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1970 (a) What is the pH of a 2.0 molar solution of acetic acid. Ka acetic acid = 1.8!10–5 (b) A buffer solution is prepared by adding 0.

10 liter of 2.0 molar acetic acid solution to 0.1 liter of a 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide solution. Compute the hydrogen ion concentration of the buffer solution. (c) Suppose that 0.10 liter of 0.50 molar hydrochloric acid is added to 0.040 liter of the buffer prepared in (b). Compute the hydrogen ion concentration of the resulting solution. Answer: (a) CH3COOH(aq) ! H+(aq) + CH3COO–(aq)
Ka = 1.8 !10
"5

Acid - Base

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1970 H3PO2,H3PO3, and H3PO4 are monoprotic, diprotic and triprotic acids, respectively, and they are about equal strong acids. HClO2, HClO3, and HClO4 are all monoprotic acids, but HClO2 is a weaker acid than HClO3 which is weaker than HClO4. Account for: (a) The fact that the molecules of the three phosphorus acids can provide different numbers of protons. (b) The fact that the three chlorine acids differ in strengths. Answer: (a) the structure for the three acids are as follows: O H H

H P O O P O H H O P O H O O O [H+] = [CH3COO–] = X H H H [CH3COOH] = 2.0 – X, X << 2.0, (2.0– X) = 2.0 The hydrogen atom(s) bonded directly to the X2 –5 phosphorus atom is/are not acidic in aqueous so1.8!10 = 2.0 lution; only those hydrogen atoms bonded to the X = 6.0x10–3 = [H+]; pH = –log [H+] = 2.22 oxygen atoms can be released as protons. (b) 0.1 L x 2.0 mol/L = 0.20 mol CH3COOH (b) The acid strength is successively greater as the number of oxygen atoms increases because the 0.1 L x 1.0 mol/L = 0.10 mol NaOH very electronegative oxygen atoms are able to the 0.10 mol of hydroxide neutralizes 0.10 mol draw electrons away from the chlorine atom and CH3COOH with 0.10 mol remaining with a conthe O–H bond. This effect is more important as centration of 0.10 mol/0.20 L = 0.5 M. This also the number of attached oxygen atoms increases. produces 0.10 mol of acetate ion in 0.20 L, This means that a proton is most readily therefore, [CH3COO–] = 0.50 M. produced by the molecule with the largest + ][0.50] [H number of attached oxygen atoms. "5 1.8 !10 = [0.50] 1970 [H+] = 1.8x10–5 = pH of 4.74 A comparison of the theories Arrhenius, Brönsted (c) [CH3COOH]o = [CH3COO–]o and Lewis shows a progressive generalization of the 0.040 L acid base concept. Outline the essential ideas in each = 0.50 M x = 0.143 M of these theories and select three reactions, one that 0.14 L can be interpreted by all three theories, one that can 0.10 L [H+]o = 0.50 M x = 0.357 M be interpreted by two of them, and one that can be 0.14 L the equilibrium will be pushed nearly totally to interpreted by only one of the theories. Provide these the left resulting in a decrease of the hydrogen six interpretations. ion by 0.143M. Therefore, the [H+]eq = 0.357M Answer: Arrhenius – 0.143M = 0.214M. acid = produce H+ ions in aqueous solution base = produce OH– ions in aqueous solution Brönsted–Lowry
Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541. All rights reserved. For face-to-face teaching purposes, classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential, Framingham, MA 01701-2619.

[H+ ][CH3COO" ] = [CH3COOH]

Acid - Base
acid = proton donor; base = proton acceptor Lewis acid = e- pair acceptor; base = e- pair donor (H+) Examples: Interpreted by all three HCl + H2O " H+(aq) + Cl–(aq) NaOH + H2O " Na+(aq) + OH–(aq) Interpreted by two NH3 + HCl ! NH4+ + Cl– Interpreted by only one BF3 + NH3 " F3B:NH3

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1972 (repeated in gases topic) A 5.00 gram sample of a dry mixture of potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, and potassium chloride is reacted with 0.100 liter of 2.00 molar HCl solution (a) A 249 milliliter sample of dry CO2 gas, measured at 22˚C and 740 torr, is obtained from this reaction. What is the percentage of potassium carbonate in the mixture? (b) The excess HCl is found by titration to be chemically equivalent to 86.6 milliliters of 1.50 molar NaOH. Calculate the percentages of potassium hydroxide and of potassium chloride in the original mixture. Answer: (a) K2CO3 + 2 HCl " CO2 + 2 KCl + H2O PV (740torr)(249mL) mol CO2 = = = RT 62400 m L !torr (295K)

(

mol! K

)

= 0.0100 mol CO2 0.10mol CO2 1mol K2 CO3 138.2g K2 CO3 ! ! 1mol CO2 1mol K2 CO3 = 1.38 g 1.38gK2 CO3 ! 100% = 27.6% K2CO3 5.00 g mixture (b) orig. mol HCl = 0.100 L ! 2.00M = 0.200 mol reacted with K2CO3 = 0.020 mol excess HCl = 0.0866L ! 1.50M = 0.130 mol mol HCl that reacted w/KOH = 0.050 mol 0.050 mol KOH = 2.81 g = 56.1% of sample the remaining KCl amounts to 16.3% 1972 Given a solution of ammonium chloride. What additional reagent or reagents are needed to prepare a buffer from the ammonium chloride solution? Explain how this buffer solution resists a change in
Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ 08541. All rights reserved. For face-to-face teaching purposes, classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential, Framingham, MA 01701-2619.

(b) Moderate amounts of strong base are added.0600M–9.0 mL) = (0.150M)(Vb) Vb = 26. page 3 Answer: Since ammonium chloride is a salt of a weak base. NH3 + H+ ! NH4+ (b) When moderate amounts of a strong base. All rights reserved. . the ammonia reacts with it.0 milliliters of a 0.0600M (40.66 ! 10 "5 M (0. the ammonium ion reacts with it. NJ 08541. The concentration of the hydrogen ion remains essentially the same and therefore only a very small change in pH. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.600M –X [OH–] = [CH3COOH] = X X2 .Acid .7 mL (b) acetate ion is a weak base with K 1. H+. are added.0mL + 26.Base pH when: (a) Moderate amounts of strong acid are added. (a) When moderate amounts of a strong acid. the weak base is needed.66!10–5M = 0. are added.00mmol [CH3COO! ]o = = 0. 1973 A sample of 40. X = 9.0 ! 10 "14 Kb = w = = 5.100 molar HC2H3O2 solution is titrated with a 0.8 ! 10 4.0600 " X) 0. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. Framingham. (c) A portion of the buffer solution is diluted with an equal volume of water. ammonia. MA 01701-2619.6 ! 10" 10 = Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.100M)(40. NH3. NH4+ + OH– ! NH3 + H2O (c) By diluting with water the relative concentration ratio of [NH4+]/[NH3] does not change. For face-to-face teaching purposes.0599M [CH3COO–]eq 5.6 ! 10" 10 " 5 Ka 1.8!10–5 (a) What volume of NaOH is used in the titration in order to reach the equivalence point? (b) What is the molar concentration of C2H3O2– at the equivalence point? (c) What is the pH of the solution at the equivalence point? Answer: (a) MaVa=MbVb (0.150 molar NaOH solution. therefore there should be no change in pH. Ka for acetic acid = 1.7mL) [CH3COO–]eq = 0. The concentration of the hydrogen ion remains essentially the same and therefore only a very small change in pH. OH–. Princeton.

