You are on page 1of 5

Review: Enki and the Theology of Eridu Author(s): William W.

Hallo Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1996), pp. 231234 Published by: American Oriental Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 22/09/2011 04:58
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

American Oriental Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the American Oriental Society.

62. e. of Chicago Press. under the Sargonic and Ur III Dynasties. HALLO YALE UNIVERSITY Three discrete ideologies may be identified in Sumer: the theologies of Nippur. Lagash. Simpson. 8 W. W. Matthews. Hallo. review of Jerrold S. "The Limits of Skepticism.the CraftyGod.. "Sumerian Religion. 197f. Hallo. in the Ur III and early Isin Periods but surfaced once more under the Dynasty of Larsa thereafter.2 The first and oldest of these theologies centered upon Enlil. a period when Nippur. 15-35. K."JCS 33 (1981): in Nippur. Oxford: OXFORD 1989. to the goddess Nanshe who was "born in Eridu." Rainey."10 but PRESS. Seals and Writing:Archaic latest study of this recension. In focusing on the god Enki. JAOS 103 (1983): 43-66. 2 (New Haven: Yale Univ. "Towarda History of Sumerian Literature.8 The theology of Lagash revolved around Ningirsu. 1 (Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv Univ. Tel Aviv Occasional Publications. Lambert 3 Cf. a leading actor in the outgoing Early Dynastic Period and once again in the late Sargonic Period. see now Roger J. of Sumer and Akkad. the book under review provides the first systematic survey of the third of these theologies. The Ancient Near apud Civil. also served as the religious center of a league of all Sumer (Jacobsen's "Kengir League")3 and later. the older Mesopotamian Weltanschauungen can be subsumed under three headings best described as the theologies of Nippur. W."JAOS 110 (1990): in Sumerological Studies in Honor of Thorkild Jacobsen. "The Nanshe Hymn." 26. and Memphis. Cooper." the capital city of the Lagash citystate. see Jacob Klein... $39. and other genres on Enlil and/or his consort Ninlil (or Sud6 or even Ashnan7). 1975). pp. Lagash was dormant. Lagash. Press. 187-99. line 8.." JCS 17 (1963): 52-57. Enlil's cult city. 6 Miguel Civil. 1993). Heliopolis. 4 In the words of the to the of Enlil Ninurta to Nippur.s In addition to the hymns. 82f. Hallo. ibid." 2 W. 7 W. W. Pp. Anson F. "Enlil and Ninlil: The Marriage of Sud. "the lord of Girsu. effectively the head of the Sumerian pantheon.. 1993). G. The Return of Gebr." in kinattutu Stephen J.4 It survived into Old Babylonian times when the First Dynasty of Isin tried to present itself as the heir to all Sumerian traditions since the Flood.. 20 (Chicago: sa darati: Raphael Kutscher Memorial Volume. esp. and Eridu. 231 . JAOS 101 (1981): 253-57. That such a survey can be offered for one major Mesopotamian deity attests to the maturingof Assyriology. "A New Nippur Seal Impressions from Jemdet Nasr and Ur. pp. W. and 43. the theology of Nippur is exemplified primarily in the Nippur recension of the Sumerian King List. pp. idem. and reflected conditions in Early Dynastic times.g. ed.. particularly at Nippur. viii + 272.REVIEW ARTICLES ENKI AND THE THEOLOGY OF ERIDU* WILLIAM W. Assyriological Studies.1 Similarly. "Beginning and End of the Sumerian King List in the Nippur Recension. Press. Allen. lamentations. For even earlier evidence of such a league.. Materialien zu Duplicate of the Sumerian Kinglist. ed. 1988).95. Yale Egyptological 5 W. W. Mann. Hallo. "your right and your left hand are Sumer and Akkad". It is reflected in myths * Review articleof: Mythsof Enki. (Sargonic) hymn temple 10 Wolfgang Heimpel. East: A History (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch. 2 (Berlin: (1991): 123-29. Genesis in Egypt: the Philosophy of Ancient Egyptian Creation Accounts. By SAMUEL about Ninurta (who took Ningirsu's place in the Nippur NOAH KRAMER and JOHN UNIVERSITY curriculum9). esp. Cities. Hallo. 9 W. Hallo and W. Studies. James P. Lieberman. ANCIENT EGYTIAN RELIGION VIEWED THE WORLD through three discrete intellectual perspectives which modem Egyptologists have labeled the theologies of Thebes. W. esp. if not actually suppressed. It was enshrined at this time in the Neo-Sumerian canon as fixed in the scribal schools. 181-203." Aula Orientalis 9 den friihen Schriftzeugnissen des Vorderen Orients. For the 1971). 38f. 1 Cf. and Eridu. 65-139. 64-66. 26f. "SumerianReligion. cf. Univ. in hymns to Ningirsu's consort Bau or MAIER.

