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")!) broadway j brainard and co. burgess. steel. buffalo i i . c corner fulton and nassau . : J. b. stringer and co. albany. j. and j. IT. pease. new haven bravo t. BY J. 30 ANN-STREET. baltimore j oeorgs kmtes. IN TO WHICH THAT NAME WAS GIVEN. and redding am r. taylor. WITH A MAP. hawks. IN THE VICINITY OF THE AMAZON. A. IX THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. g. AND WHICH LED TO MANY ENTERPRISES SEARCH OF IT J INCLUDING A DEFENCE OF IN SIR WALTER RALEIGH. REGARD TO THE RELATIONS MADE BY HIM RESPECTING AND A NATION OF FEMALE WARRIORS. IN THE NARRATIVE OF HIS EXPEDITION TO THE ORONOKE IN 1595. w. BEING A ' NARRATIVE OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH GAVE RISE TO RETORTS. 222 broadway wadi. philadelphia. NEW WORLD Sun j.~<2_-£_ * >c -» * = - EL DORADO. s. VAN HEUVEL iX'cro-Uork PRESS. berford. office. thomas h.e1gh 4. i burg j AND BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS AND PERIODICAL AGENTS THROUGHOUT THE UNITEr . OF THE EXISTENCE Of A RICH AND SPLENDID CITY *> IN SOUTH AMERICA.. j and morgan. new orleans. wm. WINCHESTER.

entitled in the original. of royal blood. THE PHILOSOPHER'S STONE. majority of thpm are intended. so elegant. PRICE ISA CENTS. subjects of that moral law which elevates both sexes above weakt but few of them. HUDSON. Its pages will not offend the most fastidious. and all the gay and glittering pursuits of men of elegance and fashion are graphically described. TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF BALZAC. AUTHOR Of THE "MYSTERIES OF PARIS. and differs essentially from Mr. fulw? mode of marriage in France . with his beautiful Duchess. it would seem. 30 Ann-street.Life in Danders— where all the affections so deeply at work are sanctioned Ly law an<: religion— must interest every heart of sensibility.." "MATILDA. to illustrate the existing evils attending the and the frightful immorality resulting from considering women creatures of n purely. This is the most original of all the admirable novels of Eugene Sue." "THERESE DUNOYER. fance. hazardous escapes. The hand which drew aside the curtain and displayed the wonderful ongoings of Parisian life in the " Mysteries of Paris. too.. ETC." published by J. it it affords to the proprietors of the New World way ' ' ho small gratification to furnish the ition so faithful. in their tone. PRICE 35 CENTS. to the Island of Martinique. could be selected. and which the author has certainly treated with '"he Among the numerous novels of Mr." ETC. New-York. suit the American public." " MATILDA. a species of calamity which ins been made the subject of representation. It illustrates. wild adventure. ETC. perhaps. and in every so worthy of the series. 1 mate In tbei preeepublic wi( p 1 ius. The dramatic attractions of this novel are as great as its romantic interest. and fled. Balzac. THE FEMALE BLUEBEARD. THERESE~DUNOYER. PRICE 35 CENTS. OR. who escaped from that country at the close of the unfortunate rebellion against James II. BY EUGENE SUE. The story abounds with glowing descriptions of the beautiful scenery of the tropics." Books for the People. which it would be desirable to translate. La Recherche d' Absolue." . which they design to delightful romance.. Winchester. LE MORNE-AU-DIABLE. The scenes lie principally in the heart ol the Parisian Metropolis . only a very few would. AUTHOR OT " THE MYSTERIES OF PARIS. S." ETC. and not equally with men. This is an exceedingly interesting and pleasant story. Hut thii s veet Tale of Domestic . by the author. Sue's other works. TRANSLATED BY J. BY A LADY. and thrilling incidents. It is founded upon the adventures of a distinguished nobleman of England. BY EUGENE SUE." is constantly exhibited in Therese Donoyer.

•/£>? EL DORADO. .






Morses Cerograpjy. .

In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District cf . VAN HEUYEL. by JACOB A. in the year 1844. New York.EDtered according to Act of Coagress.

is believed. who have first described and the result of my careful investigation of the subject.. My attention visit I made. has thrown some light on the Narrative of his voyage to . was alleged. to throw illustrious some shade on the fame of by a this man. which were the fruits of these maritime expeditions combined with his ardent love of melancholy fate. with unqualified condemnation. has been directed to this portion of his life. INTRODUCTION. that region. with enthusiastic admira- mingled with deep sympathy and regret. and made the attempts to —whence he has been called the Father of American Colonization. his bold and daring genius. his chivalric courage his services to his country. aided by a lew facts I then obtained. yet. Among scarce the distinguished names which shine in the pages of Modern is History. for the grounds on which it was founded. The melancholy fabled city of El catastrophe of it. weak victim it. and later writers. with the view of regaining the favor of an offended sovereign. from a further knowledge of facts. be more fully elucidated. to credulity. have continued. to. by historians generally. in pursuit of the Dorado —supposed by him— it to be within its limits and of the rich mineral treasures with which less abounded. some years since. own country. his history interesting. And equally to an American as to the inhabitants of his own country. or the dishonest fabricator of the it glowing accounts he gave of made. it A portion of his life may. had its origin in various expeditions which he made during a long period to Guyana. which led me to consult cotomporary voyagers to that and other parts of Guyana. how- ever. any holds a more conspicuous place than Sir Walter Raleigh. to a part of British Guyana . as his enterprising spirit first led to the discovery of that part of first North America which colonize brilliant it is now the United States . particularly his and sea. it . other. tyrannical and oppressive . science and his extensive knowledge —and in the end. . in South America. particularly examined than any But this part of his life has been While the sentence against him the has been denounced. in in. his enemies and enabled me regard to it. His and varied talents. both by land qualities. which furnished the ground of the invectives of to place his character. even now. his have often been portrayed by writers of his tion. as unjust. in a more- advantageous light than it has heretofore been viewed . censures he became subject as a from the representations he made of that country.

be. It is the object of these pages to exhibit the facts I I have collected on the sub. of my examination . which contributed statements generally. St. styles his " Republic of Amazons. in par- remarkable account of a nation of female warriors. without aiming at embellishment . . 1844. than by attempting a general eulogy on effort. his .VT INTRODUCTION. and the conclusions have formed upon them which will be done with a strict regard to truth and historical accuracy. 20. in the vicinity to impair the credibility of his of the Oronoke and Amazon. after character. I believe. . in his unlimited invective against him. Some relations made by him of very singular tribes of Indians. jects I have examined. and for his defence. whom Hume. founded as they will on unimpeachable testimony believing that thus greater his justice will be done to his memory. and which has. and would be a useless the numerous panegyrics upon him which have proceeded from the ablest pens. New-York. Jan. Lawrence County. with- out examination. which is not required." have also been the subject of vindication. as a credulous dealer in fabulous romantic narratives ticular. I rely on a simple presentation of them. by exhibiting him to those disposed to condemn him. Heuvelton. resulted in an entire him in respect to them.

— — CHAPTER Sir V Walter Raleigh's reports of the mineral riches of Guyana. which suspended his expeditions to Guyana His trial and long imprisonment. CHAPTER IV. examined Opinions of Humboldt on the subject Difficulties in which Raleigh became involved at home. liberation from imprisonment — Prepares another fourth) expedition Guyana — Unfortunate of — His return home — Great displeasure the (his to failure it against him —His to tragical it Colonies sent end Consequences of his voyages to that country from England Sketch of the settlements made in it by — trf i — other nations. rivers it in gave rise to the idea of a —What flow from — State of the time of Raleigh — Circumstances which probably great City upon —Some regarding Natural Lake Parima it facts the History of that Region. of an invasion of it by Peruvians. and its — — character. CHAPTER Investigation of the character of the population about it III. . Examination of the relation of Juan Martinez.— CONTENTS CHAPTER Walter Raleigh — his attempts Queen Guyana I. and whence obtained Remarks on the relation of a Charibee Chief on the Oronoke. the conquest of Virginia— Incurs the —Begins entertain the and the discovery of El Dorado — Account of to colonize to the origin of this Chimera and of various enterprises of the Spaniards in pursuit CHAPTER II. and his exile from Court scheme of of it. who professed to have seen the City Whether gold articles were in early times possessed by the Indians in the interior of Guyana. situated upon a great Lake Opinions of Geographers as to the reality of such a Lake. Account of several expeditions made by Raleigh to Guyana Notice of his Narrative relating reports heard by him of El Dorado in the interior of it. — — — Hie CHAPTER VI. dis- Early life of Sir pleasure of Elizabeth. a Spaniard.

who made Respecting a Lake in the interior of Guyana. . associate of Harcourt. in a prize taken from the Spaniards giving an account of the discovery of El Dorado. APPENDIX Remarks on III. vessel from several paper? four -J. Examination of several remarkable relations made by Raleigh. I V. particularly of a nation of Female Warriors on the Amazon Similar relations made by various Travellers. and APPENDIX V. APPENDIX VI. Vocabularies of the Languages of Five Indian Nations. them Stones. respecting writers on the subject— Account of the Green nation. — CHAPTER The subject continued VIII. in Guyana. I. the warlike character of the females of the Charibees. CHAPTER VII. APPENDIX Sir Walter Raleigh's Letter to Prince Henry. a voyage to Cayenne. his Instructions to his son. in 1608 it. with the Moxos and Quichua of Peru. ornament— Probable origin of this APPENDIX Relation of Fisher.— viii CONTENTS. and a city upon APPENDIX Extracts II. of Indian tribes in Guyana and its vicinity. Comparison of some languages of the Oronoke and Guyana. in Guyana. Opinions of different their peculiar —Relations heard by the author in Guyana.

"* was his philosophic genius employed in the study of History in all its and Philosophy. and employing his pen in giving to the world the results of his investigations. 165 • Tho sd. " When we view his actions. himself in the flowery walks of imagination. Cayley. when retired from public scenes. that had as himself to the cultivation of it. poetical talent . and his constitution possessed both an active life would seem to have been that for of vio-or and ability — which he was peculiarly qualified. p. devoting his time with the most patient assidui- ty to grave and laborious studies. whom I have taken his my wri- "we are astonished at the number of And not only Viewing his writings. while an intellect of varied powers. fitted him equally for the investigation of science and the pursuit of literaWe see him. Ciy ley'. at one time employed in the military service of his ture. ho would have arrived at much dis- tinction in this as any other department of literature. £ARLY LIFE OF GINIA SIR ATTEMPTS TO COLONIZE VIR- INCURS THE DISPLEASURE OF THE QUEEN. or as he attain any sphere in which he moved in public life. recreated branches : he sometimes. 2nd vol. ie discovered a genius for enterprise and the pursuit of fort • s00 " ' M T. moral and natural also. Formed by nature in the finest mould. Life of R&leijh. arc very favorable The 1. ii the se. When arrived at manhood and entered into public service. life. appeared on the public stage. or on bold and daring maritime expeditions.uon referred ft ." says Mr.ond LonUo: . country. at any time. from principal facts in his tings. we wonder he had time for so much action. at another.ire quotations. CHAPTER SALTER RALEIGH — HIS I. one of his biographers. His physical and mental endowments were alike conspicuous. who united in their character such an assemblage of brilliant qualities as Sir Walter Raleigh.EL DORADO. vi which he wrote. times. at different it specimens of his and is the opinion of a cotemporary. AND HIS EXILE FROM COURT BEGINS TO ENTERTAIN THE SCHEME OF THE CONQUEST OF GUYANA AND THE DISCOVERY OF EL DORADO ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN OF THIS — CHIMERA AND OF VARIOUS EXPEDITIONS BY THE SPANIARDS TN PURSUIT Few men have.

and. the effect of raising against him a number of rivals. unpossessed by any of her allies . and agreed to supply the States with men and money. and one of the To that object was mainly devoted — abroad. » He had the advantage." He was next employed in Holland. he had a very advantageous opportunity to form his military character. and . or on public duties at — — most distinguished men of his country . de" Of his childhood. — sea. there was a constant succession of battles. however. — unanimity was wanting. which distinguished him through When he had just arrived ha his seventeenth year. When the shipping was prepared. of foreign countries plans for their discovery . " of entering life under ihe reign of Queen Elizabeth. Sir Humphrey Gilbert. his relative. and then appeared the first development of that spirit of maritime enterprise and foreign discovery. he exchanged the service on land for that on the sea . who. likewise. T'he early period at which Raleigh entered into the public service. in forming direction.Lat. one of a troop of well-equipped volunteers. his active life and when not engaged home. under permission from ihe Queen. i«ri f the advantages of extended education.2 ELDORADO. Cayley. being then in his "which Raleigh accompanied. but had.. during this whole period. " He remained an France four years . in This combination of various qualities. On his return in 1579. his hours of leisure were directed to the pursuit of knowledge . was compelled to return home with prived the loss of a large ship.aleigh. no circumstc«» ce has been preserved . at what school he had be»n admitted. a force was sent there by her. after a smart action with the Spaniards. he engaged as life. obtained a patent from Queen Elizabeth for planting and inhabiting certain northern parts of America. and the variety of important events occurring in the course of it. twenty-seventh year. which was the leading feature of his life. that he studied a few years at the University of Oxford. and great activity. Many others entered into the cause. and it is not known even. From what ca&ses he broke so early from his studies. sieges. and as. energy and perseverance. and he discovered the happy effects of the union of an inquisitive mind which led him to seek information in every with an enterprising genius. combined with political circumstances. and young Raleigh readily engaged in the adventure. and at a period of unusual political activity to exercise and encourage his genius. marched into France to assist the Huguenots. which extended beyond the twenty-fifth degree of N. The Queen having broken her peace with Spain. made him the admiration of the age in which he lived. carrying them into execution. and love of enterprise. so distinguished for the vigor and success of her government. envious of his talents and influence. leaving Sir Humphrey to prosecute the adventure with only a few of his most faithful With these few he ventured to adherents among whom was R." says Mr. But it is agreed by Lord Bacon and some other writers of that period." And he early discovered indications of that brave and daring spirit. who at length undermined him and. and the majority separated .. and treaties. caused his unhappy fate.

and hazards of the meanest of his companions. On examining the discoveries and e>the SpanRaleigh's mind appears now to • iard-. at his own expense. rendered at discretion. and courage. " and. Raleigh. lost. . band of youthful volunteers : to aid the Protestants of not known but it is clear it did notarise from a disrelish for study and the pursuit of knowledge. to repair Of the twenty-four hours. whose person was handsome and his address graceful. four years after his unsuccessful voyage. The to fleet sailed eleventh of June. endeavored for sleep. !. but on his one of which he himself perished. that Spenser the poet. p. contagious distemper. But first tradition has related an incident which ascribes to his gallantry. contracted that friendship with Raleigh. his education.>- . met one day. threw off his new plush mantle and spread it for her majesty. the fort surIn other actions he displayed the same spirit. He soon became sensible of the deficiency in life amid the anxious and troublesome it. a dirty spot on made her hesitate about proceeding. were of themselves sufficient to recom- mend him reign. Other regions in North America lay yet Xplored. chief patron and friend. a force was sent over by the Government. of a soldier. in and sea expeditions. had kittle influence in damping his ardor. were on the eve of a general revolution and to subdue them. address. which introduction to his sove- The Queen in her walks. in which Raleigh held a commission as captain. to made another expedition share in Newfoundland. on the by a Sir returned to England in great distress." Sir Humphrey it. to the favor of Queen Elizabeth. great activity and bravery . 1. it is said. while he voluntarily shared. his the road. the labors." " Raleigh's services in Ireland. He was one of four companies deputed by the Commander of tne troops to attack a fort built by the Spaniards. he found that they had not extc b . and His vessel was obliged part from it. instigated by the King of Spain and the Pope. only live were allowed and four were devoted to study. and after a siege of five days. who trod over the fair carpet surprised and pleased at the adventure.* have become entirely devoted to the pursuit of foreign discoveries. enlisted in a is 3 France. and his enterprising genius found an a field on which to exert itself. Very honorable mention is made by an historian of his services in this rebellion. Gilbert. and return two of his vessels were took possession of it.id the Gulf of Mexico. in which he exhibited his land . The ill success of his relative. Catholics there. in Humphrey reached Newfoundland." The Roman After this he was engaged in Ireland in military affairs.SIRW ALTER RALEIGH. -vul. and Raleigh determined to hold a though he did not accompany it and fitted out a vessel of two . which proved so beneficial to him in Raleigh's more advanced fortunes for after Sir Philip Sidney's death. he was his It " appointed — — . hundred tuns to join it. who had been by Lord Grey the deputy his secretary. was probably about this time. 1583. hardships.

