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The endomorphism ring of the group of all sequences of integers, the Baer-Specker group, is isomorphic to the ring of row finite infinite matrices over the integers. The product bases of that group are represented by the multiplicative group of invertible elements in that matrix ring. All products in the Baer-Specker group are characterized, and a lemma of Lazlo Fuchs regarding such products is revisited. These results provide an answer to the countable case of Fuchs' Problem 23, Abelian Groups (Pergamon Press New York 1960), page 183. The article was published as a Research Article in the International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, Volume 2009, Article ID 396475, 9 Pages, doi:10.1155/2009/396475, by the Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Use of all or any part of the article requires attribution to the author and to the journal and its publisher. The initial draft of the paper, which covered higher dimensions and which is referenced on page 8 under "Generalizations", can be accessed at http://www.scribd.com/doc/21299110/Product-Bases-and-Endomorphisms-of-Products-of-Integers. The interested reader also may wish to peruse "Properties of Slender Rings", published as a Research Article in the International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, Volume 2010, Article ID 162464, 10 Pages, doi:10.1155/2010/162464, by the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, and posted at http://www.scribd.com/doc/37419408/Properties-of-Slender-Rings.

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Volume 2009, Article ID 396475, 9 pages

doi:10.1155/2009/396475

Research Article

Endomorphisms and Product Bases of

the Baer-Specker Group

E. F. Cornelius Jr.

College of Engineering and Science, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, MI 48221-3038, USA

The endomorphism ring of the group of all sequences of integers, the Baer-Specker group, is

isomorphic to the ring of row finite infinite matrices over the integers. The product bases of that

group are represented by the multiplicative group of invertible elements in that matrix ring. All

products in the Baer-Specker group are characterized, and a lemma of László Fuchs regarding such

products is revisited.

Copyright q 2009 E. F. Cornelius Jr. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction

Abelian group notation and terminology are standard 1, 2. N denotes the nonnegative

integers and N the positive integers. Z denotes the ring of all integers. Let P ZN N Z,

the group of all integer sequences, known as the Baer-Specker group 3, 4. For purposes of

matrix vector multiplication, an element x of P is viewed as a column vector, the ith entry of

which is denoted xi .

To prove the results claimed, some properties of infinite integral matrices are needed. These

properties are stated without proof, as they are known or easily proved.

The group of all infinite integral matrices is denoted by M, with addition being

defined in the usual way. Matrix rows and columns are indexed by N. Column operations

multiplying a column by −1, interchanging two columns, adding an integral multiple of one

column to another are carried out in the usual way.

F ∈ M is said to be row finite if, for each i ∈ N, Fij 0 for all but finitely many j ∈ N;

that is, if for each i, there exists ki ∈ N such that Fij 0 unless j ≤ ki . A column finite matrix

2 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

is defined analogously. The additive group of all row finite matrices in M is denoted by F.

T ∈ M is said to be lower triangular if Tij 0 unless i ≥ j. The additive group of all lower

triangular matrices in M is denoted by T. Obviously T ⊂ F.

Recall that multiplication of two infinite matrices may not be well defined and, even

when defined, may not be associative. For examples of pathologies of infinite matrices, see

Section 5. However, for F ∈ F and G ∈ M, the product of F and G, denoted FG ∈ M, is

defined as

FGij Fik Gkj , i, j ∈ N. 2.1

k∈N

Because F is row finite, the sum reduces to k≤ni Fik Gkj where ni ∈ N. Under multiplication

thus defined, F and T are rings with identity I satisfying Iij δij , the Kronecker delta.

F ∈ F is said to be invertible if there exists G ∈ F satisfying FG I GF. It clear

that such a G is a unique two-sided inverse, so that F −1 G is well defined 5, pages

21–25. The set of invertible matrices in F is denoted GL and forms a group under matrix

multiplication.

E is obtained by performing the same operation on I. E is both row and column finite and invertible.

Corollary 2.2. If F ∈ F is obtained from F ∈ F through a finite sequence of column operations, then

F FE where E is obtained by performing the same sequence of operations on I. E is both row and

column finite and invertible.

Let U {uj : j ∈ N} be a subset of P. If each expression j∈N bj uj , bj ∈ Z, represents an

element of P, then the set of all such elements forms a subgroup of P, denoted j∈N uj and

called a product in P 2, page 164. Such a subset U forms a product if and only if the matrix

with columns uj is row finite. If the representations are unique, then the uj are independent

and U is said to be a basis of the product. One of the objectives of this paper is to characterize

products and product bases in term of endomorphisms of P.

