You are on page 1of 81

British Standard

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

A single copy of this British Standard is licensed to
Sheffield University

17 July 2003

This is an uncontrolled copy. Ensure use of the most current version of this document by searching British Standards Online at bsonline.techindex.co.uk

DRAFT FOR DEVELOPMENT

DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001
Corrected and reprinted September 2001

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures —
Part 1.2: General rules — Structural fire design
Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

(together with United Kingdom National Application Document)

ICS 13.220.20; 91.010.30; 91.080.10

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001

Committees responsible for this Draft for Development
The preparation of this Draft for Development was entrusted by Technical Committee B/525, Building and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee B/525/31, Structural use of steel, upon which the following bodies were represented: British Constructional Steelwork Association Cold Rolled Sections Association Confederation of British Forgers Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions — Construction Directorate Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions — Highways Agency

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Health and Safety Executive Institution of Civil Engineers Institution of Structural Engineers Steel Construction Institute UK Steel Association Welding Institute

This Draft for Development, having been prepared under the direction of the Sector Committee for Building and Civil Engineering was published under the authority of the Standards Committee and comes into effect on 15 June 2001 © BSI 7 September 2001

Amendments issued since publication Amd. No Date Comments

The following BSI references relate to the work on this Draft for Development: Committee reference B/525/31 ISBN 0 580 33218 7

DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001

Contents
Committees responsible National foreword Text of National Application Document Text of ENV 1993-1-2 Inside front cover ii iii 2

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

© BSI 7 September 2001

i

Available from The Stationery Office. These comments will be taken into account when preparing the UK national response to CEN on the question of whether the ENV can be converted into an EN. This Draft for Development also includes the United Kingdom (UK) National Application Document (NAD) to be used with the ENV in the design of buildings to be constructed in the UK. The aim is to use the experience gained to modify the ENV so that it can be adopted as a European Standard. reference should be made to the supporting documents listed in the NAD. The purpose of the NAD is to provide essential information. as published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). the ENV title page. draws designers’ attention to the potential use of ENV Eurocodes as an alternative approach to Building Regulation compliance. quoting the document reference. Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover. to enable the ENV to be used for buildings constructed in the UK.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 National foreword This publication has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/31 in cooperation with B/525/4 and is the English language version of ENV 1993-1-2:1995. The NAD takes precedence over corresponding provisions in the ENV. where possible. Uncontrolled Copy. These parameters are designated by (boxed values) in the ENV. when used in conjunction with this NAD. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1. University of Sheffield. pages 2 to 64 and a back cover. proposed revised wording. This document does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract. Users of this document are invited to comment on its technical content. an inside front cover. St Crispins House. (c) BSI The values for certain parameters in the ENV Eurocodes may be set by CEN Members so as to meet the requirements of national regulations. An ENV is made available for provisional application.2: General rules — Structural fire design. Users of this document are responsible for its correct application. 389 Chiswick High Road. particularly in relation to safety. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Compliance with DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. Approved Document A 1992 (published December 1991)1). ease of use and any ambiguities or anomalies. Duke Street. This publication should not be regarded as a British Standard. ENV 1993-1-2:1995 has been thoroughly examined over a period of several years and is considered to offer such an alternative approach. London W4 4AL. pages i to xi. 1) ii © BSI 7 September 2001 . the relevant clause and. but does not have the status of a European Standard. 17 July 2003. Comments should be sent in writing to BSI. PO Box 29. ENV 1993-1-2:1995 results from a programme of work sponsored by the European Commission to make available a common set of rules for the design of building and civil engineering works. Norwich NR3 1GN. During the ENV period of validity. The Building Regulations 1991. The BSI copyright notice displayed in this document indicates when the document was last issued.

University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 National Application Document for use in the UK with ENV 1993-1-2:1995 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI © BSI 7 September 2001 iii . 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 Contents of National Application Document Introduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 Scope Normative references Mechanical loading. University of Sheffield. partial factors. (c) BSI Bibliography Table 1 — Partial factors ( factors) for the fire situation Table 2 — Combination factors for the fire situation Table 3 — Adaptation factors Table 4 — Directly referenced supporting standards iv © BSI 7 September 2001 . combination factors and other values Thermal loading. combination factors and other values Reference standards Additional recommendations v v v vi vi vii xi vi vi vii vii Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. partial factors. 17 July 2003.