X = 5. Framingham. K = 1. For face-to-face teaching purposes. Determine the concentrations of H3O+.365L) – X [H3O+] = (0. C2H5COOH.8!10–5] Answer: 4. pH = " log[H+ ] = 13.50 liter of solution.365L) + X (X)(0. (b) Suppose that 4. Kw [OH! ] = = 1.100 " X) .00 grams of NaOH(s) is dissolved in 1.Acid .98 1974 A A solution is prepared from 0. X = 0. .50L 40.66 " 10 pH = –log [H+] = –log(1.50 molar in NH4+. 46 " 10 !13 M 0.20 0.00 liter of a solution that is 0.50 + X) using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation ![NH+ ]$ ! 0.274M [H3O+] = 0. [Ionization constant at 25˚C for the reaction NH3 + H2O " NH4+ + OH–. and OH– in this solution.0685 + X) !5 !5 Ka = =1.8 ! 10" 5 = (0. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. [NH3] = 0. [C2H5COOH] = 0. Calculate the pH of the solution.3!10–5 Answer: C2H5COOH + H2O ! C2H5COO– + H3O+ (c) [H ] = + page 4 1. Assuming that there is no change in volume and no loss of NH3 to the atmosphere.0685M. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.50M + X Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.50 molar in NH3 and 0. Ka for propionic acid = 1.2 "10 0.57 pH = pKa + log# = 4. MA 01701-2619.10mol/0.100M (0.04 " 10 !10 M ! = ! 5 [OH ] 9.60% " [NH3]% [C2H5COO–] = X [C2H5COOH] = (0. after a chemical reaction has occurred.0g K [H+ ] = w = 5 ! 10" 14 .04!10–10) = 9. All rights reserved.50M – X.00 gram sample of NaOH(s) is dissolved in enough water to make 0.0250 mole of HCl. NJ 08541.3 "10 .0 " 10! 14 1. Princeton.00L [NH4+] = 0.Base Kw = 1.274 ! X [C2H5COO–] = 5.00gNaOH 1mol ! = 0.365 liter of solution.0250mol/0. calculate the concentration of hydroxide ion.2!10–5M. 0.40$ 4 & & = 4.3 0. C2H5COO–.20M (a) 0. and enough water to make 0.0685 1975 A (a) A 4.100mol ! (b) [OH ] = !X 1.74 + log# " 0. C2H5COOH.10 mole propionic acid.50 " X)(0.

65.1975 Reactions requiring either an extremely strong acid or an extremely strong base are carried out in solvents other than water.0!10–5M S2–.0!10–4 M = [H3O+] Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.10 molar in H2S and (b) HOCl + H2O ! H3O+ + OCl– + 0. Acid . (c) Calculate the number of moles of unreacted HA 5.10 ! X X ‹‹ 0. Ag+. MA 01701-2619.10.5!10–17 molar in sulfide ion. NaOCl. X ‹‹ 0. [0.5 ! 10 " 17 (d) Calculate the [H3O+] at pH = 5. Framingham. [H3O+ ][0.Base page 5 let X = [H3O+] = [HS–] .0 " 10 pH = –log[H3O+] = 2.135 molar NaOH solution. For face-to-face teaching purposes.1!10–21M (a) Calculate the number of moles of acid in the [0.6 milliliters of base.5!10–51 (b) Calculate the molecular weight of the acid HA. X = 1. HA was dissolved in sufficient water to make 50 milliliters of solution and was titrated with a 0.9 ! 10 M 1.40]2[S2 ! ] !20 = 1. Answer: Water is amphoteric and can behave either as an acid in the presence of a strong base or as a base in the presence of strong acid. 1977 The value of the ionization constant.3 " 10 !20 reached after the addition of 27. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. (c) Cl2 + H2O " HCl + HOCl Answer: (a) H2S + H2O ! H3O+ + HS– [HOCl] = [HCl] = 0. (c) A solution is prepared by the disproportionation reaction below. a pH of 5.10] original sample. [Ag + ] = = 1.1!10–8.0040 molar. All rights reserved.3!10 Answer: + 2– –51 Ag2S(s) ! 2 Ag + S Ksp= 5.0!10–8M 1.0 " 10! 7 0.5 ! 10 " 51 " 17 remaining in solution when the pH was 5. (a) Calculate the hydronium ion concentration of a 0. Ka.010 (c) Calculate the maximum concentration of silver [0. (b) Calculate the concentration of hydronium ion in a solution prepared by mixing equal volumes of 0. [Ag+]2[S2–] = 5.050 molar solution of HOCl.40 molar in H3O .010 + X] = 3.2 " 10 !8 .050 molar HOCl and 0. S2–.2 ! 10 = = tion which is 0.65 was + 2 2 ! recorded.3!10–13 of HOCl equal to 0. Cl2 + H2O " HCl + HOCl 1976 Calculate the pH of the solution if enough chloH2S + H2O ! H3O+ + HS– K1 = 1. NJ 08541.3 " 10 . is 3. After the (b) H2S + 2 H2O ! 2 H3O+ + S2– addition of 10. Explain why this is necessary for both cases. + 2– –20 H2 S + 2 H 2 O ! 2 H3 O + S K = 1. that can exist in a solution that is X = [H3O+] = 8.0040M HCl as principal source of H3O+ [H3O+ ][HS! ] !7 = 1.65 X2 = 1.0!10–7 rine is added to water to make the concentration HS– + H2O ! H3O+ + S2– K2 = 1.050 " X) (b) Calculate the concentration of the sulfide ion. Princeton.0250 ! X] ion.020 molar sodium hypochlorite. [S2–] = 8. (c) Ag2S(s) ! 2 Ag+ + S2–.135 molar NaOH. HOCl. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. The equivalence point (end point) was [H3O ] [S ] = 1. Water also undergoes autoionization. X = [H3O+] = 4.5!10 (a) HOCl + H2O ! H3O+ + OCl– + " (a) Calculate the concentration of H3O+ of a soluX2 " 8 [H3O ][OCl ] 3.10 molar in H2S. for hypochlorous acid.682 gram sample of an unknown weak monoprotic organic acid.4 milliliters of the [H2S] 0. [HOCl] (0.40 [H2 S] 1978 A A 0. in a solution that is 0.

00370 mol added: (0.00143) = 0. Explain your prediction in each case (a) Al(NO3)3 (b) K2CO3 (c) NaBr Answer: (a) acidic.2!10–6M (e) Ka = Acid .00227 mol (d) pH = –log[H3O+]. NJ 08541.Base page 6 [H3O + ][A! ] (2. (a) at equivalence point.682g = = 184 g/mol (b) molec.135 M) = 3. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. CO32– + H2O ! HCO3– + OH– .0% by weight HCl.70 !10"3 mol (c) HA + OH– " A– + H2O initial: 0. (b) basic.4!10 1978 D Predict whether solutions of each of the following salts are acidic. Answer: Ka. MA 01701-2619. Princeton.59) by titrating the OH– produced according to the following quantitative reaction. or neutral. Al3+ + H2O ! AlOH2+ + H+. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.20 molar hydrochloric acid by dilution with water? (c) In order to obtain a precise concentration. All rights reserved. hydrolysis of Al3+.20 molar hydrochloric acid is standardized against pure HgO (molecular weight = 216. etc. basic. . Al(OH2)n3+ as Brönsted acid.(e) Calculate the value of the ionization constant. Br– from strong acid 1979 B A solution of hydrochloric acid has a density of 1. Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.00370 – 0. (a) What is the molarity of this solution of HCl? (b) What volume of this solution should be taken in order to prepare 5.00143 / v) = [HA] (0. the 0. (c) neutral. Framingham.0106L)(0. or hydrolysis of CO32– as conjugate to a weak acid.wt . moles HA = moles NaOH = MbVb = (0.2 " 10 !6 )(0.0 liters of 0.65 = 2.70!10–3 mol HA mass HA 0. of the acid HA.00143 mole remaining: (0. Na+ from strong base. [H3O+] = 10–pH = 10–5.15 grams per milliliter and is 30.0274 L)(0. = mol HA 3.00227 / v) –6 = 1.135M) = 0. etc. For face-to-face teaching purposes.

