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Efficiency Improvement in High Speed Operation using Slot-less Configuration for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Masayuki Sanada, Member, IEEE, and Shigeo Morimoto, Member, IEEE

Abstract--High power and high efficiency in high-speed operation (e.g. 50,000r/min) is required for motors used for vacuum cleaners. The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a high efficiency motor in the usual operation region. Large iron losses are generated in conventional PMSMs during high speed operation; therefore, the motor efficiency decreases considerably. In this research, we examine the improvement of the iron loss in the high-speed operation of the PMSM. It is expected that the iron loss of the slot-less PMSM can be greatly decreased because there are no teeth in the area where the magnetic flux density is high. Comparative consideration of the slot-less PMSM and the conventional PMSM with the distributed winding is performed. The slot-less PMSM is suitable for use in vacuum cleaners, which do not demand a large starting torque. Index Terms--vacuum cleaner, high-speed operation, iron loss, PM motor, slot-less, compound wire, efficiency

II. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS MOTORS A. Analytical Models The rotor structure of the PMSM models examined in this research are shown in Fig. 1, and the stator structures [4],[5] are shown in Fig. 2. Moreover, the specifications of the model are shown in Table 1. In the model based on the generally designed PMSM, we examine the characteristic, which is
Permanent Magnet 19 r 27 0.5 Flux Barrier

2 38.2° r 30

I. INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1. Rotor structure. (unit : mm) Armature winding

T

HE efficiency of the universal motor, which is mainly used as a motor for vacuum cleaners, is approximately 50 to 80%. An improvement in the efficiency of this motor is needed in order to achieve high efficiency and extended operating time in the rechargeable vacuum cleaner. The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a high efficiency motor in the usual operation region [1]. High power and high efficiency at high-speed (e.g. 50,000r/min) is required for motors that are used in vacuum cleaners. In the PMSM designed for the general rated speed (1,800 ~ 3,600r/min), operation at high-speed is impossible due to the high induced voltage by the armature flux linkage from the permanent magnet. Even if the motor can be operated, a large iron loss occurs [2]. In this research, we examine the characteristics of generally designed PMSMs for amount of magnets and for various characteristics of the slot-less PMSM in order to decrease the iron loss in high-speed operation. Moreover, the effect of the compound wire of copper and iron with respect to enlarging the torque of the slot-less PMSM is described [3].

(a) Distributed winding stator

(b) Concentrated winding stator Fig. 2. Stator structure.

(c) Slot-less stator

Masayuki Sanada is with Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan (e-mail: sanada@eis.osakafu-u.ac.jp). Shigeo Morimoto is with Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 Japan (e-mail: morimoto@eis.osakafuu.ac.jp).

TABLE I SPECIFICATIONS OF TESTED MODELS. Item (Unit) No. of pole pairs Stator outer diameter (mm) Stator inner diameter (mm) Rotor diameter (mm) Shaft diameter (mm) Airgap length (mm) Stack length (mm) Thickness of permanent magnet (mm) Volume of permanent magnet (mm3) Coercive force of rare earth PM (kA/m) Coercive force of ferrite PM (kA/m) Coil diameter (mm) Turns of coil (Normal stator) Turns of coil (Slot-less stator) Space factor (%)

Value 2 112 94 60 16 0.5 40 3 9120 915 305 1.2 232 434 73.4

1-4244-1298-6/07/$25.00 ©2007 IEEE.