For F ∈ F and x ∈ P, the matrix vector product of F and x, denoted simply Fx, is

defined as Fx ∈ P, with Fxi k∈N Fik xk , i ∈ N. As with matrix multiplication, because F

is row finite, the sum reduces to k≤ni Fik xk where ni ∈ N. Each such F naturally induces an

endomorphism of P, via matrix vector multiplication. Indeed, a product in P, j∈N uj , is

simply the image of such an endomorphism, where the matrix F is constructed with columns

uj , j ∈ N.

All endomorphisms of P are determined by their values on Σ, the free subgroup of P

consisting of sequences which are 0 after awhile 2, Lemma 94.1. The standard group basis

of Σ is {ej : ej i δij , i, j ∈ N}, and the ej also form the standard product basis of P. In

particular, all endomorphisms of P are determined by their values on this standard basis. As

a result, with each element f in the endomorphism ring of P, EndP, is associated a unique

f

matrix Mf ∈ M, given by Mij fej i , i, j ∈ N. The immediate goal is to prove that each

such Mf is row finite, so that every endomorphism of P is eﬀectively multiplication by a row

finite matrix.

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 3

The main theorem follows.

Theorem 3.1. Every endomorphism of P is induced by the action of a row finite, infinite, integral

matrix.

f

Proof. Let f ∈ EndP, and let Mf ∈ M be the matrix associated with f, Mij fej i , i, j ∈ N.

Suppose that Mf is not row finite; that is, suppose there are i and distinct jk ∈ N such that

f

0 for all k ∈ N. Let πi denote the canonical projection of the ith row of elements of P

Mijk /

onto Z. Then πi f would be a homomorphism of P into Z, which is nonzero at all ejk , k ∈ N,

f

an impossibility 4, Satz III. Hence it is not possible that an infinite number of the Mij are

nonzero; that is, Mf must be row finite.

To see that Mf acts on P to produce f, it suﬃces to check agreement on the standard

f

basis of Σ. For i, j ∈ N, Mf ej i k∈N Mik ej k k∈N fek i δjk fej i .

Corollary 3.2. i The endomorphism ring of P, EndP, is isomorphic to the ring of row finite,

infinite, integral matrices F. ii The automorphism group of P, AutP, is isomorphic to the

multiplicative group of invertible matrices in F, GL.

isomorphically onto GL. The row finiteness of the elements of F ensures that all sums are

finite and that matrix multiplication is associative.

Corollary 3.3. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the matrices of GL and the product bases

of P.

Proof. Let {uj : j ∈ N} be a product basis for P, and let A ∈ AutP be defined by Axi ai

for x ∈ P, when x j∈N aj uj , aj ∈ Z. The uniqueness of expression of the elements of P

in terms of the product basis guarantees that A is an automorphism. By Corollary 3.2ii, A

corresponds to a unique element of GL. The converse is clear.

4. Products in P

Topological techniques are helpful in studying the endomorphisms of P. Background material

may be found in 6–8 and the references cited therein. For x / y ∈ P, the distance between

them, dx, y, is defined to be 2−n , where n is the first place at which xn / yn . Of course,

dx, x 0. It is easy to check that d is a metric on P, which comports with the product

topology on P, when Z is discrete.

P is a separable metric space having Σ as a countable dense subset. Finally,

P is a complete metric space in which Cauchy sequences eventually become constant

pointwise.

The important aspect of this topology is that all endomorphisms of P are continuous.

Similarly, M is a complete separable metric space with the distance between distinct

matrices F and G defined as 2−n , where n min{i, j : Fij /

Gij }.

Theorem 4.1. Every product in P can be generated by a lower triangular matrix, the columns of

which form a basis of the product.

4 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Proof. Let F ∈ F generate the product FP. The proof proceeds by transforming F via column

operations into a lower triangular matrix T satisfying T P FP. Since F 0 is trivial, assume

F/ 0. Let y ∈ FP, 0 / y y0 , y1 , . . . t , where t denotes transpose, and suppose y Fx for

t

x x0 , x1 , . . . ∈ P.

