You are on page 1of 25

British Standard

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

A single copy of this British Standard is licensed to
Sheffield University

17 July 2003

This is an uncontrolled copy. Ensure use of the most current version of this document by searching British Standards Online at bsonline.techindex.co.uk

DRAFT FOR DEVELOPMENT

DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures —
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Part 1.5 General rules — Structures with unbonded and external prestressing tendons — (together with United Kingdom National Application Document)

ICS 91.040; 91.080.40

upon which the following bodies were represented: Association of Consulting Engineers British Cement Association British Precast Concrete Federation Ltd. University of Sheffield.DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 Committees responsible for this Draft for Development The preparation of this Draft for Development was entrusted by Technical Committee B/525. to BSI Subcommittee B/525/2. Date Comments . having been prepared under the direction of the Sector Board for Building and Civil Engineering. (c) BSI This Draft for Development. Structural use of concrete. 17 July 2003. was published under the authority of the Standards Board and comes into effect on 15 September 1996 © BSI 02-2000 The following BSI reference relates to the work on this Draft for Development: Committee reference B/525/2 ISBN 0 580 25822 X Amendments issued since publication Amd. Uncontrolled Copy. Department of the Environment (Property and Buildings Directorate) Department of Transport (Highways Agency) Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors Institution of Civil Engineers Institution of Structural Engineers Steel Reinforcement Commission Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. No.

(c) BSI © BSI 02-2000 i .DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 Contents Committees responsible National foreword Foreword Text of National Application Document Text of ENV 1992-1-5 Page Inside front cover ii 2 iii 5 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.

when used in conjunction with its NAD. These parameters are designated by |_| in the ENV. Approved Document A 1992. Uncontrolled Copy. 389 Chiswick High Road. University of Sheffield. The values for certain parameters in the ENV Eurocodes may be set by individual CEN Members so as to meet the requirements of national regulations. These comments will be taken into account when preparing the UK national response to CEN on the question of whether the ENV can be converted to an EN. London W4 4AL. by 31 October 1996. BSI. quoting the document reference. (c) BSI Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover. An ENV is made available for provisional application. The Building Regulations 1991. where possible. The purpose of the NAD is to provide essential information. as published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. ease of use and any ambiguities or anomalies. The publication of this ENV and its National Application Document should be considered to supersede any reference to a British Standard in previous DD ENV Eurocodes concerning the subject covered by these documents. Comments should be sent in writing to the Secretary of Subcommittee B/525/2. This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had amendments incorporated. a proposed revision. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. ii © BSI 02-2000 . This Draft for Development also includes the United Kingdom (UK) National Application Document (NAD) to be used with the ENV in the design of buildings to be constructed in the UK. During the ENV period of validity. This publication is not to be regarded as a British Standard. but does not have the status of a European Standard.5: General rules — Structures with unbonded and external prestressing tendons. draws attention to the potential use of ENV Eurocodes as an alternative approach to Building Regulation compliance. particularly in relation to safety. pages i to vi. The aim is to use the experience gained to modify the ENV so that it can be adopted as a European Standard. ENV 1992-1-5 results from a programme of work sponsored by the European Commission to make available a common set of rules for the structural and geotechnical design of building and civil engineering works. reference should be made to the supporting documents listed in the National Application Document (NAD). an inside front cover. Users of this document are invited to comment on its technical content. ENV 1992-1-5 is considered to offer such an alternative approach. to enable the ENV to be used for buildings constructed in the UK and the NAD takes precedence over corresponding provisions in the ENV. pages 2 to 14 and a back cover. the ENV title page.DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 National foreword This Draft for Development was prepared by Subcommittee B/525/2 and is the English language version of ENV 1992-1-5:1994 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures — Part 1. the relevant clause and. 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI © BSI 02-2000 National Application Document for use in the UK with ENV 1992-1-5:1994 DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 . 17 July 2003.

combination factors and other values 3 Reference standards Table 1 — References in EC2-1. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.5 to other codes and standards Page v v v v v Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 Contents of National Application Document Introduction 1 Scope 2 Partial factors. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI iv © BSI 02-2000 .

b) The values for partial factors for normal temperature design should be those given in EC2-1.5 Document referred to Document title or subject area Status UK document Various ENV 1992-1-1 Design of Concrete structures.5) to be used for the design of buildings to be constructed in the UK. a) A textual examination of ENV 1992-1-5.1. 1 Scope This NAD provides information to enable ENV 1992-1-5 (hereafter referred to as EC2-1.1. It will be assumed that it will be used in conjunction with DD ENV 1992-1-1. Table 1 — Reference in EC2-1. General rules and rules for buildings Published 1991 DD ENV 1992-1-1:1992 © BSI 02-2000 v . (c) BSI a) The values for combination coefficients (Ò) should be those given in Table 1 of the NAD for EC2-1. c) Trial calculations. except where modified by the NAD for that code.1. except where modified by the NAD for that code. and EC2-1. supporting standards and test data. 17 July 2003. the NAD of which refers to BSI publication for values of actions. 3 Reference standards Supporting standards including materials specifications and standards for construction are listed in Table 1 of this NAD. combination factors and other values Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. b) A parametric calibration against BS 8110. University of Sheffield. 2 Partial factors. It has been developed from the following. Uncontrolled Copy.5 to other codes and standards Reference in EC2-1. c) Other values should be those given in EC2-1.5.DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 Introduction This National Application Document (NAD) has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/2.