Base HgO(s) + 4 I– + H2O " HgI4 2– page 7 +2 OH– In a typical experiment 0. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. = mol OH– prod. MA 01701-2619.2084M 0.5M)(V) V = 0. (c) Which is the stronger base.20M)(5.0L) = (9.003300 mol HgO (c) 216. NJ 08541.11 L 0. Since both reactions are quantitative. (a) Give the Brönsted–Lowry definition of an acid and a base. Each of these reactions proceeds essentially to completion to the right when carried out in aqueous solution.0gHCl 1mol ! ! ! = 9. base = proton acceptor (b) Acid Conjugate base 1st reaction NH4+ NH3 H2 O OH– 2nd reaction H2 O OH– C2H5OH C2H5O– (c) ethoxide is a stronger base than ammonia. Princeton.59g mol mol OH– prod.03167L 1979 D NH4+ + OH– ! NH3 + H2O H2O + C2H5O– ! C2H5OH + OH– The equations for two acid–base reactions are given above. Based on these data what is the molarity of the HCl solution expressed to four significant figures. A stronger base is always capable of displacing a weaker base. = 2 (mol HgO) = 0.15g 1000mL 30. = 0. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.67 milliliters of the hydrochloric acid solution for titration.5M (a) 1mL 1L 100g 35. ammonia or the ethoxide ion. Answer: (a) acid = proton donor. Answer: 1.7147 grams of HgO required 31.7147g = 0. Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.006600mol M HCl = = 0. C2H5O– > OH– in 2nd rxn.006600 mol 0. All rights reserved. Framingham. . OH– > NH3 in 1st reaction.5g (b) MfVf = MiVi (0.006600 mol mol HCl req. (b) List each acid and its conjugate base for each of the reactions above.Acid . in terms of base strength. For face-to-face teaching purposes. C2H5O–? Explain your answer.

3 ! 10 7. at 25˚C.Base page 8 1980 A Methylamine CH3NH2. will any La(OH)3 precipitate? Show the calculations that prove your answer. (The solubility constant for La(OH)3. 0. Framingham.5 ! 10 pH = –log [H3O+] = 11.160M ! 4. is a weak base that ionizes in solution as shown by the following equation.5"10 ) = [CH3 NH2 ] 0.00 liter of a solution containing 0.0152M @ equilibrium [CH3NH3+] = [OH–] = 7.7!10–4 "4 (c) K b = 3.Acid .7% = 7. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.020 " X) = [OH–] Q = [La3+][OH–]3 = (0. . therefore. CH3NH2 + H2O ! CH3NH3+ + OH– (a) At 25˚C the percentage ionization in a 0. [H3O+].20 mole of its salt CH3NH3Cl at 25˚C.160 molar solution of CH3NH2 is 4. [CH3NH2].20 mole of CH3NH2 and 0. and the solution is stirred until equilibrium is attained.7 ! 10 = (0.89 (b) K b = ! !3 2 [CH3 NH+ 3 ][OH ] (7. Calculate [OH–].5!10–12 Q > Ksp. [CH3NH3+].050 mole of crystalline lanthanum nitrate is added to 1.7!10–4)3 = 2. NJ 08541.160M – 0. Ksp = 1!10–19 at 25˚C) Answer: (a) CH3NH2. (c) If 0.20 + X)(X) #X (. La(OH)3 precipitates Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.160 molar solution of CH3NH2 at 25˚C (b) Calculate the value for Kb. For face-to-face teaching purposes.5!10–3 M Kw "12 [H3O+ ] = M "3 = 1.7%. All rights reserved. the ionization constant for CH3NH2.050)(3. MA 01701-2619. and the pH of a 0.5!10–3 M ionizing (0.152 =3. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.0075M) = 0. Princeton.

.60 & = ! log(1.8 "10!4 ) + log% ( $ 0.00–molar formic acid is mixed with 200. HCOONa.00 millilitre sample of 1.80–molar NaOH.00 molar HCl is added to 100. neutral or basic. (b) If 100. milliliters of 4.40 ' = 3. MA 01701-2619. The ionization constant. Answer: (a) using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation " [A ! ] % pH = pK a +log$ ' #[HA]& # 0. Ka. millilitres of the original buffer solution. All rights reserved. (a) Predict whether a 0. in 1.1981 D Al(NO3)3 Acid . of formic acid is 1. the pH does not change. For face-to-face teaching purposes.10 molar solution of each of the salts above is acidic.40 mole of formic acid. Answer: (a) Al(NO3)3 – acidic K2CO3 – basic NaHSO4 – acidic NH4Cl – acidic (b) Al3+ + H2O " Al(OH)2+ + H+ Al(H2O)63+ + H2O " [Al(H2O)5OH]2+ + H3O+ Al3+ + 3 H2O " Al(OH)3 + 3 H+ CO32– + H2O " HCO3– + OH– HSO4– + H2O " SO42– + H3O+ NH4+ + H2O " NH3 + H3O+ 1982 A A buffer solution contains 0. and 0. Princeton. (a) Calculate the pH of this solution. Discuss why the pH remains constant on dilution. (d) A 800. Framingham.60 mole of sodium formate. (c) A 5.92 {other approaches possible} Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.00 litre of solution. Calculate the [H3O+] of the resulting solution. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. write a balanced chemical equation for a reaction occurring with water that supports your prediction. HCOOH. (b) For each of the solutions that is not neutral. millilitres of this buffer solution is diluted to a volume of 1.00 litre with pure water.Base K2CO3 NaHSO4 NH4Cl page 9 (b) The pH remains unchanged because the ratio of the formate and formic acid concentration stays the same. Calculate the [H3O+] of the resulting solution.8!10–4.–milliliter sample of 2. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. NJ 08541.

60 – 0.96M =0.Acid . Princeton.8 ! 10 "4 ! = 1.. (c) Calculate the number of moles of barium Conductivity. 0. 5.1–M H2SO4 (b) Calculate the number of moles of HX in a 50.066 gram mol–1).2 ! " 4 M 0. ! Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.00mL 1. requiring an average of 38. The conductivity decreases because Ba2+ forms 0. 100mL 0.21 millilitres of NaOH.96 mol OH– Beyond the equivalence point conductivity inat equil. The volume of NaOH solution required to neutralize 1.8 ! 10 "4 ! = 1.00M HCOOH = 1. write a balanced net ionic (c) Calculate the molecular weight of HX. The 1983 B data obtained are plotted on the graph below.52M combines with the addition of H+ ions by (d) 0.05M = 0.126 grams of HX was dissolved in distilled water and the volume brought to exactly 250.40M HCOOH! = 0. A sample of 15. M sulfuric acid and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured as the titration proceeds. through a minimum.57M – 0.00 millilitres in a volumetric flask.80M NaOH = 0.05M = 0. 0. passes drate contained a nonacidic impurity.0476M (d) Explain why the conductivity does not fall to 105mL zero at the equivalence point of this titration. MA 01701-2619. The NaOH solution was standardized against oxalic acid dihydrate.60M HCOO.00 millilitre portion used for titration.64 mol HCOOH and creases as H+ and SO42– ions are added.5 ! "4 M The conductivity also decreases because OH– 0.00 millilitre portions of this solution were titrated against NaOH solution.1M ! 0.Base page 10 (c) initial concentrations hydroxide originally present in the solution that is titrated. 0. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.1– H+ and OH–.00M HCl ! = 0. (a) For the reaction that occurs during the titration described above.004 mol (d) BaSO4(s) dissociates slightly to form Ba2+ and 1982 D SO42–.200L ! 4. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. For face-to-face teaching purposes.57M 105mL H2 O + – concentrations after H reacts with HCOO (b) The initial conductivity is high because of the 0. The molecular weight of a monoprotic acid HX was to be determined. (d) Discuss the effect of the calculated molecular weight of HX if the sample of oxalic acid dihy(b) Explain why the conductivity decreases.43M HCOOH presence of Ba2+ and OH– ions.2596 grams of oxalic acid dihydrate was 41.43M [H3O+ ] = 1. while the water ionizes slightly to form A solution of barium hydroxide is titrated with 0. Framingham.52M HCOO– insoluble BaSO4 with the addition of SO42–. equation.38M + 0. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 (a) Calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution. NJ 08541.! = 0.38M Answer: 105mL 100mL (a) Ba2+ + 2 OH– + 2 H+ + SO42– " BaSO4(s) + 2 0.60 mol forming H2O. and then increases as the volume of H2SO4 added to the barium Answer: hydroxide is increased.2H2O (molecular weight: 126. . All rights reserved.24 millilitres. (1.04L = 0.800L ! 2.64M [H3O+ ] = 1.96 mol HCOO– (c) # mol Ba(OH)2 = # mol H2SO4 0.96) = 0. Millilitres of 0. H2C2O4. Several 50.