It should be noted that this NAD. ENV 1993-1-2:1995 is intended to be used in conjunction with DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 and DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992. c) trial calculations. to be used for the fire resistant design of buildings to be constructed in the UK.) where a decimal point (. any of these publications do not apply. 1 Scope This NAD provides information required to enable ENV 1993-1-2:1995 Eurocode 3 — Design of steel structures — Part 1. Uncontrolled Copy. BS 476-21:1987. b) a parametric calibration against BS 5950-8. Specification for SI units and recommendations for the use of their multiples and certain other units. constitute provisions of this NAD. in common with ENV 1993-1-2 and supporting CEN standards. For undated references. combination factors and other values a) Pending the issue of EN 1993-1-1. University of Sheffield.2: General rules — Structural fire design. DD ENV 1994-1-2. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings (together with United Kingdom National Application Document). Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-3: General rules — Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting (together with United Kingdom National Application Document). © BSI 7 September 2001 v . combination factors and other values should be determined from clauses 3 and 4 of the NAD for ENV 1993-1-1:1992. (c) BSI 2 Normative references The following normative documents contain provisions which. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. or revisions of. Fire tests on building materials and structures — Part 20: Method for determination of the fire resistance of elements of construction (general principles). Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2-2: Actions on structures exposed to fire (together with United Kingdom National Application Document). partial factors. supporting standards and test data. 3 Mechanical loading.) would be traditionally used in the UK. partial factors. DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992. subsequent amendments to. For dated references. the latest edition of the publication referred to applies. DD ENV 1993-1-3. the mechanical actions. Fire tests on building materials and structures — Part 21: Methods for determination of the fire resistance of loadbearing elements of construction. It has been developed from: a) a textual examination of ENV 1993-1-2:1995.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 Introduction This National Application Document (NAD) has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/31. uses a comma (. BS 5555:1993. through reference in this text. DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996. b) The partial factors for the fire situation should be taken from Table 1 and the combination factors should be taken from Table 2. Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures — Part 1-2: General rules — Structural fire design (together with United Kingdom National Application Document). which refer to British Standards for the values of mechanical and thermal loads (actions). BS 476-20:1987. 17 July 2003.

giving a value of 0.d referred to in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.3 vi © BSI 7 September 2001 . partial factors.0a a This value of GA is different from the value in the NAD of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.4.2.9 0. (c) BSI 2.0 1. combination factors and other values a) The thermal actions should be obtained from the NAD of ENV 1991-2-2. — height to eaves greater than 8 m.2.1(2) should be obtained from ENV 1991-2-2. 4.1 making the following modifications: 1) a value of 0. — all other areas.0 1.0 1. appropriate BS ENs should be used.64 for res.1(2) for the factor n.45 should be used in ENV 1991-2-2:1996. 2) a value of 0. Imposed roof loads (including snow loads) Wind loads: — height to eaves up to 8 m.1(3) for the emissivity of steel m.0 1. c) The values for the adaptation factors 1 and 2 should be taken from Table 3 Table 1 — Partial factors ( factors) for the fire situation Reference in ENV 1993-1-2 Description Symbol Condition Value Boxed ENV value Value for UK use Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.3(3)P 2.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 4 Thermal loading. Table 2 — Combination factors for the fire situation Action 1.7 0 0 0. — escape stairs and lobbies.2.3(2)P 2. 0. NOTE Plant load should be taken as a permanent load. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield.3(4) Partial factor for the fire situation Partial factor for the fire situation Partial factor for permanent action in accidental design situation M.2.9 0. The remaining supporting standards which should be used are listed in Table 4.5. 5 Reference standards Where ENs are referred to.fi M.r in accordance with the NAD of DD ENV 1991-2-2. Uncontrolled Copy.0 1.1 Imposed floor loads in buildings: — storage.8 should be used in ENV 1991-2-2:1996.fi GA For thermal properties For mechanical properties Fire 1. 4. b) The value of hnet. 4. 4.