<: Raleigh laid before Queen Elizabeth the account he had received of the either. but they made no settlement on it. and the settlement was broken up. with some associates. and the squadron sailed from Plymouth on the ninth of April.§ The year sisting of * after. on the coast of North Carolina. that. equipped two vessels for an American voyage. he " On the ap•had risen high in public notice. t CayJey. contwo hundred and fifty men. and arrived the fourth day of July succeeding. he laid it before the Queen and council. at his own charge. p 74*. and it was * probably about this time that he received the honor of knighthood. fixed upon a site for a settlement." The favorable report made by Barlowe and Amidas of this country. produced no doubt by the with which he prosecuted these voyages of discovery. and to the use of An amicable intercourse was held by them with the Indians. in consequence of not receiving the supplies. Having prepared his plan. having on board a colony of about one hundred men. solicited him to take them home with him to England.f The fleet came to anchor on the coast of North Carolina. seven induced Raleigh to make another expedition to it. the command of which was given to Sir Richard Grenville . Early in 1585. C'Dylsy. of which they took possession in right of the Queen. and that a large extent of country lay north of which he thought might be worth colonizing. vol. 1. commanded by Captains Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlowe. "4- J Aaper. it meeting with their approbation. after landing at several places to discover the country. sail were ready for sea. IV." embracing all the unspirit discovered portion of North America. to be planted in that country under the government of Mr. and cast anchor at the Island of Roanoke. p. 1584." No sooner was the patent obtained. than he. under the command of Mr. the colony being visited by Sir Francis Drake with a fleet. proaching session of Parliament he was so well supported. which went to sea on the twenty. and as a record of their having taken possession of it. and in favor of the Queen. country. prepared a ship of one hundred But betuns.aleigh. provided with plentiful supplies for the relief of the colony. addressed to Raleigh. with which she was so pleased. visited by the ships. John I. present. which request he granted. vot 19-70.4 L DOR A D it. I. she granted him her " barbarous discover remote to such twenty-fifth. § Cayley. and he resolved to attempt it. "the colonists. p. Lane. she conferred on it the name of Virginia. At that period. growing despondent.^: The next year Sir Walter R. 1584. and signed by some of the principal persons who were .dk No.c 7S„ . and returned to England satisfied with having obtained a knowledge of the country . Sir Walter Raleigh sent out another colony there. or it was discovered under her rei<m. fore it arrived. and letters patent. and the success which had attended them. the March dated lands as were not actually possessed by any Christain people. that he was elected one of the knights of the shire for the county of Devon . Raleigh. drew up an account of the voyage of discovery and landing. vol. because this was the first discovery of it. seventh of April. and.

and the to at richest prize that had ever been brought into England. and almost insurmountavessel. pp. and the vexation of its proprietors. no colony was established in any part of North America . does not appear . his son-in-law and successor. which appears * Cayley. and they probably. however. 1592. . had to encounter in the establishand after having expended a large sum upon it. " Experience having now taught him the real. it is believed he imparted his feelings to the Earl of Essex. they both returned to England without accomplishing their purpose." The vessel They urged the reached its destination. The dition. — Queen Elizabeth from an incident to have been great." * Sir Walter Raleigh. cester. Raleigh. was exerted to undermine his influence at court . 127-144. soon occurred. with twelve assistants. principally by his individual merit. and stripped. and the settlement of New England. Finally. the rival competitor of Raleigh for the favor of the Queen. and whose dissatisfaction was so great. that she caused him to be sent to the Tower. in Virginia. Governor. and still continued to hold its sway in the mind of him at this period engaged in an important naval expewhich he with some of his friends. when he began which occurred feel the displeasure of but whether it was before or after he went to sea. led to those which were subsequently sent to the more northern portions of it. by drawing public attention to this hemisphere. but one having been taken at sea. he at determined it. and was particularly favored by his sovereign. which have been related. to look after his share in the rich prize. 5 White. " He had now raised himself. set on foot. to the distress of the colony. which laid the foundation of ai'l The jealousy which the Earl of Leithe future troubles that befell him. the favorite Minister of Queen Elizabeth. He remained in confinement until late in September. however. some delay in making his preparations. in a reign in which the royal munificence was confessedly apportioned with economy." Circumstances. calling in requisition everj . whom he incorporated under the name of " Governor and Assistants of the city of Raleigh. has been called the father of American colonization for before his enterprises. and dying soon after. and which resulted love of enterprise we find in the capture of one of the largest ships belonging to Portugal. to which he consented. 1. who became. he sent two pinnaces with the supplies . to assign over to a fifth company in ing reserving to himself the part of all gold London and the right confirmsilver ore. as a proprietor. and on his liberation proceeded to the west of England. to a station of rank and distinction. he experienced ble difficulties which ment of last this colony. afterward. began to entertain of his rising character. I have observed. and Raleigh on his arrival in England prepared to send them but the apprehension in England of a Spanish invasion. he. and the colonists were landed. . vol. He court had not been long returned from this expedition. were made. . though with discernment.INCURS THE QUEEN'S DISPLEASURE. to return for fresh supplies.

* Cayley. Cayley. and These especially of the riches of the great and golden City of El Dorado. and the Queen made him a grant of the castle and manor of Sherborne. a project which thereafter engaged his principal attention. been forgotten by him. in the unexplored parts of South America. he provided a squadron which sailed on the sixth of February. and his endeavors to recover the royal favor seem speedily He entertained the hope of being into have been crowned with success. which had been the leading pursuits of his life. in the end. his enterprising genius. one of the privy council. vol. 1.ELDORADO. which had been acquired by the Crown. p.f either as a kind of honorable exile from the royal eye. to which the remainder of his life was devoted. t Cayley. as 1. could not fail which it might be exerted. and for which it was. an attempt — . but his fortune had been devoted. 1595. which has been mentioned in the Introduction. containing. he retired to his castle at Sherborne. " In perusing the narratives of Spanish voyages. Although the colonization of Virginia was attended with so many obstacles that he was induced to relinquish it. and a field of exploration then opened upon him. notwithstanding the rewards he received for his public services. it may be supposed. he makes a conspicuous figure. he had found frequent mention of the wealth of Guyana. 155. of a fable.* But. . among other extraordinary relations. and which he described as situated in the interior of Guyana relations which I propose to examine and. 150. in doing so. from the incident which had occurred at court. 87—103. sacrificed. and Sir Robert Cecil. to which not only his time. will be made to explain the origin 1. had not." ^ And from this period commenced the expeditions which he successively made to South America. or for the purpose of preparing and maturing a project which then engaged his mind. In the words of Mr. that roused again his ardor for maritime enterprise to find other regions in and discovery. flattering accounts of this land of magnificent promise having been con- firmed to him by oral testimony. p. the Queen. the lord high Admiral Howard. for the conquest of Guyana and the discovery of that splendid city . On his return he published the narrative of this voyage. In the session of Parliament of the ensuing winter. never afterward regarded him with that complacency she did before. Foreign voyages of discovery. a repetition of the rumor of the existence of this splendid City of El Dorado. By the aid of his friends. Before the close of 1594. combined with the extensive information he had acquired of the newly discovered hemisphere. I may in J anticipation venture Cayley. in Dorsetshire. vol pp. vol. for Guyana. so long sought in vain. added to the circumstances in which he stood at court. and which he accompanied in person. eluded in the list of privy counsellors . made him resolve to attempt the conquest of it in behalf of her majesty. although by his subsequent conduct he did all he could to make amends.

who had the EL command Peru . abounding in gold. From the year 1535. A first cursory relation of the principal of them. then eastwardly. New Grenada. brother of the conqueror of Peru. To give an account of all these expeditions. of the existence of a rich and splendid city. and in a few days entered the country of the cinnamon trees. From this place. to which the Spaniards gave the — name of Canelle —which consisted of four hundred . sufficient return for his toilsome expedition. as one of which have sometimes captivated the human mind and for — so dazzled the imaginations of the first conquerors of although it has been forgotten. who encouraged him in it. one hundred leagues from Quito. a and being unwilling to return of discovering El Quito without performing some great exploit. been able to reach " i "Happiness is only to be found in fil Dorado. and who. Southey in his History of the Brazils. would occupy too much leaders were men of high official rank. except " curious to to point a moral or adorn a tale . 7 which . and Venezuela. but who returned without gaining any informait. and to excite irt after the discovery of Very soon them an ardent desire for the discovery of this golden region. and agreed to accompany him. South America those illusions now entirely passed away. called Zumaque." * it may be ( know what rise to it. however. He communicated his design to Francis Orellana. a report reached them wherever they had established themselves. with fifty horsemen. in 1535. and the conquests of the Spaniards in Peru. greatly magnified and embellished. have given America. the most expensive expeditions were made in pursuit of it £ and mostly from that period until 1560. Having been appointed Governor of Quito. he embraced the project Dorado. by success." Nor were they bold and daring adventurers alone. He pursued his course eastward and after crossing mountains. and abounding in cinnamon trees. after having acquired possession of the rich cities of Quito and Cusco. to Not finding in it." says Mr. fame and acquire the fortunes of a Cortez or Pizarro. horse. tion respecting It <a was next attempted in 1539. " which. which no one yet ha* . to which they gave the name of El Dorado. he went first northwardly. or foot to explain the subject I propose to examine. The in Dorado. Pizarro set out with one hundred soldiers. will be sufficient expedition for the discovery of this golden country.EXPEDITION OF BELALCAZAR. he prepared a very large expedition to discover a country reported to be east of the Andes. Such a rumor was well calculated to inflame the minds of the Spaniards. to call it. received from her South American possessions. circumstances. of no consideration. was set on by Sebastian Belalcazar.) he came to a valley. and proceeded directly toward the east. After many * The Spaniards have a proverb. " have cost Spain more than all the treasures she has. by Gonzalez Pizarro. yet undiscovered in the interior of South America. who entered on this pursuit- Some of the to rival the who hoped. who had joined him at the valley of Zumaque. space. (a part of the Andes. sent two officers to seek it in the mountains between Pasto and Popayan .

to which his name was given . a party of Brazilian savages. when he built a vessel to carry by water his sick and baggage. and suffered himself to be carried down by the current. along the banks of another river. (Omaguas. Napo.* Another memorable expedition in pursuit of El Dorado. He proceeded three hundred leagues to the twenty-fourth of April. meeting with twelfth of many good towns. without finding any provisions . was that of Pedro de Orsua. and for some iron which they had in their posses* Hcnera's General History of America. a knight of Navarre. in the province of Cocas. that they He then abandoned "must necessarily float lower down to discover it. after his separatill he should discover it. and with whom he had an encounter. not having obtained any information of the golden country of . and informed him of the great wealth there was farther down. and thought of nothing but pursuing the course of the river tion Pizarro. They related. that they had passed through the province of the Omaguas. which was very populous. which was so rapid that in three days it took him one hundred leagues. but which afterward re- ceived that of Amazon. to the sea. and of another rich and mighty lord up the country. and that they had found . with fifty soldiers under the command Orellana for some time kept in company with him . persuaded his which they had come. as soon as he received them he launched out in the middle of the stream. Pizarro having given him orders to go in search of provisions. where he was courteously received. it full of large towns. having wholly failed in the object of his Orellana stopped at a town on the Amazon. without loss of time placed himself at the head of his cavalry. to the river Napo. him amicably. returned to Quito. and informed him that. on receiving this intelligence. or River of the Amazons. then from the enemies they had made in their march. into the province of Quito. at the mouth of the pursuit. and whose inhabitants were covered with days toilsome march. but •of Orellana. besides jewels about them. himself to the winds. and his voyage is chiefly remarkable from first his being the discoverer this river. where he was fiercely attacked by the Indians. and the principal men came to him having gold plates on their breasts. was not that which Pizarro had described to them from the account of the Cacique . fleeing first from the Portuguese.) From this place he continued his course to the ocean. made their way. through an uneven country. whom he met with on his route. from the account be gave of a nation of warlike females upon it. he should find a country abundant in all things. rating himself from Pizarro soldiers that the country to . he came the Cacique of which received plates of gold. but concealing his design. In the year 1560. Pizarro. . after a ten years' travel. from him. in which were whole streets of goldsmiths that they had been kindly received there. and in nine days he came to He then conceived the project of discovering it. which he embarked in it. On the May he arrived at the province of Machiparo.8 ELDORADO. and followed the course of the Napo forty-three days. which was larger. This province bordered on that of Aomagua. and sepathe Amazon.

and while their thoughts were thus New was raised to the highest by accounts brought by the Indians. and attempt the conquest of Peru. which were instigated by a party whose object. determined on sending an expedition in this direction. and Orsua was attacked and murdered. which Orsua thought probable. were the villages of Curiana (Coro. that they supposed the country of the as Omaguas was not far off. Aguirre pursued his course to the . who was equally gratified and desirous to un- Building then two brigantines and some flat-bottomed boats los on the Rio de Motelones. and thence went to Valencia . he proceeded with his company along • the current of the it Guallago he came zilians. having for its object the supand he and a planting of Guzman in the command of the expedition number of his supporters were killed. . was from New pal markets for these ornaments. 9 emeralds. were at a loss about the situ- With it upon whose information ation of the country.(studiously avoiding the search for this golden country. by this time murmurs and discontent began to arise amon£ his men. All they could say. who had been appointed Viceroy of of it Peru. was to turn back under Orsua. to Orsua . All. they gave them shields which were covered with gold and set with The Marquis of Canete. a region would be found on the banks of a great directed to the object. of which Aguirre was one of the principal leaders. The chiefs of the mutiny nominated Fernando Guzman to be their General. la Hache. and gave the command dertake it. little figures of molten gold had been found in the hands of the natives. he descended until a village called Machifaro but heard nothing in his whole Toute of the golden country. into the to Amazon.)which he reached after encountering many hardships on his way. they had now advanced. as Machiparo. The metal employed by came from a mountainous country more to the the These indications of gold in that region. according to computation.) was doubtless correct. or Machifaro. On his arrival there. near the Rio de founders of Cauchieto.* Grenada. as early as the years 1498 and 1500. however. that by marching for a long time south. was put But it to death. the expedition went some of the Bra. it were sufficient to excite Grenada. and thence proceeded to the Island of Marguerita. They reported. C A NETE. a branch of the Guallago which falls into the Amazon. The principursuit of El Dorado. south.) and Cauchieto. A conspiracy was then formed. were undertaken. Another expedition was formed by Aguirre. more than seven In this opinion he hundred leagues. to endeavor to discover the was obtained .EXPEDITION OF sion. Arriving in this river. had been undertaken. or some other leader. (Orellana states. and one or two of the company of Orellana. a desire in the conquerors of sources from which pitch. their ardor in the pursuit * Southey's Expedition of Orsua. in joining the expedition. But. that the most expensive expeditions in From the Promontory of Paria to Cape de la Vela. sea. he landed on the coast of Cumana. determining to pursue his project of conquering Peru. was next to the province of Aomagua. was. and after many crimes and daring actions in Venezuela.