. or (5) mix a weak acid and a 50.01852mol (c) ! 250.09260mol (d) The calculated molecular weight is smaller than true value.8!10–5. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. referring to your discussion in part (a). or (4) 0. says he would mix NH3 and NaOH solutions.9983 ! 10" 2 mol(a) A buffer solution resists changes in pH upon the 1molH 2C 2O4 addition of an acid or base. NH4+.9916!10–3 mol Ka= 1. Describe the components and the composition of effective buffer solutions.04124L of a weak base.126g MW = = 163. 15. 1. Which of these applicants has given an appropriate procedure? Explain your answer.3 g mol 0. 9. Beula B. Explain what is Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.09260mol HX of strong acid. says he would mix acetic acid and sodium acetate solutions. Carla C.066 acidity constants may be helpful: acetic acid. Dexter D.4846 M = 0. Archie A.01852 mol HX mix a weak base with about half as many moles 0. Framingham. calculated M NaOH is larger than true value calculated mol HX is larger than true value.00mL weak base. says she would mix NH4Cl and NH3 solutions.9916 ! 10 "3 mol ! = 1. because: measured g H2C2O4 is larger than true value.4846M salt of a weak acid. NJ 08541. Ka = 5.00mL = 0. MA 01701-2619. (No calculations are necessary. or (2) mix a weak base + salt 0.Base (a) mol H2C2O4. or (3) mix a weak acid with (b) mol HX = mol NaOH about half as many moles of strong base. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.2H2O = page 11 wrong with the erroneous procedures.6!10–10) H2C2O4 + 2 NaOH " Na2C2O4 + 2 H2O Answer: 2molNaOH 9. and too large ) 1983 C (a) Specify the properties of a buffer solution.Acid . g HX (true value ) MW = mol HX (calculated . says she would mix NH4Cl and HCl solutions.2596 g g mol = calculated mol H2C2O4 is larger than true value.9983 ! 10 "2 mol Preparation of a buffer: (1) mix a weak acid + a M NaOH = = 0. All rights reserved. For face-to-face teaching purposes. calculated mol NaOH is larger than true value. therefore. 1.03821 L ! 0. Princeton. but the following 126. (b) An employer is interviewing four applicants for a job as a laboratory technician and asks each how to prepare a buffer solution with a pH close to 9.

so we would choose an indicator that changes color at a pH = 7. An indicator is a weak acid or weak base where the acid form and basic form of the indicators are of different colors. The salt ! ! 6 2 [C H COH][OH ] (3.0 ! 10 "14 "5 tion. {Many other examples possible. Princeton.60 at room temperature.6.58!10–10 (d) To the remaining 0. = 1. since his solution consists of a weak base plus a strong base. Beula doesn’t have a buffer solution. (c) To 0. . C6H5COOH. the pH at which the indicator changes color should be equal to (or bracket) the pH of the solution at the equivalence point.88 = 1. Answer: (a) pH =8.150 litre of the original soluKw 1.98 " 10 ) solution remains unchanged. benzoic acid. A 0. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. is a weak acid that has an equilibrium constant. HN3.8!10–5 at 25˚C.100 molar NaOH solution is = = 6. All rights reserved. Ka. equal to 2. (a) Calculate the [OH–] in the sodium benzoate solution described above. is the salt of a the weak acid. Ka.75!10–2M + 1. MA 01701-2619. hydrazoic acid. A 0. Dexter does not have a buffer solution.150 litre of this solution.88!10–2M page 12 1984 C Discuss the roles of indicators in the titration of acids and bases. 0.300 litre sample of a 0. her solution consists of a strong acid and a salt of a weak base.58 ! 10 ) added. (a) Write the expression for the equilibrium constant.1 ! 3. is added.32 " 10 !3 )2 2 [C6H5CO2 H] = = (a) HN3 ! H+ + N3– Ka 6.80 gram of sodium azide. Answer: An indicator signals the end point of a titration by changing color. (b) Calculate the value for the equilibrium constant for the reaction: C6H5COO– + H2O ! C6H5COOH + OH– (c) Calculate the value of Ka.98 " 10 ) dissolved completely.33 ! 10 (c) Ka = " 10 Kb 1.4 [OH–] =10–pOH = 3.98!10–6M (b) [C6H5COOH] = [OH–] ions) = 2. Archie has a buffer solution but a pH of around 5. (d) A saturated solution of benzoic acid is prepared by adding excess solid benzoic acid to pure water at room temperature. 0. Since this saturated solution has a pH of 2. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. for hydrazoic acid.Base (b) Carla has the correct procedure. Calculate the [OH–] for the resulting solution at 25˚C. 1984 A Sodium benzoate. when a strong acid is titrated with a strong base. (d) pH 2. An indicator changes color when the pH of the solution equals the pKa of the indicator. calculate the molar solubility of benzoic acid at room temperature. (b) Calculate the pH of this solution at 25˚C. NH3. she has mixed a weak base.88.32!10–3M [H+] = [C6H5COO–] Answer: [H+ ][C6 H5CO! ] (1. Calculate the pH of the Kb = 6 5 = ! !6 resulting solution at 25˚C if the volume of the [C6H 5CO2 ] (0.075 litre of 0. the pH at the equivalence point is 7. NH4Cl.10 molar solution of sodium benzoate has a pH of 8.050 molar solution of the acid is prepared. with the salt of a weak base. Framingham. NaN3. For example. the acid dissociation constant for benzoic acid. NJ 08541. In selecting an indicator.33 " 10! 5 !] [H + ][N3 = 2.} 1986 A In water. For face-to-face teaching purposes.Acid .75!10–2M [C6H5COOH] Ka = [HN3 ] total dissolved = (2. C6H5COONa.32!10–3M as Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. pOH =5. Explain the basis of their operation and the factors to be considered in selecting an appropriate indicator for a particular titration.

