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ELEC 4302/7311 POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION: PROTECTION SETTINGS

Dr. Ramesh

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Contents
Introduction  Functions of Equipment Protection  Functions of Protective Relays  Required Information for Protective Setting  Protection Settings Process  Functional Elements of Protective Relays  Operating Characteristics of Protective Relays  Overcurrent and Directional Protection Elements  Distance Protection Function

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PROTECTIO SETTI !S" I TROD#CTIO
$ po%er system is composed of a num&er of sections 'equipment( such as generator) transformer) &us &ar and transmission line*  These sections are protected &y protective relaying systems comprising of instrument transformers 'ITs() protective relays) circuit &rea+ers 'C,s( and communication equipment*  In case of a fault occurring on a section) its associated protective relays should detect the fault and issue trip signals to open their associated C,s to isolate the faulted section from the rest of the po%er system) in order to avoid further damage to the po%er system*

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)rotection *ettings: +ntro,uction
Below Fig. 1 is an typical example of power system sections with their protection systems. Where: G1 is a generator. T1 is a transformer. B1,...,B5 are bus bars. !5 is a transmission line "T #. $G is a generator protecti%e relay. $T is a transformer protecti%e relay. $B is a bus protecti%e relay. $ &!,...,$ &' are T protecti%e relays. (1,..., (' are (Bs.

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Fig. 1 )rotection of power system sections

PROTECTIO SETTI !S" I TROD#CTIO
-a.imum fault clearance times are usually specified &y the regulating &odies and net%or+ service providers*  The clearing times are given for local and remote C,s and depend on the voltage level and are determined primarily to meet sta&ility requirements and minimi/e plant damage*  The ma.imum clearance times of the &ac+up protection are also specified*  e*g* the clearing times for faults on the lines specified &y one net%or+ service provider in $ustralia are presented in Ta&le I 'ne.t slide(*

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T, LE I: ;,.LT CLE,R,NCE TIMES
-oltage le%el ./-0 (B operate correctly .ms0 ocal $emote 21 111 111 151 151 151 151 1161 111 151 151 1!1 161 161 161 & (B fail .ms0 ocal 135 551 551 !41 !41 !41 !41 1511 $emote 135 551 551 !41 !41 !41 !41 &

511 441 535 551 145 111 66 7 44

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F# CTIO S OF E0#IP-E T PROTECTIO
Protection schemes are generally divided into equipment protection and system protection* The main function of equipment protection is to selectively and rapidly detect and disconnect a fault on the protected circuit to"  ensure optimal po%er quality to customers1  minimi/e damage to the primary plant1  prevent damage to healthy equipment that conducts fault current during faults1  restore supply over the remaining healthy net%or+1  sustain sta&ility and integrity of the po%er system1  limit safety ha/ard to the po%er utility personnel and the pu&lic*

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F# CTIO S OF PROTECTI2E RE3$4S

The protection functions are considered adequate %hen the protection relays perform correctly in terms of" De<e!*a2'"'&): The pro&a&ility of not having a failure to operate under given conditions for a given time interval* Se#1r'&)" The pro&a&ility of not having an unwanted operation under given conditions for a given time interval* S<ee* $% O<era&'$!" The clearance of faults in the shortest time is a fundamental requirement 'transmission system() &ut this must &e seen in con5unction %ith the associated cost implications and

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6F# CTIO S OF PROTECTI2E RE3$4S

Se"e#&'/'&) 7D's#r'm'!a&'$!8" The a&ility to detect a fault %ithin a specified /one of a net%or+ and to trip the appropriate C,'s( to clear this fault %ith a minimum distur&ance to the rest of that net%or+* S'!("e %a'"1re #r'&er'$!: $ protection design criterion %here&y a protection system must not fail to operate even after one component fails to operate* 7ith respect to the protection relay) the single failure criterion caters primarily for a failed or defective relay) and not a failure to operate as a result of a 9 performance deficiency inherent %ithin the design of the relay*

6F# CTIO S OF PROTECTI2E RE3$4S
The setting of protection relays is not a definite science*  Depending on local conditions and requirements) setting of each protective function has to &e optimi/ed to achieve the &est &alance &et%een relia&ility) security and speed of operation*  Protection settings should therefore &e calculated &y protection engineers %ith vast e.perience in protective relaying) po%er system operation and performance and quality of supply*

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RE0#IRED I FOR-$TIO SETTI !