3(9) The adaptation factor for 1 non-uniform temperature distribution across a cross-section The adaptation factor for 1 non-uniform temperature distribution across a cross-section The adaptation factor for 2 non-uniform temperature distribution along a beam For a beam exposed on all four sides 1.2 Chapter 2 Basic Principles and Rules a) 2. the reduction factor kx in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.2. However.4. NOTE The performance of stainless steel in fire is usually significantly better than that of mild steel.7 0.7 For a beam exposed on three sides with a composite or concrete slab on side four 0.0 0.3. the effects of thermal expansion may be neglected.85 1. University of Sheffield. b) 2. NOTE Information on fire protection materials that satisfy the recommendations in ENV 1993-1-2:1995. In other cases.1(2)P Provided fire protection materials satisfy the recommendations given in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.3. 3.2 can be found in the publication Fire protection for structural steel in buildings [1].4(4) In general.1 Scope ENV 1993-1-2:1995 may be used to determine the resistance of stainless steel members subjected to the accidental situation of exposure to fire.2 the reduction factor ky given in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.3(8) Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. consideration should be given to the effect of thermal expansion on bracing members. 17 July 2003.85 At the supports of a statically indeterminate beam In all other cases 1. Further guidance is given in 6. 6. © BSI 7 September 2001 vii .1 Chapter 1 General a) 1.1 may be used to calculate the member resistance.3(8) 4.2. Uncontrolled Copy. 3.1 should be used. Table 3.0 Table 4 — Directly referenced supporting standards Reference in ENV 1993-1-2 UK supporting standards PrEN ISO 834 PrENV yyy 5-1 PrENV yyy 5-2 PrENV yyy 5-3 ENV 1991-2-2 ENV 1993-1-1 ENV 1993-1-3 ENV 1994-1-2 ISO 1000 a BS 476-20:1987 BS 476-20:1987 BS 476-21:1987a DD ENV 1991-2-2 DD ENV 1993-1-1 DD ENV 1993-1-3 DD ENV 1994-1-2 BS 5555:1993 Further information can be obtained from Fire protection for structural steel in buildings [1].2. (c) BSI 4. 6.3.0 1.0 0.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 6 Additional recommendations Table 3 — Adaptation factors Reference in ENV 1993-1-2 Description Symbol Condition Value ENV value Value for UK use 4.4b).3.3. Table 3.

3. should be replaced in the expression by the temperature-dependent value of kx.2. — tension members.3f) gives the buckling lengths of columns in braced frames.2.5 where fy is the steel yield strength given in ENV 1993-1-1:1992. the buckling length fi should be taken as 0.3h). the buckling length should be taken as 0.3.1 as modified by 6. 4. ENV 1993-1-2:1995. 4.2.3(6) the value of the non-dimensional slenderness L. — unrestrained beams with L.4. .max may Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.max . .85L.11) of ENV 1993-1-2:1995 should be replaced by the parameter K whose value is given by the following expression: L. University of Sheffield. e) 4.7L where the column is continuous at both ends.2 in expression (4. i) 4.4 of the top storey column should be taken as 0.3 but cannot be used for the following cases: — columns. Uncontrolled Copy.2 where is the relative slenderness for a normal temperature design. b) 4. 17 July 2003.com for the temperature a.1 For tension members. Table 3.3.2(4) in a fire design situation all members should be classified as for normal temperature design using the following expression for : = [(235/fy)]0.3.1 of ENV 1993-1-2:1995. viii © BSI 7 September 2001 .2. .2(4) Contrary to ENV 1993-1-2:1995.+ 0 87 3 where L.1(5)P Alternatively. given in Table 3. h) 4. (c) BSI be conservatively calculated as: = 1.1. given in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.1 Buckling lengths fi of columns in braced frames The buckling length fi.1.7L2 and the buckling length fi.2 of the column in the intermediate storey should be taken as 0.3 Chapter 4 Structural Fire Design a) 4. f) Figure 4.2. .3. 3.T.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 6.4 The critical temperature method is an alternative to that given in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.com is given in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.6) in ENV 1993-1-2:1995.fi > 0.com should be taken as the value of the normal temperature non-dimensional slenderness LT.2. the strength reduction factor may conservatively be taken as 80 % of the temperature-dependent value of kx.85L4.com K = ------------------------.3.2.2. for the design of bolts and welds in the fire situation. c) 4.2. Figure 4.2(4) For a column in a steel frame in which each storey comprises a separate fire compartment with sufficient fire resistance. Where the column is continuous at one end only.T.3(6) Contrary to ENV 1993-1-2:1995. g) 4.2.3.T.3(5) The constant 1.2.T.2(2) As an alternative to expression (4. 4. d) 4.2. 4.2. ky.2.3(6) as modified by 6.

