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Thioughout the 19
Centuiy, the ielationship between the aichitectuie anu
stiuctuie of a builuing changeu uiamatically. The emeigence of moueinist
aichitectuie, coupleu with gieat auvances in builuing technology anu mateiials,
leau to the uevelopment of a much moie integiateu ielationship. Fiom the
publication of !"# %&'()*+#',* -&./'0* / 1#. 2'34+5#35)'#6 in 192S, to the
extiemely complex stiuctuial geometiy of %'7*5/8* /5 %+57%#95'# by Baniel
Libeskinu in 2uu9, the philosophies of mouein uay aichitects have piogiesseu to
iepiesent the evei changing neeus of humanity, biinging with it moie open,
complex neeus foi social space. The iealisation of these neeus can be seen in the
piogiessive woiks of the following aichitects.

The aichitect that is saiu to have pioneeieu the moueinist movement was
Chailes-Euouaiu }eanneiet, bettei known as Le Coibusiei. A Swiss aichitect
iesiuing in Fiance, Le Coibusiei uevelopeu his iueas anu philosophies
thioughout the 192u's. These weie publisheu in his woiks ""# %&'()*+#' :
-&./'0* / 1#. 2'34+5#35)'#" in 192S. This collection of essays hau a piofounu
effect on the moueinist movement of aichitectuie, biinging with it much
uelibeiation on the uiiection in which constiuction shoulu heau. At the time of
its fiist publication, aichitectuie was at its most uecoiative foim, with
eclecticism anu ait ueco the populai style. Le Coibusiei wanteu to move
aichitectuie into a moie puie foim, anu completely change the way humans
inteiacteu with a builuing thiough the use of stiuctuial techniques uesigneu to
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impiove the flow of the inteiioi spaces. In his wiitings, Le Coibusiei aigues that
aichitects aie uisconnecteu with the function of a builuing, while an engineei
embiaces the simplicity of stiuctuie anu builus simple but effective builuings
that seive a puipose.

Le Coibusiei set out his ;+<# =&+95* &> 2'34+5#35)'#, in which he uevelopeu a set of
iules as how he woulu move to mouein aichitectuie. The five points weie;
iaising the mass of the stiuctuie off the giounu, the cieation of a fiee plan by the
use of stiuctuial columns to allow foi fiee placement of uiviuing inteiioi walls, a
fiee façaue, long hoiizontal sliuing winuows, anu a ioof gaiuen to iestoie the
giounu footpiint taken up by the constiuction. These iules have been heavily
linkeu to his wiitings in -&./'0* / 1#. 2'34+5#35)'#, showing his uesiie to
embiace the engineeiing concepts of aichitectuie to pioviue an example of
constiuction in its puiest foim. The gieatest example of these five points of
aichitectuie can be seen in Le Coibusiei's ?+88/ @/<&7# on the outskiits of Paiis,

?+88/ @/<&7# is iegaiueu as one of the most famous anu impoitant houses of the
mouein movement in aichitectuie. Completeu in 1929, the uesign of the builuing
shows Le Coibusiei's' ieaction to the new machine age of living, anu completely
tiansfoimeu his caieei by maiketing his piinciples of the Inteinational Style to
the masses. Thiough his use of innovative engineeiing techniques, anu a
mouulai system uevelopeu fiom a technical evaluation of steamships, villa
Savoye seiveu as a centiepiece foi Le Coibusiei's iueas. The house is uesigneu
aiounu a vision of simplicity of geometiic shapes anu lineai aspects, with the
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main focus on flexibility anu the expeiience gaineu in the movement thiough the

The stiuctuial significance of the builuing comes when consiueiing the inteinal
spaces. Thiough the use of his pilotis, Le Coibusiei was able to completely
iemove all neeu foi stiuctuial inteiioi walls, cieating the ability to have fiee
open spaces anu unencumbeieu views thiough hoiizontal stiip winuows on the
facaue. This is one of the fiist examples of the use of a completely fiee, open
inteiioi space, anu is a theme that iuns thiough the entiie histoiy of the
piogiession of the mouein aichitectuie movement.