into a patron of incantation and magic. based on Temple Hymn no. p. Between them. 3 (Locust Valley. in non-Nippur versions of the Sumerian King List. and Eridu was the oldest city in fact as well as in tradition (Sumerian. n. in which Enki bests Enlil to assure the survival of humankind.. 17 John R. Civil. 146). Augustin. 20 "Der Gott Ea/Enki in der akkadischen Uberlieferung: Eine Bestandsaufnahme des vorhandenen Materials" (Ph. it was probably not systematized before the middle of the Old Babylonian Period and the rise to prominence of Babylon. cf. Karl-Franzen-UniversitatGraz. the authors have omitted relatively little of relevance. laboration between Samuel Noah Kramer. His cult center was at Eridu. like his Sumerian prototype." The book under review speaks of a "theology of Ea" (p.e. 15 M. Akkadian. which described the history of the world entirely in terms of Lagash. 42). Continued. Of the secondaryliterature. p. though. line 14 of the book under review. most of them more or less revised versions of his earlier editions. eidem. 1990). Maier appears to be responsible for the translation and discussion of the later literary traditions about Enki/Ea in Sumero-Akkadian bilinguals and in other works in Akkadian. Sjoberg and E. Lambert and A. 1983). to the Sumerian King List. idem. 138-45. for which see Ake W. Here Marduk.19 The present book is the outgrowth of these essays." JCS 23 (1970): 57-67. beginning with Eridu. Civil."JAOS 103 (1983): 227-35. It is the product of a col- 11 W. 19 J. the local deity. the son of Enki. 174. and turned. 1969). ibid. Henshaw) in the preparation of a new and ratherimaginative rendition of the Gilgamesh Epic. Press.: Bucknell Univ. equated with Ea of the Akkadian tradition. was equated with Asarlubi. e." ComparativeCriticism6 (1984): 101-17. "The Rulers of Lagash." Or. Greek.'6 He is known to Assyriologists chiefly through his contribution to the second Kramer Festschrift'7 and through his collaboration with the poet John Gardner (and the Assyriologist Richard A. 16 The Bible in Its Literary Milieu: Contemporary Essays. Hittite. W. p. J. and even Hebrew14). Many of these. Hebrew."apud W. 33.and finally in a polemical parody of the Nippur recension of the Sumerian King List. Atra-6asis: The Babylonian Story of the Flood (Oxford: Clarendon Press.'2 The theology of Eridu centered on the cult of Enki. p.. Vincent I. 1984). 90."Threevoices of Enki:Strategiesin the Translation of Archaic Literature. Sollberger. In the rest of the book.. which prefixed an antediluvian section featuring Larsa. 13 Cf.It was thus possible to claim a hoary antiquity for this theology.the late dean of Sumerology. the myths and other compositions about Enki/Ea. A whole host of myths focusing on Enki developed the theme of his solicitude for humanity as a counterweight to the terror inspired by Enlil and his unalterable "word. The Collection of the Sumerian Temple Hymns. "The Sumerian Flood Story." Maarav 7 (1991): 173-81. however. A final chapter (by Maier?) deals more generally with "myth and literature"(chapter ten). 22. "AntediluvianCities. Millard. Kramer is responsible for the translation of all the Sumerian myths (chapters one through five) and other literary genres (chapter six).20 Among particularly the more notable textual omissions is the composition known by its ancient title (incipit) as nin-mul-an-gim. esp. were pioneering efforts that first revealed these compositions to the world of scholarship. 139. in fact. a professor of English at the State University of New York at Brockport. R.D. Galter. in their time. i. Mappings of the Biblical Terrain: The Bible as Text (Lewisburg. The Sumerian flood story. and John Maier. 