in continuous beams). the actual shear behaviour of the concrete at elevated temperatures must be considered.4 Validation of general calculation methods (1)P The validity of the general calculation methods shall be verified by the following procedures: a) justification of the design assumptions shall be made on basis of relevant test results. (4) When using the simplified calculation method of 4. (6) For practical calculations. deformations and indirect actions in hyperstatic structures during fire may be assessed by means of imposed strains (mean axis elongation and curvature) estimated on the basis of appropriate documents (see for example Annex D). b) sensitivity analysis of the effect of the critical parameters shall be performed. especially if directly exposed to fire (e. if no shear reinforcement is provided or the shear capacity relies mainly on the reduced tensile strength of the concrete. for elements in which the shear capacity is dependent on the tensile strength. (7) The load bearing capacity of individual members.3. (9) The compressed zone of a section.4.6 Anchorage (1) Where necessary for fire purposes the anchorage capacity may be calculated according to ENV 1992-1-1 using reduced temperature related material properties [see 3. voided slabs. ENV 1992-1-1.g. (10) In the analysis of individual members or sub-assemblies the boundary conditions should be checked and detailed in order to avoid failure due to the loss of adequate support to the members. 4. 2. 4. 36 © BSI 03-2000 . ºcu will also be affected by the confinement reinforcement provided. (2) When using the simplified calculation method of 4.3. the values of kct(G) given in Figure A. (3) When using the simplified calculation method of 4. should be checked and detailed with particular regard to spalling or falling-off of concrete cover.

17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. It should provide information concerning — temperature at the relevant depths of the concrete cross-section related to the fire duration. (3) The test procedure should confirm that the material remains coherent and cohesive for all foreseen temperatures and deformations. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. or — thermal material properties related to the temperature. (c) BSI © BSI 03-2000 37 .4. A further alternative is to provide a thermal analyses in accordance with the general calculation method given in 4. (2) The properties and performance of the insulation material to be used for protective layers should be assessed using appropriate test procedure. or — where possible equivalent concrete thickness. protective material and layer thickness. related to the fire duration.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 5 Protective layers (1)P Required fire resistance can be obtained by the application of protective layers. Uncontrolled Copy.

(6) The stress-s train relationships include in an approximate way the effect of high temperature creep. the material model given here has to be modified. University of Sheffield. Figure A. Uncontrolled Copy. (2) For a given concrete temperature. when using the simplified or general method of calculation.1 — Coefficient kct(G) allowing for decrease of tensile strength. which is presented in Table A.1 is given as a function of the concrete temperatures in Figure A. (fctk) of concrete at elevated temperature 38 © BSI 03-2000 .1 are recommended values. particularly when considering the decreasing temperature branch. (c) BSI Figure A. For intermediate values of the temperature.1 as a function of the concrete temperatures. (5) The values given in Table A. (7) In case of natural fire simulation.2. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.1 Strength and deformation properties of concrete (1) The strength and deformation properties of uniaxial stressed concrete at elevated temperatures are characterized by a set of stress-strain relationships with a shape as specified in Figure A.3. 17 July 2003.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Annex A (informative) Additional information on material properties A.1 may be used.2. the stress-strain curves are defined by two parameters: — the compressive strength fc(G) — the strain ºc1(G) corresponding to fc(G). ºc1(G) shows considerable scatter. Recommended values for ºcu(G) defining the range of the descending branch are also presented. (4) A graphical display of the two parameters of Table A. (8) In all situations the ultimate tensile strength of concrete may be assumed to be zero. Further illustration of the stress-strain relationships at various temperatures is given in Figure A. which is on the safe side. If it is necessary to take account of the tensile strength. (3) Values for each of these parameters are given in Table A. Due to various ways of testing specimens.4. linear interpolation is permitted.

43 0.94 0.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.5 6.01 0.2) Concrete Temperature (°C) fc(G)/fc(20 °C) siliceous calcareous ºc1(G) × 10–3 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 © BSI 03-2000 1.5 15.0 7.0 15.0 — 39 .60 0.1 Range II: For numerical purposes a descending branch should be adopted.91 0.2 — Model for compression stress-strain relationships of siliceous and calcareous concrete at elevated temperatures Table A.5 4.60 0.90 0.00 1.08 0.15 0.5 12.5 14.0 15.00 0.75 0.04 0.00 0.85 0. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.97 0.74 0. Linear and non linear models are permitted.5 3.27 0. (c) BSI Range I to be chosen according to the values of Table A.1 — Values for the main parameters of the stress-strain relationships in compression of siliceous and calcareous concrete at elevated temperatures (range I in Figure A. Figure A.00 2.30 0.02 0.06 0.95 0.45 0.0 14. 17 July 2003.85 0.5 9.15 0.