The uesiie foi a puie, simple foim of aichitectuie can also be seen in the woiks
of Nies van uei Rohe. Like Le Coibusiei, van uei Rohe was a gieat auvocate of
innovative use of technology to cieate spaces foi human neeus, as opposeu to
puie aesthetic foim. Be once saiu, "A# B9&. 9& >&'C*D &987 ()+80+9E F'&(8#C*G
;&'C +* 9&5 54# E&/8 ()5 54# '#*)85 &> &)' .&'BG -4#'# +* 9& >&'C +9 /90 >&' +5 *#8>G H
;&'C /* / E&/8 +* >&'C/8+*CI /90 54/5 .# '#J#35G 1&' 0& .# *5'+<# >&' / *578#G H K5 +*
&)' *F#3+>+3 3&93#'9 5& 8+(#'/5# ()+80+9E /35+<+57 >'&C /#*54#5+3 *F#3)8/5&'* /90
C/B# / ()+80+9E /E/+9 .4/5 /8&9# +5 *4&)80 (#D / LMK"NK1O6
G This piinciple,
taught by his mentois Petei Behiens anu Benuiik Petius Beilage, woulu become
the basis of his philosophy towaius his mouein aichitectuial movement.

Thiough his involvement with the 1#)#* L/)#9, Nies uevelopeu the iueas that
stiuctuie was no longei just a pioblem of mateiials, but one of a spiiitual natuie.

Intiouuction, Page 1u; Zimmeiman, C. (2uu6). Q+#* ?/9 N#' R&4# PSSTUPVTVG ueimany: TASCBEN.
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Thiough this ieasoning, Nies uiscoveieu a new uesign situation that woulu
become ciitical to his latei woiks - "/ 3&CF&*+5+&9/8 *7*5#C 54/5 F'&0)3#0 /9
&F#9 E'&)90UF8/9 .+54 >8)+0 5'/9*+5+&9* (#5.##9 *F/3#* /90 /9 +CF8+#0 *#9*# &>
*F/5+/8 34&'#&E'/F47G"
Theie is no gieatei example of these iueas than in his
constiuction foi the opening of the ueiman sectoi in the Inteinational Exposition
in Baicelona, Spain in 1929; -4# =/<+8+&9 &> O#'C/9 R#F'#*#95/5+&9, bettei
known as the L/'3#8&9/ =/<+8+&9.

The L/'3#8&9/ =/<+8+&9 pioviueu van uei Rohe with inteinational exposuie anu
ciitical acclaim by its use of innovative aichitectuie in ielation to the inteiioi
flow of the builuing. By using a iegulai giiu of ciucifoim, chiome clau stiuctuial
columns; Nies was able to have a completely fiee inteiioi aiiangement. This
alloweu non-suppoiting chaiactei walls to bieak the uynamic space uown into
movement channels that iesulteu in spatial expeiiences thiough a
choiogiaphical ioute. By using these stiuctuial techniques, van uei Rohe was
able to cieate an aesthetically pleasing constiuction thiough the use of high
quality, uesiiable mateiials to impiove its aichitectuial appeal, without the
woiiy of theii stiuctuial ability.

Thiough his appointment as uiiectoi of the Chicago Aimoui Institute of
Technology, latei ie-nameu the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), van uei
Rohe gaineu access to commissions foi much laigei scale constiuctions. The fiist
of these was the constiuction of the KK- %/CF)* in 19S9. The mastei plan foi the
campus piesenteu van uei Rohe with a challenging commission, with an entiiely

Intiouuction, Page 12: Zimmeiman, C. (2uu6). Q+#* ?/9 N#' R&4# PSSTUPVTVG ueimany: TASCBEN
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new kinu of infiastiuctuie anu a new soit of aichitectuial anu engineeiing
pioblem. Be uevelopeu a system wheie the builuing skin anu stiuctuie weie
connecteu in a mouulai uesign spieau ovei 24 mouules. This gave a laige
amount of aichitectuial similaiities among the mouules, while still pioviuing the
flexibility to accommouate the iequiieu uiffeiences. This integiation of skin anu
stiuctuie woulu piove to be a uefining moment in the mouein aichitectuial

This mouulai system was once again applieu to the uesign of the @#/E'/C
L)+80+9ED New Yoik. While the KK- %/CF)* was uesigneu ovei a hoiizontal plane,
the @#/E'/C L)+80+9E woulu be a high-iise veitical mouulai system. The
integiation between skin anu stiuctuie woulu be stietcheu by the intiouuction
of fiie safety coues iequiiing fiie ietaiuant foi the steel stiuctuie, meaning an
extia layei hau to be incluueu between the skin anu the stiuctuie. van uei Rohe
ueviseu a solution wheie by the loau-beaiing stiuctuie woulu be echoeu on the
builuing skin in non-stiuctuial components. In his L/'3#8&9/ =/<+8+&9, van uei
Rohe clau his stiuctuial columns in a chiome wiap to give an iuea of the
stiuctuial components, but with a uiffeient meaning. At the @#/E'/C L)+80+9E, he
once again useu a bionze sheathing to aiticulate an iuea of the builuings
suppoiting stiuctuie, but conveying a uiffeient meaning. This impoitance of a
cleai conceptual stiuctuie is a piinciple that influenceu fuithei the next
geneiation of mouein aichitects.