18 John Gardner and John Maier. TCS.Y. Hallo. Maier is the coeditor of two volumes of essays on the Bible. ed..: J. 193) and has writtenon "ThreeVoices of Enki"(p.). N. Tollers and John R. . "Charles Olson and the Poetic Uses of Mesopotamian Scholarship. 17f. W. "Information from Before the Flood: Antediluvian Notes from Babylonia and Israel. according to the introduction. Pa.15was modified to provide a new antediluvian prologue. G.18 He has also addressed the American Oriental Society on the subject of "Enki Speaks" (cf. It does not operate with the notion of a "theology of Eridu. Maier. diss. Maier..Their respective roles are partially delineated in the introduction (pp. "Back to the Big House: Colloquial Sumerian. 167-72. 244. the "juniorEnlil" (Enlil-banda)'3of the Sumerian tradition. and even beyond (chaptersseven throughnine). 54 (1985): 62."but it provides for the first time a systematic survey of the Sumerian and Akkadian literary texts that go to make it up.g. 1979). 1969). misses the dissertationof HannesD. 12 E. more specifically to Nina (Sirara)". 64. which seems to be at least in part Maier's.2 (1996) whose cult center had moved from Eridu to Lagash. Maier (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Gilgamesh (New York: Knopf. considers this text as possibly late and secondary. Bergmann.232 Journal of the American Oriental Society 116. 14 W." JCS 21 (1967): 279-91. Hallo.

"Oriental Institute MuseumNotes. 21. when Lenormant began the publication of a sizable body of bilingual texts. The following detailed comments may be added here. 30f. "TheQuestion of Aratta."JNES 35 (1976): 105-13. ) 5580 by actualcount (5367 net aftersubtracting cross-references). 22 UETVI. 1986). . 1 and 12. From the Poetry of Sumer: Creation. esp. La Malediction paternelle. 1991).ix-xxvi. Hallo. no. 37 Ibid.. Cf. 225 (Atlanta: Scholars Press.p.. IV.2. W. of Mesopotamia: 4 BC). Hallo. vol. 11. pp. "The Cultic Settingof Sumerian Poetry."35 The same epithet. 8."the mistresswho revives the (near-)dead."Jaarbericht. Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595 nicum(Rome:Pontifical Biblical Institute. 82f.28 with "the theology of Eridu"is not so farfetched.36-38.. which Kramer (p." neuve.. 1992].: Four QuartersPublishing Co.. "Miscellaneous Sumerian Hymns. 396 and 7. cf. It serves as testimony to the maturing of Assyriology: the field has arrived at a new plateau when a comprehensive survey can be offered for the figure of a single Mesopotamian deity among the dozen major ones and the more than five thousand lesser ones that make up the Sumero-Akkadian And pantheon. Hallo. 107. 34 EricaReiner. Univ. ed. P. Ex Oriente Lux 31 (1989-90): 66-76.PartOne. ed."37 The Oriental Institute. ed. E. 32 J. translated galam by "clever" in 11. TheAncient Near East: A History.) Forthe latestadditions to this composition.1914) listed 3300 divinenames.e. as stated here and elsewhere.. 155-61. 1990).of Toronto (Toronto: Press."Les Fantaisies du dieu Enki:Essai sur les de la narration dansles mythes."Toward 31 Yousef Majizadeh. 11 The University Museum. 357-65. 47.25and Vogelzang. 88: Whether Aratta is "now part of Iran" may be debated. . Brown Judaic Studies. Adoration (Berkeley: Univ.HALLO:Enki and the Theology of Eridu 233 which describes "The Blessing of Nisaba by Enki. Kramer. S.. in his original edition of the text.1. 7: "The first inkling of its existence" (i."in DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A: Studies in Honor of Ake W. 10: The LastYearsof the Kingsof Isin.1873-1879).Myths of Enki presents a rich feast."Babylonian RA82 (1988): 139-62. 237) equates with Akkadian naklu. TheAssyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. ney Smith. 33 PiotrMichalowski. 