8!10–5. acid strength increases. All rights reserved. Answer: (a) 1) As effective nuclear charge on central atom increases. for NH3 is 1. OR As number of lone oxygen atoms (oxygen atoms not bonded to hydrogen) increases. (a) Discuss the factors that are often used to predict correctly the strengths of the oxyacids listed above. . Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.050 + pH = –log[H ] = 2. Framingham. acid strength increases. complete K N3– + H2O ! HN3 + OH– . such as those above.8 ! 10" 5 = .77 (d) (0.0075 mol NaOH (0.Acid .082M (c) [N! 3] = 0. neut. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.7 ! 10" 5 M 0.0075 % 2. For face-to-face teaching purposes.050 pH = 4.050M) = 0.0 ! 10" 14 [HN3 ][OH" ] X2 = = # 0. [H + ] = 1. K b = w Ka 1. one or more of these oxygen atoms may also be bonded to hydrogen.100M) = 0. Princeton. OR Ka of H2SO3 > Ka of HSO3– (b) H3BO3 < HSO3– < H2SO3 < HClO3 < HClO4 H3BO3 or HSO3– weakest (must be together) 1987 A NH3 + H2O ! NH4+ + OH– Ammonia is a weak base that dissociates in water as shown above.93 2. NJ 08541.0075 mol HN3 OH– + HN3 " H2O + N3– .075L)(0. X = 1. MA 01701-2619. 2) Loss of H+ by a neutral acid molecule reduces acid strength. Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.150L)(0. OR As electronegativity of central atom increases. (b) Arrange the examples above in the order of increasing acid strength.80g 1mol " = 0.225 & X = [OH–] = 3. At 25˚C.8 ! 10" 5 = page 13 0. contain an atom bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.8 ! 10" 5 [N" 3] $ 0.150L 65g [H+ ](0. acid strength increases. the base dissociation constant.082) 2.Base (b) [H+] = [N3–] = X X2 . Kb.5!10–6M 1986 D H2SO3 HSO3– HClO4 HClO3 H3BO3 Oxyacids.2 ! 10 "3 M 0.

(Assume the volume of the solution is unchanged. Calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution. a monoprotic acid often used as a primary standard. A sample of pure KHC8H4O4 weighing 1. NJ 08541.6 !103 % diss.100L = 0. (b) Determine the pH of a solution prepared by adding 0. 26.4!10–6)2 = 2.73 (c) Mg(OH)2 ! Mg2+ + 2 OH– page 14 in water and titrated with the NaOH solution.27) = 8. To reach the equivalence point. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. MA 01701-2619.100L) = 0.2) [Mg2+] = (0. For face-to-face teaching purposes. Answer: (a) [NH4+] = [OH–] = X. MgCl2.0800mol/0. The solubility product constant for Mg(OH)2 is 1. KHC8H4O4.518 grams was dissolved Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. will a precipitate of Mg(OH)2 form? Show calculations to support your answer.27.0500 mol/0. = ! 100% = 1.Base (a) Determine the hydroxide ion concentration and the percentage dissociation of a 0.1% 0.0500 mole of solid ammonium chloride to 100.8!10 = 0. (c) If 0.150 – X) X2 [NH+ ][OH! ] 4 –5 Kb = . pH = (14 – 5. (Molecular weight: KHC8H4O4 = 204. (a) Initially a NaOH solution was standardized by titration with a sample of potassium hydrogen phthalate.800M [OH–] = 5. All rights reserved.500M [NH3] = 0.3!10–11 Q > Ksp so Mg(OH)2 precipitates 1987 B The percentage by weight of nitric acid. X = [OH" ] = 5.150 molar solution of ammonia.800)(5.6!10–3 M 1.150M (0. .4 ! 10" 6 M 0. HNO3.90 millilitres of base was required.150 molar solution of ammonia at 25˚C.150 (b) [NH4+] = 0. 1.0800 mole of solid magnesium chloride. is dissolved in the solution prepared in part (b) and the resulting solution is well–stirred. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.5!10–11. [NH3] = (0. Princeton.4!10–6M Q = [Mg2+][OH–]2 = (0.500)(X) 1. millilitres of a 0.150 – X [NH3] X= [OH–] = 1.150 pOH = 5. Framingham.Acid . in a sample of concentrated nitric acid is to be determined.8 ! 10" 5 = .

Answer: 1mol = 7.0914M number of moles of acid equals the number of 0.00 millilitre sample of the concentrated nitric acid was diluted with water to a total volume of 500. The molarity of the acid is the number of moles of the acid divided by 0.3134M)(500mL) = monoprotic acid.Acid . The equivalence point was reached after 28. All rights reserved.3134M HNO3 mine the dissociation constant Ka of the weak MfVf=MiVi. sol’n = g L sol’n select? Give the reason for your choice. (M)(10.(0. For face-to-face teaching purposes.67molHNO3 63. such as HCl of the same mol molarity. . 1988 D page 15 12 10 8 pH 6 4X 2 0 0 5 X X X X X X X 10 15 20 25 30 millilitres of NaOH A 30.01523 L)(0. A pH meter was used to measure the pH after each in" 3 crement of NaOH was added. 0. and the curve above 7.Base (b) A 10. "10!14 !10 K= = = =1. g L HNO3 which of the following indicators should you ! 100% (c) % HNO3 in conc. NJ 08541.67M HNO3 indicator in the acid to signal the endpoint.789 "10 mol [A ! ] = = 0. Then 25.30L. Princeton. 25. (c) The density of the concentrated nitric acid used in this experiment was determined to be 1. Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.08523 L moles of NaOH. Calculate the molarity of the concentrated nitric acid. the 7.02690L 28.35mLNaOH 0.42g sol’n 1000 mL g weak monoprotic acid were replaced by a strong ! =1420 L 1 mL 1L monoprotic acid. 0.2211 L ) [HA] = = 0. grams HNO3 in 1 L conc.00 millilitre sample of a weak monoprotic acid was titrated with a standardized solution of NaOH. sol’n = Methyl red Ka = 1!10–5 15.3 "10 (a) The sharp vertical rise in pH on the pH–volume Ka 7.42 grams per millilitre.5 L 1L 1 mol Alizarin yellow Ka = 1!10–11 grams sol’n in 1 L conc.7 "10!5 [A! ] curve appears at the equivalence point (about 23 ! 3 mL). Identify differences between this (0. Framingham.02g Cresol red Ka = 1!10–8 g ! = 987. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. That number is the product of the exact volume and the molarity of the NaOH. Because the acid is monoprotic. MA 01701-2619.07000 L Answer: [OH! ][HA] Kw 1.00 millilitres of the diluted acid solution was titrated with the standardized NaOH solution prepared in part (a).00mL) (c) If you were to repeat the titration using a M = 15.00 millilitres. the volume of the acid.434 ! 10 mol = 0.434 ! 10 "3 mol acid (a) 1. Determine the percentage by weight of HNO3 in the original sample of concentrated nitric acid.00mLHNO3 1L 1molNaOH (b) Explain how this curve could be used to deter= 0.35 millilitres of the base had been added.2764mol 1molHNO3 (a) Explain how this curve could be used to deter! ! = (b) mine the molarity of the acid.04810M titration curve and the curve shown above.518g ! 204. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.2764M NaOH was constructed. sol’n (d) Sketch the titration curve that would result if the 1.2g = mol NaOH required to neut.