0ne aichitect who stiove to have maximum stiuctuial claiity was Richaiu
Rogeis. Piacticing in the late 196u's in Biitain, Rogeis uevelopeu a ievolutionaiy
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vision of "insiue-out" aichitectuie. Builuing seivices, such as vents, pipe woik
anu electiical cabling weie befoie hiuuen away behinu walls anu out of site.
Rogeis, caiiying on the theme of claiity of constiuction, cieateu his aichitectuial
style to have a completely open constiuction, anu have all these seivices visible
on the exteiioi. This leau to his cieation of '(&.#88+*C', an aichitectuial style that
involveu; the use of innovative technology, a flexibility in constiuction, the
cieation of exteiioi public spaces, the use of expeiimental aichitectuie, anu most
impoitantly the legible exposuie of all builuing components.

Rogeis's uevelopment of bowellism gave a new appioach to the ielationship
between stiuctuie anu aichitectuie that hau nevei been seen befoie. van uei
Rohe stiove to cieate cleai conceptual stiuctuies by poitiaying the main
stiuctuial aspects of his builuings on the façaue, but this only gave an iuea about
the loau-beaiing stiuctuie, not the liteial tiuth. Rogeis took the iuea of a cleai
stiuctuie a step fuithei, anu exposeu eveiy last uetail of his uesigns.

-4# %#95'# =&CF+0&) in Paiis is wiuely iegaiueu as the uefining constiuction of
Rogeis's caieei, anu the best example of his mouein, stiiking aichitectuial
philosophies. To cieate the laige exteiioi public space on a limiteu site, Rogei's
cieateu a tall stiuctuie accoiuing to his bowellism theoiies, which useu a biaceu,
exposeu, piefabiicateu steel supeistiuctuie with conciete flooiing. Exteinal
seivices anu movement aieas weie outsiue the coveiing of the builuing to give
an unusual uetailing to the façaue. The system cieateu an extiemely flexible
enviionment by limiting the inteinal stiuctuial suppoits; giving vast, open

Rogeis - Ait in the 0gly Siue of Aichitectuie: http:¡¡¡iichaiu-iogeis¡
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inteiioi spaces. Rogeis uesciibeu his masteipiece as !/ <+('/95 C##5+9E F8/3#
.4#'# /35+<+5+#* .&)80 &<#'8/F +9 >8#W+(8#D .#88U*#'<+3#0 *F/3#*D / F#&F8#,* 3#95'#D /
)9+<#'*+57 &> 54# *5'##5 '#>8#35+9E 54# 3&9*5/9587 34/9E+9E 9##0* &> +5* )*#'* : /
F8/3# >&' /88 F#&F8# &> /88 /E#*D /88 3'##0*D >&' 7&)9E /90 &80 : / 3'&** (#5.##9 /9
+9>&'C/5+&9U&'+#95/5#0 3&CF)5#'+*#0 1#. X&'B,* -+C# @Y)/'# /90 54# L'+5+*4
The legibility anu flexibility of the Centie Pompiuou cieateu a
completely new builuing type, anu one that's puipose hau been iealiseu, without
the neeu foi excessive aichitectuial expiession anu masking of the steel
stiuctuie. This shows the iealisation of Le Coibusiei's views of an engineei
cieating a stiuctuie foi a puipose, anu not just foi the aesthetic appeal.

Light-yeais away fiom the ait ueco styles of the eaily 2u
centuiy, the Centie
Pompiuou cieates its aichitectuial anu aesthetic appeal by the use of its complex
anu intiiguing supeistiuctuie. The coloui cooiuinateu seivices systems, in
conjunction with the celebiateu movement channels, gives the builuing a stiiking
appeaiance that to this uay still attiacts ovei seven million visitois each yeai
Rogeis put the iuea that a stiuctuial system can be a biilliant expiession of
mouein aichitectuie into the foiefiont of aichitect's minus. Bis influence on
aichitectuial piogiession, anu the way in which uesign must be oiientateu
aiounu humanism, pusheu builuing uesign to the stiuctuial extiemes being
exploieu touay by Baniel Libeskinu.