17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI vi blank .

Iceland.und Spannbetontragwerken — Teil 1-5: Allgemeine Regeln — Tragwerke mit Spannglieder ohne Verbund This European Prestandard (ENV) was approved by CEN on 1993-06-25 as a prospective standard for provisional application. ouvrages en béton. Belgium. University of Sheffield.EUROPEAN PRESTANDARD PRÉNORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE VORNORM ICS 91. règles de calcul English version Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures — Part 1-5: General rules — Structures with unbonded and external prestressing tendons Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Ref. France. Sweden. Ireland. Portugal.080. Denmark. codes applicables au bâtiment. Luxembourg. No. B-1050 Brussels © Copyright reserved to CEN members. 17 July 2003. Netherlands. Norway. Switzerland and United Kingdom. (c) BSI Eurocode 2: Calcul des structures en béton — Partie 1-5: Règles générales — Structures précontraintes par armatures extérieures ou non adhérentes Eurocode 2: Plannung von Stahlbeton. particularly on the question whether the ENV can be converted into a European Standard (EN). CEN European Committee for Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Europäisches Komitee für Normung Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36. Finland. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their comments. Germany. CEN members are required to announce the existence of this ENV in the same way as for an EN and to make the ENV available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. Greece. Spain.00. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria. Italy. calcul. Uncontrolled Copy. ENV 1992-1-5:1994 E . It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the ENV) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the ENV into an EN is reached.40 ENV 1992-1-5:1994 October 1994 Descriptors: Bâtiments.040. 91. The period of validity of this ENV is limited initially to three years.

EN 1993. University of Sheffield.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 Foreword Objectives of the Eurocodes (1) The “Structural Eurocodes” comprise a group of standards for the structural and geotechnical design of buildings and civil engineering works.V. Uncontrolled Copy. EN 1994. 2 © BSI 02-2000 . issue and updating of the Structural Eurocodes to CEN. will be issued by each member country or its Standards Organization. EN 1997. (6) CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes EN 1999. (10) This Prestandard is intended for experimental application and for the submission of comments. some of the Structural Eurocodes cover some of these aspects in informative Annexes. after consulting their respective Member States. EN 1995. (8) Separate sub-committees have been formed by CEN/TC250 for the various Eurocodes listed above. EN 1998. (3) Until the necessary set of harmonized technical specifications for products and for the methods of testing their performance are available. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (12) Meanwhile feedback and comments on this Prestandard should be sent to the Secretariat of CEN/TC250/SC2 at the following address: Deutsches Institut für Normung e. EN 1996. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures. (14) Some of the supporting European or International Standards may not be available by the time this Prestandard is issued. These technical rules became known as the “Structural Eurocodes”. referencing compatible supporting standards and providing national guidance on the application of this Prestandard. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. EN 1992. health and other matters covered by the essential requirements of the Construction Products Directive (CPD). the CEC transferred the work of further development. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. and the standard of the workmanship needed to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. 17 July 2003. (15) It is intended that this Prestandard is used in conjunction with the NAD valid in the country where the building or civil engineering works is located. (c) BSI Background to the Eurocode programme (4) The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) initiated the work of establishing a set of harmonized technical rules for the design of building and civil engineering works which would initially serve as an alternative to the different rules in force in the various Member States and would ultimately replace them. Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures. Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures. and the EFTA Secretariat agreed to support the CEN work. (11) After approximately two years CEN members will be invited to submit formal comments to be taken into account in determining future actions. Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium alloy structures. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design. (9) This Part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 is being published as a European Prestandard (ENV) with an initial life of three years. The authorities in each member country are expected to assign definitive values to these safety elements. Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures. (2) They cover execution and control only to the extent that is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction products. Eurocode programme (7) Work is in hand on the following Structural Eurocodes. each generally consisting of a number of parts: EN 1991. It is therefore anticipated that a National Application Document (NAD) giving definitive values for safety elements. certain safety elements in this ENV have been assigned indicative values which are identified by [ ] (“boxed values”). (DIN) Burggrafenstrasse 6 D – 10787 Berlin phone: (+ 49) 30 – 26 01 – 25 01 fax: (+ 49) 30 – 26 01 – 12 31 or to your national standards organization. National application documents (NAD’S) (13) In view of the responsibilities of authorities in member countries for safety. (5) In 1990.