3 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy. according to Figure A.1 40 © BSI 03-2000 . (c) BSI Figure A.2 and Table A.

0 4.0 22.0 3.0 47.5 25.0 7.5 4.5 9. Uncontrolled Copy.0 – 5.5 45.2 — Recommended values for ºc1(G) and ºcu(G) and admissible range of ºc1(G) Concrete Temperature (°C) ºc1(G) × 10–3 Range Recommended ºcu(G) × 10–3 Recommended 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 2.0 — 20. 17 July 2003.5 – 4.0 15. (c) BSI Figure A.0 32.5 — © BSI 03-2000 41 .0 27.5 – 25 8.5 3.5 – 10.5 – 25 10 – 25 10 – 25 10 – 25 — 2.5 30.0 37.5 12.5 15.5 6.5 2.0 15. University of Sheffield.5 35.0 42.0 14.5 40.5 14.0 5.5 4.5 – 25 7.0 – 7.5 – 15 6.4 — Stress-strain relationships of siliceous concrete under uniaxial compression at elevated temperatures Table A.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

ENV 1992-1-2:1995 A. 17 July 2003. Linear and non-linear models are permitted.2 Strength and deformation properties of steel (1) The strength and deformation properties of steel at elevated temperatures are characterized by a set of stress-strain relationships with a linear elliptical shape as specified in Figure A. (c) BSI Range I elastic Range II non-linear Range III plastic Range IV For numerical purposes a descending branch should be adopted.5 — Model for stress-strain relationships of reinforcing and prestressing steels at elevated temperatures (notations for prestressing steels “p” instead of “s”) 42 © BSI 03-2000 .5. Figure A. Uncontrolled Copy. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield.

Uncontrolled Copy.00 1.42 0.03 0.03 0.94 0.81 0.90 0.36 0.06 0. Table A.00 1.23 0.18 0.00 1.6.05 0.00 1.05 0.70 0.04 0.13 0.72 0.40 0.40 0.24 0.96 0.5 are defined by three parameters: — the slope of the linear elastic range E s ( G ) .02 0.11 0. (c) BSI 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.2 ( 20 °C ) f (G) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.00 1.04 0.00 1.00 1.31 0.2 ( 20 °C ) Ö (G) y -----------------------f 0. the stress-strain curves of Figure A.00 1.47 0.01 0.3 – Table A.81 0. — the proportional limit Öspr(G).07 0. 17 July 2003.00 1.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (2) For a given steel temperature. University of Sheffield.63 0.00 0.06 0.78 0.12 0.00 © BSI 03-2000 43 .08 0.02 0.00 0.60 0.61 0.00 0.00 Table A.80 0.4 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of cold worked reinforcing steel Steel Temperature (°C) s ---------------------E s ( 20 °C ) E (G) spr -----------------------f 0.56 0.02 0.03 0.00 0. Öppr(G) respectively and — the maximum stress level fy(G).26 0. Values for each of the above parameters are given as a function of the steel temperature for various types of reinforcing and prestressing steels in Table A.2 ( 20 °C ) Ö (G) y -----------------------f 0.92 0.87 0.06 0.44 0.2 ( 20 °C ) f (G) 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1. Ep ( G ) for reinforcement and prestressing steels respectively.3 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of hot rolled reinforcing steel Steel Temperature (°C) s ---------------------E s ( 20 °C ) E (G) spr -----------------------f 0.00 1.00 0.05 0.09 0.67 0.05 0.08 0.00 1.02 0.02 0.11 0.07 0.08 0.04 0. fpy(G) respectively.