Acid . [H+] = Ka. calculate the molecular weight of ascorbic acid. volume of the base added is exactly half its (c) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the volume at the equivalence point). the reaction of the ascorbate ion.Base page 16 (b) At the half–equivalence point (where the ascorbic acid. Framingham.00 millilitres of NaOH had been added during the titration.23. Under the conditions of this experiment. the pH of the solution was 4. equilibrium expression [H+][X–]/[HX] = Ka. MA 01701-2619. This insures that at the equivalence point the maximum color change for the minimal change in the volume of NaOH added is observed. Princeton. Calculate the acid ionization constant for Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. (a) From the information above. NJ 08541. with water.00 millilitres of solution.23 millilitres of the base has been added. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. concentration [HX] of the weak acid equals the (d) Calculate the pH of the solution at the concentration [X–] of its anion. (d) 12 10 8 pH 6 Longer equivalence region for strong acid X X X X X X X Same volume of NaOH 4X added for equivalence point 2 Acid portion at lower 0 pH for strong acid 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 millilitres of NaOH 1989 A In an experiment to determine the molecular weight and the ionization constant for ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The pH was monitored throughout the titration. (c) Cresol red is the best indicator because its pKa (about 8) appears midway in the steep equivalence region. A–.3717 grams of the acid in water to make 50. in the equivalence point of the titration. For face-to-face teaching purposes. Therefore. All rights reserved. a student dissolved 1. pH at the half– equivalence point equals pKa. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.2211 molar NaOH solution. Thus. (b) When 20. The equivalence point was reached when 35. ascorbic acid acts as a monoprotic acid that can be represented as HA. . The entire solution was titrated with a 0.

the first dissociation 0. 0. Therefore.02000L)(0. 0. pH = (14–5.20 – X ! 0. H+ is harder to remove.06317) !5 K= = = 7.04810) bond between H and F.X =1. HI is a stronger acid [H+ ][C2 H5 COO] (a) = Ka than HCl. [OH! ][HA] Kw 1.3 " 10 !10 ! ! 5 1991 A K [A ] 7. but the [HA] = = 0. (c) HCl and HI are equally strong acids in water Answer: but.789!10–3 mol = 176.3!10"5 .03523L) = 7. is 1. Therefore.3717g/7. for propanoic acid. giving a basic solution. In HOCl.31!10–6 and OH–(aq). #.789 " 10 !3 mol ! [A ] = = 0.20 the bonding electrons in HS–.7 " 10 a The acid ionization constant.06317M 0. [C2H5COOH] = 0.08523L in a 0. This draws electrons in the H–O bond towards it and weakens the bond.20–molar solution of propanoic acid. . pt. Calculate (b) In water.47. All rights reserved.50–molar. Princeton. solution.20 + (b) Polar H2O can separate ionic NaOH into Na (aq) (c) @ pH 5.20 M – X Answer: (a) After the first H+ is lost from H2S. #. (0. pOH =–log(3. 7.07000L equally. and K2 1. the pH of the resulting solution.53 propanoate ion.1g/mol (b) at pH 4. X2 = 1.2211mol ! L"1 ) Acetic acid has little attraction for H+.0914M (a) Calculate the hydrogen ion concentration. [H+] = 8. To this buffer solution. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.20. has a negative charge. (d) at equiv. Ka.Answer: (a) (0. MA 01701-2619.4!10–6) =5. constant by about 105 (K1 ! 105 K2).Base page 17 to its greater charge density.7 " 10 (d) The bond between H and Cl is weaker than the [HA] (0. HS .0040 mole of solid NaOH is added.0!10–8M Acid .9 " 10 )(0.47)= (c) What is the ratio of the concentration of 8.07000L + ! ! 5 from the smaller Cl–.3!10–10)(9. [C2 H5 COOH] (d) When each is dissolved in water.–milliliter sample of a different buffer Give a brief explanation for each of the following.20 – remaining species.01523L)(0.4!10–6M molecules that are ionized in the solution in (a).20) = 6. to that of propanoic acid in a buffer solution with a pH of 5. the propanoic acid concentration is (a) For the diprotic acid H2S. C2H5COO–. HCl is a much [H+] = [C2H5COO–] = X stronger acid than HF. [OH–]2 = (1.14!10–2) = 1. 0. bond is stronger.2!10–11 (b) Calculate the percentage of propanoic acid [OH–] = 3. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. [H ][A ] (5. [H+].04810M H+ separates from the larger I– more easily than 0. (c) Water is a more basic solvent (greater attraction (0. the (b) from (a).789!10–3 mol 1. Framingham. C2H5COOH. NJ 08541. [H+] = antilog (–5. ! 100% = 0.2211mol " L!1 ) for H+) and removes H+ from HCl and HI [A ! ] = = 0. "10 !14 K= = = = 1. For face-to-face teaching purposes.23.6 !103 is lower.3!10–5. X = amount of acid that ionized. making an acidic solution.6 !10"3 M = [H+ ] This increases the attraction of the S atom for 0. NaOH is a base but HOCl is an acid. M chlorine has a high attraction for electrons due Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.20? 1990 D (d) In a 100. H+ can be removed.35–molar and the sodium propanoate concenconstant is larger than the second dissociation tration is 0.81% ionized 0.2211M)(0. the assume X is small. in pure acetic acid. HCl is a (c) A– + H2O ! HA + OH– stronger acid.

89 + log [HC 3H 5O2] [C 3H 5O2] log = 0. 0. HCO3– ! H+ + CO32– Ka = 4. [H ] = 7. [C2H5COOH] = 0. (c) If the concentrations of both the acid and the conjugate base you have chosen were doubled. [H ](0..35 M [OH–] = 0.50 M.. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.31 M and the propanoate ion increases by a similar amount to 0.3!10"6 )[C2H5COO" ] [C2H5COOH] [C2 H5 COO] 2.13 1992 D The equations and constants for the dissociation of three different acids are given below.2 ! 10–7 H2PO4– ! H+ + HPO42– Ka = 6.04 M of the acid. .54 M.1 [HC 3H 5O2] - OR (d) [C2H5COO–] = 0. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.0040 mol/0.5 x 10 M 0. Framingham.2 ! 10–8 HSO4– ! H+ + SO42– Ka = 1.13 + OR (d) using [ ]’s or moles of propanoic acid and propanoate ion. how would the pH be affected? Explain how the capacity of the buffer is affected by this change in concentrations of acid and base.31 = 2.24 = 5.31 pH = – log [H+] = 5.3!10"5 page 18 (c) Henderson–Hasselbalch [base] pH = pK a + log [acid] [C 3H 5O2] 5.54 pH = pK a + log 0.1 = [C2 H5 COOH] 1 = Ka = 1. identify the conjugate pair that is best for preparing a buffer with a pH of 7. Princeton. (b) Explain briefly how you would prepare the buffer solution described in (a) with the conjugate pair you have chosen.2.Acid . All rights reserved.54) -5 + -6 = 1. For face-to-face teaching purposes. NJ 08541.040 M this neutralizes 0.Base (6.3 x 10 .100 L = 0.89 + 0. Explain your choice.20 = 4. (d) Explain briefly how you could prepare the buffer solution in (a) if you had available the solid salt of the only one member of the conjugate pair and solution of a strong acid and Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. giving [C2H5COOH] = 0. MA 01701-2619.3 ! 10–2 (a) From the systems above.31 = 4.

Base a strong base.0100 mole of solid methylammonium nitrate to 120. [OH– ]. of a 0. When 7. NJ 08541. Framingham. MA 01701-2619. is a weak base that reacts according to the equation above.00? Assume that no volume change occurs. page 19 Answer: (a) Best conjugate pair: H2PO4–. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. Methylamine forms salts such as methylammonium nitrate. How is the pH of the solution affected? Explain. Answer: Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. (a) Calculate the hydroxide ion concentration.25!10–4. Assume no volume change occurs. (d) Add strong base to salt of conjugate acid OR add strong acid to salt of conjugate base. OR Use pH meter to monitor addition of strong base to conjugate acid OR strong acid to conjugate base. (c) How many moles of either NaOH or HCl (state clearly which you choose) should be added to the solution in (b) to produce a solution that has a pH of 11. (d) A volume of 100. CH3NH2.225–molar solution of methylamine. Kb.225–molar aqueous solution of methylamine. All rights reserved. (b) Dissolve equal moles (or amounts) of H2PO4–.2 = pH = pKa for this pair when [H2PO4–] = [HPO42–].Acid . Capacity of buffer would increase because there are more moles of conjugate acid and conjugate base to react with added base or acid. Add 1 mole conjugate acid to 1/2 mole strong base OR 1 mole conjugate base to 1/2 mole strong acid. (c) pH not changed.0 milliliters of a 0. HPO42–. and HPO42– (or appropiate compounds) in water. For face-to-face teaching purposes. The value of the ionization constant. (b) Calculate the pH of a solution made by adding 0. . 1993 A CH3NH2 + H2O ! CH3NH3+ + OH– Methylamine. is 5. milliliters of distilled water is added to the solution in (c). Princeton. (CH3NH3+)(NO3–).