background documents have been prepared. particular attention is drawn to the approved Prestandard ENV 206 (Concrete — performance. placing and compliance criteria). their use is not restricted. — prestressing with larger tendons. which are needed in particular cases. out of the main part of the text to aid its clarity. external prestressing has often been implemented in the construction of beams made of prefabricated segments for industrial buildings. Part 1-5 contains Principles and Application Rules which are specific to structures with unbonded and external tendons. it is identified by a number which follows the last number of ENV 1992-1-1 with 100 added to it. (24) Where a particular sub-clause of ENV 1992-1-1 is not mentioned in this ENV 1992-1-5. 17 July 2003. relevant indications are given in this Part 1-5 of ENV 1992.1. footnotes and tables in this Part follow the same principles as the clause numbering in (24) above.1 of ENV 1992-1-1 and the scope of this Part of Eurocode 2 is defined in 1. Where necessary. on the other hand.2. University of Sheffield. located outside the concrete. being the subject of this ENV 1992-1-5.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 Matters specific to this prestandard (16) The scope of Eurocode 2 is defined in 1. The sub-clause number for this follows the most appropriate clause number in ENV 1992-1-1. A subject not covered by ENV 1992-1-1 is introduced in this Part by a new sub-clause. production. (28) Attention is drawn to the specific characteristics of external prestressing. (c) BSI Where a Principle or Application Rule in ENV 1992-1-1 is modified or replaced. Certain calculation models which are referred to in ENV 1992-1-1 must be discarded and replaced by new models. generally monostrands. (25) The numbering of equations. and the durability requirements given in 4. generally inside a box-girder or between the webs of multiple girder structures. (23) The framework and structure of this Part 1-5 correspond to ENV 1992-1-1. Uncontrolled Copy. and will complement and supplement this Part. (17) In using this Prestandard in practice. installed in a plastic sheath of a small diameter embedded in concrete. For this Part of Eurocode 2.1. the validity of which has to be established. (18) The seven chapters of this Prestandard are complemented by four Appendices which have the same normative status as the chapters to which they relate. while the specific field of application of the second technology is in bridge construction. Some Principles and Application Rules of ENV 1992-1-1 are modified or replaced in this Part. © BSI 02-2000 3 . figures. However.1. in which case they are superseded. (27) The former are normally used in floors for buildings. reference should be made to National Application Documents which will give details of compatible supporting standards to be used. Additional Parts of Eurocode 2 which are planned are indicated in 1. since on the one hand certain road bridge decks may be reinforced with unbonded internal tendons and. particular regard should be paid to the underlying assumptions and conditions given in 1.3 of ENV 1992-1-1. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Where a new Principle or Application Rule is added.3 of ENV 1992-1-1. these will cover additional technologies or applications. that sub-clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as deemed appropriate in each case. (20) The provisions of this Prestandard are based substantially on the 1978 edition of the CEB Model Code and other more recent CEB and FIP documents. For ENV 1992-1-5. (26) Prestressing with unbonded tendons. the following additional sub-clauses apply: (22) This Part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 complements ENV 1992-1-1 for the particular aspects of structures with unbonded and external tendons. However. which give commentaries on and justifications for some of the provisions in this Prestandard.1 of this Prestandard. (19) As indicated in paragraph (14) of this Foreword. These Appendices have been introduced by moving some of the more detailed Principles/Application Rules. the new number is identified by the addition of 100 to the original number. brings forward two distinct technologies: — prestressing with small tendons. (21) In developing this Prestandard.

2 Combinations of actions 2.106 — Minimum radii of deviation in the deviation zone Table 4.3.2 Concrete cover 5.2. 17 July 2003.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 Contents Foreword 1 Introduction 1.5 Internal unbonded tendons 4. Uncontrolled Copy.3.2 Special terms used in part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 1.4.1 General 3.3.3 Control of cracking without direct calculation 4.6 Prestressing steel in internal unbonded tendons 3.2.3.3.2 Minimum reinforcement areas 4.3 Prestressing steel 3.4.4.7.2.4.3 External unbonded tendons 3.4 4.4.4.7 Special symbols used in this part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 1.3.1 Basic considerations 3 Material properties 3.1 General 3.3 Prestressing units 5.2.4 Internal unbonded tendons 3.2.2.2 Shear 4.3.4 Definitions 1.2 Design data 4.3 Prestressed concrete 4.5 Limitation of damage due to accidental action 5.2 Ultimate limit states 2.4.3 Ultimate limit states 4.5.1.2 Tubes for external tendons 3.4.4 Calculation of crack width 5 Detailing provisions 5.4 Greek symbols 2 Basis of design 2.1.4.3 Design requirements 2.4.4 Prestressing devices 3.1 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.5 Design of members in prestressed concrete 4.4.3 4.2 Scope of part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 1.0 4.4.1 Basic considerations 4.4.4.4.3 Calculation methods 2. University of Sheffield.5.1 Arrangement of the prestressing units 5.5.7.115 — Friction coefficient È for different type of unbonded tendon Page 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 8 9 9 4 © BSI 02-2000 .4.105 — Minimum radii of deviation in the anchorage zone Table 3.1 General 3.3.0. (c) BSI Serviceability limit states General Load cases and combinations Limitation of stresses under serviceability conditions 4.3.1 General considerations 4.3.5.1.2.3.4.2 Proportioning of ties 6 Construction and workmanship 7 Quality control Appendix 1 Additional provisions for the determination of the effects of time-dependent deformation of concrete Appendix 2 Non-linear analysis Appendix 3 Supplementary information on the ultimate limit states induced by structural deformation Appendix 4 Checking deflections by calculations Table 3.2 Limit states of cracking 4.4.1.2.2.4 External tendons 4.5 Analysis 2.3.3.4.5 Deviators 3.1 Scope 1.3 Latin lower case symbols 1.1 General 4 Section and member design 4.3.1 Ultimate limit states for bending and longitudinal force 4.6 Segmental construction Page 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 4.4.2 Anchorages 3.