from another direction. Nar. — falsehood. or at least of silver. (George Von Speier. or Caqueta. or Utre. he arrived on the banks of the great river Papamena.1Q ELDORADO." he continues. .»ake. toward the east. imagined he was not far from the banks of the Amazon. xxiv. in pursuit of the country of the Omaguas. and southwest. Nar. and Geronimo de Ortal. all their furniture were of gold. Nicholas Federman. to have invented a . not to undertaken for this object. of the many who had gone in pursuit of the golden After setting out on his march. by the mountains He passed these two of Merida. habits of massy gold all their instruments. " Nicholas Federman. who professed to have seen it. in the province de los Chaques. they received the same accounts dians too far separated by the distance of their abodes. . La Fragua. I have been on the western bank of the group of the mountains of Fasagus. which were said to abound in gold . eh. in the populous village of (or temple of the sun. . to this memorable expedition. as he was the only one. " Speier found. and made a long stay at an Indian village called Pueblo de Neustra Senora. (1535. where they have but little breadth.) put an end. which excited more attention than any that had appeared. still enjoy some celebrity for wealth among the natives. to which the European detachand by Inments directed their steps. eh. by chance. unfortunately separated in an We expedition undertaken by Diego de Ordaz. rative of who sought it from this region. rivers near their sources. was who commenced his expedition in 1541 his nar. when discharging their offices. and afterward in Fragua. that farther on white men wandered in the plains. southwest of the Paruma de la Suma Paz. and Jorge de Espira. Philip de Urra. who told him. to the banks of the Apure and Meta. i Humboldt's Pers. The resistance he met with during a whole year. he came. | Humboldt's Pers.* "Fully believing the truth of these reports. and crossing and New Grenada. to a place where he learned that Quesada had just * Humboldt's Pers. country. The Indians Speier. " the savannas of San Juan de los Llanos. " Geronimus de Ortal. In every part of Venezuela and Cumana. similar to those of Peru Pursuing his way toward the south. a Casa del Sol. had no doubt that thest wandering Spaniards were men. inhabited by the Omagua?. which are the Ariare and the Guayover. and a convent of virgins.) and penetrated. who in 1536 went from — Maracapana and the mouth of the Rio Neveri. ." observes Humboldt. and there heard that the plains by which they skirted. .) in 1535 and 1536. the two branches of the Guavare. the most distinguished of the adventurers.. in 1537. undertook expeditions by land toward the south. Nar.f " George Von Speier leftCoro. crossed. wtro lived in a large city the buildings of which were covered with silver that the heads of the government and that religion wore. xxjv. the latter endeavored to discover a temple of the sun on the banks ot the Meta4" name all the enterprises But. followed the traces of Jorge The former sought for gold in the Rio Grande de Magdalena de Espira.

but when they had journeyed for eight days. As soon as the plains were no longer under water. who prepared for battle. and the others the size of children four years old. however. also. the country. and beginning to suffer hun- ger. Night happily came on to favor their retreat. he met on his way the Indian cultivators. is the residence of the Governor. The soldiers now began to murmur . and was furnished with guides by the Cacique. surrounded by well-cultivated fields. from the top of it they perceived four or five villages. He sent a message to the Cacique. he determined to return. and have fulfilled my promise. was resolved to make it. This was readily granted by the Cacique. and the order admirable. but peopled with a warlike and ferocious race. they arrived at a mountain. Urra. through the most frightful places and difficult passes. white. and an alliance of friendship with him. and farther off a delightful vale. it is you persist Urra resolved If under the necessity of leaving you. full of gold and silver. he told them that the country of the Omaguas was indeed. on his return. After four days' march. he took his way making fresh endeavors to discover the to Coro. From the Indians. and in a strange dress. The Spaniards displaj^ed a . As soon as the weather allowed. passed. An hour afterward. and after H many days toilhe arrived in the province of Pampamena.EXPEDITION OF URRA. in pursuit of them. to request a passage through his country. The next morning. the Indians conducted him to the river Guaynavo. He took an Indian there to guide him . and when informed of the object of the Spaniards. whose riches the Spaniards so ardently covet. gave the following particular account of his expedition. who. That full edifice which elevates itself in the centre of the city. and request also so warlike. struck with the sight of the Spaniards. Then the Cacique said to Urra. to the next one. and a city of very large extent. took to flight. but who agreed to accompany him to the first settlement of these formi- dable people. him." On approaching the four or five villages that he had seen. at break of day. When he had marched until his army was reduced to forty men. through whose country he passed. " I promised to show you the Capital of the Omegas. he received the same account and recommendation. and thought only of Golden City. that you see the importance of reflect anew on the temerity of your project. the Spaniards heard in the city. he suddenly left some travel. but the rainy season prevented. on ascending which. in which is is an idol the size of a grown woman. on the opposite side of which. he learned that there was a region inhabited by the Omegas. richer by far than any that had been discovered. that reigns in it The is population of the town immense. was the city of Macatoa. and. was rash and impracticable. an army of fifteen thousand Omegas went in I you to your design. mingled with the most frightful cries. for Now. and also the Temple . bearded. he directed his march to that country . Behold this famous country. From this Cacique. and he determined to follow his steps. that their attempt to conquer it with so small a body of men. am to march to the city. all of massive gold. a great noise of drums and other instruments of war. but that its population was so great.



concluded, however, that

Not one of them was killed, but Urra received valor beyond imagination. a wound. They repulsed the Omegas, and covered the field of battle with
it was not advisable to attempt Omegas, and fell back upon the town of the Cacique who had been their guide. Urra was there cured of his wound and having obtained from him all the information he could, to render a second journey more easy, departed for Coro, with the intention of forming a new but before arriving at expedition for the same object, better adapted to it Coro, he, with his most faithful adherents, was assassinated by order of

their dead.

the conquest of the



the psuedo Governor Carvajal.*

This account of Urra, related with so


particulars, contributed,

more than anything else, to keep alive the idea of the Golden City, or El Dorado although, whatever circumstances may have laid a foundation and the number of the for it, it is probably a very exaggerated relation
; ;

army of
give to

on a present view of the subject, calculated the whole the air of an extravagant romantic fiction.



Various opinions have been entertained by writers, respecting the existence of this rich country of the



region of that character, on which the rumor of El Dorado

Omegas, or of any other was founded.


Southey, in his History of Brazil, considers the whole an entire illuand fable, the origin of which he thus describes " There were, along the whole coast of the Spanish Main, rumors of an inland country,

which abounded with gold. These rumors undoubtedly related to the kingdoms of Bogota and Tunia, now New Grenada. Belalcazar, who was in quest of this country from Quito Federman, who came from "Venezuela and Quesada, who sought it by the way of the Madalena, and who But in these countries, also, there effected its conquest, met here. Similar accounts prevailed were rumors of a rich land at a distance. in Peru, and the adventurers from both sides were allured to continue the An imaginary kingdom was soon pursuit after the game was taken. shaped out as the object of their quest, and stories concerning it were The relation given by Philip de not more easier invented than believed." Urra, of his discovery of the country of the Omegas, he considers a gross
; ;

.fabrication, without the least foundation.

Humboldt, on the other hand, who


examined the whole subject


length, expresses himself in regard to the narrative of Urra, as follows




the attempts


for the discovery of

El Dorado, no one, an-

terior or posterior, furnishes to history materials less equivocal than that

of Philip de Urra.


wants, nevertheless, a great deal for




as a proof of the riches and magnificence of the empire of the Omaguas It is enough, however, to induce a belief of the existence or El Dorado.

of a warlike nation more civilized than the rest of the Indians, who had built, on the borders of the lake Parima, a large city, handsome, and well
constructed, in comparison with the miserable hovels of

which the disgust


Be Pons Caraccas, Vol.


p. 254, et seq.

ing hamlets of the Indians are composed; but, in
insignificant village in
fact, inferior to the

13 most


Gumilla, in his History of the Oronoke, expresses his entire belief in " I find it," he observes, " related with such an the narrative of Urra. exact description of the country, as the missionaries of my province and myself have recognized, that I cannot doubt it. I have seen in the jurisdiction of Varinas, in the mountains of Pedrara, in 1721, the brass halberd which Utre took with him in his expedition. I have been acquainted with Don Joseph Cabarte, who directed for thirty years the missions of

Agrico, Guariari, and Ariari, and the Oronoke, the countries traversed by
Utre, and he appeared fully persuaded that that


the route to Dorado.

who had been inby the said Cabarte, who assured me, that at the age of fifteen he had been taken prisoner, and passed four months in the town of MaThis Indian, rfraor Luaguas, and that at length he fled with four others. although he knew not a word of Spanish, called all the places at which he had stopped on his journey of twenty-three days to the Oronoke, by the names which Utre had given them. He spoke of the riches and inhabitants of the country, in the same terms in which the Cacique of Macatoa had spoken to Utre. He depicted, in detail, the palace of the King, his gardens, his houses, &c."*
Indian belonging

knew an

a mission on the Meta,



In regard

to the

name El Dorado,


arose, according to this writer,


great attention

a circumstance related by the Indians, sufficiently remarkable to attract but not necessarily embracing the ideas afterward con;

New Grenada, it had its origin on the coast of Carthagena and Santa Martha, from which it passed to Bogota. A rumor being spread through those regions, of a wealthy King who lived in a country abounding in gold, and on public occasions appeared with his body sprinkled over with gold dust ; the name of El Dorado was given to him, meaning in Spanish the gilded one ; and which afterward was applied to the whole region, denoting the golden country.
nected with

" In the histories of Terra Firma and

will be seen," he observes, " to have

Others are of opinion




origin in Quito,


that Belalcazar
all the

who made the first expedition in pursuit of it, gave it to dom of Bogota and Pierre de Lempras, having made



Venezuela, gave occasion to the expeditions from that country, which were not undertaken for the gilded King, but a territory abounding in gold.f

Humboldt gives the same origin to the term, but with circumstances somewhat different. It being reported that the fertile valley of Lagomozo abounded in gold, and on going there and finding the priest of the Temple,
before offering his oblations, anointed at least his hands and face with a
of the rivers, the

gum, on which was blown, with a pipe, gold dust found name of El Dorado was given to him. £

in the sand


GumilJa, vol.

pp. 137-139.




pp. 131-132.


Humboldt's Pers. Nar.




That a nation called the Omaguas, or Aguas, existed on the Amazon and north of it, in the direction in which Urra pursued his route, who were very numerous and partly civilized, and who possessed articles of gold, is undoubted. D'Acugna, who made a voyage down the Amazon in 1639, by the direction of the Viceroy of Peru, gives a particular account " Three hundred and seventy leagues below the mouth of of this nation. the Napo, begins the province of the Aguas, whom the Spaniards call Omaguas. It extends about two hundred leagues, and is so well peopled, that the villages are situated very close to one another. The habitations of the people are in all the islands throughout the whole length of it. This nation is the most intelligent and civilized of all those that dwell along this river. They are all clothed, both men and women ; their garments made of cotton, of which they gather a prodigious quantity, and they not only make stuffs enough for their use, but a great many to

to their neighbors,




pleased with their beauty.


from the commencement of the province, that is, about two-thirds of the distance down it, comes in the river Potamayo, which rises in the mountains of Pasto in New Grenada. There is abundance of gold found in the sand and gravel of this river, and we were as-

hundred and

thirty leagues


sured the banks of it were well peopled. The natives that dwell on it are Yarinas, the Guaraicas, the Purianas, the Tyes, the Abynes, the

river, as being the lords

and those that are nearest to the source, dwell on both sides of the and masters of it, and are called the Omaguas The first expethe Aguas of the islands call them the true Omaguas." dition made for the discovery of El Dorado, which was by Belalcazar, as will be recollected, was directed to the mountains between Pasto and Popayan, in the very direction where these Omaguas, abounding in That they had various gold ornaments, there can gold, are here placed. be no room to doubt. In the voyage of Orellana, it is related he stopped at a town near the Napo, where the principal men came to him, having gold plates on their breasts, and jewels about them, and informed him of



the great wealth there


farther down.

place lower down, where these ornaments were seen.

D'Acugna speaks also of a The first village

which Texeira,

in his expedition from the Brazils, met with on this river he entered it, one hundred and twenty leagues west of Rio Negro, he called the Golden Moon ; because he found some pieces of gold there, which these people had received in exchange from those Indians that wear " Whence," inquires D'Acugna, plates of gold at their ears and noses. " had the people of this village these gold ornaments ? This I made the Fourteen leagues below this discovery of by interpreters I had with me. town, on the north side, comes in the river Yupura, (called Caqueta at


is that

the Portuguese call the Golden River.

hard by.

which you meet with the river Yquiari, which It springs from a mountain Here the natives amass gold together in prodigious quantities.


sailing on




all in

spangles or grains of good alloy


they beat these small

With the opinions expressed by the writers whom I have mentioned. and wore it is probable they were the nation whom Urra professes gold ornaments to have seen. were all clothed in cotton garments. hanging at their ears and nostrils. because they wear great plates of gold. Other enterprises in pursuit of it. who were the most intelligent and civilized of all the natives on the Amazon. Humboldt fully accords. It appears further. as there is to the west ?" The expeditions in pursuit of El Dorado." There being such a people on the Amazon and extending north to the source of the Potamayo in the Andes. which have been related. Omaguas. enters into the Amazon. at their ears and noses. This declivity is poor in mines anciently worked . as also on the south toward Peru. abounded in gold. as they may have been obtained by .AURIFEROUS SOILS. The notions collected by Acienha. grains of gold together. as " The to the existence of gold in this region. the Morras." seems to be little doubt. and The natives call it Yotan . probably came from the country east of the Andes. who are the This nation is aclast nation that dwell upon this river toward Peru. that the Omaguas may have obtained some of their gold ornaments from Peru. we found on the other side. the Omanes. the names of whom are the Tipanas. on the stream-works of gold. and of whom he has no doubt drawn an exaggerated account. south and north of the Rio Uyapes. the Andes. but Cambevas. were made . entirely composed of volcanic rocks in the provinces of Popayan. says Southey. is no other than Omaguas. even when their sources are found in trachytic soils. and Condamine. above all the rest. the Nannos. it has been seen. lived in well-peopled villages. it is almost ferous soil of those countries. Pasto. we are not required. rivers that rise on the eastern declivity of the instance. " Fifty leagues below the mouth of Potamayo. to disbelieve . and guar is those that gather it. The gold of Guyana. were directed toward the country lying between the Amazon and the Rio Negro. for its riches and the great number of people it contains. " for Napo. agree with what I learned of the auri- However great we may suppose the communications that took place before the arrival of the Europeans. the Gavianes. and the Omaguas. or Yum-aguaris. they certainly did not draw their gold from the eastern declivity of the Cordilleras. — means of their intercourse with Peru. for till 15 they form those little plates of gold they hang The people that find this gold are Yuma-guaris. (the south) the mouth of another fine large river. Marravas. the cloth of which was made by themselves. Why may there not be an alluvial auriferous soil to the east of the Andes. Yuma-guaris. totally." he observes. from the following from d'Acugna. Father Fritz. There yuma signifies metal. and Quito. counted to be very rich in gold. that this name. carry along with them a great deal of gold ore. is not the original and real name of this nation. the Conomamas. The images of gold which he relates he observed in the Temple. which takes its rise near Cuzco. and it is esteemed.