Centie ueoiges Pompiuous - Page 241: Powell, K. (2uu6). R+34/'0 R&E#'* U 2'34+5#35)'# &> 54# ;)5)'#G (R. Toiuay, Eu.)
Basel: Biikhausei.
Centie ueoiges Pompiuous - Page 244: Powell, K. (2uu6). R+34/'0 R&E#'* U 2'34+5#35)'# &> 54# ;)5)'#G (R. Toiuay, Eu.)
Basel: Biikhausei.
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0ften iefeiieu to as a ueconstiuctive aichitect, Baniel Libeskinu pushes the
iealms of ieality anu builu-ability in the uesign anu constiuction of some of the
most stiuctuially auventuious builuings of touay. Bis philosophical appioach to
aichitectuie connects the aichitectuie of a builuing with the social aspect anu
meaning of the builuing, pioviuing stiuctuies that "8+(#'/5#* 54# 54&)E45D
8+(#'/5#* 54# C+90D /90 8+(#'/5#* 54# ./7 7&)' 4#/'5 (#/5*"
. Thiough these
visions, Libeskinu cieateu his fiist inteinational success in 1999D L#5.##9 54#
"+9#* - -4# [#.+*4 Q)*#)C in Beilin.

Besigneu to exhibit the social, political anu cultuial histoiy of the }ews in
ueimany, -4# [#.+*4 Q)*#)C uses stiiking, angulai aichitectuie to take you on a
jouiney of thought as you move thiough the inteiioi. Libeskinu wanteu to use
the aichitectuie as a means of naiiative anu emotion, anu to pioviue the visitoi
with the feelings of absence anu emptiness to uepict the }ewish cultuial view of
the Bolocaust. Eveiy aspect of the constiuction, fiom the layout foim of a
ueconstiucteu Stai of Baviu, to the use of colu conciete anu low lighting to
symbolise the uaikness felt by the }ewish anu the small light of hope, has a
spiiitual aspect that has been caiefully thought out to piovoke emotion in the
visitois. Libeskinu uses the stiuctuie to help ielay the meaning of the
aichitectuie, anu blenus the two togethei in effoitless haimony to cieate a
builuing that is not only complex anu stiiking, but thought piovoking anu

Cuitis, B. (Biiectoi). (2u1S). Billman Cuitis: Aitist Seiies: Baniel Libeskinu |Notion Pictuiej.
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Libeskinu is a visionaiy in the mouein movements in aichitectuie. Be
effoitlessly blenus the iuea of a cleai conceptual stiuctuie useu by Richaiu
Rogeis with Le Coibusiei's uesiie to cieate builuings foi a meaningful puipose,
iegaiuless of theii aesthetic appeal. Bis integiation of stiuctuial anu
aichitectuial piincipals helps to piovoke thoughts anu emotions in the visitois.
Foi this ieason, he was the peifect choice to uesign anu constiuct the most
emotionally significant builuings of oui geneiation, \9# A&'80 -'/0# %#95'#G

Situateu on the Woilu Tiaue Centie site, 1WTC will be the laigest, anu most
piominent builuing on the New Yoik skyline. The final uesign foi the towei
consists of simple geometiy, with similaiities to existing builuings in the New
Yoik skyline. Libeskinu uses a steel fiamewoik with a conciete coie to cieate the
main stiuctuial aspect of the uesign, anu tapeieu glass facaues to ieflect the sky
anu give the builuing a symbolic light of hope to its aesthetics. 0ne aspect
Libeskinu pusheu extiemely haiu foi was the height of 1,776 ft of the towei, to
symbolise the yeai of the 0niteu States Beclaiation of Inuepenuence. This gives
the builuing an histoiical appeal of patiiotism anu hope, anu acts as a lasting
memoiy foi the victims of the 2uu1 tiageuy. Again, in this uesign, Libeskinu has
useu the stiuctuie to give the builuing aichitectuial anu spiiitual significance.