[CH3 NH+ 3] [X][X] X2 Kb = 5.0100 mol / 0.Acid . (d) When 10 milliliters of 0.10–molar H2SO4 is added to 40 milliliters of 0. forms ions or dydration “event”.120 L = 2.15 (0.225 X = [OH–] = 1. the temperature of the resulting mixture rises.225) =11. [0. the pH changes about 6 units. energy given off (connection).0833 + x) pOH = pKb + log 1993 D (Required) The following observations are made about reaction of sulfuric acid. H2SO4.0833 + X][X] 0.0227 M ! 0. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.85.0833 + X][0.225) (c) HCl must be added.225 0 0 –X +X +X 0. .72 + log OR (0.225 " X] 0. Bonds form. Framingham.0228 M 0.225 mol/L = 0. (c) When a solution of Ba(OH)2 is added to a dilute H2SO4 solution. After 10 more milliliters of 0.905 = . (a) When zinc metal is added to a solution of dilute H2SO4. therefore. [presence of HSO4– in solution voids this point] Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. Princeton.25!10"4 = [0.72 pH = 10. pH = 11.225 – –3 X = [OH ] = 1. X = 0. pKa =10. Ba2+(aq) + OH–(aq) + H+(aq) + SO42–(aq) " BaSO4(s)+ H2O(l) (d) First 10 mL produces solution of SO42– and OH– or excess OH– or partial neutralization (pH 13.Base (a) Kb = [ ]i "[ ] [ ]eq ! [CH3NH+ 3 ][OH ] [CH3NH2 ] page 20 0.91!10 " 11 . log = 0.0227M [acid] (0.120 L = (d) The 2.0270 mol [0.28 [base] (0.74!10–3 mol HCl OR [base] [base] 11.0833) pOH = 3.225 ! X) =1. pH =11.28 [acid] [acid] [base] (0.225 " X] 0.225 " X] X = 0.0833X Kb = 5.42!10 M. (b) As concentrated H2SO4 is added to water. oxidation–reduction.120 L ! 0.25!10 "4 = 1. (c) BaSO4 (ppt) forms or H+ + OH– form water.6). Zn(s) + 2 H+(aq) " Zn2+(aq) + H2(g) Explicit: Redox or e– transfer or correctly identify oxidizing agent or reducing agent. NJ 08541. the pH changes only by about 0. bubbles of gas are formed and the zinc disappears.00 = 10.10–molar H2SO4 is added. therefore.28 + log = 2.85.0228 mol/L ! 0. and bonding and/or intermolecular forces to support your answers.10–molar NaOH. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.25!10"4 = # [0. no effect on pH.0 " 12.0833) [acid] .225–X X X "4 ratio does not change in this [CH3 NH2 ] buffer solution with dilution.72 + log . For face-to-face teaching purposes. Newly formed water and ppt remove ions lowering conductivity. (b) H2SO4 dissociates. Answer: (a) Zn is oxidized to Zn2+ by H+ which in turn is reduced by Zn to H2.0833 M or CH3NH2 = 0.15 OR [base] pH = pKa + log [acid] Ka = 1!10"14 5. Identify H2(g) or Zn dissolving as Zn2+.15 (0. pOH = 2.0010] Kb = 5. All rights reserved. MA 01701-2619.25!10 = # [0.09!10–2 M solved using quadratic: X = [OH–] = 1.1200 L = 0. Discuss the chemical processes involved in each case. pKb = 3.5 unit.06!10–2 M (b) [CH3NH3+] = 0.73!10–3 mol HCl CH3NH2 + H2O ! CH3NH3+ + OH– 0. the electrical conductivity decreases and a white precipitate forms. Use principles from acid–base theory.

. Framingham. (b) Identify the species that acts as both a Brönsted acid and as a Brönsted base in the equation in (a).. O O O . milliliters of the HCl solution is added slowly from a buret to the Na3PO4 solution. Ka.56-molar NaOH. as represented below. [pH “rises” or wrong graph. X = 6.20-molar HOCl to obtain a buffer solution that has a pH of 7. for the reaction represented above is 3. .14 – X) = [HOCl] that remains unionized X2 = . .0 milliliters of 0. (d) How many millimoles of solid NaOH must be added to 50. (c) Calculate the pH of a solution made by combining 40. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. (a) Write the two net ionic equations for the formation of the major products.0 milliliters of 0.49? Assume that the addition of the solid NaOH results in a negligible change in volume.100–molar Na3P04 solution. Draw the Lewis electron–dot diagram for this species. .14-molar HOCl and 10. : . For face-to-face teaching purposes.2!10–8 [HOCl] X = amount of acid that ionizes = [OCl–] = [H+] (0. (c) Sketch a graph using the axes provided. MA 01701-2619. (b) Write the correctly balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when NaOCl is dissolved in water and calculate the numerical value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction.14-molar solution of HOCl.6 " 7.– (b) HPO42–. . (a) Calculate the [H+] of a 0. 2– + HPO4 + H ! H2PO4 – 0 mL HCl (c) (d) H+ + H2PO4– " H3PO4 1996 A HOCl ! OCl– + H+ Hypochlorous acid. if used.0). . milliliters of 0. showing the shape of the titration curve that results when 100. voids this point] page 21 PO 4+ H ! HPO4 pH 3– + 2– 1994 D A chemical reaction occurs when 100. (e) Household bleach is made by dissolving chlorine gas in water. All rights reserved. .:. ::. is a weak acid commonly used as a bleaching agent. NJ 08541.P. HOCl. .0 milliliters of 0. Answer: (a) PO43– + H+ " HPO42–.– : . The acid-dissociation constant. 0 3.Base Second 10 mL produces equivalence where pH decreases (changes) rapidly (pH 12.065 molar.:H :O : . milliliters of 0. Cl2(g) + H2O " H+ + Cl– + HOCl(aq) Calculate the pH of such a solution if the concentration of HOCl in the solution is 0. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential.14 – X (b) NaOCl(s) + H2O " Na+(aq) + HOCl(aq) + OH– pH mL HCl (d) Write the equation for the reaction that occurs if a few additional milliliters of the HCl solution are added to the solution resulting from the titration in (c).7!10–5 M = [H+] 0. Answer: [OCl – ][H+ ] (a) Ka = = 3. Account for the shape of the curve.2!10–8 Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.Acid . HPO42– + H+ " H2PO4– . Princeton.2!10–8.200–molar HCl is added dropwise to 100.