2 Scope of part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 Addition after Principle P(5): P(106) This Part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 gives a general basis for the design of reinforced concrete components provided with unbonded tendons placed within or outside the concrete. P(106) Sheathed prestressing strand: Grease coated prestressing strand inside a tube-like plastic sheathing. It does also not apply to structures with tendons temporarily ungrouted during construction [see ENV 1992-1-1. 17 July 2003. Clauses 1.7.4 Definitions 1. Joints may be either reinforced crossed by reinforcement or unreinforced with or without glueing or sealing compound. P(108) All clauses of ENV 1992-1-1 are generally applicable to the structures covered by this Part 1-5 provided that the relevant detailing provisions are fulfilled and the actions of the tendons are considered as external forces.4. the design models shall take into account the geometrical and mechanical consequences of the opening of the joints. fabricated from sheathed prestressing strands or steels. this Part 1-5 gives design rules which are mainly applicable to buildings.5.3 Latin lower case symbols r t Radius of the outline of a curved unbonded prestressing tendon Thickness of a steel tube used as sheathing 1. P(104) Deviator: A device (e. in which it can move freely in the longitudinal direction (monostrand).ENV 1992-1-5:1994 1 Introduction This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 is applicable except as follows: 1. (c) BSI 1. concrete block.1. University of Sheffield. P(105) Internal unbonded tendon: A cast-in post-tensioned tendon.4 Greek symbols È Î1 Ì Coefficient of friction between an unbonded tendon and ducts Unintentional angular displacement (per unit length) related to the profile of the unbonded tendons Outer diameter of the sheathing of the unbonded prestressing tendon © BSI 02-2000 5 .1 (4)]. This Part 1-5 does not apply to structures subjected to significant fatigue under variable loads. only connected to the structure by anchorages and deviators.4.g. P(107) This Part 1-5 applies to concrete cast in situ or to precast units. This ENV 1992-1-5 does not apply to members prestressed by tendons located outside the envelope of the concrete structure.2 P(2) and 2. In addition. P(109) For the design of members with unreinforced joints. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.7 Special symbols used in this part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 1. steel assembly or cross beam) round which a tendon is bent and where the tendon exerts a radial force on the structure. connected to the structure by anchorages only.4.7.2 Special terms used in part 1-5 of Eurocode 2 Addition after Principle P(2): P(103) External tendon: A post-tensioned tendon situated outside the concrete section but inside the envelope of the concrete structure. Uncontrolled Copy.1 Scope 1. 1.

1 Basic considerations Addition after Application Rule (5): P(106) The methods of analysis given in clause 2. (c) BSI 2.2. design values Ed for the effects of actions shall be determined from combination rules involving design values of actions as identified by Table 2.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 2 Basis of design This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 is applicable except as follows: 2. The combinations of actions given in clause 2.2).2 Combination of actions Replacement of Principle P(1) by: P(101) For each load case. 17 July 2003. — for a horizontal member the distributed radial forces are vertical for tendons deviated in the vertical plane. the unbonded tendons shall not be taken into account and their effect shall be considered as an external force. r being the curvature radius of the centreline of tendon and Pm the mean value of the prestressing force (see ENV 1992-1-1.2 Ultimate limit states 2.3 Prestressing steel Additional clauses after 3.3.3 of ENV 1992-1-1 may be applied under the following restrictions: — if reinforcement is needed to ensure the structural ductility. 3 Material properties This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 is applicable except as follows: 3.3. ds being the increment of the curvilinear abscissa along the outline.3.2.5. (107) It is convenient to determine the effects of prestressing by replacing each tendon by a set of physical forces it exerts on the concrete as follows: — concentrated forces at anchorages. 6 © BSI 02-2000 . University of Sheffield.3.3 Calculation methods 2.5.5 Analysis 2.4.3 Design requirements 2.6 Prestressing steel in internal unbonded tendons P(101) The prestressing steel in internal unbonded tendons shall be adequately and permanently protected against corrosion.3 (2): 3.5.3. — tangential distributed forces of intensity dPm/ds. it may be assumed that: — the force in a tendon is constant all along a span. — radial distributed forces of intensity Pm/r.2 of ENV 1992-1-1 apply also to structures with unbonded and external prestressing tendons. (108) For internal tendons in structures of buildings.5.5. Uncontrolled Copy.3. — the tendon’s outline comprises of straight or parabolic segments. and dPm is the rate of increase of tendon force along its centreline. (109) Along the free lengths between deviators the tendon may be considered as straight.1 in ENV 1992-1-1. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. — no redistribution of moments and forces is permitted for structures composed of prefabricated segments with unreinforced contact joints. 2.