and the iron loss is calculated by the general hysteresis loss equation (5) and the eddy current loss equation (6). At the same time. is used for the calculation of the motor parameters.565 kg. the iron loss is calculated only in the stator yoke because there is no teeth section. although the number of turns of the armature winding increases. The 2-D FEM. the eddy current loss is generated in the . Ψa : armature flux linkage of a permanent magnet. vd. the stator is made up of a back yoke and a winding composed of resin. In the high-speed operation of the motor.4). ) III. The magnetic flux density Ba is the maximum average magnetic flux density in the stator yoke and the teeth as calculated by FEM [7]. pn :number of pole pairs. the amount of the magnet). However. Moreover. Constant Armature Current Condition In order to compare how the characteristic differs according to structure. The speed-torque characteristic is calculated based on voltage equations (1) and (2) and torque equation (3). the outside diameter and the rotor structure are similar to generally designed PMSMs. ωe: electric angular speed. it is thought that the torque constant becomes small compared to that of the general PMSM. The speed-torque characteristic and the speed-power characteristic are obtained without considering the iron loss resistance in the d-q equivalent circuit. in which magnetic saturation was considered. the space occupied by the teeth in the generally designed stator can be used as winding space. the characteristic is examined using the same armature current (Ie=3A).. Ld. Moreover. we do not consider the eddy current loss in the winding conductor.9 kg. because the reluctance between the rotor and the stator is high and the magnetic flux density may be low. B. the iron loss is expected to decrease greatly because the stator teeth are the primary source of iron loss when the PMSM is operated at high speed. as is the case for the generally designed stator [6]. It is thought that the reluctances of both the d-axis and the q-axis are large because there are no teeth. In the slot-less PMSM. so that the critical operating speed may be extended. the eddy current loss in the winding section is decreased by using the Litz wire [8]. vq : d. <Copper loss> Wc = 3 × I e 2 × Ra (W) (4) < Hysteresis loss> Wih =ε f Ba 2 100 (W/kg) (5) <Eddy current loss>  f  Wie =σ  Ba   100   2 (W/kg) (6) <Iron loss> Wi = Wih + Wie (W/kg) (7) where. σ : constant of eddy current loss (= 0. Lq : d. For each model the torque decreases in the case of a ferrite TABLE II COMBINATION AND NAME OF MODELS. (Mass of teeth section: 0. In the model of the slot-less PMSM.2 adjusted based on the armature flux linkage Ψa of the permanent magnet (i. Ie : phase current RMS value. q-axis voltage. and so there is little influence of the difference of the reluctance in the rotor. q-axis current.) (Mass of yoke section: 0. id. so that the winding length increases and the copper loss increases for the same current. Table 2 shows the examined models. it is understood that the SPM rotor has higher torque than the IPM rotor in slot-less construction. Ba: maximum flux density (T). Calculation of Characteristics and Losses The motor parameters and the voltage and the current condition are needed in order to calculate various characteristics of the motor. f : frequency (Hz). However. Unlike the general structure. the characteristic of I-S-R model (IPM-Slot-less-Rare earth permanent magnet).6). iq : d. As a fundamental investigation. MOTOR CHARACTERISTIC UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS A. Rare earth PM Ferrite PM IPM SPM SPM IPM rotor rotor rotor rotor Distributed winding stator Concentrated winding stator Slot-less stator I-D-R I-C-R I-S-R S-D-R S-C-R S-S-R I-D-F I-C-F (NA) S-D-F S-C-F (NA) − ωe Lq  id   0    +      Ψ  Ra  a  iq   ωe (1) Va = v d 2 + v q 2 (2) (3) T = pn { Ψaiq − (Lq − Ld )idiq } where. q-axis inductance. It is understood that the torque of the slot-less PMSM (model I-S-R and model S-S-R) has been reduced considerably compared to the generally designed PMSM. as well as the SPM rotor model. It is thought that significant magnetic flux leakage is caused in the flux barrier in the IPM rotor. Ra : armature winding resistance. in this research.  vd   Ra  =  v  ω L  q  e d winding conductor because the magnetic flux directly crosses the winding. Figure 3 shows the torque characteristic of current phase β from the q-axis. because there are no stator teeth. is that the torque is maximum at β=0°. Thus.e. Thus. we confirm the influence on a basic characteristic in the difference model. ε : constant of hysteresis loss (= 2. The copper loss is calculated by the winding resistance and the current. so that the stator does not have teeth.