was De Serpa. with the greatest loss. advised him to go up the Meta. that on going up during a certain number of suns. eighteen only of his men being saved. began his expedition by the mouth of the Amazon. He there saw in the hands of the natives. in 1533. the navigation of the gold in abundance. the treasurer of the expedition of Ordaz. and the currents led Ordaz to the coast of Paria. which we brought home from the Oronoke. toward the west. and Ordaz pursued. and landed at Cumana. The Indians related to Ordaz.' sausurite-jade. he was attacked by the Wikiris (Guykeries) and overthrown. in 1535. was sent. by the Marquis Gonzalez de Quesada. on account of the proximity of its sources and of its tributary streams to the auriferous Cordilleras of New Grenada. Kar. in preference. They hastened to get out of the mouth of the Amazon. and which M. intending to cross over to the Oronoke . in constructing fiat-bottomed boats. an early period. but before they reached this pretended mountain. Ordaz. He lost nearly thirteen months between Punta Barima (near its mouth) and the confluence of the Caroni. He departed with two hundred later than this. " Herrera. de la Condamine found. was undersame pursuit. but before he reached it. this region.: 16 at EL DORADO. He there found nations killed in battle more civilized than those of the Oronoke. As the Rio Meta. 'emeThey were. enjoyed great celebrity. his lieutenant. Viceroy of New Grenada. in advancing toward the west. to pursue the discovery of the Oronoke and the Meta. came from Spain with three hundred soldiers. named Alvarede . when he resolved to attempt an expedition up the Oronoke. but the cataracts of Tabaje (perhaps those of Atures. Geronimus de Ortal. Oronoke . in the * Humboldt's Pers. to the region lying east of the Oronoke. on a large scale. sometimes from j Grenada. at the mouth of the Rio Topayos. about this time. He ascended it as far as the Meta. " directed their journey along the banks of the lower Oronoke. where. who led the remains of the expedition (1535) fortress of Paria.. or compact felspar. when dying. cliap. they expected he would find men clothed. pieces of those ralds as big as a man's fist. The Indian guides he employed. and Alonzo de Herrera. named Adelantado of all the country which he should conquer between Brazil and the coast of Venezuela. taken toward an expedition. He was by a poisoned arrow and. The Spaniards saved themselves in two small vessels. no doubt.) com- New pelled him to terminate his discoveries."* to the I Among the adventurers who sought the Golden City in this region. where Sedeno had erected a fortress. Somewhat . and at others by ascending this river from its mouth. by the Governor. a shipwreck put an end to all further discovery. " Diego cle Ordaz. xxiv. in 1531. he would find a large rock of green stone . Herrera attempted to go up this river. and making the preparations indispensable for a long voyage. of which he has given the following account " Ordaz." observes Humboldt. in abundance. who.

as soon as sprint opened. led him still to entertain the idea of exploring and conquering it . on the last river. and of its riches and magniAlthough he failed in accomplishing his object. whose Cacique was Carapana. having lost almost all his men. . he endeavored to enter into Guyana. his promise. From this place. he came to Timina in 1543. 17 men. and laid the foundation of their subsequent persevering hostility to the Spaniards. a tributary of the Meta. Guyana set on foot on a still more extensive scale than his fatherin-law. from it. but the rocky and mountainous character of the country. who had been apprised of his He then descended the Oronoke to its mouth. under oath. and from the Cacique " "learned the proper way to enter into Guyana. he required. he remained there six weeks. down viz : east of the Oronoke.v c. He commenced his journey at the head of a troop of seven hundred cavalry. after a twelvemonth's journey. on the Oronoke.Amopaia. So fully persuaded. and for that purpose.* *Cayley'sIiifeofKaleigh. --' ." The inhabitants at first refused to have any intercourse with him. . which was called Emeria. Berreo. losing daily . and he had many engagements with them . the informaficence. rendered it impracticable and he apprehended opposition from the natives. but that for it. southward from the Oronoke . at a province on the south side. was he of the existence of this golden country.EXPtM>ITION OF BERREO. "where it was well known and celebrated. and presented him with ten images of fine gold. and various plates and crescents. which brought upon him : the enmity of the Charibees. which province itself was rich in gold. in fulfillment of the promise he had made. but at the end of three months they made peace with him. he sent to . he could obtain no information of Guyana until he came to the province of. and the thick impervious woods with which it was covered. afterward Governor of the Island of Trinidad." tion which he obtained from this chief and that of Amopaia concerning this . however. others respecting region. which he proceeded into the Oronoke but.it abounding in provisions. with the accounts he received after his arrival at Trinidad. £s . But. and probably himself entertaining the firmest belief. to undertake the discovery of it. and descended the Cassanar. it existed in the direction in which Quesada sought . where he met with a favorable reception and findino. after a journey attended with infinite trouble. some of his men. and there stopped intention. that on giving his daughter in marriage to Antonio de Berreo. not only of the reality of such a gold- en country.Spain and obtained from the King a patent for its discovery and in pursuance of his grant commenced measures to acquire possession of this country.. in the interior of to an expedition discover it.

as soon as the dissatisfaction of the Queen with him. that he servant of a powerful Queen of the North. sailed from Plymouth on the sixth of February in that year.. and of that great and golden city. where he remained several weeks : and " assembling all the Captains in the island. to give them life and activity to exert a controlling influence over Walter Raleigh to Guyana. he prepared an expedition to it in 1595. from an early period of his life. occupied his mind . and the naturals. have been related. The causes which led to it been seen. Golden City. Manoa. he made whatever information might be obtained relative it his business and the means of entering experienced naval He officer. and although his favorite pursuit. was who was an enemy to the the * 2nd Cayley. It consisting of several vessels. it. that he was engaged. whom he it."* From the time he to collect first entertained this notion. and which he accompanied himself.) by an interpreter he informed them. &c. then drew up instructions for an old sent to take a view of the coast . his attention was again turned to it . and required only the circumstances in which he was now placed. led him to seek the retirement of a country residence. and the discovery of the Golden City. and for several years in attempts to colonize Virginia . information respecting and encouraged by the hostility of the Charibees on the Oronoke Spaniards. and to this who the possibility of discovering and subduing returned with a favorable report of the riches of the country. and arrived at to the Trinidad the twenty-second of March. . but which appear to have been some time before in his contemplation. (there being some there of other countries. country.CHAPTER II. who had been taken prisoners by them. which the Spaniards call El Dorado. who were enemies to Berreo. had been for some time interrupted by his employment in public affairs. rich and beautiful Empire of Guyana. It has — — his thoughts. SITUATED UPON A GREAT LAKE OPINIONS OF GEOGRAPHERS AS TO — — THE EXISTENCE AND SITUATION OF SUCH A LAKE. But which it was the celebrated expedition of Sir fixed in general opinion the supposed in this region. or El Dorado believed by him to be situated in Guyana and the conquest of that country. 159. " I had knowledge by relation of that mighty. or El Dorado. in voyages of discovery to foreign parts. ACCOUNT OF SEVERAL EXPEDITIONS MADE BY RALEIGH TO GUYANA NOTICE OF HIS NARRATIVE GIVING AN ACCOUNT OF EL DORADO IN THE INTERIOR OF IT. p. and his exile from court. " Many years before. 1. vol." he observes in the preface to his narrative. and Being thus provided with it.

" In the course of his address. and also to collect information concerning Guyana and the City of El Dorado. Juan Martinez. which were well calculated to encourage him in prosecuting the enterprise. _^ * Cay ley. confirmed the previous accounts he had received in Trinidad. and wher ever they are found. and that she had sent him to free the Cha« xibees also from them. ch. and to which the circumstance was now added. and promised to return the next year. that 1£ Spaniards in consequence of theu tyranny. and by the Spaniards. Raleigh made inquiries of this chief respecting Guyana." and he so won their good. taking his son with him as a pledge of his friendship. were oppressed by them . El Dorado . alliance with him. and from thence proceeded back to England. Ezrabeta Cassipuna Aequerawona. and to defend Guyana from their invasion and conquest. and great appearance of the ore in the rocks On his return. Joseph. took him prisoner . on this information and that he had re« ceived from other Spariards. and exterminated a number. by whom he was very hospitably received. Elizabeth the Great Princess. occupied that — . was a relation which Berreo stated a certain Spaniard. — for which he assigns several reasons. resolved to attempt the discovery of Guyana* Finding it not practicable to enter the Oronoke through any of its branches with his ships.• — — portion of the West Indian Isles called the Antilles. where. as. to defer an attempt to invade and contering it. he returned to quer thus it. The Charibees were then. Raleigh. at the period of their discovery by Columbus. Having . "he showed them her portrait. he left them at Trinidad. vol. He then proceeded up the river one hundred miles farther* to the Caroli. ascended it three hundred miles. it. 1. or Windward Islands. which he received from him.will. the intelligence he desired and among other accounts. generally. the principal nation on the lower Oronoke. of the existence of a rich and splendid city in Guyana. and liberated those nations. and after putting the garrison to the sword. on the Oronoke. to the residence of a Charibee chief. that they called the Queen. and while he had him in his power. to which he gave replies. called Manoa. to a future period made an Trinidad. which falls into it from the south . and proceeded up the river with four boats and one hundred men . far as he could. by name Topiawari. They are alsa spread over nearly the whole of British and French Guyana . nation who. with whom he further conferred respecting Guyana and the means of enHe concluded. For the former object he made ci attack on the fort of St. in the Charibee language which is. and still continue." His object in remaining there. . who professed to have travelled to the Golden City. which he states — — that it was situated upon a great lake.THE CHARIBEES. he stopped again at the residence of this chief. which they much admired .* The information he collected in this expedition. however. and taking an Indian pilot. he relates. was partly to be revenged of Berreo for having enticed away four of his men. hold a predominant sway having subdued most of They are the same the surrounding tribes. obtained from him. had made to him. he discovered a mine of gold.

— "Oiyiey . than he made preparations for renewing the prosecution of this enterprise . probably in consequence of the Spaniards to protect —with whom they were enmity. It is probable. and the next . all the Indians on that side of the rivethaving fled and dispersed themselves. But from the dedication it appears. 1. in the to his instance. appointed Commander-in-chief of the army. reputation in England. in the manner the most satisfactory to him. and returned to England. having lost his an enterprise undertaken a number of years after. 3. he published an account of his voyage. and against whom Raleigh he and made a settlement them — having arrived at offered since left. which he ascended But. he to the residence of the Charibee chief. on his arrival there. had been deserted by its inhabitlearned he was dead. a fort on to an island opposite the prosecute discoveries in Keymis. it was not received. he still that. His country. a second expedition to two vessels. the next year. at least. at first. and erected Caroli. that his absence from his country was too short to extinguish the jealousy of his rivals in power. Appendix." with. conMr. pp. On his return to England. one of which . stopping at. too.J No sooner was Raleigh discharged from the public service. by the disappointment he had it " Myself and the remains of my few years have been bequeathed wholly to Raleana. 2&-2S6. there of some twenty houses. therefore. and that his abilities were availed his country require whew the them. Lord Effingham had the which was divided into four squadrons. What his personal reception was with to the Queen. but which he at that time at was prevented attending in war with Spain. was assigned to Raleigh was not reinstated in the wants of v — a circumstance which shows favor of the Queen. for this object. 1596. And while Essex was direction of the fleet. 1. agreeably sisting of promise Charibee chief. made no attempt After his return. by the return of the English fleet from the expedition against Cadiz. vol. that in the expectations he had formed of riches. t Cayley. vol.20 EL DORADO. and a powerful fleet. Guyana. he published an the country. ?. giving the greatest assurance. has not been related first . and its the particulars he had learned of the country he had visited. in which he was a principal actor. with a large land it. by the aid of his friends fitted out. Cayley'a Life of ilaleish.* to the Raleigh. 8BS. but it is clear he was not admitted her court. account of his voyage .f Keymis left England on the twenty-sixth of January. he had not been disappointed. Lawrence person. in England. ants.) and all my thoughts live only in that action. the command of which was given Keymis to . although he maintained a high of. England being to force accompany being prepared to attack Cadiz. several places. he says in — determination life in t was most thoroughly carried into execution . in latitude 1° 46' north. Mo. vol. . and sailed along it. (which name he gives Guyana in comThis pliment to Raleigh. -. and no one was found there . X. and not the least discouraged in the pursuit of the enterprise in met which he had taken a part. and arrived on the coast of Cayenne. till he came to the Oronoke.

and abandon the enterprise he had undertaken and steering for the West Indies. even in the minds of the Spaniards.f The relation which Sir Walter Raleigh gives of the existence of the so long rumored City of El Dorado.'''' at is . Thomas Masham. after their many unavailing efforts to discover it for it was now placed in a region to which their enterprises in search of it had never penetrated. 1. (rather from which they rise." § The lake termed Cassipa by Raleigh. but explicit. He was accompanied by Mr. 1596. in which fall various rivers . He stopping at different places. year after the voyage of Keymis. founded on a \ And to account for the wealth and splendor of the city of Manoa.) and that in the summer time. and the French. with '•' lake of Salt water. imperial city of least the. the richness. . from which this river takes its rise . sailed along the coast of Guyana^ came to the river Corentine. who were all engaged in forming settlements in the new hemisphere but whose attention had not. epilation that J Cnyley. which in later times has been given tu it. revived again the subject. information was given him that three hundred Spaniards were on the Essequibo on which he was induced to leave it. which may be some forty miles. a great quantity of civil whom — — grains of gold are found there. 1. known to the Spanish nation. and also the Arvi. who wrote made the coast of Cayenne.. is after him to this region. " by such as have seen Manoa. are brief. called Cassipa. . that it is above a day's journey for one of their canoes to cross.* who left England on the fourteenth of October. which was beginning to lose its interest. returned to England." which Raleigh supposes to be an emigration of one of the Incas of Peru. pp. t is called by Keymis and Berrie. for the great- ness. 179-180. To the English. when it discharges itself by those branches. SITUATION OF THE CITY. he gives a relation made to him by the Charibee chief on the Oronoke. — — degree. While in this river. 2ES-247. These relations which I propose to examine. 1. until then. " I have been assured" says Raleigh. been directed to South America. Parimu. 1597. of an invasion of Guyana by a nation of and apparelled people. Cayley vol pp. the Dutch. that at the head of it was a great lake. so much of world as far excelleth any of the world. 2. in a great . that he was informed by an Indian chief on the Caroli. He also states. with the charm of novelty. — from accounts they the received on the coast of Guyana. fitted 21 out a stout pinnace. vol. Guyana which and the the Spaniards call is El Dorado. an account of the voyage. vol. 303. and " that it is so large. vol. and built this city. § Cayley. It long. two hundred leagues he made an alliance. who established himself in it. —who made the two voyages * Cayley. the excellent seat. 179-180. in the interior of Guyana. which falls into the Oronoke fartherwest. the command of which was given to Captain Leonard Berne. pp. p. until he . and on the twenty-seventh of February. where the field of discovery and conquest was monopolized by the Spaniards and Portuguese this splendid and dazzling object was presented.