Effects of temperature variations between tube and filling compound should not harm the corrosion protection of the tendons.4. where AP denotes the nominal cross-section of the tendon. they should be at least |3| mm thick. a Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. The steel tube should be cold bendable to a radius of |20| diameters without significant deformation of the original shape of its cross-section.106) t U 1.0| N/mm2. the material should be UV resistant. (106) Where a cement grout is used. 3.2 of ENV 1992-1-1 by: 3. The tubes shall be watertight and capable of withstanding the injection pressure without permanent deformation. 17 July 2003. Where steel tube sections are to be assembled by welding. Uncontrolled Copy. the internal diameter of the tube should be at least equal to 1. (105) In the case of a cement-grouting.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 P(102) P(103) Adequate and permanent protection of the prestressing steel shall be obtained by satisfying the requirements for sheathed prestressing steel defined in relevant documents.4. If required in the project specification. © BSI 02-2000 7 .1 General P(101) The external tendons shall be adequately protected against corrosion by means of an approved system.6 * A P . the thickness t of steel tubes should comply with greater value of the following conditions: t U Ì/50 (3. University of Sheffield. Higher pressure resistance may be required when the cable layout implies a higher injection pressure.107) t U 5 mm. (107) Where filled with a protective agent such as grease or wax.4.5 mm. the tube should withstand temperature and internal pressure as specified by the technical approval documents.2 Tubes for external tendons 3.4 Prestressing devices Replacement of clause 3. the thickness t of HDPE tubes should comply with the following conditions: t U Ì/16 (3. They shall consist of adequate materials as specified in the approval documents or relevant standards. the tube should be able to withstand an internal nominal pressure equal to |1. (102) The protection of the external tendons against corrosion is normally achieved by encasing them in tubes filled with a cement grout or other protective agents. having an anti-oxidants content equal at least to 1 000 ppm. Conventional sheaths formed of corrugated steel strips or PVC tubes are not permitteda. in which Ì designates its external diameter. (109) In the absence of indication in the approval documents of the system. in which Ì designates its external diameter. the external or unbonded internal tendons shall receive permanent protection against the effects of fire. (110) For an HDPE tube.2. (c) BSI P(103) P(104) The sheaths usually consist of high density polyethylene (HDPE) or steel tubes. (108) In the absence of indication in the approval documents of the system.

The post-tensioning system shall receive specific approval by relevant authorities for its use with internal tendons.5 4. the tendon is usually embedded in a concrete bulkhead.4.4. In the deviators. The prestressing steel shall be permanently protected against corrosion throughout its length including in the anchorage zones.2 Anchorages (101) In the absence of indication in the approval documents of the system.4.1 General P(101) A deviator shall satisfy the following requirements: — withstand both longitudinal and transverse forces that the tendon applies to it and transmit these forces to the structure.5. steel assemblies or cross beams. (105) The anchorages and deviators should enable removal of the tendon without damaging the structural elements. Table 3. (104) The sheath may be of polyethylene or polypropylene or other non-corrosive material.5 Deviators 3.105 — Minimum radii of deviation in the anchorage zone Units Strands Wires Minimum Radius (m) 19Ì13 mm or 12Ì15 mm 31Ì13 mm or 19Ì15 mm 55Ì13 mm or 37Ì15 mm 54 Ì 7 mm 91 Ì 7 mm 140 Ì 7 mm 3.4.4. University of Sheffield.3.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 Additional clauses after 3. unless stated otherwise in the project specification. The post-tensioning system shall receive a specific approval by relevant authorities for the use as external tendons. 3. 17 July 2003. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. P(102) P(103) 3.4. (c) BSI 3.3 External unbonded tendons 3.105.4.4. (104) The deviators may consist of concrete blocks.4 Internal unbonded tendons 3. strands or bars encased in a flexible and watertight sheath embedded in concrete in which they are free to move longitudinally as the void between the sheath and the prestressing steel is filled with a lubricating material. — ensure without unacceptable angular discontinuity the connection between two straight sections of the tendon. (103) In anchorage zones. The lubricating material may be a non-corrosive grease. 8 © BSI 02-2000 . blister or steel assembly. Uncontrolled Copy.105 is permitted.4.3.2.1 General P(101) An unbonded internal tendon-consists of one or several wires. the tendon is bent and exerts a radial pressure.0 Linear interpolation between the values in Table 3.1 General P(101) P(102) An external unbonded tendon is a tendon situated outside the original concrete section and is connected to the structure by anchorages and deviators only.0 5. the minimum radius of curvature of the tendon in the anchorage zone beyond the anchor plate may be taken from Table 3.1 (110): 3.

