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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2

The Sun as a Star (Chapter 10) 1. The percent content of a star that is composed of materials other than hydrogen and helium is called: __metallicity__ .

2. The primary nuclear fuel for the sun is __hydrogen_____ and the nuclear fusion takes place in the __core___ .


hat are four properties of the core that are conduci!e to natural nuclear fusion: ______hot________ _______dense__________ ______high pressure __________ _____plasma_________

". #ist the $yproducts of the proton%proton fusion process: ______helium "__________ _____2 free protons__________ _____2 &ama rays _______ ____2 positrons _______ _____2 electron neutrinos ________ ________________________

'. This is an alternate fusion channel found in main se(uence stars containing car$on and higher temperature cores: __cno fusion___ .

). The natural $alance $et*een the gra!itational compression in a star and the out*ard flo* of thermal energy is called hydrostatic e(uili$rium __________ .

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2
+. This is the process of scattering of radiation in order to transfer and distri$ute energy: __radiati!e____ __diffusion____ .


hen the plasma state ends in a star-s interior due to temperature drop. large __con!ection cells ____ ____________ form *here __hot___ gases rise and __cool___ gases sink.


hen con!ection reaches the photosphere. it creates a $u$$ling pattern *e call __granulation____ .


hen gasses are cooled on the surface of the sun $y magnetic acti!ity. this is called a ____sun_____ ___spot_____ .


hen charged particles $ecome trapped a$o!e acti!e regions in magnetic fields they form ___solar____ __prominence ______ .

12. The chromospheres is a ma0or source of __u!_____ ___light_____ .

13. The corona is the source of the ___solar____ __*ind___ .

1". The temperature of the corona and chromospheres shoot up again due to __magnetic_____ __heating____ .

1'. The time period $et*een solar ma1ima on the sun is __11______ years.


hen there is a prolonged drop in surface acti!ity in the sun $reaking the normal solar cycle. this is called a ___maunder ____ ___minimum__ .

1+. 2ariation in solar output may $e responsi$le for and3or contri$utory to the periodic ____________ ____________ that occur on 4arth. Triton College Page 2

AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2


hen a solar storm is unleashed from the sun and it hits 4arth. *hat are some effects *e o$ser!e5 ____aurora__________ _____c1" production__________ ____o!erland________

_____communication damage__________ _____o6one__________ Neutrinos (in class notes) 1/. 7eutrinos possess a ___0____ charge.


20. 7eutrinos most often ____pass through___________ solid material due to their __si6e_____ .

21. 7eutrinos __osolate___. s*itching from one type to another.

22. There may e1ist a fourth neutrino called a _neutalino___ .

23. 7eutrinos ha!e 8handedness9 *hich is a term used to descri$e *hether or not they feel the __*eak___ __nuclear _____ :orce.

2". ; __ma0orana_____ particle is a class of particles that are their o*n antiparticles. Main Sequence Stars (<ostly notes= some material from chapter 11) 2'. >mall <%class main se(uence stars are typical mostly ___con!ecti!e _____ in their interior.

2). ?ue to their high surface magnetism and con!ection. many <%class main se(uence stars $ecome !aria$les kno*n as _flare_____ ___star____ .


ith sun%like stars. ___k_____ class are more con!ecti!e and li!e longer *hile __g_____ are more radiation dominant. Page 3

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2

2,. >tars a$o!e & in spectral class $ecome so hot they are missing this 6one near their surfaces: __con!ecti!e_____ __6ones____ .

2/. #arge @ and A class stars are dominated $y the __cno___ cycle of fusion. This in turn often causes them to ha!e ___tur$ulent ____ ____core____ ___con!ection____ due to their high energy production.


hen the rotation of a star causes it to *iden along its e(uator this is kno*n as __o$lation ____ .

Binaries (Chapter 11) 31. Ainary stars or$it around their common __center___ of __mass_____ .

32. The larger of the $inary stars has a __smaller____ or$it.

33. ?epending on pro1imity and density. material from one $inary star can mo!e to another. This is called ___$inary____ ___mass_____ __transfer_____ .

3". Ainaries that are to close can share outer layers. These are called ___contact___ __$inaries ____ .

3'. Ainaries that mo!e in such a *ay that one can mo!e in front of another is called an __eclipsing ____ ____$inary____ . Nearby Stars to Know (Class 7otes) 3). This is the closest star system to us and is actually a trinary system of three stars. ; planet *as recently disco!ered here. __alpha____ __centauri__ .

3+. This $inary pair is composed of nearly identical B class stars that ha!e !ery high proper motion: __)1_____ __cygni______ .

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2
3,. This is a hypergiant that spa*ned the Comunculus 7e$ula 1'0 years ago due to a !iolent thermal pulse: __eta_____ __carinae ___ .

3/. This is a su$%d*arf red star that is !ery close to us yet is almost t*ice as old as our sun: __$arnards ____ __star___.

"0. This is a comparati!ely young B class star that is still surrounded $y de$ris fields and has at least 3 large planets: __epson ____ __eridani_____ .