to show the worthiness of D'Essekebe. call first it the Brother of the Oronoke. and is embraced between these rivers. others southwardly into the Rio Branco. which falls into the Amazon. no hills or prominences of any kind are seen. The narrative of Raleigh in this respect. whatever might be thought of it in others. from fifteen to twenty miles wide. by the flood that rushes with vol. is low and level. Three structions about eighty miles. Cayenne. and the lake was immediately placed on the maps of Guyana. constituting it an island. livers which descend from the interior. it receives the Rippununi. Demethe three first of which belong to Tara. and others eastwardly into the Atlantic Ocean. who commanded Raleigh's second expedition. first is. where seveThis alluvial formation is ral detached pyramidal hills strike the coast. and full of islands at . by the sediment deposited upon it by the various coast of The Guyana. p 328 . for it is very large. the existence of any such lake was doubted maps. which are united by the junction of the Cassiquiari. it. it l>eing discovered by the Portuguese. who named Rio D'Esse- kebe. the main stream rising also from the same chain which runs along the rear of the colonies. Surinam. and Cayenne to France. when commences a series of falls. and the first south of the Oronoke. On this subject. Afterward. Of this liver. which flows from the Cordillera of Parima. from which it is distant about one hundred miles. one of the head branches of the former. * It is called D'Essekebe. Of these rivers. first Whether there in reality exists inquiry that arises on these relations a large lake in the interior of Guyana. was fully believed. the ELDORADO. he took notice of it. and on approaching the land. in every direction except at Cayenne. and from thirty It is free from obmiles upward is filled with low and beautiful islands. and * Cayley's Life ofttal. the Essequibo is the most considerable. Jhundred miles from its mouth. 2. The Indians. very worthy mention is made by Lawrence Keymis. which have given their names to the European colonies established on it. Through it this region passes the second great chain of mountains that crosses South America. viz: Essequibo. Berbice. Various opinions were subsequently entertained respecting its locality. From the centre of various rivers flow in different some northwardly into the Oronoke. and thus describes it. Its mouth forms a spacious bay. which falls into the Rio Negro.22 In the natural order. directions . from the Oronoke to the America which extends along the AtAmazon. Surinam to Holland. with the Rio Negro. positions assigned to . geographers did not at entertain any doubt. and different To that narrative it owes its first appearance there. continually increasing. a branch of the Amazon. called the Cordillera of Parima. Its mouth. and it was finally entirely expunged from the Guyana is that portion of South lantic coast. but a uniform flat surface as far as the eye extends. of alluvial formation. In sailing from Cayenne to the Oronoke. from the Oronoke In sailing toward to it. and Cayenne Great Britain.


violence from the




Amazon in a northwesterly direction along it, and forthrough the Boca del Chica, or Dragon's Mouth, between Paria and Trinidad, into the Gulf of Mexico, there takes the name of the


Gulf Stream.


alluvial formation rising gradually

advancing into the interior of Guyana, beyond the upon the mountainous region, a diverScattered hills of various elevations, some covered

country appears.

fill the prospect. The dense broken by open savannas.* The locality which has been generally given to this lake, is in the second of the three great chains of mountains which cross South America,

with forests, others naked at the summit,

forests are also occasionally

thus described by Humboldt " The first, called the Cordillera of the coast, of which the highest summit is the Cilia of Caraccas, and which is linked to the Andes of New

Grenada, stretches in the tenth degree of North latitude from Quimboya and Barquesimento, to the promontory of Paria. The second extends between the parallels of three degrees and seven degrees from the mouths of the Guaviari and Meta to the sources of the Oronoke, thence eastward to the Essequibo in Dutch Guyana, and the Maroni (Marawini) in Cayenne* I call this chain the Cordillera of Parima. It is less a chain than a collection of granitic mountains, separated by small plains, without being everywhere disposed in lines. It is not connected with the Andes of New Grenada, but is separated from them by a space of eighty leagues broad. A third chain, the Cordillera of Chiquito, unites in sixteen degrees and eighteen degrees South latitude, the Andes of Peru to the mountains of Brazil. These three transverse chains are separated by tracts entirely level ; the plains of Caraccas, or the lower Oronoke the plains of the Amazon and the Rio Negro ; and the plains of Buenos Ayres, on the La Plata. The two tracts placed at the extremities of South America, are savannas or steppes ; pasturage without trees. The intermediate basin, which receives the equinoctial rains during the whole year, is almost entirely one vast That strength of forest, in which no other road is known than the rivers. vegetation which conceals the soil, renders also the uniformity of its surface less perceptible, and the plains of Caraccas and La Plata alone bear this

name." f Having given





account of some of the geographical features of this from the same author, in what manner the lake

Parima was first introduced into the maps, and the mutations of opinions which occurred among geographers as to the existence of it, its character and position, during the space of three centuries. " Hondius, a geographer of Holland, was the first to insert it in his map of Guyana, published in 1599, four years after the voyage of Raleigh, and founded entirely upon his narrative. It was entitled, Nieuw Carte von bet wonderbare landt Guyana, besochtd von Sir Walter Raleigh, 1594 1596 ;' (New Map of the wonderful land Guyana, discovered by Sir W. R., 1594-1596.) Like Raleigh, he makes the rivers Caroni

* YVaterton's Travels


South America.



Pers. Nar. ch. xvii.




and Arvi branches of the Oronoke, to issue from lake Cassipa, in the In posterior maps, as that of Sansom in 1656 and heart of Guyana. Hon1669, the river Caura, another tributary, is made to issue from it. dius, and other geographers, assigned gradually a more southern latitude to it, and it was detached from the Carom and Arvi, and took the name of lake Parima. Sansom in 1680, De Lisle in 1700, and D'Anville, in the first edition of his map, (L'Amerique Meridionale,) effaced the lake PaD'Anville, in the rima, but still religiously kept to the lake Cassipa. second edition of his map, in 1760, placed on it both the lake Cassipa and the lake Parima. La Cruz, who made his great map of South America
in 1775, preserved this lake, but has given it the oblong form of lake while of the ancient lake Parima, the axis was from east to Cassipa

has been followed by all subsequent geographers. He by the accounts of the missionaries, respecting the sources of the Caura, not to omit the Cassipa. Four years after the map of La Cruz, was published that of Caulin




too well informed


attended the expedition under the

for the regulation of boundaries, but

command of Jose Antonio Solano, who never proceeded farther than
is in

San Fernando de Atabapo, on

the Oronoke, one hundred and sixty leagues

pretended lake Parima, which was founded

on the

testimony Solano collected from the Indians.
contradiction to the

This journal



prefixed to



author developes the circum;

stances that gave rise to the fable of lake Parima
the lake, placing

but the


however, far from the sources of the Oronoke, to the Two maps traced by him in 1756, were reduced east of the Rio Branco. in 1778 into one, and completed, according to pretended discoveries by which is the source of the Maho, Sarville ; who makes the lake Amucu, one of the tributaries of the Branco, and rises near the Essequibo, to be

the lake

Parima."* Humboldt, having recited the

different opinions

which have been enterpresents his

tained regarding the existence and situation of this lake,

own views on

the subject, formed upon a minute and careful investiga-

is a long and narrow Cordillera, viz that of Pacaraimo, Quimiropaca, and Ucucuamo which, stretching from east to southwest, unites the group of the mounIt ditains of Parima to the mountains of French and Dutch Guyana. vides its waters between the Carony, the Rippununi, and the Rio Branco. On the northwest of the Cordillera of Pacaraimo descend the Nocopro, On the the Paraguamusi and the Paragua, which fall into the Carony.


" In the latitude of four degrees, or four and a half,

northeast, the Rippununi, a tributary stream

of the Essequibo.
together, the


famous Rio Parima, or Rio Branco," (and at their junction is the Portuguese fort St. Joachim. The Urariquera, or western branch, is formed of the Urari|Bara and the Parima, which name is also applied to the whole stream,
the south the

Tacutu and the Urariquera, form,

* Humboldt's Pas. Nar.,



and xxiv.

after the junction of the


two branches, or the Branco. The Tacutu, which flows from the east, receives from the north, the Maho ; which is joined by a small stream, the Pirara, before it enters the Tacutu. All these tributaries of the two branches flow from this mountainous chain.) " The rivers at the foot of the mountains of Pacaraimo, are subject to frequent overflowings. Above Santa Rosa, the right bank of the Uraripara, a tributary stream of the Urariquera, or western branch of the Rio Branco, is called el Valle de la Inundation. C4reat pools also are found

between the Rio Parima and the Xurumu More to the west, the Canno Pirara, a tributary stream of the Mahu, issues from a lake covered with rushes. This is the lake Amucu, described by Nicholas Hortsman, and respecting which, some Portuguese of Barcelos, who had visited the Rio Branco, gave me precise notions during my stay at San Carlos del Rio Negro. The lake Amucu is several leagues broad, and contains two small islands. The Rippununi approaches very near this lake ; but does not communicate with it. The portage between the Rippununi and the Maho is farther north, where the mountain of Ucucuamo rises, which the natives still call the mountain of gold. They advised Hortsman to seek around the Rio Mahu for a mine of silver, (no doubt mica with large plates,) of diamonds, and of emeralds. He found nothing but rock crystals The White Sea is nothing but the Rio Parima, which is still Rio Blanco, or Rio des Aguas Blancas and runs called the white river through and inundates the whole of this land. The name of Rippununi is given to the White Sea on the most ancient maps ; which identifies the


place of the fable

since, of all the

tributary streams of the Rio Esse-

quibo, the Rippununi

nearest to the lake



" In support of what I here advance, I shall appeal to a very respectable ' When testimony, that of Father Caulin I inquired of the Indians,

I, on the banks of the lower Oronoke,) what Parima was ; they answered, that it was nothing more than a river that issued from a chain of mountains, the opposite sides of which furnished waters to the Essequibo. " Caulin, knowing

(says the missionary,


sojourned longer than

an inland sea have no doubt," he says, " that one of the upper branches of the Rio Branco, is that very Rio Parima which the Spaniards have taken for a lake From the whole of these statements, it follows 1 That the laguna Rippununi, or Parima of Raleigh, is an imaginary lake formed by the lake Amucu, and the tributary streams of the Urariquera, (the western branch of the Branco,) which often overflow their banks. 2. That the laguna Parima of Surville's map, is the lake Amucu which gives rise to the Rio Pirara, and conjointly with the Mahu, Tacutu, the Urariquera, Rio Parima, properly so called, form the Rio Branco." There is, perhaps, no region in South America so little known as this, which Humboldt has described as the locality of the lake. It has never yet been passed over by any of the civilized race, who has given an ac
attributes the erroneous notion of
to the

nothing of lake


inundations of the plains.





the up the Oronoke. and then one of its branches. on the Rio Negro. and crossing over the Cordillera came to the Uraripara. Colonel Barata. each passing over the extremes to the east and west of this region. It was on the coast of Guyana was first heard applied to it. by Portuguese. by which he descended to the Branco. these colonists arrived at St. permission to proceed to the Rio Branco . Respecting a region so little known. respecting the countries bordering on it. to solicit from the commander of the Rio Negro. it. by any other than the wild inhabitants of that region. 1811. passed up the Rippununi. A veil of obscurity has hung over its thick forests and lofty mountains. it. went twice from the Amazon to Surinam. Still more recently. any additional information cannot but That which Humboldt obtained was received in Spanish be desirable. and all the information known of it in Europe. It must be obvious. 3. and so interesting. so far as is known. himself. the Rippununi. 2. A journey has never yet been made. as the space between the sources of the Oronoke and Essequibo. has been sometimes given to the lake furnishes the most favorable channel himself. some English and Dutch colonists arrived at the portage of Rippununi. and the commandant having granted their request. which is some degrees The information which west of the locality generally given to this lake. either westward from the sources of the Essequibo to the Oronoke. on affairs of his government. Raleigh. its confines have been visited by remarks Humboldt. 4. Joa- The only instances in which even travellers. from a sight of the map. to amuse the credulity of Europeans. he obtained of this region. whom he saw at San Carlos. was derived from the new maps in the hydrographical depot of Brazil. which falls into the western branch of the Branco. ever since the close of the sixteenth century. Nicholas Hortsman. that the borders of the Essequibo on the opposite side the name of one of whose branches. of both of which he had a perusal. but a short distance post on it. however. of Para. on which he founds the views he has presented of it. on the west of this district. and then by a short portage to the Pirara. by the same portage of Rippununi. chim." beyond Esmeralda. ascended the Caroni. on the east and west. which Hortsman went over. that i»ad . in which the lake Parima has been generally placed. from some communications made to him respecting them. from which. and from the journals of Hortsman and Santos. Don Antonio Santos. In 1793. in which are very minutely laid down. Parima. the following: 1.26 count of EL DORADO. the various streams that descend southwardly from the Cordillera of Parima . in pursuit of El Bprado in 1775. is conjectural founded on intelligence obtained by three or four travellers. wonderful tales have issued and been spread by the Indians. and proceeded to the Brazils. are. the Paragua. in the month of February. did not proceed last Christian Humboldt — — •to obtain intelligence respecting the name. In 1735. who came from the Essequibo. in their boats. a tributary of the Tacutu. of the first regiment of the line. and Portuguese territories. or eastward from the Oronoke to this river.

On the Essequibo river. The first port on the Essequibo. is on an island at the commencement of the the following extract : " receives the Mazerouni. which by ascending the river farther !* he would make those Indians his enemies. as far as farther this river. taking their provision. on the west side. called Arinda. they return for their canoes.. West of the point where it makes a small river which flows from a lake. "that it lieth southerly into the land. who came from the Essequibo. After passing them. when he came himself. which the Jaos call Roponowini.) published in 1770. and that the Corentine up in this land. from which I make it." inconsequence of which information. is pursuing a course of east-northeast. vol. p. affording some information on the subject. but when he had passed the first falls he heard accounts of the ferocious character of doth meet it fall. THE ESSEQUIBO. The Rippununi is seventy miles in length . that his boats to the ship. came to my knowledge. in and will relate the facts I was able A ' The Essequibo river sixty miles from its mouth. There are infinite numbers lake. heard of a lake in the interior of Guyana called Parima. as since. the Essequibo receives the Rippununi. to collect on the subject. The number of falls. through which the Essequibo visited. and in the other half this turn. British I have observed in the Introduction. 37 Only a general idea of the situation of the lake Cassipa. and the main sea. sent out by him to these regions. f Cayley. Guyana. and the state of the population about a region so favorable for the purpose. falls. and upon the same side. and from the mouth they pass into the head in twenty days ." * On the Corentine river. 3. About eight miles higher. was He was also told. they carry it on their shoulders one day's journey. when. is thirty-nine. 2. "he intended to have discovered a passage into that rich city. and that five days farther there was another not passable. work by a historian of Holland. but Keymis and who commanded the two succeeding expeditions. some years river flows. He therefore returned with the Ackoways. several 1 of whose branches rise in the locality generally given to the lake Parima was very desirous of obtaining some information respecting it. as a day's journey of the lake Parima. p 328. " to be within that the Essequibo leads so far into the country. and of its precise locality. Afterward. 377. and I suppose it is no other than that on which it Manoa standeth. and left the river. . The Cayouni unites with the Mazerouni four or five miles before the river falls into the Essequibo." which he believed would be to the disadvantage of Raleigh. Having. flowing first for half the distance from the south. entitled Beschry ving van Guyana. as he was informed there was on this river great store of gold. he was informed.' (Description of Guyana. vol. Hartsinck. the Charibees Parima no difference between of canoes in this which is of such bigness. nearly half an hour's * Cayley. that they know ." f He actually proceeded some distance up this river in his boats . and bear them to the side of a lake. Berrie was informed by an Indian. comes the river Arassarou. the Siperouni. Berrie.