the radius of curvature of the tendon in a deviation zone may be taken from Table 3. The forces developed in the deviation should be taken into account in the design calculations.106 — Minimum radii of deviation in the deviation zone Units Strands Wires Minimum Radius (m) 19Ì13 mm or 12Ì15 mm 31Ì13 mm or 19Ì15 mm 54 Ì 7 mm 91 Ì 7 mm 140 Ì 7 mm 2. If made of steel.115 — Friction coefficient È for different type of unbonded tendon Coefficient of friction.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 (102) In the deviation zones. (104) Designed tendon deviations up to an angle of |0. 17 July 2003.5.0 5. (113) For external tendons.5 Loss of prestress Addition after Application Rule (11): (112) For tendons external to the concrete consisting of parallel wires or strands.12 (114) For internal grease-coated monostrands.106: Table 3.06| rad/m.10 0.02| rad are permitted without particular deviation saddle. the loss of prestress due to unintentional angular displacements may be neglected. without damage and without impairing its proper functioning. the values of the coefficient of friction È may be taken from the Table 4.5 3. the tubes forming the sheaths may be made of steel or HDPE.3 Prestressed concrete 4. © BSI 02-2000 9 . provided in the latter case that it has been demonstrated that they are able to sustain the radial pressure and longitudinal movement of the tendon. University of Sheffield.2.12 0.18 0.05| Î = |0. the coefficient of friction È between the strands and their sheaths and the unintentional angular displacement Î1 may be assumed to have the following values: È = |0. (103) In the absence of a requirement in the approval documents of the system.14 0. the sheaths should be prebent to the radius specified by the design.115 below: Table 4. È Steel tube HDPE tube Lubricated strands Lubricated wires Non lubricated strands Non lubricated wires 0.24 0. in the absence of more exact data.3. Uncontrolled Copy.2.2.25 0. in the absence of more exact data.106 is permitted.3.2 Design data 4.5 Design of members in prestressed concrete 4. 4 Section and member design This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies except as follows: 4.0 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. as specified in the approval documents. (c) BSI 55Ì13 mm or 37Ì15 mm Linear interpolation between the values in Table 3.16 0.

instead of a non-linear analysis of the structure as a whole a sectional verification based on a linear analysis is performed. if internal.2. Special attention should be given to torsion effects in the design of hollow sections. The transmission of the shear force through the unreinforced joints shall be assumed as external forces acting on the concrete segment.3 (3): 4.6 Segmental construction P(101) For the design of segments with unreinforced joints. P(102) The unreinforced joints shall satisfy the relevant conditions of force transfer.3.5 Internal unbonded tendons (101) In the absence of any specific requirement for checking at the ultimate limit state for bending and longitudinal force. for simplification. Attention shall be drawn to the rapid decrease of the depth of the compressive zone in case of increase of the bending moment.3.3 Ultimate limit-states 4. it may be assumed that the increase in stress in tendons of a length not exceeding a single span is equal to 100 N/mm2. (104) Under consideration of the most unfavourable action [acc.10) in clause 4. (103) If. The transmission shall be assumed to act only in the compressed joint area.3.4.3 of ENV 1992-1-1. to equation [2.7 (a)] in ENV 1992-1-1] and in the absence of justification by former experience.3. provided the values of the shrinkage and creep strains of concrete are taken as mean values: — along the straight part of the tendon including the considered abscissa for and external tendon. (c) BSI P(102) P(105) For external tendons.4 External tendons P(101) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.1 of ENV 1992-1-1 should be applied to the prestressing forces determined according to P(101).1.1. P(102) and (103) above.3.5.5 (6): 4. 4.2 in clause 2. Where the tendon length is greater.3. (104) For the verification at the ultimate limit states the partial factor *P according to Table 2. this value should be reduced taking account of the number of spans and the acting loads. 10 © BSI 02-2000 . for normal buildings [see clause 1.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 (115) For the calculation of the time dependent losses in an unbonded tendon. — along the entire length of the tendon.1.5. increased by the mean concrete strain between two successive fixation points [see ENV 1992-1-1.1. the strain of the prestressing steel is equal to the pre-strain as defined in clause 2. In the ultimate limit state for bending and longitudinal force. 4.4.3.5 of ENV 1992-1-1 applies. the increase in strain of the prestressing steel should be neglected. the rules for reinforced concrete apply. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.2 P(2) in ENV 1992-1-1].2 Shear Additional clauses after 4. 4.3.3. 17 July 2003. the equation (4. the internal stress in the joints shall be modelled as external forces acting on the concrete segment.2.1 Ultimate limit states for bending and longitudinal force Additional clauses after 4. (103) For simplification. the strain of the prestressing steel at the ultimate limit state is constant between two successive points of contact with the structure (anchorages or deviators).3.2.3. the longitudinal force in an unreinforced joint may be assumed to act at the centroid of the compressed parts of the section.1. in normal buildings. 4.2 (5)]. Measures shall be taken to maintain a constant relative position of the tendon within the concrete section in a sufficient number of sections in order to avoid harmful second order effects. unreinforced joint sections should be compressed over at least |2/3| of their total depth.

