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Basic Human Anatomy The human body is made up of many different organs that each has a specific role

in maintaining the good health of an individual. The brain is involved in thought, reasoning and, in general, controlling our actions; the heart pumps blood around our body supplying all the organs with essential nourishment; the lungs load our blood with oxygen that helps supply the energy we need to function; the stomach, kidneys, liver, intestine and bladder all function in unison to extract nutrients from our food and dispose of unwanted toxins. Each organ plays an essential and unique part keeping us alive, see diagram below: n order to carry out its appointed role, an organ comprises of billions of cells of different types, each arranged in tightly controlled structures that form the overall architecture of the organ. t is the cells that are actually responsible for the proper functioning of the organ. f something goes wrong with an organ, then in order to treat it, we must restore the proper functioning of these cells.

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Skeleton " # skeleton is a rigid framework that provides protection and structure in many types of animal. $. Backbone / spinal cord " The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain %the medulla specifically&. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system. The spinal cord extends down to the space between the first and second lumbar vertebrae; it does not extend the entire length of the vertebral column. t is around '( cm %!) in& in men and around '* cm %!+ in& long in women. The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body but also contains neural circuits that can independently control numerous reflexes and central pattern generators. The spinal cord has three ma,or functions: #. -erve as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord. .. -erve as a conduit for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord. /. -erve as a center for coordinating certain reflexes. "

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Rib Cage " The human rib cage, also known as the thoracic cage, is a bony and cartilaginous structure which surrounds the thoracic %chest& cavity and supports the pectoral %shoulder& girdle, forming a core portion of the human skeleton. # typical human rib cage consists of $' ribs, the sternum, costal cartilages, and the !$ thoracic vertebrae. t, along with the skin and associated fascia and muscles, makes up the thoracic wall, and provides attachments for the muscles of the neck, thorax, upper abdomen, and back. The human rib cage is a component of the human respiratory system. t encloses the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs. #n inhalation is accomplished when the

muscular diaphragm, at the floor of the thoracic cavity, contracts and flattens, while contraction of intercostal muscles lift the rib cage up and out. These actions produce an increase in volume, and a resulting partial vacuum, or negative pressure, in the thoracic cavity, resulting in atmospheric pressure pushing air into the lungs, inflating them. #n exhalation results when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, and elastic recoil of the rib cage and lungs expels the air '. Brain " The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals.0!1 -ome primitive animals such as ,ellyfish and starfish have a decentrali2ed nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. n vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell. .rains can be extremely complex. The cerebral cortex of the human brain contains roughly !(3** billion neurons, perhaps more, depending on gender and age,0$1 linked with up to !4,444 synaptic connections each. Each cubic millimeter of cerebral cortex contains roughly one billion synapses.0*1 These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body and target them to specific recipient cells. The brain controls the other organ systems of the body, either by activating muscles or by causing secretion of chemicals such as hormones. This centrali2ed control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment. -ome basic types of responsiveness are possible without a brain: even single"celled organisms may be capable of extracting information from the environment and acting in response to it.0'1 -ponges, which lack a central nervous system, are capable of coordinated body contractions and even locomotion.0(1 n vertebrates, the spinal cord by itself contains neural circuitry capable of generating reflex responses as well as simple motor patterns such as swimming or walking.051 6owever, sophisticated control of behavior on the basis of complex sensory input requires the information"integrating capabilities of a centrali2ed brain. 7espite rapid scientific progress, much about how brains work remains a mystery. The

operations of individual neurons and synapses are now understood in considerable detail, but the way they cooperate in ensembles of thousands or millions has been very difficult to decipher. 8ethods of observation such as EE9 recording and functional brain imaging tell us that brain operations are highly organi2ed, while single unit recording can resolve the activity of single neurons, but how individual cells give rise to complex operations is unknown. (. Cerebrum " The cerebrum or telencephalon, together with the diencephalon, constitute the forebrain. t is the most anterior or, especially in humans, most superior region of the vertebrate central nervous system. :Telencephalon: refers to the embryonic structure, from which the mature :cerebrum: develops. The dorsal telencephalon, or pallium, develops into the cerebral cortex, and the ventral telencephalon, or subpallium, becomes the basal ganglia. The cerebrum is also divided into symmetric left and right cerebral hemispheres. t, with the assistance of the cerebellum, controls all voluntary actions in the body. 5. Pivot Joint " # ;ivot ,oint %trochoid ,oint, rotary ,oint& is a ,oint that moves by rotating. <or example, the ,oint that allows humans to rotate their heads on their necks is a pivot ,oint. They allow rotation. Gliding Joint " # plane ,oint %arthrodial ,oint, gliding ,oint, plane articulation& is a synovial ,oint which, under physiological conditions, allows only gliding movement. Hinge Joint " # hinge ,oint %ginglymus& is a bone ,oint in which the articular surfaces are moulded to each other in such a manner as to permit motion only in one plane= backward and forward=the extent of motion at the same time being considerable. The direction which the distal bone takes in this motion is seldom in the same plane as that of the axis of the proximal bone; there is usually a certain amount of deviation from the straight line during flexion. The articular surfaces are connected together by strong collateral ligaments, which form their chief bond of union. The best examples of ginglymus are the interphalangeal ,oints and the ,oint between the humerus and ulna; the knee" and ankle",oints are less typical, as they allow a slight degree of rotation or of side"to"side movement in certain positions of the limb. The knee is the largest hinge ,oint in the human body. -imilar ob,ects that work like hinged ,oints are door hinges, closet doors, dog flaps etc.

