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Brandynne Cintado One of the most important aspects of republicanism is the concept of limited government.

The framers of the Constitution sought to include this concept in order to reduce the threat of tyranny they experienced under rule of the British monarchy. Three elements of the constitution that stand out in addressing limited government are Section 8 of Article 2, Article 3, and the Bill of Rights. Section 8 of Article 2 specifically lays out the enumerated powers of Congress. Some of the powers include the ability To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, establish federal courts, make law and of course, to tax. All other powers not enumerated are either implied through Section 8s Necessary and Proper Clause, or completely prohibited by later articles and amendments. This effectively establishes that Congress does not have unlimited power over its citizens, as a non-republican government would have. Article 3 of the Constitution establishes the Supreme Court as the one federal court higher than all other courts established by Congress in accordance to Article 1, Section 8. Additionally, Article 3 lists the narrow scope at which the Supreme Court can operate. This restricts the type of cases the Supreme Court can hear to any dealing with Constitutional controversies, laws made by the U.S., cases affecting ambassadors/other public consuls, and appellate cases among others. In doing this, the framers ensure that Congress does not have all the power in regards to federal law. Laws made by Congress can now be challenged and removed from books if deemed unconstitutional. Finally, the Bill of Rights (or the first 10 amendments) lists some of the inalienable rights granted to citizens that Congress has no ability to interfere with. The first sentence of the 1st Amendment emphasizes this, saying Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion etc. Amendment 4 prevents citizens from unreasonable searches, as another example.

According to the constitutional principles of republican representation as established by the framers, Congress is divided into the House of Representatives and the Senate. Both branches of this bicameral legislative body originally had different systems of representation. The framers established that U.S. Senators were to be appointed by state legislative bodies rather than selected via direct election. This was to strengthen the relationship between the state and federal governments. This is explained in Article 1, Section 3 of the Constitution. This clause was eventually repealed on April 8, 1913 with Amendment 17 to the U.S. Constitution. Article 1, Section 2 states that the House will be composed of members every second Year by the People of several States. In other words, the House of Representatives is directly elected by individuals based on their states. Additionally, the framers established that the number of representatives in the House depends on the population of their respective states. This idea of a bicameral congress, each with its own plan for selecting representatives for each state was a part of a greater plan known as the Connecticut Compromise. The Connecticut Compromise was essentially a combination of both the Virginia and New Jersey Plans for representation, each favoring large and small states effectively. Ultimately, this allowed for a balance in the legislative branch between large and small states rather than the dominance of one group. Finally, the office of the president of the United States is to be chosen by the Electoral College. According to Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution, each state is to have a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives. At the time of election, Electors are to meet in their own states, vote by ballot for two persons (President and Vice President), and list both all persons voted for as well as the number of votes for each. Votes are then counted. Whoever wins the majority election in the most states is chosen for the office of

the presidency. This was to allow smaller states to have a more equal say in the election of the president, rather than direct population of which larger states would likely have more say. Three constitutional amendments that expanded upon democratic representation were the 14th, 17th, and 19th amendments. The 14th amendment states that citizens right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude by either the states or the federal government. Additionally, Section Two states that Congress will have authority to enforce the amendment. The purpose of this amendment was to ensure the establishment and preservation of voting rights for freemen who had been newly emancipated by the 13th amendment. It was also to ensure the rights of already free and future generations of non-whites. The 17th amendment states that two senators are to be elected by the people thereof, for six years and that vacancies are filled through writ of election rather than appointments by state legislature. As discussed before, the original method of choosing senators was to allow state legislative bodies to appoint them. This proved to be problematic and often led to corruption. In some extreme cases, this corruption prevented senators from being seated for some states altogether. Because of this, the 17th amendment is known as one of the reform amendments as its inherent purpose was to grant average citizens more opportunities to affect the political process. Finally, the 19th amendment to the constitution, ratified in 1920, states that the rights of citizens to vote shall not be denied by the United States or by any State on the account of sex. Prior, women were not grated voting rights, which effectively resulted in the exclusion of half of the countrys population when it came to the political process. One of the tenants of Republicanism that the framers sought to establish in the Constitution was the principle of popular sovereignty, meaning majority rule. A key passage in the Constitution that supports this principle is indeed the very first sentence of the document,

known as the preamble. As the preamble states in the first line, We the People of the United States this immediately places emphasis on the citizens. The next line, in Order to form a more perfect Union, implies that it is the people who are the make-up of the government. After that, establish Justice, insure Domestic Traquality, the preamble begins to state some of the responsibilities of the people for maintaining a government that serves the needs of the many. Some other responsibilities included in the preamble include providing for the defense of the country, promotion of general Welfare, and the protection of liberties. The final line states do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America. A simplified way of looking at the ideal of popular sovereignty as expressed by the preamble is to state We the People of the United States do ordain and establish this Constitution, which overall gives the message that it is not the government who solely controls the lives of its citizens, but rather it is the citizens who give the government its powers.