1 (110) below. Where tendons are exposed to direct solar irradiation.2.4.4.1.2 Minimum reinforcement areas Addition after Application Rule (8): (109) For externally prestressed members cast in-situ or with reinforced joints.0.2 P(1): 4.1 Basic considerations Replacement of Application Rule (4) by: (104) Where all tendons are external or internal and unbonded. and for internally prestressed members using unbonded tendons. 4.2.3. The rules for reinforced concrete apply with regard to durability. Uncontrolled Copy. the rules specific to prestressed concrete in 4. (102) As a simplification. the prestressing force may be taken as the mean value Pm. when checking the serviceability limit states. Therefore.0 General Additional clauses after 4. (103) For the calculation of the force in the external tendons due to variable actions.4. 17 July 2003. For this verification. it may be assumed in the analysis. 4.4 P(2) of ENV 1992-1-1. a temperature difference of | ± 10°| K should be taken into account between an external tendon and the concrete structure.2. For externally prestressed members with unreinforced concrete joints.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 4.1 Limitation of stresses under serviceability conditions 4. the member should be considered as reinforced only and the rules specific to prestressed concrete given in 4.4. 4.2. that the concrete remains uncracked. (c) BSI © BSI 02-2000 11 .3.2 Limit states of cracking 4.g.2.4. see 4. 4.1 of ENV 1992-1-1 do not apply.4.1. the deviators may be considered as fixed points (no longitudinal relative displacement between the tendon and the concrete structure). special considerations may be necessary.4. where all tendons are external or internal and unbonded.1 (4) of ENV 1992-1-1 do not apply.4.4.3 Load cases and combinations (101) In addition to the combinations of actions defined in clause 2.2. except for rule (8): unbonded prestressing tendons should not be taken into account as minimum reinforcement. the rules for reinforced concrete apply with regard to durability. concrete stresses Bc > |0| (e. 4.1 (7) in ENV 1992-1-1 applies.0.4. However.4. Addition after Principle P(9): (110) For externally prestressed members with unreinforced contact joints.2 of ENV 1992-1-1 applies. University of Sheffield.1 General considerations Replacement of application Rule (7) by: (107) For prestressed members with bonded and unbonded tendons. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.4 of ENV 1992-1-1.4.4.4 Serviceability limit states 4. exceedance of the limit state of decompression) should not be allowed in the joint sections under the rare combinations of actions as defined in 2.

Uncontrolled Copy.3.8 m Tendons between 2 MN and 6 MN ultimate strength: 1. (104) For internal tendons.2. P(2) and Application Rule (3) by: P(101) External tendons shall be adequately protected against physical attack or vandalism.2 of ENV 1992-1-1 do not apply to unbonded internal tendons.3.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 4.1. (108) In the absence of indication in the approval documents of the system. exposure class 3.5 m (110) Bundling of unbonded internal tendons is permitted in areas outside the anchorage zones provided that placing and compacting of the concrete can be carried out satisfactorily. the rules specific to prestressed concrete given in 4.2. P(106) In aggressive environment.4 of ENV 1992-1-1 does not apply to unbonded tendons.e. the tendons should exit the anchorages with a minimum straight length of the following values: Tendons up to 2 MN ultimate strength: 0. 5.4. P(105) Critical transverse vibrations of the external tendons due to traffic.4.2 Concrete cover Replacement of Principle P(1): P(101) The rules of minimum concrete cover given in clause 5. 4. 17 July 2003.02| rad at both their ends. 5 Detailing provisions This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 is applicable except an follows: Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.1 Arrangement of the prestressing units Replacement of principal P(1). i. P(102) Where specified by the contract.2.3 of ENV 1992-1-1.4. replacement of the tendons shall be provided for.3 Control of cracking without direct calculation Addition after Application Rule (6): P(107) Where all tendons are external or internal and unbonded.5 m (109) In the absence of indication in the approval documents of the system. (102) The concrete cover on unbonded internal tendons should not be less than |20| mm 12 © BSI 02-2000 . wind or any other cause shall be avoided by means of appropriate devices. the minimum radius of curvature of monostrands should comply with the following values: monostrands Ì 13 mm: 1.3 Prestressing units 5.7 m monostrands Ì 15 mm: 2. (107) The deviators should be detailed to allow for an angular inaccuracy of arbitrary direction at least |0.3. the conditions to be met for the replacement and the number of tendons which may be simultaneously replaced should be specified in each particular case. (c) BSI 5. University of Sheffield. (103) For external tendons. do not apply. the contact between continuous prefabricated segments shall be ensured by a thin layer of epoxy resin or other appropriate material. Table 4. 4 or 5 in ENV 1992-1-1.4 Calculation of crack width Replacement of Application Rule (4) by: (104) Application Rule (4) in 4.2.0 m Tendons with more than 6 MN ultimate strength: 1. replaceability is normally required by the approval documents of the system.4.