131. vol. deification was the functionalequivalentof generalizationor of abstractconthen the equationof "the myths of Enki" ceptualization.26 But even without these omissions and additions. F Hansman.27 when we recall that. in Mesopotamia.C." in The Origin of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the Third Millennium B. 20. by "surpassing"in 1.g. esp. 23 A.butthe second(= SL IV." Iraq55 (1993):95. of California Press. P. Occa- E. 171.31but another places it in Afghanistan." JNES37 (1978): 331-36.Conn. R. 36 OECT 5. and by "(accomplishing) everything"in 1." 24 Jerrold S. see CT58. Vogelzang. 21 W. 28 Hallo and Simpson." techniques ibid. andA.. 92-94: For "crafty" in this hymn (11. And the corpus of compositions has grown in the meantime with "A Litany for Enki.30 P. 87-89." ZA 63 (1973): 40-48. Cooper. W. 35 W. 27 The first edition of Anton Deimel's Pantheon Babylo- Harvey Weiss (Guilford.. p. 29 1979). Sjoberg."21 For the sake of completeness. the admittedlyfragmentary text described by Gadd as "partof a myth in Akkadian concerning principally the god Ea"22might have been presented.36 Krameras "queen of the living and the dead. The Book of the People. Hallo.72: ForNindinugga. 129-56."The Land of Aratta.TheRoyalInscriptions EarlyPeriods. One authority thinks so." JNES18 (1959):54.1989). already 181. p. vol. (Philadelphia: 25 HenriLimet."Enki's Members: ErosandIrrigation in Sumerian Literature. 17: S. 30 Francois Lenormant. Part II [Chicago: P. W." CRRA17 (1970): 116-34.Cf.Surpu. 27 (for kin-galam-ma ak). Presumablythis is the inspirationfor the title of the book. Glorification. Sjoberg. 1. W.33 Pp.the "Womanwho Revives the Dead" in Shurpu. Etudes accadiennes (Paris: Maison- a History. now Douglas R. texts fromthe Folios of SidGeorge.34 cf. "NewSumerian TextsfromTellHadad (AnLiterary cientMeturan): A FirstSurvey. sional Publicationsof the Samuel Noah KramerFund. that of Sumerian literature) dates not to 1875 and the first edition of Rawlinson's The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia. 105. was translatedby appliedto Ninisina in a hymnalprayer. 12.42-45: for "the curse of his father/mother" in physiognomic omens and elsewhere. (Abbreviations of textseriesfollow Erica Reiner. no. Cavigneaux and F al-Rawi.32and a third regards it as an essentially imaginary locale."TheCunning of Ea andthe Threat to Order. no. N. 20. 1. 27) the original has galam. "Mental Mapsand Ideology:Reflections on Subartu. The theme is treated in early moder times by Jean-Baptiste Greuze (1725-1805)."23 Secondary literature about the deity since the book's appearanceincludes studies by Cooper. line 21.29 but to 1873.24 Limet. Hermann Behrens et al. Frayne. alreadythe inscriptionof Enlilbani of Isin dedicatedto Nintinugaas nin-ti-la-ugs-ga. 26 M.

38 P.45 P. L. esp. ed. not CA 49 [1930]). 192: Helga Piesl's theory of "the emergence of anthropomorphic.. 154 (denonced). 42 W. forms of the divine in Sumer"has been roundly criticized by Hruska. 240 (Eine zweisprachige K6nigsritual). 41 Verse Account of Nabonidus ii 3. 6. Hallo. 47 Hallo. Brill. A..AOS. 193f.2 (1996) P. 47. W.. 64f. ibid.40 u4-ma-da-num-a-da-pa. Harvard Semitic Studies. 8. 8f..g. R." is not "ordinarily 'groundwater'or 'depth'.234 Journal of the American Oriental Society 116. 161: While it is true that the biblical version of the Flood has no particularrole for the flood-hero'swife and daughter. W. 94 (delete note 25). van Dijk. more often regardedas the biblical psalm most indebted to Egyptian models. G. ed..not takkakbu). "everything.. pp. "Some Considerations of Form and Interpretation in Atra-hasis. 104 (actually.44 38 See Sasson apud Maier. not 7). 159: The concept of "intertextuality" was introduced to the literary criticism of cuneiform sources by Erica Reiner in 1985 and has been invoked by Assyriologists quite often since then. The same ambiguity occurs in the opening line of the canonical version of Gilgamesh ("He Who Saw Everything") where. 