lake Parima became and his a subject of attention to him. which flows from the southwest. also. falls in that region.. —who. and inquire into gave the following statement. &c. or the White river. was an inundation of a tract of land at the head of that river. and is said to be a very great and deep lake. in answer to some inquiries I made of him on the subject. side. A gentleman who administered the government of the colony of Demerara. during the rainy season . to which that of Demerara was subordinate. and which places the lake in the same locality. both which then join the Tacutu. is it will be seen that the existence of lake Parima which he gives to it agrees with that assigned to it by D'Anville. to 1771. makes it communicate with the Essequibo. which falls into the Rio Branco. The following information I received on this subject from a very authentic source. gave me the following information That his public functions leading him frequently to the Essequibo river. and having some islands in it. I will not dilate on its shape and situation. five or six broad. this lake. and their ancient and implacable enmity to the Spaniards.' and two broad. that what was called lake Parima. 28 ELDORADO. Lake Parima. that none of the European riches. called by the Portuguese Rio Blanco. The Mazerouni runs north-eastwardly. and afterward removed to the United States. called the lake Amucu. in a right line out of lake Parima." In the above extract. who. and then into the Rio Negro. on his return from the vast quantity of water. west of lake Amucu and east of the Oronoke . up the river to its source. their Yet we can assure the reader. which unites with the Maho. out of this lake. which is to be found only in the imagination of Sir Walter Raleigh and the Spaniards. according to accounts of the Spanish court transmitted to M. according to Humboldt. about four miles long Two miles west of this lake is a larger one. on which the Spaniards had a mission . he directed the commander of one of the military posts to proceed it. is established certainly to be between the Mazerouni and Cayouni. and the relations made in former times of the inhabitants on its borders. or the Black river. the friendship of the Indians. through the country to the river Amazon. and the locality : . than those of Essequibo considering the course of this river. farther up it receives the Iruari. not being able to discharge itself into the several streams that flow out of tract but which happens in the dry season. from the year 1765. founded in his own personal observation. from the relations of the Indians positively stated by this writer. D'Anville. curiosity being excited respecting it. distance. to attend at the seat of government of the colony of that name. and some information from our settlements. The Cayouni receives the river Menou. that immediately it . nine or ten miles long and overgrown with reeds. so that a passage may be made from our settlements by these rivers. by the Mazerouni and Cayouni. when the becomes perfectly . From on the south settlements are better adapted for the discovery of the interior of Guyana. between the Rio Negro and the Atlantic Ocean. which by many travellers is thought to be even the Golden Dorado. flows the river Pirara.

and well-acquainted wifti it. but had been very rarely visited by any colonist. " that it is less a chain. which is agreeable to the account Humboldt gives of the Cordillera of Parima. sons :— Dr. had the perusal of a journal. : he and made a visit to the government of Demerara. at the sources of the Essequibo river. the remote country where he resided. induced to appoint a commission to visit him. separated by small plains. I have been in expectation of seeing a more extended work from his pen. by • the officer. which is a plain narrative of events. from the impediments existing to ascending the Essequibo. Of the correctness of his statement. as the fourth instance in which this region has been They were the following pervisited by travellers of European origin. Accounts which received from several other sources in that country. and. and refers to this expedition. sometimes inundated . at Georgetown. made by one of a commission sent by the government of Demerara. Captain S of the burgher militia. — . in 1810. between which there are extensive savanthat year. was entirely unknown not only never having been described by any traveller. to the Charibee chief. . and to promote it. and that the neighboring Indians daily come to the spot. from which the Rippununi and Siperouni flow easterly into it. and without being — . are the English and Dutch colonists. into the Tacutu. and the Pirara and Maho southwardly. further elucidate this subject. Captain S. than a collection of granitic mountains. and the number of men whom he could bring into the field. before sunrise. nas. f6r. he found to be saltpetre. Hancock removed some years after to London. who styles himself king of all the Indians in British Guyana. and the dread of the native tribes at its sources. and the third.— DEMERARA COMMISSION. and was placed at the head of this commission. is a high table. —a quantity of which was brought and delivered I I to him .land. and published a work on his favorite subject . are arranged in separate groups. the Governor and court of policy were unable to form any opinion . to open the way for an amicable treaty with it . who had devoted much attention to the natural history of Guyana. — i . The Government was. a gentleman long resident in that colony. kept a journal." in which he proposes a plan for colonizing the interior of it. The individuals composing it. in 1834. a pamphlet entitled " Observations on Guyana. or Cacique. a medical gentleman. to gather a substance which . by the great number of falls in it. which. including the Charibees generally considered to be of a very ferocious character. on that country having travelled extensively about it but saw his death some time since announced. which passes through it. sion originated in the following circumstance —During This commis- descended this river. from which it appears that the region at the head of the Essequibo. on examination. From this journal I extract the following remarks. they called salt 29 bare. a native of the United States then resident in Demerara. Hancock. except that there remains a small pond . made strong representations of the extent and power of his nation. on which the mountains that form part of the Cordillera of Parima. and is the one I have mentioned. Dr. therefore. mentioned by Humboldt.

which separate the Portuguese jurisdiction . and found marks where they had commenced digging a passage for their canoes . which was forty-two feet square. The commissioners left the post on. their course — for which. who came in from different parts. he paid with the articles he the fifth it On February. and ascended days with diffi- . which has many and heavy falls in They found a settlement of Macoussies. where a savanna opened before them . and beyond it. in which were forty hammocks. but they appear to have given up the plan. and came to the mouth of the Essequibo. a little below the Siperouni. proceeded eighteen miles. which the commissioners verified by passing through this channel of communication to the Portuguese fort St. On the fourth January. The ground where they now draw them is plainly to be seen. where they remained some days. the rocks on it. and ascended the December sixth. on the Rio Branco a fact also stated by Humboldt. They landed there. as if the country had been lately destroyed by fire passed. brown mountain manner.3Q ELDORADO. about one hundred rods in length. the commissioners came to Arriwasikies. in a sketch annexed to the journal. They (which. guese once came when the savanna was under water. r — : then. On the eleventh. Rippununi on the first January. the Mazerouni. 1810. which the Macoussies had planted for him had received from Government. takes its rise. everywhere disposed in lines :" and that there is a short portage from the Rippununi to the Pirara. extending from north to south. and held a conference with the Indians. On the mountains. On the tenth. the last of the chain way up which was a settlement of Macoussies. a Charibee chief. Joachim. along which they proceeded in a southhalferly direction. eighth January they came to another settlement. they resumed for eight up tne Rmoununi. From these mountains the Siperouni. stretching northeast and southwest. to which they walked two hours and a half. a chain of mountains appeared. which comes into it— and rises out of a range of mountains. and in two hours after. of about twelve houses j one of which the journalist measured. as far the e3 e could reach. having before them a range of very high mountains. they came to the mountains Massara. they went back on an easterly course to the Rippununi. and drew their canoes to the Rippununi . passed an Ieta-bush. over mountains resembling marble. and about one hundred Indians. is a creek. On the thirty-first. Southeast were the mountains Pitjabo. of ten large houses. a long range. and at mount Maho. between the it. This extract also — contains some particulars relative to the state of the population in this re* gion. one of the chain. On the ninth. they proceeded up this tributary as far as the Anayoca creek. and walked through the forest a quarter of a mile. scattered in a terrible to a very high. and went through valleys abounding with groves of the same trees. On the twenty-fourth they passed the twenty-eighth fall. where the Portu. to a field of four acres. or river. under the mountains Conoko. and arrived at mount Itaka. is called the Maho). — and thirty-six feet high. called Conoko— signifying islands —which were of an immense length.

after a walk of eighteen to twenty miles. semi-circular. came to a cabin of Wapisanas. they went on. on the seventeenth. On the eleventh March. to an open cabin. situated at the junction of the Tacutu with the Branco. Joachim. " a seat next to him. to the residence of the Charibee chief. They were conducted by the Indian with whom they last staid. sitting on a hamack. In the morning. m. they came to a landing-place. and Wapisanas. on the Rippununi. son. and going over hills and valleys. or drag it over on the thirteenth. at 1 A.. they were saluted by music from it beating of drums. cordially circular. performed on his entrance and welcomed him. m. and singing. to which they went. a landing on the Rippununi. and was received by a fine young Atoray. Mahanerwa." Each person came before him ceremony. dancing. He never works. culty 31 to carry their canoe around falls. and about twenty feet diameter. and at 1 p. the commis- sioners proceeded to Moracca. which was a quarter of a mile distant . in a most friendly manner. they proceeded to it. canoes.. and the chief was new house. and. arrived at fort St. who welcomed them most —being obliged : shoals at length. m. where they found two m. and crossing the Pirara in five places on horseback. —and — : The settlement consisted of about ten houses. then to a hill on which were four houses of Atorays. he said. nearly as wide. m. on the right. they arrived at their destination at noon. where the Cacique. and landed at 6 p. they set out on foot for Morocca. which led to the residence of the Charibee chief." says the journalist. well filled with Charibees. Maconssies. every person dressed himself off to the best advantage but himself. and more than twelve women presented him with drink . M. was intended for the commissioners. The next day. feet. building a They were industrious. having a single family. which is the portage that separates the waters daj' at 1 p. at the foot of mount Maho . After completing the purpose of their visit to the Cacique. and reached it at 8 p. from which they set off for the river Pirara. of each He mentions the following of which he drank. and as soon as they appeared on one opposite. and found five houses. They were next welcomed by his wife. the fore-finger of his right hand to his face. " He then offered me. besides a large cabin thirty or more feet in length. or bending. they went down the Tacutu and stopped again at night. they passed the Tacutu. they went up these streams to the landing-place of the Pirara creek.m. It was on the top of a hill .. and playing of flutes and pipes. at 9 a. who invited them to his settlement. the river Maho at 5 p. or Cacique . on the fifteenth. forty feet by twenty-five which. and about thirty Indians. by pointing.DEMERARA COMMISSION. for the night. and after passing over mountains. attended by about twenty Indians. and what was very remarkable. On the thirtieth March. received them. and passed. which pleased them. they proceeded. Narressibi. on the left. they descended this stream. The next - — . and open at both ends. On their return. and son-in-law. The whole evening and night were spent with music.

a large creek. The savanna. must be the basin of the Pirara flow from it. . being a due admixture of clay. to walk in one and a half days to Mahanerwa's. and that the Pirara and south of it. who was at the head of this commission. ble mould. the journalist observes. there is a landing. and at half-past four. about one and a half days. which might be changed into Parumu or Xurumu ? It In another respect this journal differs from the maps. ing the Maho at its junction with the Pirara. southwest. is Maho rise out of mount Maho. passed Maowriekero creek. they by moonlight. sand. which comes in from southwest at 3 p. and the nearest way that leads to him. cataracts . from information received from the Portuguese. (or river. while the extensive ranges toward the coast are of less elevation. in the following remarks. which flows from the north half-past twelve. On Monday. at the lake Amucu. seventeenth April. And the journalist would not have omitted to speak of it. Tn the maps. into the Essequibo. reached Riva creek. stony. Joachim. which Humboldt. no mention is made of the Xurumu.) is a trihntary of the Riva. and is agreeable what Humboldt It is states of the source of this stream. which I extract from his " Observations on Guyana. and that the Koitaro (the Kardaru of the Portuguese.j ELDORADO. on its right side. and are chiefly composed of indurated clays with sand and gravel. the lower pari of which. and vegeta- from the mouth. M. or rapids the first chain we met with three great chains of commencing at Aretaka. and its various modifications. the Riva is not mentioned. called Koitaroo. About seventy miles up. and may hence be regarded as belonging to the secondary order. and the Koitaro is made a tributary of the Rippununi.'"' which contains other geographical information in also fully established regard i to this region : " On proceeding up the Essequibo. which show them to be of primitive formation . and appears to have been the seat of volcanic fires at remote periods of time. m. at 3 p. where the soil and lighter materials have been washed away. if he had seen it in his passage to fort St. crossed Wirrewiryko creek. with little calcareous earth. The bed of quantities of vitrified. twixt mountains. says. " The soil of the interior and mountainous parts of Guyana consists of a strong and fertile loam. when they went from the Rippununi to the Maconssie mountains. sixty miles the river in the dry season. as Hartsinck makes the to •i sometimes under water. It contains much feruginous . by Dr. over which the commissioners crossed. These volcanic products are chiefly met with among the falls incumbent on beds of granite. In this journal. discovers vast and mineral substances. Going up the creek it has another creek.32 which flow northeasterly southerly into the Branco. Hancock. passes be- — . for he mentions passMay not this be the Parima. is a tributary of the Tacutu.) which comes in from S. The principal component parts of the interior mountains are granite. from those winch descend proceeded. mentions the Riva as a branch of the Rippununi on the east.

and five thousand feet above the sea is steep and precipitous on the south. which is composed chiefly of Indurated clay and gravel. when a savanna unfolded itself to his view about two thousand acres of grass. 59. nearly on the summit of one of the many hills which form a wide extended range . 3° 58 f . from the river The mountain Makerapan. &c.) and shortly after to the pass to the open country. which is nearly isolated. southern. fyc. and in long. and falls. was bare . he . about four thousand feet above the level of the plain on which it stands. the two great systems of rivers lohich drain the northern and southern slopes by the: Essequibo and Branco. It was very steep and rugged. and a few bushes and single trees scattered up and down. The third day after leaving the last. — diversified with moderate rises * Hancock's O'jserv. without the least appearance of mould or decayed vegetable matter. and contrary to what has been asserted of countries within the torrid zone. notwithstanding the sterile appearance of the soil. and surrounded by t lofty hills of p. with here and there a clump of trees. Here he drew the canoe into the forest. 58j° west. to another on the western bank. and other parts of South America. From this spot. in the region of the Maconssie mountains. facing the savanna. p. is. of the range of Parima. we could see far along the Cordillera of Parima."* mentions. lusty women and children. the lake of top of the people The Amucu. 33 matter. IS. Mr. and thrive astonishingly. and went through it. to the mountains .. and about twenty men. on the west side of the Rippununi " Passed over a barren salt savanna. the : was covered with bushes. the source of the Pirara.:}: from which we extract the folloAving remarks A little before he passed the rapids of the Essequibo. Found here. and at the same time. who about the same time. neither hilly nor level. plantains. in lat.' . where there was a small settlement of Indians. one of which. he came to a creek. Siperouni. as also the groups of Konoko. the northern. besides stout. on the summit. but may be ascended with ease on the east. Mackerapan. Two days after. The next day. two immense rocks appeared. there are evidently vast quantities of iron ore among the mountains of Guyana. The mountain is called Etaka. he says. mountain appears sterile. Cassada. Charles Waterton. the Malw. ascended the Essequibo. which gives it a yellow or reddish tinge. Wanderings ia South America. and passed over to the Portuguese fort . five large houses. ascended a peak. (or river.: WATERTON'S ACCOUNT. which we afterward ascended . all Macoussies. and difficult to climb. after passing the came to a little hill. t Hancock's Observ. giving an account of his travels in that.f The same character is given of this region by an English traveller."' The following will serve to give some idea of the lands farther to the westward. which he — side. covered with large rocks. and published a work in London. were visible here. corn. yams. are produced on the sides of the mountains . to the southward.