4 1.5 (a) IPM rotor type.2 00 11 0. Speed .5 [N-m] S-D-R S-C-R Vam=200V Iem=3A 2.4 0.5 平 0 0 1.] β (deg. All motors except for the S-D-F model (SPM-Distributed winding-Ferrite magnet) can 1200 1200 1000 1000 S-C-F (I-S-R) Power (W) [N-m] 800 800 600 600 IDF ク ル 400 ト400 200 200 0 0 0 0 10000 10000 20000 30000 20000 30000 Speed (r/min) -1 40000 40000 50000 50000 S-D-F I-C-F Vam=200V Iem=3A (c) Ferrite PM type.3 3 Average torque (N-m) [N-m] 33 I-D-R Ie=3A Torque (N-m) 2.5 2 ク 1.2 1. 電流位相 30 45 60 75 90 0. the I-D-R model (IPMDistributed winding-Rare earth permanent magnet) and the IC-R model (IPM-Concentrated winding-Rare earth permanent magnet) cannot be operated beyond approximately 15.6 ト [N-m] 0 10000 10000 3 Average torque (N-m) [N-m] 2.6 2. this model has a wide constant-torque operation region and can be operated at highspeed and high power. Fig. The voltage limitation Vam is assumed to be 200V.4 1.5 2 Ie=3A Torque (N-m) S-D-R S-C-R ク 1. several characteristics are examined under the .) β[deg.torque characteristics.) (c) Ferrite PM type.5 2 S-D-F Ie=3A I-D-F 1200 1200 1000 1000 20000 30000 40000 20000 30000 40000 -1 Speed (r/min) [min ] 回転速度 (b) Ferrite PM type. Moreover.000r/min. 50000 50000 Power (W) ク 1.5 ク ル ト 11 00 I-D-R I-C-R I-S-R 0. 回転速度[min ] be operated at high speed. The use of these generally designed models is not advantageous for highspeed operation. Speed .) β[deg.6 0. 4. 5. B.5 0 0 15 22 I-C-R I-S-R 1.5 1.] 電流位相 30 75 90 0 10000 10000 20000 30000 20000 30000 -1 [min ] Speed (r/min) 回転速度 (a) Rare earth PM type. as shown in Fig.power characteristics.2 I-D-F I-C-F S-D-F (I-S-R) S-C-F Vam=200V Iem=3A S-S-R 15 Current phase β (deg. However. We did not consider the slotless machine using a ferrite magnet in this research because it has a very low torque. 4. Fig. 3.5 0. Constant Copper Loss Condition As the heat generation at the winding conductor is a design limitation.torque characteristics.5 ル ト 1 均 平 0. and the speed-power characteristics are shown in Fig. Current phase . The S-D-R model (SPM-Distributed windingRare earth permanent magnet) and the S-C-R model (SPMConcentrated winding-Rare earth permanent magnet) cannot be operated beyond approximately 5. The speed-torque characteristics are shown in Fig. 40000 40000 50000 50000 Vam=200V Iem=3A I-C-F [N-m] 800 800 600 600 S-C-F ク ル 400 ト400 200 200 0 0 15 Current phase β[deg.5 0 0 S-C-R I-S-R S-D-R I-C-R I-D-R 0 10000 10000 20000 30000 20000 30000 Speed (r/min) 回転速度[min-1] (a) Rare earth PM type.4 0. 45 60 Current phase β (deg. 40000 40000 50000 50000 3 Average torque[N-m] (N-m) 1. Fig.5 ル ト 1 均 0.000r/min.5 ル ト 1 均 平 0. the operational range is expanded in the model with a ferrite magnet. 5. 電流位相 30 45 60 75 90 magnet. These motors have a maximum torque that is larger than that of the I-S-R model. The I-S-R model has low torque compared with other rare earth permanent magnet motors.8 ク ル 0. However. 3(c).5 2.8 0.] (b) SPM rotor type.2 0.6 1.