If row 0 of F consists entirely of 0’s, simply set T 1 F, E1 I, and x1 x and proceed

to the next step. Otherwise, perform column operations on the nonzero entries of row 0 of

F to obtain a new matrix T 1 in which T0j1 0 for all j > 0. This is tantamount to finding the

gcd of the entries in row 0, columns j ≥ 0 of F. Perform the same column operations on I

to produce E1 , so that T 1 FE1 with E1 an invertible row and column finite matrix. Let G1

denote the inverse of E1 . Since F T 1 G1 , y Fx T 1 G1 x. Set x1 G1 x x01 , x11 , . . . t so

that y T 1 x1 .

If T1j1 0 for all j ≥ 1, simply set T 2 T 1 , x2 x1 , and E2 I and proceed. Otherwise,

perform column operations on the nonzero entries of row 1 in columns j ≥ 1 of T 1 to obtain

a new matrix T 2 in which T1j2 0 for all j > 1. As before, this is tantamount to finding the gcd

of the entries in row 1, columns j ≥ 1 of T 1 . Note that Ti02 Ti01 for all i; that is, column 0 of T 2

is the same as column 0 of T 1 .

Perform the same column operations on I to obtain E2 , so that T 2 T 1 E2 with E2

an invertible row and column finite matrix. Note that since no operation was performed on

column 0 of T 1 , none was performed on column 0 of I. Moreover, rows 0 of T 1 and I remained

unchanged because of 0 entries, so that E00 2

1 and the rest of the row 0 and column 0

entries of E are 0. Thus the same is true of G2 , the inverse of E2 . Since F T 2 G2 G1 , y Fx

2

that x02 x01 .

Suppose that after n > 1 iterations, row finite matrices T 1 , . . . , T n and invertible row

and column finite matrices E1 , . . . , En with inverses G1 , . . . , Gn and x1 , . . . , xn ∈ P have been

obtained, such that

a Tijn 0 for all j > i, 0 ≤ i ≤ n − 1; that is, the matrices T n are becoming increasingly

lower triangular;

b column j of T n is identical to column j of T n−1 for 0 ≤ j < n − 1; that is, after the nth

iteration, rows and columns < n do not change;

c T n T n−1 En FE1 · · · En ;

d Eijn δij Gnij , 0 ≤ i, j < n − 1; that is, the En ’s and their inverses are becoming

increasingly diagonal with 1’s down the diagonal, tending toward the identity

matrix;

e xn Gn xn−1 , y T n xn ; that is, y is always in the image of T n ;

f xin xin−1 , 0 ≤ i < n − 1; that is, after the nth iteration, the entries < n of the xn ’s do

not change.

n

As before, if Tnj 0 for all j ≥ n, simply set T n1 T n , En1 I, and xn1 xn and

continue. Otherwise, perform column operations on the nonzero entries of the nth row in

columns j ≥ n of Tn to obtain a new matrix T n1 in which Tnj n1

0 for all j > n. Because no

operation is performed on columns 0 through n − 1, Tijn1 Tijn , i ∈ N, j 0, . . . , n − 1; that is,

columns 0 through n − 1 of T n1 are the same as columns 0 through n − 1 of T n .

Perform the same column operations on I to produce En1 , so that T n1 T n En1

with En1 an invertible row and column finite matrix having inverse Gn1 . Note that since

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 5

0 − n − 1 of I. Moreover, rows 0 − n − 1 of T n were not changed because of 0’s, and

the same is true of I and Gn1 . i As a result, Eijn1 δij Gn1 ij , i, j < n. Since T

n1

n n1

T E FE · · · E E , F T G · · · G , y Fx T G · · · G x T G x .

1 n n1 n1 n1 1 n1 n1 1 n1 n1 n

ii Set xn1 Gn1 xn so that y F n1 xn1 . i and ii imply that xin1 xin , i 0, . . . , n − 1.

The Cauchy sequence xn converges to some x ∈ P because P is a complete metric space.

Since all endomorphisms of P are continuous, the sequence T n xj converges to T n x for each

n. Because of b and f, the convergence is uniform. The Cauchy sequence of matrices T n

thus obtained converges to a lower triangular matrix T and T x y so that T P ⊇ FP. From

b it follows that T P ⊆ FP and so T P FP.