84 (of of its hand). 253. 77-82 and transliterated by him on may note the intertestamentaltraditionthat made the first sibyl a daughter-in-lawof Noah. 116 (seen the plan. cf. 203-17. Literature and History: . "The Poetic Uses of Mesopotamian Scholarship."The Hymnto Aten. cf. Add W. Moran. 3 (New Haven: Yale University Press. Williams. 256 (uinnush). pp. . 6. "A Catalogue of Texts and Authors. 218. W. 66f. TheExaltation oflnanna. 67 (New Haven: American Oriental Society. Tzvi Abusch et al.. Myths of Enki. 155: It is perhaps a bit surprising to see Sumerian influence claimed for Psalm 104." in Language. 45 Cf." 214. 1968). ed. 1. For the couplet "You are (or: he is) true with those who are true / not true with those who are not true"(1. Winton Thomas (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons." MIO 12 (1966-67): 57 ("L'Exaltationde Marduk"). 131. 235 (rstorations). "Proverbs Quoted in Epic. see pp. Hallo. 40 W.. 224 (William K. Hruska. Hallo and J. 237 (ZA. "With the liar he acts the liar. 145: The term nagbu." by Konstantin Balmont. esp. "Proverbs Quoted in Epic." but which would be better entitled. YNER). the composition con(tablet) chapter ventionally known as the "BabylonianEpic of Creation. set to music by Sergei Prokofiev. e. 157 (charism). "They Are Seven. 48 B.41 Pp. 1982): 128-32. and nn. (Leiden: E."Archiv Orientdlni 39 (1971): 190-99. 10 (New Haven: Yale University Press.235 (ZA 49 [1950]. W..: "The exaltation of Kingu"-if this characterization of the passage in question is granted-provides an interesting new example of "the typology of The pericope occurs in the second divine exaltation. G. the Crafty God is worthy of careful study and eventual reprinting. J. already J. 138f. 1 (chapter 6. 172f. 43 Ibid."in Documents from Old Testament Times. the Russian poem.. 1989). cf. J. cf.48 Typographical corrections are called for on pp. esp. YNER. lf.. not been the plan).. not 6). Moran. 189: The referencehere and on pp.121 (chapter 8. 1987). Reiner. 37 (Atlanta: Scholars Press." in zikir sumim: Assyriological Studies Presented to E R... Yale Near Eastern Researches (hereafter."JAOS 83 (1963): 176.. 139). Studies. 116: It may be questioned whether adapu means "wise. not AZ). 1990). 228-31.. D. 1958).C.39u4-an-na-a-da-pa. pp. n. 142-50.46 P. King of Babylon 556-539 B. 83. For postbiblical traditions about Noah's wife.. "The Exaltation of Marduk" (cf. 1. indirectly. 180 (undersand). is to the text translatedby Krameron pp. p." in Lingering Over Words: Studies."47 P. since he allowed Gardner (above. the proverbialsaying. 215 and n. Rochberg-Halton. F. not actual).. ed. Hallo)." 235. ch. Maier failed to note it. 117 (takkabu."42 Enuma of Elish. 46 W." A defense of this translation was provided by Kilmer."ZurGeschichte der sumerischen Religion: Die Grenzen einer Methode. Lambert. 85 (it awesomeness). "On the Antiquity of Sumerian Literature. 11 (Altra-basis). "L'Hymne a Marduk avec intercession pour le roi Abi'esub. 208 (effectivenesss)."Rather we may be dealing here with two homophones. 44 Anne Draffkorn Kilmer. in Honor of William L. Kraus . 39 ABL 923. P.." That Berossos' Oannes is derived from Sumerian u4-an-na (thus rather than uma-an-na) and is "none other than Adapa" has long been clear from the comand pound forms umun-a-da-pa.). "A Note on an Overlooked Word-Play in the Akkadian Gilgamesh. cf. 112: The incantation against the seven evil gods from Utukki Limnuti XVI is reminiscent of that in the fifth tablet of the same series which inspired. however. The Reign of Nabonidus. As these comments and suggestions imply.43 P. 162-65. Paul-Alain Beaulieu. note 18) to translate there unambiguously "the one who saw the abyss. P. J. van Driel et al."JCS 16 (1962): 59-77. with the truthfulone he acts truthfully. van Dijk.