7 2. as shown in Table 3. the minimum d-axis magnetic linkage flux becomes small and its TABLE IV MOTOR PARAMETERS.2 20 33 2.torque characteristics.5 Total loss[W] (W) ク ル 11 ト 0 0 0 I-S-R I-C-R 1200 800 800 1000 1000 : Iron loss : Copper loss 鉄損 銅損 0. it can obtain high efficiency. 10000 10000 50000 50000 constant copper loss condition.2% 91. However. 5. In low-speed operation (2. 6.000r/min Fig. Since the flux-weakening control is not effective in the SPM rotor.7 20 Slot-less 1. the copper loss is predominant in each motor.5 Torque (N-m) [N-m] 失 損 全 40 35 30 25 20 20 15 10 5 5 0 0 I-D-R I-C-F Total loss (W) [W] : Iron loss : Copper loss 鉄損 銅損 2 TypeA I-S-R (η =) 79. The slot-less PMSM.5% 1200 1200 1000 1000 I-D-R I-D-F I-C-R I-S-R TypeA (η =) 95. However. the starting torque at the rated current has been shrinking considerably compared to the generally designed PMSMs. has the worst efficiency because its power is smaller than those of the other models. because the SPMSM is not so suitable for high speed operation. Conversely.2 3. 400 200 200 0 0 0 0 I-S-R I-C-F 20000 30000 40000 20000 30000 40000 -1 [min ] 回転速度 Speed (r/min) Fig. so the efficiency is shown as an evaluation guide. Coil Resistance Armature current Stator type Copper loss (W) Ie (A) ( Ω) Distributed 0.35 Ie (A) 3. Although Ψa of the I-C-R model has not changed.00005 0.000r/min).054 0.5 1.19×106 1.5 2.08 25. there is a model that cannot be operated because the loss exceeds the input.000r/min). as is the case for a vacuum cleaner.33×104 ∞ ∞ .163 0.0% I-C-R TypeD 49. This results in an expansion of the critical operating speed ωc (=Vam/Ψdmin) and the suitable motor parameter for the high-speed operation. therefore. Model Name I-D-R I-C-R I-S-R I-D-F I-C-F value is close to 0.157 0. Figure 8 shows the copper loss and the iron loss for a typical rotational speed. Figure 7 shows the speed-power characteristics. Ψdmin grows and the critical operating speed ωc has decreased because the current value becomes small in the slot-less PMSM (I-S-R model).047 0.2% I-C-F TypeE 31.6% Power (W) 800 800 [W] 600 600 力 出 400 (b) 50.power characteristics.0 3.9% (a) 2.50. The I-C-R model can be operated at high speed under the constant copper loss condition. Here. Speed . Loss and efficiency of each model.33 2.000r/min TypeD I-C-R TypeE I-C-F 94. 8.9% 90. compared to the IPM rotor. Figure 6 shows the speedtorque characteristics under the current limitation such that the copper loss is the same in each model. because neither the amount nor the material of the permanent magnet have changed.74 3.0% 2 I-D-F 1200 TypeB TypeC I-D-R I-D-F 94. When the load varies approximately with the square of the speed. the amount of the permanent magnet and the current value of the generally Ψa (Wb) 0. Same Starting Torque Condition The characteristics of the low iron loss and high efficiency in the slot-less PMSM are cleared in high-speed operation by the examination of the foregoing section. as shown in Fig.13 28.0 3.108 3. Table 4 shows the parameters of the motors examined herein.061 -0.13×103 4. only the model that uses the IPM rotor is treated herein. in the case of the constant torque load or the constant power load.4 TABLE III COIL RESISTANCE AND CURRENT FOR CONSTANT LOSS. the iron loss in generally designed models becomes high and the efficiency decreases in high-speed operation (50. This is because the current limitation has been increased to 3. Since the iron loss does not increase greatly in the slot-less PMSM.7A.16 8. the small starting torque hardly becomes a problem. However. η is the conventional efficiency calculated as output/(output + loss). small starting torque becomes problematic. 8. 7. 10000 10000 回転速度 50000 50000 600 失 600 損 400 全400 200 200 0 0 N/A I-D-R TypeB 0% I-D-F TypeC 34. Speed .5 0 20000 30000 40000 20000 30000 40000 -1 [min ] Speed (r/min) Fig. because Ie increases. which is different than the result described in Section A.46 22.6% 1.064 0. In Fig.015 -0.49 3. Actually (when the speed-torque characteristics are calculated based on the equivalent circuit where iron loss was considered). C.7 Ψdmin (Wb) ωc (rad/s) 0.0 20 Concentrated 0.069 Ld (mH) 19.