It may, of course, happen that some of the diagonal terms of T are 0 so that the first

nonzero entry in a column may be below the diagonal. Should that occur, the first nonzero

entry in the next column will be in a lower row. If T has only finitely many nonzero columns,

the result is elementary. If all columns of T are nonzero, it is clear that an infinite linear

combination of its columns can be 0 only if all coeﬃcients are 0, so that the columns of T

form a product basis.

Remark 4.2. From the results in Section 3, a matrix ∈ F can be classified as epic or monic if

the endomorphism of P which it induces is epic or monic, respectively. 1 If F ∈ F has a 0

row i, it cannot be epic because ei cannot be reached. If it has a 0 column j, it cannot be monic

because ej is in the kernel. Here E {ei : i ∈ N} denotes the usual basis of Σ ⊂ P. 2 Similarly,

if a row column of F is a multiple of another row column, then F cannot be epic monic.

3 T ∈ T is invertible 2 sided over the rationals if and only if each diagonal entry is nonzero

5, pages 19-20 . 4 T is integrally invertible if and only if each diagonal entry ±1.

Proof. If each diagonal entry of T is ±1, then T ∈ GL and so is epic. Conversely let y

y0 , y1 , . . . t be a nonzero element of P. To solve T x T x0 , x1 , . . . t y, induct on n. Let

T n denote the finite matrix Tij : i, j 0, 1, . . . , n. If n 0 and T00 / ± 1, then T00 x0 y0 is not

solvable in general. If T00 ±1, then x0 is uniquely determined. Suppose that the diagonals

Tkk ±1 for k 0, 1, . . . , n, and suppose further that T n x0 , . . . , xn t y0 , . . . , yn t is uniquely

solvable, x0 , . . . , xn t Sn y0 , . . . , yn t , where Sn denotes the inverse of T n . Express

Tn 0

T n1

4.1

Tn1,0 · · · Tn1,n1

so that

⎛ n ⎞

T x0 , . . . , xn t

⎜ jn1 ⎟

T n1 x0 , . . . , xn , xn1 t ⎜

⎝

⎟,

⎠ 4.2

Tn1,j xj

j0

with some abuse of notation for the sake of simplicity. Now by the induction hypothesis,

jn1

x0 , . . . , xn t Sn y0 , . . . , yn t uniquely. Thus the only solution to j0 Tn1,j xj yn1 must

6 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

jn

come from Tn1,n1 xn1 yn1 − j0 Tn1,j xj , which is impossible in general unless Tn1,n1

±1.

follows.

Theorem 4.4. For T ∈ T the following are equivalent.

1 T is epic.

2 Tkk ±1 for all k ∈ N.

3 T ∈ GL.

0 for all k ∈ N.

The next examples and counterexamples serve to justify some of the assumptions about

matrix rings made in this paper. They illustrate some of the pitfalls and limitations of working

with infinite matrices and further illustrate results from Section 4. They are not new but

continue to be discussed in various contexts: 9, section 2; 10, page 437; 7, pages 189–191.

As before, the elements of P are viewed as column vectors and E {ej : j ∈ N} denotes

the usual basis of Σ ⊂ P; E is also the standard product basis of P. The same symbol E is used

for the matrix with the ej as columns, that is, the identity matrix. The same liberty is taken

with other bases and their matrices.

⎛ ⎞

1 1 1 1 ···

⎜0 · · ·⎟

⎜ 1 1 1 ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎜ · · ·⎟

E1 ⎜0 0 1 1 ⎟. 5.1

⎜ ⎟

⎜0 0 0 1 · · ·⎟

⎝ ⎠

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

⎛ ⎞

1 −1 0 0 ···

⎜0 −1 · · ·⎟

⎜ 1 0 ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎜ −1 · · ·⎟

E2 ⎜0 0 1 ⎟. 5.2

⎜ ⎟

⎜0 0 0 1 · · ·⎟

⎝ ⎠

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences 7

Example 5.3. Let 1 ∈ P denote the column vector having all entries 1 and let E3 {e0 e2

· · · ei−1 − 1 : i ∈ N }. Note that E3 is not a basis of Σ; indeed, no element is even contained in

Σ. The accompanying lower triangular matrix is

⎛ ⎞

0 0 0 0 ···

⎜ ⎟

⎜−1 0 0 0 · · ·⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎜ · · ·⎟

E3 ⎜−1 −1 0 0 ⎟. 5.3

⎜ ⎟

⎜−1 −1 −1 0 · · ·⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

E1 E2 E E2 E1 , E2 E3 E. 5.4

Observe that, although both E2 and E3 are row finite and even pure independent, E2 is not

monic 1 is in the kernel, and E3 is not epic e0 is not attained. In particular, E1 E2 1

E1 1, but E1 E2 1 E1 0 0, so that multiplication is not associative. Despite the fact

that E2 P P, E2 nevertheless cannot serve as a product basis for P. The problem, of course, is

that E2 is not invertible in F. Restriction to multiplicatively associative matrix rings helps to

eliminate much of this infinite matrix pathology 5, pages 19–22.