14 0.5 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of quenched and tempered prestressing steel Steel Temperature (°C) p ----------------------E p ( 20 °C ) E (G) ppr --------------------------f p0. Figure A.00 1.6 — Values for the parameters of the stress-strain relationship of cold worked prestressing steel Steel Temperature (°C) p ----------------------E p ( 20 °C ) E (G) ppr --------------------------f p0.00 0.05 0. 44 © BSI 03-2000 .ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Table A.01 0.10 and Figure A.12.10 0.00 Table A.77 0.98 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 (3) A graphical display of the parameters of Table A.26 0.03 0.10 0.00 0.15 0.58 0.22 0.72 0.95 0.08 0.00 0.13 0.41 0.87 0.15 0.51 0.2 ( 20 °C ) f (G) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.3 – Table A.86 0. Figure A.00 0.04 0.20 0.21 0.10 0. University of Sheffield.05 0.9.06 0. Further illustration of the stress-strain relationships at various temperatures is given in Figure A.00 0.02 0.8. (c) BSI 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1.07 0.2 ( 20 °C ) f ( G) 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1.7.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0. Figure A.00 0.32 0.76 0. Uncontrolled Copy.07 0.06 0.09 0.00 0.6.00 0.03 0.52 0.98 0.00 0.54 0.99 0.09 0.81 0.68 0.6 is given in Figure A.41 0.46 0. 17 July 2003.92 0.11 and Figure A.2 ( 20 °C ) Ö (G) py --------------------------f p0.61 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0. Figure A.00 1.69 0.03 0.88 0.00 0.62 0.11 0.13.2 ( 20 °C ) Ö ( G) py --------------------------f p 0.52 0.00 1.

(c) BSI Figure A.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. according to Figure A.5 and Table A.6 — Stress-strain relationships of hot-rolled reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.7 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of hot-rolled reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.5 and Table A.3 © BSI 03-2000 45 . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. according to Figure A. 17 July 2003.3 Figure A.

(c) BSI 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 5 5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 10 10 10 10 10.5 and Table A. University of Sheffield.5 14 14.5 15 Figure A. 17 July 2003.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Steel Temperature (°C) ºp2(G) ºpu(G) Recommended values (%) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.8 — Stress-strain relationships for cold-worked reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.5 9 9.5 11 11.5 13 13.4 46 © BSI 03-2000 .5 12 12.5 8 8. Uncontrolled Copy. according to Figure A.

5 and Table A.5 9 9.5 13 13.10 — Stress-strain relationships for quenched and tempered prestressing steels (bars) at elevated temperatures.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.5 10 10 10 10 10. (c) BSI Figure A.5 11 11.5 15 Figure A. University of Sheffield. according to Figure A.9 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of cold-worked reinforcing steels at elevated temperatures.5 and Table A.5 8 8.4 Steel Temperature (°C) ºp2(G) ºpu(G) Recommended values (%) 20 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 5 5 5 5 6 6.5 14 14.5 12 12. 17 July 2003. according to Figure A.5 © BSI 03-2000 47 .5 7 7. Uncontrolled Copy.

6 48 © BSI 03-2000 . University of Sheffield.11 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of quenched and tempered prestressing steels (bars) at elevated temperatures.5 Figure A.5 and Table A. according to Figure A. according to Figure A.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI Figure A. 17 July 2003.12 — Stress-strain relationships for cold-worked prestressing steels (wires and strands) at elevated temperatures.5 and Table A. Uncontrolled Copy.

particularly when considering the decreasing temperature branch. according to Figure A. the stress-strain relationships given here may be used as a sufficiently precise approximation in case of hot-rolled steels.5). 17 July 2003. the reliability of the strength and deformation properties used for steel must be demonstrated explicitly.8 × 10–4) + (9 × 10– 6G) + (2.13 — Parameters for stress-strain relationships of cold-worked prestressing steels (wires and strands) at elevated temperatures.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.5 and Table A. As creep effects are not explicitly considered.6 (4) The stress-strain relationships include in an approximate way the effect of high temperature creep. (6) The stress-strain relationships may be applied for steel in tension as well as in compression.1) (%l/l)c = (– 1. (5) In case of natural fire simulation. University of Sheffield. For heating rates outside the above range.1 Concrete (siliceous. siliceous aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 700 °C (A.4 × 10–11 G3) for 805 °C < G u 1 200° (%l/l)c = 12 × 10–3 lightweight aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 1200 °C (%l/l)c = 8 × 10– 3(G – 20) (A. calcareous and lightweight aggregates) (1) The thermal elongation %l/l of concrete may be adopted according to Equations (A. A.1) – (A.3 Thermal properties A.3. this material model has only been checked for heating rates similar to those appearing under standard fire conditions.3) (A.3 × 10–11 G3) for 700 °C < G u 1 200 °C (%l/l)c = 14 × 10–3 (A.2) calcareous aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 805 °C (%l/l)c = (– 1. Uncontrolled Copy.5) © BSI 03-2000 49 . (c) BSI Figure A.2 × 10–4) + (6 × 10–6 G) + (1. verified formulations of properties for the decreasing branch are not available for other types of steel.4) (A. At the present time.