FOR PROTECTI2E

L'!e Parame&ers:  For a ne% line" final total line length as %ell as the lengths) conductor si/es and to%er types of each section %here different to%er types or conductors have &een used*  This information is used to calculate the parameters 'positive and /ero sequence resistance) reactance and susceptance( for each section*  -a.imum load current or apparent po%er '-2$( corresponding to the emergency line %hich can &e o&tained from the ta&le of standard conductor rating 'availa&le in each utility(*  The num&er of conductors in a &undle has to &e ta+en into consideration*

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6RE0#IRED I FOR-$TIO PROTECTI2E SETTI !

FOR

Tra!s%$rmer Parame&ers:
 The

manufacturer8s positive and /ero sequence impedance test values have to &e o&tained*  The transformer nameplate normally provides the manufacturer8s positive sequence impedance values only*

Term'!a" E41'<me!& Ra&'!(:
 The

rating of terminal equipment 'C,) CT) line trap) lin+s( of the circuit may limit its transfer capa&ility therefore the rating of each device has to &e +no%n*  Data can &e o&tained from the single line diagrams*

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6RE0#IRED I FOR-$TIO PROTECTI2E SETTI !

FOR

;a1"& S&1*'es  Results of fault studies must &e provided*  The developed settings should &e chec+ed on future cases modelled %ith the system changes that %ill ta+e place in the future 'e*g* %ithin 9 years(*  #se a ma.imum fault current case* CT = >T Ra&'$s:  O&tain the CT ratios as indicated on the protection diagrams*  For e.isting circuits) it is possi&le to verify the ratios indicated on the diagrams &y measuring the load currents on site and comparing %ith a

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6RE0#IRED I FOR-$TIO PROTECTI2E SETTI !

FOR

Che#?'!( ;$r CT Sa&1ra&'$!:

Protection systems are adversely affected &y CT saturation* It is the responsi&ility of protection engineers to esta&lish for %hich forms of protection and under %hat conditions the CT should not saturate* -2) :2 and 32 CTs must &e matched as far as possi&le ta+ing into consideration the transformer vector group) tap changer influence and the connection of CTs*

CTs %$r Tra!s%$rmer D'%%ere!&'a" Pr$&e#&'$!:

CTs %$r Tra!s%$rmer Res&r'#&e* Ear&h ;a1"& 7RE;8 Pr$&e#&'$!:  $ll CT ratios must &e the same 'as %ith the &us /one protection() e.cept if the relay can internally correct unmatched ratios*

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PROTECTION SETTINGS PROCESS

The Protection Settings team o&tains all the information necessary for correct setting calculations* The settings are then calculated according to the latest philosophy) using sound engineering principles* Pre;%ritten programs may &e used as a guide* $fter calculation of the settings) it is important that another competent person chec+s them* The persons %ho calculate and %ho chec+ the settings &oth sign the formal settings document* The flo%chart in Fig* < indicates information flo% during protection setting preparation for commissioning of ne% Transmission plant*
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Fig. 5 +nformation flow ,uring protection settings preparation
)ro9ect lea,er of the )rotection *ettings team ,etermines scope of work and target dates +:; manufacturers pro%i,e bay specific +:; ,etails :ngineering team pro%i,es bay specific proformas an, ,rawings *ummary an, comparison of inputs <= *tu,y new protection an, create necessary setting templates in liaison with engineering team an, +:; manufactureres Calculation and verification of settings *ettings store, in central ,atabase an, formal document issued >ot <= (orrecti%e actions an, re&issue of ,rawings

+nterface with the :xpansion )laning team an, +:; manufacturers to obtain rele%ant e@uipment parameters for correct system mo,elling (entralise, *ettings Aanagement *ystem sen,s the action ,ocuments to the fiel, staff

+mplementation ,ate an, responsible fiel, person store, in the central ,atabase &? implementation action mplementation s!eet completed by fiel, staff an, returne, to )rotection *ettings team

(orrecti%e actions re@uire, to ensure implementation

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;.NCTION,L ELEMENTS O; PROTECTI>E REL,YS