13. The magnetic flux density of the I-S-R model is approximately 1/6 compared to that of the I-D-R model. since the iron cores of adjacent wires are separated by their copper sheaths. Fig.4 0. Because the armature current in the I-D-R model is half that of the I-SR model. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fe Cu Fe Cu 0. 11(a). the slot-less PMSM (I-S-R model) has higher torque and power than the I-D-R model. has a high efficiency characteristic.3 0. The current constraint Iem of the I-S-R model is 3.power characteristics.4 I-S-R Vam=200V D-R model is higher than that of the I-S-R model because there is a large difference in copper loss.2 0. . EFFECTS OF COMPOUND WIRE OF COPPER AND IRON In this chapter. (d) 100% iron (e) 36% iron core (f) 64% iron core Fig. the efficiency of the I0.5A.000r/min. Two typical configurations of the compound wires are examined using the finite element method. the magnetic flux does not increase significantly. the armature winding using a compound wire of copper and iron in slot-less PMSM is examined for torque improvement with the low iron loss maintained. 12. 11(b). Figure 11 shows the conventional efficiency as well as the case of Fig.000r/min Fig. Figure 12 shows sectional views of the iron sheath type and the iron core type compound wires. Compound wire models. 8. and the speed-power characteristics are shown in Fig. Speed . Magnetic flux in the compound wire. Figure 13 shows an enlarged cross sectional view of the magnetic flux in the compound wires. (b) Iron core type. and the current constraint Iem of the I-D-R model is 1.6 0. In the high-speed operation the slot-less PMSM. As a result. The magnetic flux flows easily through the iron (ferromagnetic material) and copper (nonmagnetic material) compound wire. In low-speed operation. the copper loss is approximately 14% of that of the I-S-R model.2 ト0. 9. 10000 10000 回転速度 50000 50000 1200 1200 I-S-R 1000 1000 [W] Power (W) 800 800 Vam=200V 600 600 力 出400 400 200 200 00 0 0 20000 30000 40000 20000 30000 40000 -1 [min ] Speed (r/min) Fig.8% Total loss (W) [W] Total loss (W) [W] 鉄損 Copper loss 銅損 500 400 Iron loss 鉄損 銅損 (a) 100% copper 失 200 損 全 300 100 0 I-S-R TypeA (η=) 96. and the iron loss becomes very small. as shown in Fig. The magnetic flux flows easily in the iron part of the wire.7%) (a) Iron sheath type. the iron loss of the I-S-R model increases only slightly.3 ク ル 0. Permeability of Compound Wire The torque of the slot-less PMSM is improved if the magnetic flux density of the space where the armature winding exists is increased. while the iron loss of the I-D-R model becomes large in high-speed operation.000r/min (b) 50. the copper loss in the armature winding increases because the resistivity of the iron is approximately 5. In the higher speed region.torque characteristics. therefore.7 times higher than that of the copper.7% of the base model.5 Torque[N-m] (N-m) 0. IV.8% (a) 2.7%) 20000 30000 40000 20000 30000 40000 -1 Speed (r/min) [min ] Fig. The starting torque and the power are the same in the I-S-R model and the I-D-R model up to a speed of approximately 10.5 0. when the percentage of the iron component increases. The amount of the permanent magnet in the I-D-R model decreases to 41. The speed-torque characteristics are shown in Fig.3% (b) 36% iron sheath Cu (c) 64% iron sheath Cu Fe Fe Fe TypeC I-D-R TypeB 91. 11. Loss and efficiency. 10. 50000 50000 Fe Cu Fe Cu 回転速度 失 損 全 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 I-S-R TypeA (η=) 67. Speed . A.5 designed PMSM (I-D-R model) are adjusted so that the starting torque and the critical operating speed are equal to those of the slot-less PMSM (I-S-R model).1 00 0 0 I-D-R (PM : 41. Figure 11 shows the loss analysis and efficiency for a typical rotational speed. 9. 10000 10000 I-D-R (PM : 41.6 0. However.0A. With respect to the iron core type compound wire.0% TypeC I-D-R TypeB 52.1 0. 10.