6.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 It can only be used for fully restrained beams.7. Uncontrolled Copy. f) Fire resisting walls The guidance in BS 5950-8:1990. appendix C should be followed. the temperature in the columns and compressive members forming part of the bracing system should not exceed 450 C.0 is determined by dividing the member’s design moment of resistance at ambient temperature by the adaptation factors 1 and 2.5.fi is not greater than 0.4(6) The method described in this clause may be used to design members constructed from Class 4 open sections.2. 4. 17 July 2003. j) 4.0 is the design moment of resistance of the member at ambient temperature. Rfi. NOTE Further information may be found in Fire and steel construction — Water cooled hollow columns [2].10 should be followed for the design of fire resisting walls in the fire situation.T.5.d.3.2. NOTE Further information may be found in Fire and steel construction: The behaviour of steel portal frames in boundary conditions [3].d. k) 4.d " 0 = --------------R fi. e) Beams with shelf angles The fire resistance for beams with shelf angles should be determined in accordance with the guidance in BS 5950-8:1990.d.4 and ENV 1993-1-2 uses the term “degree of utilization”. Where the stability of the structure is solely dependent on a single plane of bracing or where the bracing systems are located adjacent to a single fire compartment. Rfi.0 is determined by dividing the member resistance at normal temperature by both adaptation factors 1 and 2. University of Sheffield. For a beam bending with a non-uniform temperature distribution over its cross-section and along its length. (c) BSI d) Portal frames The design of portal frames in the fire situation should follow the guidance in BS 5950-8:1990. L.4(4) When calculating the degree of utilization.2.0 The variables in the above expression are as defined in ENV 1993-1-2:1995. "0. b) Bracing members Bracing members provided stability to the structure in the fire design situation and should be distributed throughout the building so no substantial portion of the structural frame is solely reliant on a single plane of bracing in each of two directions approximately at right angles. For a beam bending with a uniform temperature distribution over its cross-section and along its length. the value of Rfi. unrestrained beams where members with Class 4 cross-sections. 4. c) Water-filled structures The design of water-filled structures should follow the guidance in BS 5950-8:1990. © BSI 7 September 2001 ix . appendix E.4 Recommendations on subjects not covered in ENV 1993-1-2:1995 a) Re-use of steel after a fire It may be possible to re-use steel after a fire.d. 4. 4. The guidance in BS 5950-8:1990. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. which allows the applied load on a member to be directly related to the critical temperature and is determined from the following expression: E fi.

h) Ceilings In addition to ENV 1993-1-2:1995. Where practicable.5. University of Sheffield. care should be taken to fire stop any gaps between the top of the wall and the underside of the roof cladding to accommodate differential thermal movement in fire. (c) BSI x © BSI 7 September 2001 . 4. 4.2. combustible insulation should also be fire stopped along the line of the wall.12 should also be followed for the design of ceilings in the fire situation Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.3 the guidance in BS 5950-8:1990.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 g) Roofs Where a roof spans across a fire resisting compartment wall where it is required that strips of the roof should be fire protected on the underside of both sides of the compartment wall.