To achieve ma.imum fle.i&ility) relays is designed using the concept of functional elements %hich include protection elements) control elements) input and output contacts etc* The protection elements are arranged to detect the system condition) ma+e a decision if the o&served varia&les are over=under the accepta&le limit) and ta+e proper action if accepta&le limits are crossed* Protection element measures system quantities such as voltages and currents) and compares these quantities or their com&ination against a threshold setting 'pic+up values(* If this comparison indicates that the thresholds are crossed) a decision element is triggered* This may involve a timing element) to determine if the 17 condition is permanent or temporary* If all chec+s are satisfied) the relay 'action element( operates*

*e@uence of protection operation initiate, by a fault is shown in Fig. 4.

Fault

)ic/up of protection element

<peration of protection element

Bssertion of relay trip logic signal

Bction of relay trip contact

(ircuit brea/er opening

Fault cleare,

Fig. 4 *e@uence of operation.

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OPER,TING C@,R,CTERISTICS O; PROTECTI>E REL,YS

Protective relays respond and operate according to defined operating characteristic and applied settings* Each type of protective relay has distinctive operating characteristic to achieve implementation o&5ective" sensitivity) selectivity) relia&ility and adequate speed of operation* ,asic operating characteristics of protective elements is as follo%s" O/er#1rre!& <r$&e#&'$! %1!#&'$!: the overcurrent element operates or pic+s up %hen its input current e.ceeds a predetermined value* D're#&'$!a" %1!#&'$!: an element pic+s up for faults in one direction) and remains sta&le for faults in the other 19 direction*

AOPER,TING C@,R,CTERISTICS O; PROTECTI>E REL,YS
D's&a!#e <r$&e#&'$! %1!#&'$!: an element used for protection of transmission lines %hose response is a function of the measured electrical distance &et%een the relay location and the fault point*  D'%%ere!&'a" <r$&e#&'$! %1!#&'$!: it senses a difference &et%een incoming and outgoing currents flo%ing through the protected apparatus*  C$mm1!'#a&'$!sB,ss's&e* Tr'<<'!( S#hemes: a form of the transmission line protection that uses a communication &et%een distance relays at 20 opposite line ends resulting in selective clearing of all line faults %ithout time delay*

O2ERC#RRE T $ D DIRECTIO $3 PROTECTIO E3E-E TS

$n overcurrent condition occurs %hen the ma.imum continuous load current permissi&le for a particular piece of equipment is e.ceeded* $ phase overcurrent protection element continuously monitors the phase current &eing conducted in the system and issue a trip command to a C, %hen the measured current e.ceeds a predefined setting* The &iggest area of concern for over;current protection is ho% to achieve selectivity* Some possi&le solutions have &een developed) including monitoring current levels 'current grading() introducing time delays 'time grading( or com&ining the t%o as %ell as including a directional element to detect the direction of current flo%*

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C#RRE T !R$DI !
Current grading %ill achieve selectivity &y determine the location of a fault using purely magnitude of current*  It is difficult to implement this in practice unless feeder sections have sufficient differences in impedance to cause noticea&le variations in fault current*  In a net%or+ %here there are several sections of line connected in series) %ithout significant impedances at their 5unctions there %ill &e little difference in currents) so discrimination or selectivity cannot &e achieved using current grading*

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TI-E DE3$4S
 

$n alternate means of grading is introducing time delays &et%een su&sequent relays* Time delays are set so that the appropriate relay has sufficient time to open its &rea+er and clear the fault on its section of line &efore the relay associated %ith the ad5acent section acts* :ence) the relay at the remote end is set up to have the shortest time delay and each successive relay &ac+ to%ard the source has an increasingly longer time delay* This eliminates some of the pro&lems %ith current grading and achieves a system %here the minimum amount of equipment is isolated during a fault* :o%ever) there is one main pro&lem %hich arises due to the fact that timing is &ased solely on position) not fault current level* 23 So) faults nearer to the source) %hich carry the highest current) %ill ta+e longer to clear) %hich is very

DIRECTIO $3 E3E-E TS

Selectivity can &e achieved &y using directional elements in con5unction %ith instantaneous or definite;time overcurrent elements* Directional overcurrent protection schemes respond to faults in only one direction %hich allo%s the relay to &e set in coordination %ith other relays do%nstream from the relay location* This is e.plained using e.ample in Fig* >*