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Ball and socket Joint " # ball and socket ,oint %enarthrosis, spheroidal ,oint& is a ,oint in which the distal bone is capable of motion around an indefinite number of axes, which have one common center. t enables the bone to move in a *54? angle. n a ball and socket %spheroid& ,oint, the ball"shaped surface of one rounded bone fits into the cup"like depression of a muscle. Knee Joint " The knee ,oint ,oins the thigh with the leg and consists of two articulations: one between the femur and tibia, and one between the femur and patella.0!1 t is the largest and most complicated ,oint in the human body.0$1 The knee is a mobile trocho" ginglymus %i.e. a pivotal hinge ,oint&,0*1 which permits flexion and extension as well as a slight medial and lateral rotation. -ince in humans the knee supports nearly the whole weight of the body, it is the ,oint most vulnerable to both acute in,ury and the development of osteoarthritis. t is often grouped into tibiofemoral and patellofemoral components.%The fibular collateral ligament is often considered with tibiofemoral components.& lbo! " The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow",oint0!1=the ginglymus or hinge ,oint in the middle of the arm. Three bones form the elbow ,oint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm. !$. Heel " n human anatomy, the heel is the prominence at the posterior end of the foot. t is based on the pro,ection of one bone, the calcaneus or heel bone, behind the articulation of the bones of the lower leg. !*. S"oulder Joint " The shoulder ,oint comprises the part of the body where the humerus attaches to the scapula.0!1 The shoulder is the group of structures in the region of the ,oint. t is made up of three bones: the clavicle %collarbone&, the scapula %shoulder blade&, and the humerus %upper arm bone& as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder ,oints. There are two kinds of cartilage in the ,oint. The first type is the white cartilage on the ends of the bones %called articular cartilage& which allows the bones to glide and move on each other. @hen this type of cartilage starts to wear out %a process called arthritis&, the ,oint becomes painful and stiff. The labrum is a second kind of cartilage in the shoulder which is distinctly different from the articular cartilage. This cartilage is more fibrous or rigid than the cartilage on the ends of the ball and socket. #lso, this cartilage is also found only around the socket where it is attached. The shoulder must be flexible for the wide range of motion required in the arms and hands and also strong enough to allow for actions such as lifting,

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pushing and pulling. The compromise between these two functions results in a large number of shoulder problems not faced by other ,oints such as the hip. !'. #oluntary / involuntary muscle " voluntary muscles are the striated muscle that can be controlled voluntarily. -keletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue existing under control of the somatic nervous system. t is one of three ma,or muscle types, the others being cardiac and smooth muscle. #s its name suggests, most skeletal muscle is attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. # muscle that responds to an act of the will. nvoluntary muscles are smooth, unicycle nucleated, non" branching muscles that are not directly controllable at will. These muscles are not as free as the voluntary muscles such as those in the arms, legs, fingers, toes, etc. /ardiac muscle: a type of striated muscle exclusively in the heart, can be called an involuntary muscle, although it may be classified separately due to its structural differences. t is controlled by nerve impulses produced by a natural pacemaker called the sinoatrial node, the rate of which is controlled by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. -mooth muscles, a type of boner type muscles, include the radially arranged iris muscles, the digestive system, reproductive system, ma,or blood vessels, the skin, and internal organs. These are also controlled by the autonomic nervous system, particularly the vagus nerve %in the case of smooth muscles lining the digestive system&. nvoluntary muscles are muscles controlled only by the central nervous system, and %in some cases& by hormones. These cannot be controlled consciously. The pupils of the eye are an example of this as they contract quickly when the eye is exposed to bright light. 8any involuntary muscles are controlled by spinal nerve centres, with no direct involvement of the brain at all. These muscles react to certain external or internal stimuli, at certain thresholds. -keletal muscle is under the classification of conscious or voluntary muscle. These muscles are striated. They also carry on working throughout the whole time one is alive. /ardiac 8uscle " Aerve /ell Tissue Biver ;ancreas Cidney -tomach 6eart Bung -kull Eye -ocket

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