had the water permitted. they could not be distinguished from the the Portuguese post) from this place. and rugged the spaces between which were swampy. while the course of the rivulets is marked by the Jeta trees on their borders. and walked for half a day in water nearly up to This was not the proper place to have come to. As the lower parts of this spacious plain put on. two days before. he observes. But this is evidently the lake Amucu for the writer observes. one . and at the base of it stretched an immense plain. were piled one upon the other. which. and the huts upon it were not all in one place. look like south and southwest. journeying along at the foot of a winding-path good. lies. and then into the Tacutu testimonies. it is not improbable. was south. in three . His route (to He entered the forest at the extremity of the savanna. and he was obliged to wind along the western hills. but dispersed wherever they found a place level enough for a lodgment . and gradually retired. with a brisk pace. Although he crossed the plain at the most advantageous place. quite out of the way. other side. somewhat. islands. he proceeded in a southwest direction. to another* and thence. is a river called the Pirara and from get into the Maou. full of immense rocks. He then ascended a steep and high hill. through a long. along the mountain's foot. which he was obliged to make a raft to cross. is the place he ought to have come to. and came to a large and deep creek. and in half an hour. but to this he was compelled. as the ground on the direct course he ought to have taken. was not so The hills over which rocky. and most of them knee-deep in water. he came to a small settlement. nine hours. appeared as level as a bowling-green. and took a circuit westerly. After passing it. He was not able to pursue his course to the next Indian habitation. it you by various shown to flow out of this lake. others rounded . he walked. Portuguese frontiers. a it hill. he was above ankle-deep in water for three hours. from The mountains on the the hill. The path. . He advanced too much to the westward . . it is lost in the horizon. to a small settlement of four Indian huts . to reach the the knees. during the periodical rains .34 ELDORADO. covered with trees towering above the other. hours from this settlement. was overflowed. has been — and the Pirara. gently rising. some pyramidal. steep. the appearance of a lake. on account of the floods of water which fall at that season of the year . till various forms. till they were undiscernible from the clouds in which they were involved. To the The trees on it. . or El Dorado. The remainder of the way was dry ground. which. southwardly. clouds. the next day. but that this is the place which has given rise to the supposed existence of the famed lake Parima. After eight hours' walk. swampy savanna.

and requesting him to come the post . from the remote wilds of Guyana. and his son-in-law. and appeared to have the command of it. answering the description of the Caracolli. to ascend it to its source. and the other youths. He wore no other ornaments than gold pendants in his ears. on shore together as soon as the boat touched it. and not only were their bodies painted. Mahanerwa. the end of which was taken up and stuck in it. their faces marked with black streaks across their cheeks. only a ited for my stay there. that the Charibee chief. . buoy. their eyebrows painted. colony through which the Essequibo flows. an interview with him. The son of the chief. at a place a few miles from the On hearing this. short time before I left it. strings of shells around the neck. occurred. while in the . an unexpected and interesting circumstance first falls. IT STATE OF THE POPULATION ABOUT so To solve the question of this lake Parima. who Avas of middle age. sending an answer that he was unwell . who promptly offered to gratify me. I learned from the Agent. and his breast-plate. but in consequenee of an epidemic which at that time raged there with violence. had come down on a second visit to the seat of government of Demerara. a youth of about twenty years. but it contained his eldest son. and the war-club hanging at their wrists. Arewya had large folds of dark cotton cloth around his body. which is a few miles before this river falls into the Essequibo. I felt a great desire. and sent a message to the Charibee chief. stating the desire of a visitor there. exhibited somewhat more of the original customs. the peculiar ornament of the Charibee. to make an excursion up the river as far as the But during it.CHAPTER FROM IT III. a stranger. They were nearly naked . on which there has been much doubt and diversity of opinion. I had the pleasure of seeing a canoe of his come down. had stopped on the Cayouni. to see him. He was not in it himself. but their heads wci-e profusely covered over with paint of a scarlet brilliancy . and examine the region in which it has usually been placed but the time limI was able. The sight of these Charibees. and the next clay. I expressed to the Agent my anxious wish to have post. in the form of a crescent. suspended from his neck . INVESTIGATION OF THE CHARACTER OF LAKE PARIMA —WHAT RIVERS IN FLOW THE TIME OF RALEIGH CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH PROBABLY GAVE RISE TO THE IDEA OF A GREAT CITY UPON IT SOME FACTS REGARDING THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THAT REGION. Arewya. was very gratifying to me. from the waist to his feet. with an 3* They leaped elastic. Having stopped at the Indian post on the Mazerouni. prevented my gratifying it. after a lapse of ten years .

" Mahanerwa showed. it. he remarks. . and another quite red. and it takes seven days to cross it that there was there white and red sand. my mind. and around the cabin were some half a dozen females. with white and red sand . I availed myself of the information he was ever ready to impart. in his conversation with me. goes out of it. and Mahanerwa had travelled with him throughout Guyana. " on further reflection indeed I cannot doubt it. It was in the centre of it. sensibility and mildness of manners distinguished him from the subordinate chiefs.36 ELDORADO. concerning the existence of lake Parima. High rocks are around it and also small hills. and a free. with a stick in his hand. except that there remained a pond in the middle of fish. which have the shining appearance of glass. he said eight years. he was the most intelligent and correct of all the Indians I ever met with. They conveyed me to Mahanerwa's temporary cabin on the Cayouni. independent at air. has ever since remained fresh ant step. who had an opportunity of seeing him on this visit which he made to the coast. its among other things. with and the scene made. or river. pronounced bareema. He also said there was rock crystal by mount Maho. a powerful sensation . Dr. No one was so well acquainted with the country and the different tribes of Indians. He gave me a succinct account of the inland tribes at that period. had stated. and is never entirely dry. and docility of the Charibees in the islands. He answered. them with the historical recollections I looked connected with their nation. The water is of a whitish appearance in a savanna called Machewai. Mahanerwa. was walk which was it which he called cassamaima : that he had crossed over it. quietly occuwhich scene has been since pied with some work they had in their hands recalled to my mind. character. &c. Leaning out of his hamack. A creek. which is agreeable to what Humboldt Arewya said. speaks of him in his pamphlet " ObserAlluding to a fact he vations on Guyana. and in long conversations. and that it takes four weeks to go round it. where. besides numerous hints of value pertaining to the history and geography of the interior. and of : I have found a note I made from the testimony of the Charibee chief. that four days from his place and dried entirely. quite That it was surrounded black. who came down to the coast in 1819. I After being introduced to the chief." in the most favorable terms. made inquiries of him. His father had been the Caqui or Cacique of the Charibees. which he called mocoureeme and eereepeana. he came to repay my visit. I saw him lying on a hamack. so that a person could over full it. and stood erect before me. In fact. Parima is says he was informed by Nicholas Hortsman. and after such a lapse of A remarkable time. his familiar acquaintance with the geography of the region concerning which I made my inquiries. some of the white sand is shining and of a silvery appearance. The information given by Mahanerwa is entitled to the highest degree of credit. Hancock. on entering. by the description given by Labat of the industry in .

called lake Parima. on said my return to the post. opinion of the former. rise out of the Macoussie mountains. The Macoussies dig a pit in it in the dry season to get water. (probably granitic rocks.wooded. Waterton. is west of these mountains and not far from them. that it is only the lake Amucu. &c. fort St. that is above Indian testimony. Joachim. 37 Parima from floor the issuing of the river is the lake. over the region on which this lake the water discharges itself in the situated he had been in the interior and that it is in a savanna. whom saw on my passage down. the situation of the Branco. gave me an account very similar to the He said. is bounded by the Macoussie mountains on the west the European colonist. but do not support his opinion. I saw a Macoussie Indian. he sand are around the hills. which is the Maho and Pirara. Rippununi and Siperouni. days cross it. and . said. and the bottom of it is white clay. that the Cayouni and Mazerouni branches of also rise out of it mentioned by Humboldt. are black. that the lake Amucu.) red and white Neither Br. places it at some distance from the in addition to the streams lake It Amucu. for Keymis says that the Indians proceeding to the head of the Essequibo. agree with the opinions of Danville and La Cruz.LAKE AMDCU. by which he must mean this branch of it. It appears more probable that the river takes its name from the lake. I An European colonist. That it is surrounded by red sand. whom I have mentioned. who it . which empties into the Rio Negro. says it discharges itself into the Siperouni and the Rippununi and the Essequibo journalist observes the Siperouni and the Annayoca creek a tributary of the Rippununi. while they show the hypothesis of Surville. as it clearly appears to be a distinct body of water. he lived near the lake and had often crossed to — that it takes five and that it is the same time from the Essequibo to it. he marked on the sand of the junction of the Tacutu with it. I think. and discharges itself into another called the Rareenee. half-bare . that it is formed by the lake Amucu and the overflowings of the tributaries of the Branco. being only an expansion of it. It also agrees with the idea of Humboldt. From these relations taken together it — — appears probable that the inundated savanna. that it is only the inundation of a tract of country . Its distance probably is not very great from the Rippununi. and as the sun shines. who went over the region on which lake Parima lies. in a map published with his work. incorrect in supposing the lake derives its name from the river Parima. " carry . is such a lake in this region . Maho. source of the appears from them generally. presented by the different accounts that there I The view received. The other testimonies I collected on the subject support this statement. glisten. which the river the name it takes after the Afterward. to be incorrect. Hartsinck. The rocks round it are half. went so far west. and confirm the it. Hancock nor Mr. and is formed by a river. which I have recited respecting the lake Parima. Humboldt is also. residing some distance up the Essequibo.

and which discharges itself by a very large Rio Blanco. rises out of it the river Cayuni. Further. speaks positively of such a lake. cannot take much less time to which has been made. in which he has been followed by subsequent geographers . Dutch settlements he obtained his information concerning it. it has been seen.) from east to west." . and the inundation must therefore exist for half the year and perhaps some time longer. from the examination is On dubitable that there — — ately discharged. which he says is called by Mahanerwa. the Charibees Parima. southwardly and eastwardly. And as in Guyana the year is divided between two rainy and two dry seasons. according to the latest and most certain observations. also in his which has been followed by all modern geographers. Its extent is not well known. and La Cruz. D'Anville. each of three months. and the water is saltish. and varies according to different relations. On the N. has not been willing to admit it in his map. after all the doubts and controversies about it. in 1775. " a very great lake of the province of Dorado. the water must fill the savanna as fast as it flows out of it . which I have made the basis of the sketch of Guyana. Some modern authors pretend that it is fabulous . It resembles a small sea. Hartsinck. likewise gives it a place in his map. so large a body of water cannot be immedithe whole. published in 1760 . on the table-land between the Essequibo and the Oronoke." he observes. states that who in the depot of arm many rivers. a Spanish writer. a work of great authority. prefixed to this volume. the most eminent geographer of his time. says it is Essequibo Journalist it appears. and by others. but. such a lake actually exists. and from the it their canoes one day's journey to a lake. Alcedo. Humboldt. and the Jaos Roponowini. while the little lake Amucu has maintained its place. from the Guyana. after each rainy season. that come from it to the Rippununi. into the which joins the Essequibo. and the lake Parima has now entirely disappeared from the maps of South America. in his Geographical Dictionary. N. being only a temporary inundation . until the publication of Humboldt. the Chafour days' journey from his place . or the river derives its appellation from it. until recently. and the greater part of travellers make it eighty-two leagues (two hundred and forty-six miles. finally inserted it in his second map. it appears inan extensive tract inundated.. as. " Parima is. The real character of this body of water. on which passes the Cordillera of Parima that various streams flow from it northwardly. and during the former it rains continually. or also called the White Water. Yagurapiri — On the south flows out the Paranapitinga. separate from the lake Amucu. E. It is of a rectangular form. as in the large map of Arrowsmith. which.38 EL DORADO." ribee chief. of which the Parima is the principal which has either given name to this inundation. was always denominated a lake. — also. published in 1786.

T HE RAIN Y SEASON. I am unable to form an exact idea from the relation of the Charibee chief not knowing the rate at which the Indians of Guyana travel A probable estimate of it only can be formed. Brief storms succeed. Martin's History of the British Colonies :— " During the wet wind is often from the S. Humboldt considers merely an imaginary idea. „. But that his relation is correct. according to Alcedo. the inhabitants pass in their canoes. form- ed from remembrance of the salt lake of Mexico. it only leaves off raining to commence pouring. . At these periods. that the northern bank of the Urariapara. that this may be only an expansion of Mar Blanco. ch. and it is never entirely dry . the rain falls more than on the coast. and around it are white and red sand. M. and then the rain descends in torrents sometimes for two or three days without intermission. he was informed by a Charibee captain. i. vol. and suggests. whereon Manoa standeth. vol. or the White Sea as the difference between St." " In the and. that it takes seven days to cross the savanna . above St. in twenty days.. for this difference of — — longitude is not greater than the length of the lake. Lawrence Keymis. the — — — — A circumstance that it is stated by Sir Walter Raleigh respecting lake Parima. lake from their maps. t Cayley. is surrounded by rocks. as observed."f And. hurricane months. is but three degrees and a half which appears probable. to the Salt Lake. p. fifty These are about the dimensions which Alcedo gives to it." p in season. " that a nation of clothed people dwell not far from where this river doth first take its name. in the interior. Machewai . He stated. 8. a salt lake. 2.* Humboldt observes. the clouds discharge three times as much rain as falls upon the coast. " when the Caribbee islands are ravaged with terrific tempests. this — . may be judged from the following remarks Mr. The mountains inland reverberate with pealing thunder.. one of the tributaries of Rio Branco. and how great a quantity of water during their continuance. Concerning the extent of this lake Parima. by the rainy seasons. in the " From the mouth of passage I have above quoted from him. which periodically occur falls in Guyana . Rosa. calls it so. which is full of fish called cassamaima. La Cruz makes it one hundred miles long. but there always remains a pond. and lake Amucu. the Oyapocke. it appears from the accounts given by the Charibee chief and others. 359. on the Oronoke. is called el Valle del Inundation. Upon the hills in the interior. is This great inundation produced. vast masses of clouds Pelion-like upon Ossa advance toward the south.. Rosa and the Rippununi. and fifty broad. is supported by several testimonies. 39 There are some reasons why geographers should hesitate in expunging Although it is only a temporary inundation. and sup- — ." says the same writer. and that far within they * Pinkerton's Geography. W. posing that they travel at the rate of thirty to thirty-five miles per length of the lake would be from two hundred to two hundred and day—the miles. and the night is illuminated with faint lightning coruscations. to have a distinct basin being in a savanna called by a particular name. the sailors say.

vol. it is not same.376-9. but There is in these they have the singular quality of being mostly saline. Buenos Ayres. 2. it is true." a circumstance which corroborates the testimony I have given. where the whole ground is covered with a soil white incrustation.40 ELDORADO. Natural saltpetre is also collected in this part of After a shower. . The Paraguay swelling over its banks at that period. p . p. Keymis. called Parima."* was an officer under Raleigh . But that such is its character. which below the Tacutu is called Rio Branco. vast plains through which the rivers pass.. The whiteness of the lake is no or river of white waters. he If such is the character of the crossed through a barren salt savanna. f Further. — — * Caj ley. as the Los Xarayes. Bonnycastle's South America. discharges itself into the Rareenee by which he intended the Parima. that the bottom of it is white clay. that of the land farther west may be the Again. under the 17th degree south latitude." Lakes of this character are numerous in South America. but it is very improbable that he should^ for the purpose of furthering his views. doubt produced by a circumstance. he says. Besides this lake. word was. in the passage I have above cited from him. 5 I t Bonnycastle's Soulli . This for. Dr. the ground is whitened with it. on exFurther. is specting In the statement made reby the Governor of Demerara. in the flat plains of La Plata. the It extends to the south of of which is saturated with fossil salt. This substance appears in the greatest abundance between Santa Fe and Cordova. or Rio des Agues Blancas. this improbable. America. which is formed by the collected waters of the torrents which flow during the rainy season from the mountains of Chiquitos. contribute to support the idea of a splendid city on its borders. and the water is saltish. but when the waters of the Paraguay abate. state it a circumstance regarding the lake — it if he had not heard —which did not. that the river Parima. ." confirmed by other testimonies. to an extent of three hundred and thirty miles in length. there are many others of great size. the numerous lakes in this province are generally shallow. in the least. Alcedo. that amination. stated by one of my informants respectThe Macoussie Indian said. " the Indians resorted to it to gather from it a substance which they called salt some of which was brought to him but which. meant for Areena. he added. p. 338. this lake becomes a marsh. and produced by the overflowing of the rivers . inundates an expanse of flat land. 348. says lake " resembles a small sea. " it has been seen. . the country. which is clay in the Charibee language and shows that the whiteness of this river originates from the same cause as that of the lake. and one hundred and twenty in breadth ." in going from the Rippununi westward to the Macoussie mountains. the Rareenee discharges itself into the Rio Negro. Hancock says. an immense tract of land. — — soil there. border upon a sea cf salt water. in 1765. he found to be saltpetre. perhaps.| Lake Parima is sometimes called the " White Sea. it ing it. flows out of it.