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DIRECTIO $3 E3E-E TS

Fig. !: Cse of ,irection element example

,y providing directional elements at the remote ends of this system) %hich %ould only operate for fault currents flo%ing in one direction %e can maintain redundancy during a fault* This is in line %ith one of the main outcomes of ensuring selectivity) %hich is to minimi/e amount of circuitry that is isolated in order to clear a fault*
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DIRECTIO

OF C#RRE T F3O7

In $C systems) it is difficult to determine the direction of current flo% and the only %ay to achieve this is to perform measurements %ith reference to another alternating quantity) namely voltage* The main principle of ho% directional elements operate is &ased on the follo%ing equations for torque"
TA = VBC • I A • cos(∠VBC − ∠I A ) TB = VCA • I B • cos(∠VCA − ∠I B ) TC = V AB • I C • cos(∠V AB − ∠I C )

If current is in the for%ard direction) then the sign of the torque equation %ill &e positive and as soon as the direction of current flo% reverses) the sign of the torque equation &ecomes negative* These calculations are constantly &eing performed internally inside directional element*

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DIST$ CE PROTECTIO

F# CTIO

$ distance protection element measures the quotient 2=I 'impedance() considering the phase angle &et%een the voltage 2 and the current I*  In the event of a fault) sudden changes occur in measured voltage and current) causing a variation in the measured impedance*  The measured impedance is then compared against the set value*  Distance element %ill trip the relay 'a trip command %ill &e issued to the C, associated %ith the relay( if the measured value of the impedance is less then the value set*

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6DIST$ CE PROTECTIO

F# CTIO

Fig. 5 ;istance protection principle of operation.

In Fig* 9 the impedance measured at the relay point Z = ( R + jω L) x $ is ) %here x is the distance to the fault 'short circuit() and R and L are transmission line parameters in per unit length* The line length is l 28 in the fig**
in

6DIST$ CE PROTECTIO

F# CTIO

7e can see that the impedance value of a fault loop increases from /ero for a short circuit at the source end $) up to some finite value at the remote end ,* 7e can use this principle to set up /ones of distance protection as %ell as to provide feed&ac+ a&out %here a fault occurred 'distance to fault(*  Operating characteristics of distance protection elements are usually represented using R;? diagrams*  Fig* @ sho%s an e.ample of -ho R;? operating characteristic* The relay is considered to &e at the 29 origin*

6DIST$ CE PROTECTIO
E ine G 151F

F# CTIO
$egion of non&operation outsi,e the circle

B
21F

Done 5 ine )

ZR S
$egion of operation Done 1 oa, region

B

$

Fig. 6 Aho positi%e&se@uence $&E operating characteristic of a ,istance element.

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6DIST$ CE PROTECTIO F# CTIO
The need for /ones sho%n in Fig* @ arises from the need of selective protection1 i*e* the distance element should only trip faulty section*  7e can set the distance element to only trigger a trip signal for faults %ithin a certain distance from the relay) %hich is called the distance element reach*  The setting impedance is represented Z RS = hs Z L &y ) %here A3 is the line impedance* The distance element %ill only trip %hen the measured impedance ZR is less than or equal to the setting impedance hsZL*

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6DIST$ CE PROTECTIO

F# CTIO

Typically hs is set to protect BCD of the line &et%een t%o &uses and this forms protection Aone E* Errors in the 2Ts and CTs) modeled transmission line data) and fault study data do not permit setting Aone E for ECCD of the transmission line* If %e set Aone E for ECCD of the transmission line) un%anted tripping could occur for faults 5ust &eyond the remote end of the line*

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6DIST$ CE PROTECTIO F# CTIO
Aone < is set to protect E<CD of the line) hence ma+ing it over;reaching) &ecause it e.tends into the section of line protected &y the relay at point ,* To avoid nuisance tripping) any fault occurring in Aone E is cleared instantaneously) %hile faults %hich occur in Aone < are cleared after a time delay in order to allo% relay , to clear that fault first*  This provides redundancy in the protection system '&ac+up() %hilst maintaining selectivity*

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