In the proof of Theorem 4.1, although the columns of the resulting lower triangular

matrix T obviously are independent, T nevertheless may be singular, as illustrated by E3

above. Moreover, it may not be the case that the products E1 · · · En in that proof will converge

to a row finite matrix, as further illustrated by E2 . Even though E2 itself is not monic, the

resulting lower triangular matrix E, which results from column operations on E2 , is monic.

Products in P were introduced in 2 by beginning with a countable subset {xn : n ∈ N} ⊂ P,

with no condition other than that all sums of the form x ∞n0 sn xn , sn ∈ Z, are well defined.

As mentioned, this means that the infinite matrix with columns xn must be row finite. Lemma

95.1 then was stated as follows in 2.

∞

that P ∞ n0 an and X n0 kn an where • kn | kni if kn /

0 for all n, i ≥ 0.

The goal was to establish a product analog of the well-known result for stacked bases

of free groups of finite rank 1, Lemma 15.4. However, a counterexample has been produced

11.

Perhaps another approach is to utilize the weaker definition of stacked bases found in

12, which does not require divisibility as in •. From Theorem 4.1, there would be no loss

of generality in assuming that the xn ∈ P form a product basis and a lower triangular matrix.

∞

Lemma 6.1. Let ∞ n0 xn be a product of infinite rank in P, let S xn , and let S∗ be the

n0

pure subgroup which the xn generate. Then there exist a product basis of P ∞ n0 an and positive

8 International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

∞

integers kn n ∈ N such that ∞ n0 kn an n0 xn if and only if there exist stacked bases of S

and S∗ such that the matrix F∗ formed by the basis of S∗ is invertible and the matrix F formed by the

basis of S satisfies FP ∞n0 xn .

Proof. If {an : n ∈ N} is a product basis of P, then the an ’s are pure independent. If {kn :

n ∈ N} are positive integers, then ∞ ∞

n0 kn an is a product in P and if S ⊕n0 kn an , then

∞

S∗ ⊕n0 an so that {kn an : n ∈ N} and {an : n ∈ N} are stacked bases for the respective

subgroups of P. The matrix formed by the an ’s is in GL by Corollary 3.3; the matrix F formed

by the xn kn an certainly satisfies FP ∞ n0 xn .

Conversely, let ∞ x

n0 n be a product in P, let S be the subgroup of P which the xn ’s

generate, and let S∗ be the pure subgroup which they generate. Suppose there are stacked

bases {kn an : kn , n ∈ N} of S and {an : n ∈ N} of S∗ ; because S∗ /S is torsion, all kn ’s must

be positive. Suppose further that the matrix formed by the an ’s is invertible; then the an ’s are

a product basis of P and ∞ k a is a product in P. Finally, if the matrix F formed by the

∞ n0 n n

kn an ’s satisfies FP n0 xn , the proof is concluded.

Remark 6.2. 1 If ∞ n0 xn is a product in P and {an : n ∈ N} is a basis of the subgroup

generated by the xn ’s, the matrix formed by the an ’s need not be row finite. 2 As previously

noted, the lower triangular matrix T , obtained from the column operations in Theorem 4.1,

may be singular. However, Nunke 8, page 199 has shown that every endomorphic image

of P is either free of finite rank or isomorphic to P itself. In the latter case, there then exists

monic F ∈ F satisfying FP T P. Column operations will, of course, reveal matrix rank, finite

or infinite.

Theorem 6.3. Every product in P is generated by a lower triangular, infinite, integral matrix, the

columns of which form a product basis and the rank of which determines whether the product is free of

finite rank or isomorphic to P.

Generalizations

The author’s initial draft of this paper was done for higher dimensions, along the lines of 13.

At the referee’s suggestion, matrix dimension has been restricted to 2, to improve readability.

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