(c) BSI Figure A. University of Sheffield.peak = 2 750 J/kgK for a humidity of 4 % of concrete weight.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 where: lc is the length at room temperature %lc is the temperature induced elongation G is the concrete temperature (°C) The above equations are presented graphically in Figure A. (2) The specific heat cc of concrete may be adopted according to Equations (A. estimation).6) and (A.6) (A. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.7) In case the moisture content is not considered on the level of the heat and mass balance. estimation) the coefficient of thermal elongation may be used and considered as independent of the concrete temperature: (%l/l)c = 18 × 10–3 G for concrete with siliceous aggregates (%l/l)c = 12 × 10–3 G for concrete with calcareous aggregates (%l/l)c = 8 × 10–3 G for concrete with lightweight aggregates. Uncontrolled Copy. the specific heat may be considered as independent of the concrete temperature cc = 1 000 J/kgK for concrete with siliceous or calcareous aggregates. 17 July 2003.7) (see Figure A.15): Concrete with siliceous or calcareous aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 1 200 °C cc = 900 + 80 G/120 – 4(G/120)2 (J/kgK) Concrete with lightweight aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 1 200 °C cc = 840 (J/kgK) (A. 50 © BSI 03-2000 . If only an approximate answer is required (simple calculation.peak = 1 875 J/kgK for a humidity of 2 % of concrete weight cc. the function given for the specific heat of concrete with siliceous or calcareous aggregates may be completed by a peak value situated between 100 °C and 200 °C such as cc.14 below.14 — Thermal elongation of concrete If only an approximate answer is required (simple calculation.

008(G/120)2 (W/Mk) Concrete with lightweight aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 800 °C 2c = 1.11): Concrete with siliceous aggregates: for 20 °C < G u 1 200 °C Æc = 2 – 0.8) (A.8) to (A. 17 July 2003.6 – 0.16 — Thermal conductivity of concrete © BSI 03-2000 51 .0 – G/1 600 (W/Mk) for 800 °C < G u 1 200° 2c = 0.24 G/120 + 0.11) Figure A. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI Figure A.9) (A.5 (W/Mk) The above Equations are presented graphically in Figure A.012(G/120)2 (W/Mk) Concrete with calcareous aggregates: for 20 °C < Gc u 1 200 °C 2c = 1.16 G/120 + 0. Uncontrolled Copy.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.10) (A. (A.15 — Specific heat of concrete (3) The thermal conductivity Æc of concrete may be calculated according to Equations (A.16.

17) is the steel temperature (°C) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. If these data are not available.2 × 10–5G) + (0. %lp G is the temperature induced elongation (see Figure A.4 × 10–8 G2) where: ls.016 × 10–4) + 10–5 G + (0.3.60 W/Mk for concrete with siliceous aggregates Æc = 1. due to the evaporation of free water.56 × 10– 6 m2/s for concrete with calcareous aggregates dependent on the density for lightweight concrete. 17 July 2003. A.416 × 10–4) + (1. Uncontrolled Copy.2 Steel (reinforcing and prestressing) (1) The thermal elongation %l/l of steel may be adopted according to Equations (A.15) 52 © BSI 03-2000 .ENV 1992-1-2:1995 If only an approximate answer is required (simple calculation.11) – (A.4 × 10–8 G2) for 750 °C < G u 860 °C (%l/l)s = 11 × 10–3 for G W 860 °C (%l/l)s = (– 6. University of Sheffield.12) (A.69 × 10– 6 m2/s for concrete with siliceous aggregates ac = 0. moisture content may be considered u 2 % of the concrete weight.15). the thermal conductivity may be considered as independent of the concrete temperature: Æc = 1. estimation).13) (A. The density may also be reduced by 100 kg/m3 after having reached 100 °C. lp is the length at room temperature %ls. (5) The moisture content of concrete may be taken equal to the equilibrium moisture content.80 W/Mk for concrete with lightweight aggregates (4) The density Ôc of unreinforced concrete may be considered as independent of the concrete temperature and may be evaluated according to ENV 1992-1-2.30 W/Mk for concrete with calcareous aggregates Æc = 0.14) (A. For thermal response models the value Ôc = 2 300 kg/m3 may be adopted for normal dense concrete (siliceous or calcareous). It may be considered as independent of the concrete temperature: ac = 0. reinforcing steel: for 20 °C < G u 750 °C (%l/l)s = (– 2. A high moisture content delays the heating up of concrete. estimation). (c) BSI (A. (6) If only an approximate answer is required (simple calculation. the thermal diffusivity of concrete ac (m2/s) may be used.2 × 10–3) + (2 × 10–5 G) prestressing steel: for 20 °C < G u 1 200 °C (%l/l)p = (– 2. but increases the risk of spalling.