2 Proportioning of ties Addition after Application Rule (4): P(105) Structures prestressed by continuous unbonded tendons may be more sensitive to progressive collapse since a local defect may have consequences at remote parts. (107) Continuous slabs should be checked to ensure that simultaneous failure of any two adjacent unbonded tendons will not cause collapse. 6 Construction and workmanship Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. P(106) If unbonded tendons are part of the tying system of the structure it shall be checked that a redistribution of forces is possible in case of local failure of a tendon. (c) BSI This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as it is deemed appropriate in each case. This may be obtained by an appropriate bonded reinforcement. © BSI 02-2000 13 .ENV 1992-1-5:1994 5. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003.5.5 Limitation of damage due to accidental action 5. 7 Quality control This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as it is deemed appropriate in each case.

Appendix 4 Checking deflections by calculation This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as it is deemed appropriate in each case. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. 14 © BSI 02-2000 . non-linear methods of analysis should be used. (c) BSI Appendix 3 Supplementary information on the ultimate limit states induced by structural deformation This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as it is deemed appropriate in each case. (106) At the ultimate limit states.ENV 1992-1-5:1994 Appendix 1 Additional provisions for the determination of the effects of time-dependent deformation of concrete This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as it is deemed appropriate in each case. Uncontrolled Copy. Appendix 2 Non-linear analysis This clause of ENV 1992-1-1 applies as far as it is deemed appropriate in each case except as follows: Addition after Principle P(4): (105) In segmental construction with open joints at the ultimate limit states. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. the increase of stresses in the tendons should be calculated using non-linear methods of analysis and taking account of tension-stiffening effects.

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI blank .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

it is BSI policy to supply the BSI implementation of those that have been published as British Standards. Details and advice can be obtained from the Copyright Manager. This does not preclude the free use. of necessary details such as symbols. 17 July 2003. and size. Except as permitted under the Copyright. BSI 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL . unless otherwise requested. Information on standards BSI provides a wide range of information on national. We would be grateful if anyone finding an inaccuracy or ambiguity while using this British Standard would inform the Secretary of the technical committee responsible. Fax: 020 8996 7001. In response to orders for international standards. the identity of which can be found on the inside front cover. If permission is granted. recording or otherwise – without prior written permission from BSI. Fax: 020 8996 7400. Fax: 020 8996 7001. For details of these and other benefits contact Membership Administration. Tel: 020 8996 9001. If these details are to be used for any other purpose than implementation then the prior written permission of BSI must be obtained. Tel: 020 8996 7111. Revisions British Standards are updated by amendment or revision. in the UK. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Designs and Patents Act 1988 no extract may be reproduced. Various BSI electronic information services are also available which give details on all its products and services. Fax: 020 8996 7048. type or grade designations. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI Buying standards Orders for all BSI. It is the constant aim of BSI to improve the quality of our products and services. international and foreign standards publications should be addressed to Customer Services. in the course of implementing the standard. BSI offers members an individual updating service called PLUS which ensures that subscribers automatically receive the latest editions of standards. European and international standards through its Library and its Technical Help to Exporters Service. Tel: 020 8996 9000. Uncontrolled Copy. photocopying. It is incorporated by Royal Charter. Tel: 020 8996 7002. Users of British Standards should make sure that they possess the latest amendments or editions.DD ENV 1992-1-5:1996 BSI — British Standards Institution BSI is the independent national body responsible for preparing British Standards. Contact the Information Centre. Subscribing members of BSI are kept up to date with standards developments and receive substantial discounts on the purchase price of standards. of the publications of the international standardization bodies. the terms may include royalty payments or a licensing agreement. BSI also holds the copyright. Copyright Copyright subsists in all BSI publications. Tel: 020 8996 7070. It presents the UK view on standards in Europe and at the international level. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic.