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SUICIDE

Introduction
Suicide is a multi-dimensional disorder, which results from a complex interaction of biological, genetic, psychological and environmental factors. It also refers to death as a result of selfinflicted harm where the intention was to die whereas, attempted suicide refers to self-inflicted harm where the intention was to die but death does not occur. Suicide in Pakistan has been a long-term social issue and is a common cause of unnatural death. Incidents of suicide are often reported in the press and newspapers throughout the country as well as by several nongovernmental organizations. Research indicated that the majority of subjects were under the age of 30 and that "domestic problems" are the main reason stated for suicide. Stress factors such as financial difficulties or troubles with interpersonal relationships often play a significant role as well. Hanging, use of insecticides and firearms are the most common methods for carrying out suicide in Pakistan. In the wake of terrorism and militancy gripping the country, there has additionally been a rise in the concept of suicide bombings as well. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that suicide is the leading cause of death Pakistan. It is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under 35. In Pakistan most suicides occur in young people and the suicide rate is higher in women than men. There is compelling evidence that the suicide ratio has gradually been increasing in Pakistan over the last few years and that the upward trend has been very dramatic with almost 3,000 cases of suicide being reported in 2001 nationally.

Reasons
Despite being a leading cause of death, both in Pakistan and worldwide, there is little hard evidence to explain why some people commit suicide while other people in similar circumstances do not. However, some important factors that makes suicide more likely have been identified. These are explained below.  life history - for example having a traumatic experience during childhood, such as bereavement
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recurring feelings of stress and anxiety 2 . Generalized anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is where a person has persistent. mental health . Mental health conditions Having a mental health condition is the most significant risk factor for suicide. such as having an argument with a partner. The risk reduces as they learn to cope with their condition. In some cases. It is estimated that 90% of people who attempt or die by suicide have one or more mental health conditions.for example developing a serious mental health condition. Schizophrenia People with schizophrenia are most at risk of suicide when their symptoms first begin. The amount of stress it takes to do this will depend on the person’s level of vulnerability. such as a partner dying or being diagnosed with a terminal illness. In other cases. it may take one or more very stressful or upsetting events before a person feels suicidal.poor job security. Severe depression Severe depression is where a person has severe symptoms of despair and hopelessness that interfere with their life. one or more stressful events may push a person "over the edge" and lead to suicide. low levels of job satisfaction or not having a job can increase a person’s risk of dying by suicide  relationships . it may only take a minor event. such as schizophrenia   lifestyle .people who misuse alcohol and drugs are at increased risk of suicides job .people who are socially isolated and have few close relationships with others have a higher risk of dying by suicide As well as these factors. The mental health conditions that lead to the biggest risk of suicide are described below.

such as the end of a relationship or the death of a loved one   misusing drugs or misusing alcohol working in an occupation that provides access to potential ways of dying by suicide. farmer or as member of the armed services A newer theory of suicide A newer theory about suicide. nurse. devised by an American psychologist called Thomas Joiner. either emotional or physical neglect or both having a parent with a serious mental health condition. such as severe depression or schizophrenia    having a parent who died by suicide having previously attempted suicide being socially isolated. states that three main factors can cause someone to turn to suicide. pharmacist. such as working as a doctor.Other risk factors for suicide Other factors that can increase the risk of suicide include:   having a history of parental neglect. having poor job security or working in an unskilled occupation     being in debt being homeless being recently released from prison having recently experienced a traumatic event. such as living alone or having few close friends or family members  being unemployed. They are:  a perception (usually mistaken) that they are alone in the world and that no one really cares about them  a feeling (again usually mistaken) that they are a burden on others and that people would be better off if they were dead  fearlessness towards pain and death 3 .

preventing thoughts of suicide from moving on to become suicidal actions is achievable. I believe intervention should be a community’s main suicide prevention focus.    Reducing domestic violence and substance abuse are long-term strategies to reduce many mental health problems. handguns etc.) Reducing the quantity of dosages supplied in packages of non-prescription medicines e. and longer-term treatment/therapy (also intending to prevent future suicidal acts) and intervention (intending to prevent thoughts from becoming suicidal acts) are all important in an overall prevention strategy. This could help explain why suicide rates are higher in occupations that are linked to such exposure. Prevention (intending to prevent thoughts of suicide or prepare persons for the possibility of thoughts of suicide in the future). Suggestions In Pakistan. warning signs and the availability of help Increasing the proficiency of health and welfare services at responding to people in need. Though thinking about suicide may be difficult if not impossible to prevent. suicide rates have been increasing tremendously. toxic substances. Well. People who are regularly exposed to the suffering and pain of others may develop this fearlessness over time. Given current knowledge about reducing suicidal behaviors.g. nurses and doctor. including risk factors. aspirin 4 . Reducing access to convenient means of suicide (e.g. So there is a great need to take preventive measures so that this rate can be reduced. various suicide prevention strategies can be used which are as follow:    Promoting mental resilience through optimism Educating about suicide. Safety plans should be implemented to minimize the risk factors that apply to the particular person at risk. The theory argues that fearlessness towards pain and self-harm may be learnt over time. this includes better training for health professionals and employing crisis counseling organizations. such as soldiers. which could explain the strong association between self-harming behavior and suicide.The last factor poses the biggest risk that someone will go through with a successful suicide attempt.

       Interventions targeted at high-risk groups Reviewing the law regarding suicides in Pakistan Making suicide prevention telephone hotlines Increasing budget (spending) on mental health Initiating school based interventions Implementing strategies that restrict the act to lethal ways of suicide Promoting the religious belief that suicide is prohibited in Islam It has also been suggested that news media can help prevent suicide by linking suicide with negative outcomes such as pain for the suicide and his survivors. 5 . So the media can also play a very significant role in suicide prevention. and avoiding presenting authorities or sympathetic. avoiding mentioning suicide epidemics. ordinary people as spokespersons for the reasonableness of suicide. conveying that the majority of people choose something other than suicide in order to solve their problems.

answers.References www.com www.net 6 .slideshare.wikipedia.org www.