the coefficient of thermal elongation may be used and considered as independent of the steel temperature: (%l/l)s = 14 × 10–6 G (%l/l)p = 12 × 10 G –6 for reinforcing steels for prestressing steels (2) The density Ôs of reinforcing and prestressing steel should be considered as independent from the steel temperature: Ôs = 7 850 kg/m3 (3) Normally in both reinforced and prestressed concrete members. A. University of Sheffield. The compressive stress Öc. slabs.17 — Thermal elongation of steel If only an approximate answer is required (simple calculation.4 Spalling (1) Normally explosive spalling is unlikely to occur where the smaller of the cross section dimensions h or b in the compressive zones of beams. © BSI 03-2000 53 . Uncontrolled Copy.18. of steel may be ignored since the influence of the reinforcement on the temperature rise of the cross-section is of little importance. walls and columns satisfy the conditions given in Figure A. 17 July 2003. cs. and as. the thermal properties Æs.fi may be calculated for the combination of actions in the fire situation using the cross section required by ENV 1992-1-1. (c) BSI Figure A.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. estimation).

ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.3 provides curves which give values of the reduction in concrete compressive strength and cross section with respect to the thickness of section.9.2 provide temperature profiles for beams and slabs.3. B. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI NOTE a (in mm) is taken as the lesser of h and b.3. Figure A.1 Temperature profiles (1) Figure B. (4) The reduction in strength kc(GM) is defined in 3.1 and Figure B. (2) The thickness of section w is assessed as follows: — For slabs: w = h — For beams: w = " bw — For columns or walls exposed on one side only: w = width of wall or column — For columns or walls exposed on two sides: w = " × width of wall or column — For columns exposed on four sides: w = " × the smaller section dimension (3) The reduction in cross section az is described in 4. see Figure 4.2 Cross section and concrete strength (1) Figure B.18 — Relationship between Öc. University of Sheffield. These are conservative values and are intended for use in determining the temperature of reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons.2. 54 © BSI 03-2000 .fi and h (or b) for risk of explosive spalling for normal weight concrete members Annex B (informative) Temperature profiles and reduced cross section B.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy.1 — Temperature profiles for beams ENV 1992-1-2:1995 55 . 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI © BSI 03-2000 Figure B.

2 — Temperature profiles for slabs © BSI 03-2000 . (c) BSI ENV 1992-1-2:1995 56 Figure B.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.

Figure B. (c) BSI a) Reduction of compression strength for a reduced cross-section using siliceous aggregate concrete. * The thickness of a one sided exposed wall or column. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 w is assessed as: * The thickness of a slab. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. NOTE c) Reduction in cross section az of a column or wall using siliceous aggregate concrete. The values for siliceous aggregate concrete are conservative for most other aggregate concretes.3 — Reduction in cross section and concrete strength assuming a standard fire © BSI 03-2000 57 . * Half the thickness of the web of a beam. 17 July 2003. b) Reduction in cross-section az of a beam or slab using siliceous aggregate concrete. * Half the thickness of a two sided exposed wall or column or * Half the smallest dimension of a four sided exposed column.