065 M pH = – log (0. All rights reserved.400-molar NaOH is required [OH– ]2 –7 to neutralize completely a 5. pOH = 3. Calculate the (d) at pH 7.00!10–3 HC2O4– ! H+ + C2O42– K = K1 ! K2 3.400 mol NaOH 1 mol H+ = 25.) half this amount. (d) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant. MA 01701-2619.0 mmol HOCl Calculate the [C2O42–] in the resulting solution.7 = 10.20 mol HOCl ! 50. NJ 08541.56 M ! = 0.78 !106 K = = 5.2 1997 A The overall dissociation of oxalic acid. for oxalic acid if the value of the second when the solution is half-neutralized.0 mL = 10.00!10–3-mole Kb = = 3.2 !108 (c) [ ]o after dilution but prior to reaction: 40 mL [HOCl] = 0.40 !105 (c) X = amt.11 M 50mL 10 mL [OH–] = 0. or 5.0 mL NaOH (b) H2C2O4 ! H+ + HC2O4– 5.8!10–4 .015-molar solution of oxalic acid. 0.015 – X K1 = [H+] = 10–pH = 10–0. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. a [HOCl] strong acid is added until the pH is 0. H2C2O4 ! 2 H+ + C2O42– K = 3. .78!10–6 Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.7 (b) Give the equations representing the first and secpH = 14 – 3.49 = 3. H2C2O4. K1.3 ond dissociations of oxalic acid.11 sample of pure oxalic acid? [OH–] = 1. [OCl ] and =1 (c) To a 0.5 = 0. Answer: 2 mol H+ (a) mol oxalic acid ! ! 1 mol oxalic acid 1 mol OH 1000.78!10–6 (a) What volume of 0. K2. for the reaction that occurs when solid Na2C2O4 is dissolved in water. the [H+] = 10–7. is 6.1!10 0.24!10–8 M value of the first dissociation constant. mL NaOH ! = 0.91!10–2 K2 6. Kb.40!10–5.14 M ! = 0. [OH–] ! [HOCl] Kb = 14 (e) 1 mol H+ for every 1 mole of HOCl produced [H+] ! [HOCl] = 0. 1L (Assume the change in volume is negligible. pH = pKa – dissociation constant.Base (aq) page 22 K w 1 !10 = = 3.5. ionized [H2C2O4] = 0. Princeton.065) = 1.11 M 50mL Equivalence point reached.0 mmol of NaOH added.Acid .49. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. is represented below. Framingham. For face-to-face teaching purposes.316 M [C2O42–] = X Ka = [H+ ]2 [C2 O4 2 ] [H2 C2 O4 ] = 3. The overall dissociation constant is also indicated.1!10–7 K a 3.

For face-to-face teaching purposes. for the weak acid HX could be determined from the titration curve in part (c). it is used to titrate a weak monoprotic acid. (b) Describe (i. NJ 08541. X = 5. to standardize the NaOH solution. Ka. Princeton. • Clean.1-molar solution of NaOH is to be standardized by titration.015 – X] 2 1 !101 4 Kw (d) Kb = = = 1. MA 01701-2619.40 !106 1998 D (Required) [repeated in lab procedures section] An approximately 0. using the materials listed above. The equivalence point is reached when 25. showing the pH changes that occur as the volume of NaOH solution added increases from 0 to 35. KHP.e. HX.0 mL.316] [X] .Acid . Assume that the following materials are available. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions..67!10–7 M [0. dry 50 mL buret • 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask • Wash bottle filled with distilled water • Analytical balance • Phenolphthalein indicator solution • Potassium hydrogen phthalate. a pure solid monoprotic acid (to be used as the primary standard) (a) Briefly describe the steps you would take. Framingham. Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. In the space provided at the right. All rights reserved. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. sketch the titration curve.78!10–6 = page 23 [0. set up) the calculations necessary to determine the concentration of the NaOH solution. (c) After the NaOH solution has been standardized.0 mL of NaOH solution has been added.Base 3. Clearly label the equivalence point on the curve. . (d) Describe how the value of the acid-dissociation constant.56!10–10 K2 6.

the hydroxide moles of NaOH ion concentration. the acid is half-neutralized and the pH = Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service. H2Y. justify your choice. Identify the negative ion that is present in the highest 1998 D concentration at the point in the titration Answer each of the following using appropriate represented by the letter A on the curve. On further bubbling.0 mL sample of 0.5 mL volume point.0120 M HCl(aq). Explain these two observations. Answer (b) A small amount of NH3 in solution causes an increase in the [OH–]. • repeat to check your results. at the 12. causes the Ksp of copper(II) • add a few drops of phenolphthalein to the flask. For face-to-face teaching purposes. NJ 08541. Answer NH3 + H2O ! NH4+ + OH– (a) • exactly mass a sample of KHP in the Erlenmeyer flask and add distilled water to dissolve the solid. (a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction represented above. Ka = titrating a different weak acid. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions. In each case. [OH–] is 5. a 20. with the (e) Y2– (could it be OH– ?) standardized NaOH solution. hydroxide to be exceeded and the solution forms a precipitate of Cu(OH)2. point.60!10–4 M. you form the • with mixing. MA 01701-2619. In 0. this is the number of In aqueous solution. equivalence point (b) Determine the pH of 0. (e) In an experiment. chemical principles. • rinse the buret with the NaOH solution and fill. ammonia reacts as represented moles of NaOH above. Framingham. which will cause the precipitate • record end volume of buret. in turn. the precipitate disappears. to dissolve.0180 M NH3(aq). assume that temperature is constant at 25˚C and that volumes are additive. of NH3(aq). (i) Determine the volume of 0. [Cu(NH3)4]2+.0180 M NH3(aq). .0120 M HCl(aq) (c) that was added to reach the equivalence (d) from the titration curve. (d) Determine the percent ionization of NH3 in 0.Base 10pKa page 24 (e) The graph below shows the results obtained by pKa. Kb. solution until it just turns slightly pink. Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. With the addition of more NH3.Acid . All rights reserved. mass of KHP 1999 A (b) = moles of KHP molar mass KHP NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ! NH4+(aq) + OH–(aq) since KHP is monoprotic. In answer= molarity of NaOH L of titrant ing the following. Princeton. a precipitate forms initially. (b) When NH3 gas is bubbled into an aqueous solution of CuCl2. (c) Determine the value of the base ionization constant.0180 M NH3(aq) at 25˚C.0180 M NH3(aq) was placed in a flask and titrated to the equivalence point and beyond using 0. • record starting volume of base in buret. This. titrate the KHP with the NaOH soluble tetraamminecopper(II) complex ion.

For face-to-face teaching purposes. MA 01701-2619.Base (ii) Determine the pH of the solution in the flask after a total of 15.0 mL it is half-titrated and [NH4+] = [NH3].60$10–4) 5.60$10–4 0.252 pH = 14 – pOH = 10.70 page 25 Copyright © 1970 to 1999 by Educational Testing Service.0 mL = 0. (10.120 mmol H+ ions 0.80!10–5) = 4.75 = 9.120 mmol + 60. Princeton.0180 – 5. All rights reserved. then the Kb = [OH–] = 1.60$10–4) (c) Kb = = 1.0 mL of HCl past equivalence point.0120 M HCl(aq) was added. there is an excess of 10.80!10–5. (iii) Determine the pH of the solution in the flask after a total of 40. classroom teachers are permitted to reproduce the questions.255 (iii) at 40.0180 N)(20.60!10–4) = 3.0120 M) = 0.00200) = 2.60$10–4)(5. NJ 08541.0 mL)(0.0120 M HCl(aq) was added.745 pH = 14 – 4.748 (5. (d) pOH = -log(1.Acid . Portions opyright © 1993-9 by Unlimited Potential. Answer [NH4+][OH–] (a) Kb = [NH3] (b) pOH = -log(5.0 mL (ii) at 15.0 mL) VA = 30.11% (e) (i) NAVA = NBVB (0.00200M =[H ] pH = -log(0.0 mL.0 mL of 0.0180 ! 100% = 3.0 mL of 0.80!10–5 (0.0120 N)(VA) = (0. Framingham. .