19752).L. [3] NEWMAN. Steel Construction Institute. Fire protection for structural steel in buildings (Revised Second Edition).V. Fire and steel construction — Water cooled hollow columns. 19922). ISBN 1 870004 49 3 Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Silwood Park. Fire and steel construction — The behaviour of steel portal frames in boundary conditions (Second Edition). G. 17 July 2003. Structural use of steelwork in building — Code of practice for fire resistant design. Berkshire SL5 7QN.M. [1] Association of Specialist Fire Protection Contractors and Manufacturers Limited. [2] BOND. (c) BSI 2) Available from The Steel Construction Institute. 19902). University of Sheffield. Steel Construction Institute. Ascot. © BSI 7 September 2001 xi . G. Steel Construction Institute.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 Bibliography BS 5950-8:1990. Uncontrolled Copy.

17 July 2003. (c) BSI blank .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.

University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield.

17 July 2003. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .

University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI .

17 July 2003. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.

17 July 2003. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

(c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.

17 July 2003. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy.

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI .

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.

17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

University of Sheffield. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy.

17 July 2003. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.

University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003.

17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy.

17 July 2003. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.

University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003.

University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.

University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI .

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy.

Uncontrolled Copy. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .

17 July 2003. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield.

University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI . 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University.

(c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003.

17 July 2003. Uncontrolled Copy.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI .

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. 17 July 2003. University of Sheffield.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. (c) BSI . University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003.

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Licensed Copy: Sheffield University, University of Sheffield, 17 July 2003, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield.

Uncontrolled Copy. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. 17 July 2003.

(c) BSI . University of Sheffield.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003.

Uncontrolled Copy. 17 July 2003. (c) BSI .Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield.

17 July 2003.Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. (c) BSI blank . Uncontrolled Copy.

Information on standards BSI provides a wide range of information on national. In response to orders for international standards. unless otherwise requested. Tel: 020 8996 9001. the identity of which can be found on the inside front cover. it is BSI policy to supply the BSI implementation of those that have been published as British Standards. photocopying. Revisions British Standards are updated by amendment or revision. Fax: 020 8996 7048. Various BSI electronic information services are also available which give details on all its products and services. European and international standards through its Library and its Technical Help to Exporters Service. If these details are to be used for any other purpose than implementation then the prior written permission of BSI must be obtained. Tel: 020 8996 9000. recording or otherwise – without prior written permission from BSI. Tel: 020 8996 7070. Further information about BSI is available on the BSI website at http://www. of necessary details such as symbols. international and foreign standards publications should be addressed to Customer Services. Fax: 020 8996 7001. This does not preclude the free use. Contact the Information Centre. and size. Standards are also available from the BSI website at http://www.com. Copyright Copyright subsists in all BSI publications. Licensed Copy: Sheffield University. University of Sheffield. Tel: 020 8996 7002. We would be grateful if anyone finding an inaccuracy or ambiguity while using this British Standard would inform the Secretary of the technical committee responsible.com. Users of British Standards should make sure that they possess the latest amendments or editions. Fax: 020 8996 7400. For details of these and other benefits contact Membership Administration. Fax: 020 8996 7001. Tel: 020 8996 7111. Designs and Patents Act 1988 no extract may be reproduced. in the course of implementing the standard.DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001 BSI — British Standards Institution BSI is the independent national body responsible for preparing British Standards. 17 July 2003. BSI offers members an individual updating service called PLUS which ensures that subscribers automatically receive the latest editions of standards. Uncontrolled Copy. It presents the UK view on standards in Europe and at the international level. in the UK. Details and advice can be obtained from the Copyright Manager. the terms may include royalty payments or a licensing agreement. BSI 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL . stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic. It is the constant aim of BSI to improve the quality of our products and services. Subscribing members of BSI are kept up to date with standards developments and receive substantial discounts on the purchase price of standards. (c) BSI Buying standards Orders for all BSI. BSI also holds the copyright. Except as permitted under the Copyright. type or grade designations.bsi-global. of the publications of the international standardization bodies. It is incorporated by Royal Charter. If permission is granted.bsi-global.