However. the optimization of the design of the slot-less machine.3% (a) 2. Fe sheath Fe core Resistance 0. so that it is possible to expand the operation region to the high-speed region. However. Speed . the motor using the compound wire is higher efficiency at the low speed operation.5 2 1. The total loss of the motor TABLE V MOTOR PARAMETERS. B. the 40% iron sheath type compound wire is effective for torque improvement. Characteristics of the compound wire. the armature flux linkage Ψa of the permanent magnet is reduced and the critical operating speed reaches infinity. The equivalent relative permeability of the winding part rises by using the compound wire.0023 -0. as a result. and d-axis inductance grows. Loss and efficiency.5 3 2. and the resistance is rather small when the percentage of the iron part is approximately 40%. On the other hand.0A I-S-R (Compound wire) 0. Figure 16 shows the conventional efficiency as well as the case of Figs.1% (η=) 96.047 0. Twice or more starting torque is obtained in the motor using compound wire compared that using copper wire.2 1 0.000r/min Fig.5 1 0. 16.46 19.4 ト 0.8% 40 Total loss (W) [W] 鉄損 銅損loss Copper 120 100 60 失 損 全40 20 0 80 鉄損 銅損 Iron loss TypeA Normal Compound Normal Ty peA TypeB 91.099 Ld (mH) 8.0 Ψdmin (Wb) ωc (rad/s) 0. In the generally designed PMSM having a low-rated speed.0018 8.43 Ie (A) 3. it is clear that the motor has low iron loss and high efficiency in high-speed operation.14 1.12 Resistance [Ω/m] Torque [N-m] (N-m) 0. V. the iron loss is very high. In the iron sheath type compound wire. 8 and 11. and consideration of the eddy current loss in the winding conductor are necessary. The equivalent relative permeability is defined as follows: total flux of compound wire Relative permeability = total flux of copper wire (8) Figure 14 shows the characteristics of the equivalent relative permeability to the ratio of the iron component in the compound wire. 13(e) and 13(f). and the efficiency at the high speed operation might deteriorate.02 0 Fe Fe Cu Cu Equivalent permeability 0.torque characteristics. 14. CONCLUSIONS To decrease iron loss in high-speed operation. It is shown that the slot-less PMSM using the compound wire can obtain almost the same torque as a conventional PMSM. Therefore. The characteristics calculation in the equivalent circuit with the iron loss resistance.83×104 ∞ . Model I-S-R (Normal wire) I-S-R (Compound wire) 30 失 損 20 全 10 0 (η=) 67. Performance of Slot-less PMSM using Compound Wire Table 5 shows the motor parameters that the high speed operation is possible under constant current condition (Ψdmin≈0. because the output power is large. However.08 0. The characteristics when the air gap between rotor and stator is wide [9] are scheduled to be examined in the generally designed PMSM. TypeB Compound using the compound wire is larger at each speed. It is understood that it is effective to use the compound wire to increase the torque without sacrificing the efficiency at the high speed operation. Ψa (Wb) 0. Ie=3A).0% 69. However.04 0.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percentage of iron in the compound wire [%] [%] Fig. The permanent magnet flux linkage Ψa also increases. the equivalent relative permeability is large. Figure 15 shows speed-torque characteristics of the slotless PMSM using the compound wire.2 I-S-R (Normal wire) 0 0 20000 30000 40000 -1 Speed (r/min) [min ] Fig. the characteristics of the generally designed PMSM and the slotless PMSM were examined. 15.1 0. Figure 16 shows the copper loss and the iron loss of the slot-less PMSM using the compound wire for a typical rotation speed. 10000 回転速度 50000 60 50 Total loss (W) [W] Figs. the slot-less PMSM has a disadvantage in that the starting torque is low and the efficiency is not good at low and middle speeds.000r/min (b) 50.8 Ie=3.6 ク ル 0. the iron loss grows because the magnetic flux density of the stator yoke rises.0 3.06 0.6 4 Equivalent relative permeability 3.