"1. This is an eclipsing $inary system *here mass transfer has changed the composition and spectral class of $oth stars o!er time. >ometimes called the 84ye of the &orgon9 : __algol____ .

"2. This is the $rightest star in the constellation ;(uila. Dt is $lue and rotates so fast that it o$lates along its e(uator: __altair____ .

"3. This near$y star system is composed of a B class star *ith t*o distant $ro*n d*arf stars or$iting around it. __epsilon____ ___indi_____ .

"". This close $inary system is composed of a $right *hite ;0 class star and a small *hite d*arf star. Dt is a recurrent no!a star system: ___sirius____ . Star Formation (Chapter 12.1) "'. hat are the three ma0or types of ne$ulae5 __dark___ ___reflection_____ __ion______

"). The primary force $ehind the initial stages of star formation is __gra!ity____ .

"+. This is the term used to descri$e *hether or not a ne$ula is large enough to collapse: __0ean-s____ ____mass___.

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2
",. ;s ne$ulae contract they tend to __heat____ as material falls in*ard and __fragmentation____ due to spin into smaller pieces.

"/. This process is the slo* accumulation of material o!er time: __accuction ____.

'0. The hot $all of material in the center of a contracting ne$ula is called a __protostar____.

'1. The magnetic protostar often produces strong ___protostellar____ __0et_____. hen these crash into the surrounding ne$ula. they can cause it to glo* strongly creating a __h____%__h_______ o$0ect.

'2. @nce a protostar gets large enough. it undergoes con!ecti!e contraction. *here it loses a lot of its __luminosity___ .

'3. The s*irling disk of material around a forming star is called an ___accretion____ ___disk___ . This is *here ___planets_____ form.

'". The __frost line ___ marks the natural di!ision $et*een *here __terresstrial ____ planets form and __0orian__ planets form.

''. #eft o!er planetesimals are called __asteroid __ and __comet _____ .

'). Df a protostar fails to successfully sta$ili6e or initiate nuclear fusion it contracts to a degenerate $all of hot materials kno*n as a _$ro*n _____ __d*arf_____.

'+. This type of pre%main se(uence star is !iolent and erupti!e: __t____ ___tauri ____.

',. This special type of pre%main se(uence is a temporary !aria$le star caused $y collapse of the accretion disk upon young star: __fuor___ .

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2
'/. This class of $ro*n d*arf is hard to distinguish from a small <%class star: __l____ .

)0. This $ro*n d*arf is cooler and has methane cloud sin its spectrum. making it appear a dull purplish red: __t_____

)1. This class of $ro*n d*arf is hard to distinguish from a !ery large Eupiter like planet: __y____ .

)2. Aro*n d*arf stars ha!e no __fusion_____. They glo* from ___stored energy (heat)_____ only.

)3. Aro*n d*arf stars are supported $y __degenerate ___ __pressure___. Exoplanets (Chapter ).') )". This type of e1oplanet occurs *hen a Eo!ian planet drift in*ard in its star system until it is in close or$it of its parent star. ___hot__ ___0upiter ____ .

)'. This type of e1oplanet typically forms around high metallicity d*arf stars *ere it has time to gro* !ery large. __super ______%___earth___.

)). This is a generic term for any e1oplanet cast out of its original or$ital path: __rogue_____ __planet___.

)+. This type of e1oplanet form as a large Fluto%like *orld in the outer star system and then drifted closer to its star melting the ice into *ater: ___ocean planet ____________ .

),. This type of e1oplanet formed as a large 7eptune or Granus like planet $ut then drifted in to*ard its star and had its outer atmospheric layers e!aporate: __chithonian _planet__ ____________ .

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2
)/. The theory of __planetary ____ ___migration ____ is used to account for all of the out of position planets found so far.

+0. The first techni(ue used to disco!er e1oplanets used ___doppler ___ ___shift ___ to measure change sin !elocity of the star.

+1. <ost modern detection of e1oplanets use ___transits ___ and ___eclipses ____ to measure $rightness and spectral changes in the star caused $y the e1oplanet.

+2. The __life ____ ____6one___ descri$es the region around a star *here li(uid surface *ater on an e1oplanet is likely to e1ist.


hat are some pro$lems *ith finding potentially ha$ita$le planets around @. A and ; class stars5


hat are some pro$lems *ith finding potentially ha$ita$le planets around : class stars5


hat are some pro$lems *ith finding potentially ha$ita$le planets around < class stars5

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AST 102 Review Sheet Exam 2
+). #arge ___0o!ian ___ planets could produce their o*n ha$ita$le 6ones on their _moons_____ outside the normal 6one of the star.

++. This critical chemical for life is only created in large (uantities around stars *ith sufficient ultra!iolet light. such as & class stars: __hcn_____ .

+,. ;s a star ages. its ha$ita$le 6one tends to mo!e _farther_____ from the star as it $ecomes ___red______ __giant_____.


hat are t*o reasons *hy position in the gala1y helps *ith preser!ing ha$ita$le planets that form around stars5 ______dust lanes_________ ____$lue giants% super no!as _________

,0. D *ill get a ____________ on this mid%term test.

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