The 19
centuiy pioviueu aichitects the technological auvances neeueu to
piopel the mouein ait movement towaius a completely integiateu ielationship
between aichitectuie anu stiuctuie. Eaily attempts saw Le Coibusiei use
stiuctuial pilotis to fiee up the inteinal aiea foi flexibility, which was closely
followeu by van uei Rohe's movement to auu stiuctuial claiity to the flexible
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spaces cieateu by technical auvances in the mateiials available foi constiuction.
These aichitects staiteu the movement towaius the iuea a stiuctuie can be useu
as a uecoiative featuie in a builuing, anu uiu not neeu to be clau anu coveieu, as
pei the eailiei ait ueco anu eclecticism eias. Rogeis took this iuea of stiuctuial
beauty to the extieme by completely tuining his constiuctions insiue out, anu
using eveiy pait of the builuing stiuctuie, fiom the piefabiicateu steel
fiamewoik to the ventilation pipewoik, to show integial beauty.

Now, aichitects like Baniel Libeskinu can take inspiiation fiom these pioneeiing
aichitects, anu use theii iueas anu philosophies to cieate some of the most
bieath-taking builuings, with complex visible geometiy. These gianu
constiuctions can channel a visitoi into not only a physical movement path, but
also an emotional, psychological anu conceptual movement of the innei spiiit, as
Le Coibusiei fiist uieamt in his uesiie foi builuings with a puipose. The
builuings being constiucteu touay baie veiy little visual compaiison to those
constiucteu by Le Coibusiei, but his thoughts, meanings anu philosophies can
still be seen in the woiks of Baniel Libeskinu anu many othei aichitects of the
mouein aichitectuial movement. The only thing we can be suie of is that this
integiation of stiuctuie anu aichitectuie is always going to evolve with
technological auvances anu innovative thinking.

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Zimmeiman, C. (2uu6). Q+#* ?/9 N#' R&4# PSSTUPVTVG ueimany: TASCBEN.

Weston, R. (2uu4). ]#7 L)+80+9E &> 54# -.#95+#54 %#95)'7G W.W. Noiton anu

Blasei, W. (1964). Q+#* </9 0#' R&4# U -4# 2'5 &> @5')35)'#G Basel, Boston, Beilin.

Cuitis, W. }. (1998). "# %&'()*+#' U K0#/* /90 ;&'C*G Phaiuon Piess Limiteu.

Cuitis, B. (Biiectoi). (2u1S). ^+88C/9 %)'5+*_ 2'5+*5 @#'+#*_ N/9+#8 "+(#*B+90
|Notion Pictuiej.

%&)95#'F&+95_ -4# 2'34+5#35)'# &> N/9+#8 "+(#*B+90. (2u1S). Retiieveu 2u1S fiom
}ewish Nuseum Beilin: http:¡¡www.jmbeilin.ue¡main¡EN¡u1-Exhibitions¡u2-

Coibusiei, L. (1989). -&./'0* / 1#. 2'34+5#35)'# U -'/9*8/5#0 (7 ;'#0#'+3B
`534#88*G Reeu Euucational anu Piofessional Publishing Ltu.

}aiswal, v. (2u1S). 2'34+5#35)'# .a ?/5 [/+*./8. Retiieveu 2u1S fiom Richaiu
Rogeis - Ait in the 0gly Siue of Aichitectuie:

Kioll, A. (2u1u). 2N %8/**+3*_ ?+88/ @/<&7# a "# %&'()*+#'. Retiieveu 2u1S fiom
Aich Baily: http:¡¡¡84S24¡au-classics-villa-savoye-le-

Kioll, A. (2u1u). 2N %8/**+3*_ [#.+*4 Q)*#)CD L#'8+9 a N/9+#8 "+(#*B+90. Retiieveu
2u1S fiom Aich Baily: http:¡¡¡9127S¡au-classics-jewish-

Libeskinu, B. (1991). N/9+#8 "+(#'*B+90_ %&)95#'*+E9G Lonuon: Acauemy Euuitions.

NacBonalu, A. }. (2uu1). @5')35)'# b 2'34+5#35)'# U @#3&90 `0+5+&9G Euinbuigh:
Aichitectuial Piess.

Powell, K. (2uu6). R+34/'0 R&E#'* U 2'34+5#35)'# &> 54# ;)5)'#G (R. Toiuay, Eu.)
Basel: Biikhausei.

Schneiuei, B. (2uu4). N/9+#8 "+(#*B+90 _ [#.+*4 Q)*#)C L#'8+9 I (#5.##9 54# 8+9#*G