to bottom reinforcement is less than that required by the tables.2 Simply supported beams and slabs (1) It should be verified that Msd.1 to 4.fi and MRd2. C.2.6. (3) The maximum fire design moment MSd.fi) × ks(G) × MSd (As.fi provide equilibrium as shown in Figure C. C. (2) This simplified method may be used to justify reducing the axis distance a.fi for predominantly uniformly distributed load may be calculated using Equation (C. in the areas of negative moment.fi (C.fi for design for the fire situation may be calculated using Equation (C.2) where leff is the effective length of beam or slab.fi leff/8 for uniformly distributed load) should be fitted to this moment of resistance MRdSpan.fi = Fd.4 to Table 4.3 Continuous beams and slabs (1) Static equilibrium of flexural moments and shear forces should be ensured for the full length of continuous beams and slabs under the design fire conditions.5). Otherwise the rules given in 4.8. a.1) (2) The loading under fire conditions Fd. (normally taken to be 1.0) ks(G) is the strength reduction factor of the steel for the given temperature G under the required fire resistance. University of Sheffield.req) where: Ys is the partial material factor for steel used in ENV 1992-1-1. This method uses strength reduction factors based on Curve 1 of Figure 3.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Annex C (informative) Simplified method of calculation for beams and slabs C.prov is the area of tensile steel provided As.2 (4).fi u MRd.3 for prestressing steels. the width b or bw is less than 200 mm and the height hs is less than 2b. This may be carried out by choosing the moment to be supported at one end as equal to or less than the moment of resistance at that support [calculated using Equation (C. The maximum free bending moment for applied loads in the fire situation (Fd.prov/As.2 for the chosen axis distance MSd is the applied moment for cold design to ENV 1992-1-1 As. (C.fi is the partial material factor for steel under fire conditions (normally taken to be 1. (4) The moment of resistance MRd. Table 4.2. (2) In order to satisfy equilibrium of fire design.3) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. and then calculating the moment required at the other support.fileff/8 (C.prov/As.req is the area of tensile steel required for cold design by ENV 1992-1-1 As.1 and Figure B.fi of the section at the position of maximum sagging moment should be calculated for fire conditions in accordance with C.req should not be taken as greater than 1. (c) BSI 58 © BSI 03-2000 . The minimum cross-section dimensions (b.1.fi = (Ys/Ys.3 should be followed. MSd.6.7 should not be reduced. 17 July 2003. MRd. bw. It determines the affect on bending resistance for situations where the axis distance.2 for reinforcing steels and Figure 3.fi such that the support moments MRd1. where b is the value given in Column 3 of Table 4. (3) The moment of resistance MRdSpan.3.fi (kN) may be determined using Equation (2.15) Ys. This reinforcement should extend a sufficient distance into the span to ensure a safe bending moment envelope. G may be taken from Figure B. hs) given in Table 4.4. Uncontrolled Copy.4 to Table 4.1 General (1) This simplified method of calculation provides an extension to the use of the tabular method for beams exposed on three sides and slabs.2).4)]. moment redistribution from the span to the supports is permitted where sufficient area of reinforcement is provided over the supports to take the design fire loading.3). This method is not valid for continuous beams where.

Column 3 for slabs. For higher temperatures MRd. (5) Equation (C.req should not be taken as greater than 1.4) is valid where the temperature of the top steel over the supports does not exceed 350 °C for reinforcing bars nor 100 °C for prestressing tendons.4) Annex D (informative) A procedure for assessing the structural response of reinforced concrete elements under fire D. As. Ys. This may be calculated using Equation (C. D. (c) BSI Figure C. Ys. columns. Uncontrolled Copy. (2) The effective thermal strain profiles and the consequent behaviour under fire may be estimated with good approximation.3 (3) plus a distance equal to lb net. curve 1. and by kp(G) according to Figure 3.prov/As. The length of bar provided should extend beyond the support to the relevant contra-flexure point as calculated in C.fi = (Ys/Ys.2 a is the required average axis distance given in Table 4.prov/As.4). lbnet.3. MRd.5) (C. Equation (5.req are defined in C.req) (d – a)/d where Ys. for reinforcing bars. the moment of resistance at supports for design for the fire situation may be calculated using Equation (C.prov and As.fi.3 for prestressing tendons.fi) MSd (As.fi.8.fi/Yc) lbnet where lbnet is given in ENV 1992-1-1. University of Sheffield.4). or corresponding steps of %G (eg.fi required under fire conditions should be checked.fi should be reduced by ks(G) according to Figure 3. the development of surface temperatures on the exposed surfaces and the “temperatures profiles” of the concrete elements should be determined (see Figure D.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. slabs and walls) under fire condition.2 Rules for application (1) For appropriately chosen durations of the given fire. 50 °C or even 100 °C). (C. 17 July 2003. by means of simple methods of statics. (6) The curtailment length lbnet. d is the effective depth of section As.1 — Positioning the free bending moment diagram MSd.fi to establish equilibrium (4) In the absence of more rigorous calculations.5). MSd.fi) (Yc. © BSI 03-2000 59 .1).2.5 for beams and Table 4.fi = (Ys/Ys.1 General (1) This step by step procedure describes a method for assessing the structural response of reinforced concrete structures composed of typical elements (beams. in spite of the uncertainties and the inaccuracy of the physical model used.