M. Nishimura. and Y. Takeda. their control systems. Matsui. Morimoto. Takeda. and 1994. and T. Matsumoto. pp. S.” Ohmsha (2003) (in Japanese). Morimoto.177-180 (2004) (in Japanese). Sakai. Vol. Isobe. M. Dr. . IEEJ University Course: ,pp. Noguchi: “Efficiency Improvement by Means of Permeance Coefficient Optimization of 150. N. Japan. Morimoto is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Japan. REFERENCES [1] Y. C. VII. pp. M.. M. He received the B.5-kW PM Motor. Honda: “Design and Control Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor. S. Vol. Vol.” IEEJ Kansai-section Joint Convention of Institutes of Electrical Engineering.E. 29-34 (2004) (in Japanese). Sanada. of the2004 JIAS Conference. Takeda: “Basic Examination of Suitable Motor Structure for Driving in high-speed Rotation Region in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor.” Proc. 1984. 1991.7 VI. the Institute of Systems. and Y. Y. 971-977 (2001) (in Japanese). respectively. the Japan Institute of Power Electronics. T.” Proc. His main areas of research interest are linear motors for the direct drive applications. 431-434 (2005) N. Takeda: “Improvement of Torque Performance for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Concentrated Winding using Asymmetric Flux Barriers. Sanada is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.E. Y. Takeda: “Torque Performances and Arrangement of Permanent Magnet for IPMSM”. 335-338 (2006) (in Japanese). Wakisaka: “Evaluation of Iron Loss in Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Consideration of Rotational Field. 3. Morimoto. Y. Sanada. the Society of Instrumental and Control Engineers of Japan. M. and Ph. where he is currently a Professor. of 2005 International Power Electronics Conference Niigata. Vol. pp. Dr.D degrees from Osaka Prefecture University.. Kishi. S. in 1989. Meeting on Rotating Machinery. and 1990. respectively. M. RM-04-52. Since 1994. S. and the Japan Society of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics.. M. of the 2006 JIAS Conference. A. Sanada. Morimoto. he has been with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems. Y. IA. 4. Shigeo Morimoto (M'93) was born in Japan in 1959. T. and Y. Takeda: “Thrust Improvement of Linear Electromagnetic Actuator using Compound Wire with Copper and Iron”.. T. Sanada. 3. Osaka Prefecture University. L. The Paper of Tech. Hoshino. pp. Kano. Sanada.” Ohmsha [9] 79-92 (1984) (in Japanese). he has been with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems. G89 (2005) (in Japanese). S. Morimoto. He joined Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. Y. No. S. 9.D degrees from Osaka Prefecture University. N. Proc. pp. Ogawa. No. Sanada. Morio. in 1982. Osaka Prefecture University. Japan. and the Japan Institute of Power Electronics. He has been engaged in the research on ac drive systems and motion control. M. Control and Information Engineers. S. Takeda. Since 1988. and Ph. Sakai.” IEEJ Trans. M. and magnetic field analysis. 123. Matsui: “Loss Analysis and Efficiency Improvement of the Axial Flux Type Generator with Coreless Windings.” IEEJ Trans. BIOGRAPHIES Masayuki Sanada (M’94) was born in Japan in 1966. Tokyo. “ [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Electric Machine Design Outline. IA. Kaido. M. 1. Ma.E. He received the B.000-r/min. Morimoto. where he is currently an Assistant Professor. Morimoto. S.E. in 1984. IEE Japan. pp. 121. 454-461 (2003) (in Japanese).