University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. so that sections do not remain plane (see Figure D.2 — Layers of thermo-elements assumed free to move axially 60 © BSI 03-2000 .ENV 1992-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.1 — Temperature profiles in concrete elements. (c) BSI Figure D. Under fire conditions the temperature profiles induce thermal elongations which are not distributed linearly. (3) Assume that the structural element is composed of independent longitudinal fibres (layers). which are free to move axially. Gm is the average temperature along a horizontal section y-y (2) For each temperature level. known as thermo-elements. Figure D.2). determine the modified elastic modulus Ec(Gm) and elongation (%/(Gm/l)c of concrete (see Annex A).

2 (see also Annex A).4. Hence: a) The mean axial strain imposed on the cross-section is given by the expression: (D. University of Sheffield. y is the distance of a thermo-element from the element axis and y1.3). Uncontrolled Copy. The forces from each layer are summed over the height of the section to give N(G). Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (4) The equivalent action effects N(G) and M(G) are then determined by applying a hypothetical stress Ö(G) to each layer.4).3 — Hypothetical and equalising forces (5) The residual internal stresses are found by combining the hypothetical stresses Ö(G) and the stresses due to N(G) and M(G). e and hence M(G) (see Figure D.2) and the mechanical strains due to the final internal stresses (see Figure D.1) (D. 17 July 2003.2) where: Ec(G) and (%l(G)/l)c are defined in D.3) © BSI 03-2000 61 . (6) The effective imposed strains are equal to the sum of the thermal strains of the thermo-elements (see Figure D. as shown in Figure D. and y2 are the distances of the upper and lower thermo-elements from the member axis. sufficient to cause an equal and opposite strain to its thermal strain. (D. (c) BSI h is the height of the cross section. Figure D.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. deflections and rotations. the mean strain gradient imposed on the cross-section is given by the expression: (D. the properties of concrete. © BSI 03-2000 62 . subscripts 1 and 2 refer respectively to the upper and lower fibre of the cross-section. (8) In the general case of statically indeterminate structural elements or sub-assemblies. steel and their bond characteristics should be modified to take account of the corresponding internal temperature levels. lead to a modification of axial deformations.3 Possible further simplifications (1) In order to overcome the laborious procedure of setting up thermo-elements and calculating the internal stresses.e.4)] will result in an overall curvature of the section. The relevant analysis can be carried out by means of conventional methods of statics.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 b) The curvature. rotations and deflections of such unrestrained building elements do not produce any further external forces. based on moment/curvature and axial-force/elongation diagrams of selected cross-sections for a given temperature profile. practical diagrams may be used to obtain an approximate estimation of the effective thermal deformations (mean elongation and curvature) assuming sections remain plane under fire conditions. The resulting axial elongations. If the member is free to rotate the mean strain gradient imposed on the cross-section [Equation (D. (c) BSI Figure D. i. Such diagrams provide all the necessary values of (variable) stiffness for every situation and corresponding level of action-effects. (9) It is also possible to evaluate the safety margin (against flexural or shear failure) and the ductility at critical sections of structural elements. D.3)] will result in an overall axial deformation. Uncontrolled Copy. In order to do this.4) where: Ac is the area of the cross-section. lc is the moment of inertia of the cross-section. as well as to redistribution of action-effects.e. 17 July 2003. free to expand) the mean axial strain imposed on the cross-section [Equation (D. the mean strains and curvatures developed under elevated temperatures.4 — Final internal self-equilibrating stresses (7) If the member is axially unrestrained (i.

This is only valid for cross-sections similar to those shown. the redistribution of action-effects and the modification of deformations of reinforced concrete elements during fire may be analyzed using normal loads with effective imposed deformations. Using such diagrams.5) (D. instead of the actual temperature distribution Gact.5. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. An example of such a practical diagram is given in Figure D. practical diagrams may be prepared using an equivalent linear temperature distribution Geff at the exposed faces of the considered cross-section. Uncontrolled Copy. (D. (c) BSI Figure D.ENV 1992-1-2:1995 (2) For certain shapes and dimensions of typical cross-sections.6) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.5 — Equivalent temperature values Geff for typical reinforced concrete sections exposed to a standard fire © BSI 03-2000 63 .

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