some account of it will be given. hath performed the part of an honest man. Of a very pure white clay. for their diet and other necessaries. Branco. toward the Rio Negro and Amazon. both for travel and otherwise. Fisher.. and proceeded up it forty 1 eagues. is conclusively shown by the following unexceptionable testimony.) giving to the Rio Branco. and one servant to attend him . he appointed one of his officers to remain there with a party of his company. on his arrival at the leigh. high falls. and being secure of the good will of the Indians. an apothecary" and about six more.. that he was obliged to return. however. 2. the — — — — — — : taka. Martin — " The soil of some of the upland savannas is composed of clay and gravel. E. Unton Fisher. In the collection of voyages by Purchas. the tributary streams of the Essequibo flowing N. From summit of these mountains can be seen the spot where the Tacutu and Rippununi take their rise. and having first taken order with Maperiof the Tacutu. After making some examination of the river. very close.: MARIWIN INQUIRER. vol. From this place he went with his boat. owing to the quantity of clay therein diffused. he had been very hospitably received and at this point of his journey. on going down he stopped at a town. Oyapoke. as to require several days before the water will become transparent by deposition. and the * M. seated on the elevated plains which separate two great systems of rivers. forming the high banks of the Essequibo above the falls The Conoko mountains form an isolated group. when the passage was so obstructed by rocks and shoals. according to his promise.) I gave directions to my cousin. to have this river examined. As the testimony I have mentioned. he remarks " At this town. "to continue the possession. and also salt."* But that lake Parima is a White Sea. and those &c. whose chief was Maperitaka where. Unton Fisher. in Cayenne. and faithful friend. finally. Determined. ch. there are immense masses. to Mr. and who had with him. for the crown of England. when the time of the year. and in such a minute state of subdivision. in the following remarks of a communication made by him nart respecting this region. though apparently sterile. British Colonies. an apothecary. to the Mariwin. by Robert Harcourt. and other rivers. in 1608 which is thirteen years after the first voyage of Raleigh with a view of making a settlement there . ninety-seven persons. I left my cousin." and proceeded with his vessels and the rest. This view is 41 confirmed by Dr. yielding food for the immense herds of cattle and horses. on ascending it. The soil here is of a pure white clay. Hancock. which is that of a person who accompanied him. (not chalk. including officers and seamen. (who. taking with him " captain Fisher his brother. the third from the sea. and. to explore that river. ever since. is an account of one made to the river Oyapoke. to the Cayenne river. . took possession of the country. and. is a most valuable document in regard to the defence of RaHarcourt. a milky color. held a conference with one of the chiefs. that pasture along the Rio Branco. to prosecute the discovery of Mariwini. Martin's Hist. i.

it proceeds from a wholly disinterested source ."! But there cannot be the least doubt that not who was the was a journal made by Unton Fisher. " I found —being of a good He followed my directions to the uttermost Immediately following the account of title. the character given of him by Harcourt affords a full assusubjects of England. liook vi„ cli. xvi. as not only two-thirds of it is an account of the interior Guyana and the city of Manoa. and afterwai'd he contrived to escape in a boat. it is annexed entire. a month's travel. Harcourt having not only made his voyage unconnected with Raleigh. to Guyana and to find out the city of go up the high country Manoa." quibo as This relation of the Mariwin Inquirer is entitled to unqualified credit. therefore. from his personal knowledge . but know it author. xvii. also free from Those associated with Harany bias in favor of Raleigh . in his travels. ELDORADO. The account which the relater. to have explored this river . book vi. and. and that Fisher gave a correct relation of what he observed and learned on the Mariwin. for he said " it was a month's journey by land. and some part of it is in the very language of it. 4. and came to the river Surinam and proceeded to the head of it. and from the head of Disseekebe to the head of Orenoq. a branch of the Charibees. is a nar" Relation of the habitations. they kept him for a guide. but subsequently obtained. where. who came from the head of Surinam in a canoe with four others. cli. by obtaining the love. gives of Guyana and the city of Manoa. were. * Purchas's Coll. states he received " from an ancient Indian." who belonged to the Oronoke. I. vol.' 4. a grant from the crown of England." without a name. as far at least as regards the court. with two other persons. but as the account Harcourt gives of Fisher's discoveries on it and other matters. and gaining the languages of the people. agrees with the Relation.. of Voyages. if it were possible. Hackluyt's papers. this voyage in Purchas. and to have given the account the relater received from him. from the head of Mariwin and the head of Disseekebe. as will be seen in Appendix No. as far as is material to the subjects I am examining. He had been taken prisoner by the Spaniards. rance. and other observations of the Mariwin. whom I shall style the Mariwin Inquirer.42 watess better served of . and very industrious. of He appears. concerning which Harcourt directed him to inquire. and who speak the same language. and enabled to undergo these employments. and would have been put to death. of the whole of Guyana from the Amazon to the space on the Oronoke. occupied by the Spaniards — in opposition. vol. and no other English voyager is known. at that period. . rative with this this fairly written in M. but because he had been a great traveller and knew the country well. mentioned by Sir Walter Raleigh in his discovery. to have gone over the country from the Esse- to the Oronoke. In the margin Purchas says. and was of the nation of Yaios. f Purchas. to his prior claims."* of his ability wit.

then enters into lake Parima.) and after show. in Raleigh's Narrative. is for . the Caroni. annexed to his account of his travels Parrocare. likewise spake of a very fair and large city in — — : Guyana. Captain. a lake. . properly so called.MAP OF LA CRUZ. both tributaries of the Oronoke. Arvi. or Parima. "On the west. in the great map of La Cruz. Parrocare. which he called Monooan ler calleth Manoa —which —which I take to be that which Sir siandeth by a salt lake . and thus the name of the lake. the north. made by Biet. or Acariioonnora.) and the Rio Branco. the relater considers to be Manoa . in the The Rio Parilatitude of five degrees. but he is inclined to think the assertion of Raleigh correct . as spoken in Cayenne. is indicated as a in the — subterraneous filtration. also flows out of lake Cassipa. that. which he called in the province of WalPar- roowan Parrocare Mono an. the Rippununi. 43 the In regard to the subject which is under immediate consideration character of lake Parima he has the following interesting passage " The ancient Indian. Monooan. The in the natives have given the name of Paragua which means Charibee language a great lake. and the Rio Paragua. after a course of forty degrees east-northeast. and sixty leagues northeast. Siperouni. (Aboirike. on the east. by the principal branches ries. "the Oronoke takes its rise. Manooan I find to belong to the Charibee language. in his expedition of boundaries. mountainous land between the Ventuari and the Caura. and it its real bed can scarcely be discovered. is to be relied on. the preceding examination has shown that it may be considered indubitable. The researches of Humboldt have elicited no positive information on this subject. take their rise from lake Cassipa." remarks Humboldt. or Parima." He also thinks the opinion of Caulin. Mazerouni. of which the Parima is one On of the Essequibo. and the " It is full of latter river is called by the missionaries of Piritoo. that the Caura. was not the lake. a tribe of Indians-*Manoa. under the names of Parima or Paruma. The Oronoke.) Parroowan. The Chief was Pepodallapa. it has been observed. west of the Arvi. a missionary. at the western side of the Sierra Mei. and Cayouni. — — more properly translated of the Manoas. as it was founded upon testimony collected by Don Jose Antonio Solano. which skirts . but I shall herewhite. according to a vocabulary of it. (Ocamoo. it subject at the same time to great inundations. From this lake three rivers immediately issue the Rio Ucamu. from a small lake called Ipava.) signifying sea there. ma. Asaccona. receives the Rio Mahu . as given by the ancient Indian. another tributary of the Oronoke. which is supposed to be thirty leagues long and twenty broad.) the Rio Idapa. but a place upon it ." These words Parroowan. that Raleigh says the Caroli (Caroni. for the Caroni is formed by the union of two branches of almost equal magnitude. on the south. is White Sea of the Manoas. as he called him. but passing through a country entirely flat. (Siapa. shoals and is little cascades. or Parava. Of the manner in which the lake Parima discharges itself. its waters flow out through the Rio Branco by various tributaand. (Parona.

in which Parima is conspicuously laid down." — —a most strange who idea. any other stream. to In a zuela and Guyana. There is a striking passage on this subject in the voyage of Keymis. another lake in latitude 2° 10'. altogether hypothetical. as the Portuguese the streams that issue from it at the north. different branches of the Essequibo are placed at a distance from it. then takes the side of the lake.44 ELDORADO. But La Cruz places them on the northern From this it may be seen. No other tributary of this river. also rise out of the lake. the north. flows from hension of reports he heard. Parima to be only lake Amucu. Even in the Spanish provinces north of this lake. which name of Branco. . the lake at the south . The At the southeast corner. attached the lake a theory of Caraccas by map of VeneDe Pons who — resided four years in different parts of them — published in 1805. in the west. an entire ignorance appears to exist on the subject. it has been observed. " that a nation of clothed people. he adopts the theory of it La at Cruz. substiParima of La Cruz. rise from the same source the Oronoke. xxiv. which form the Branco. flows from the Such are the erroneous ideas entertained in The inhabitthe Spanish territories. Nar. or southern side of the lake. is This strange disposition of the rivers the lake or White Sea." observes Humboldt. which is name of a distinct fact from the other. " in his map. called * Humboldt's Pers. considers lake stutes for the lake sources are independent of lake Parima. which he flows into it states. " Caulin. and its Surville. so late as 1805. flowing into On the east he makes no stream whatever issue from it. ants of Caraccas and Angustura know as little in what manner it discharges itself at the south. at least. how little is known of the geography of this region. It is not improbable this it the origin of the Oronoke. it Caulin makes Oronoke rise out of the lake. become the type of almost all the modern maps of Guyana. that makes a bold sweep to the west before it flows to the south.* La Cruz. makes the Oronoke. joins the Tacutu which enters into the Parima. that one of the streams that form ble it issues from the lake. that a river of that the name first from the north. makes the Oronoke rise out of lake Parima but the lake he places to the east of the Rio Branco. a tributary stream of the Cassiquiari. and a river Mahu. exactly three large arms issue. in regard to a river Parima joined by the Mahu. and the Rio Idapa. which comes out of the same chain of mountains. . by the Parima. regarding this lake. Near this Alpine lake. though he places is in a singular location." It is very probable that La Cruz formed his theory from a misappreA river Parima. which I have already cited for another purpose. chap. He was informed by a Charibee captain on the Oronoke. may have the name its of Parima for it and it is possiwould not be extraordinary river 'rising out of it if the lake should give name to more than one in different directions. it has been seen. From this arrangement. the origin of the Oronoke is no lake.

from tho desire of procuring Indians. but no Dutch negroes were Notwithstanding a victory so easily won. and known by the name of the Raudal Guahariboes. and Bovadilla found himself forced to give the signal of battle.] . Humboldt proceeded up the Oronoke beyond Esmeralda only. and seeing the Spaniards without bows. Humboldt was unable tion. but. of all Indians. Cassanari. as appears to be the meaning."* Informed of these facts. vol. while he was breakfasting. dare to advance toward the east-. who prevent ulterior progress of the Spaniards.536—560. opposite the Gehette . of San Carlos. and along a river closed by very high banks. The Indians occupied the rocks that rise in the middle of the river.EXPEDITION OF BOVADILLA. which man has been able to penetrate. formed are the columns of Hercules. to elucidate this subject by personal examina- having ascended the Oronoke only a short distance from Esmeralda. Don Francisco Bovadilla. having advanced to the foot of the rocky dike that forms the great cataracts. and called that far within they border upon a sea of Parima . Of the causes which prevented his " This river may. he gives the following relation. Nar. beyond which no white — African slaves better fitted for labor than the native race. " are. and their constant habits of trading and warlike Cassanari. a little hamlet of eighty houses situated at its the last Christian post on it bifurcation with the Cassaquiari. and as the lake was not far from where it first takes the name. it seems a reasonable conclusion that it flowed out of it." he progress farther. undertaken by the commander of the fort tude. he was suddenly attacked. a voyage of six days and a half. celebrated for the activity of their arrow-poison. pp. two warlike tribes. and having no knowledge of fire-arms. 5. had joined the independent He attempted a hostile incursion. threeconsequently in 67° 38' longiquarters of a degree east of Esmeralda A military expedition. Bovadilla arrived without difficulty as far as the little Raudal. two and a half days' * Humboldt's Pers. run some distance before. whom they believed to be without defence." says Keymis. cataract. by the Guahariboes and the Guaycas. those that know most of the inland a circumstance caused by their being spread over the greater part of Guyana. in a mountainous country. " The Charibees. in which disAt the mouth of the Geheite is a by a dike of granite rocks crossing the Oronoke. as far as the mouth of the Guapo. which — expeditions. there was a nation called was not far from Hence this river must have where the Oronoke first bears that name. A horrible carnage ensued among the natives. Several of the latter were dangerously wounded. they provoked the whites. proceeding toward the west. bordering upon the sea called Parima. dwell not far from the place where the river first 45 takes the salt water. name of Oronoke." or. " be ascended without danger from racts occupied Esmeralda as far as the cata- by the Guyaca is Indians. This tance it receives several streams. — observes. fugitive negroes. the Spaniards did not found. led to the most minute informaHe heard that some tion respecting the cataracts of the Guahariboes.

the more important circumstance related by him. Eeponois. The nations residing farther east. it is true. also. " heard of Manoa. — — — Mariwin Inquirer.. the locality. Areewas. an inquiry will first be made.) . says the jourlarge city in Guyana nalist. His son-in-law. Mako." far within the country. Seewaianos. Nar. Keymis. situated upon a lake called Parima. that the the coast of Guyana. Awaeo. a second edition of it. Pareenapana. at the Oyapoke. and the Spaniards El Dorado. is rendered probable by several considerations. the " rich and magnificent city on its borders. the distance to it from several rivers between the Essequibo and Oronoque. (Oyapoke. Poweeana. from a Charibee captain. he said. which standeth by a salt lake. Carenacottis. which is the name by which it has been always called. and on the Essequibo. by any other person than Sir Walter Raleigh. to consider his whole — — — — or a delusion arising relation respecting it as purely his own invention from his vain imagination. But in this respect." will now be consideredOn this subject. Areewya. a foundation has been laid by his personal enemies at that time. whatever it may be has been related to exist in the interior of Guyana. — — That. &e. or a considerable Indian settlement. without referring to the character given of this city. Wyoocooma. who said it was twenty days from the Wiapoco. spoke of a very fine and which he called Monooan which. and give. Sapara. inhabited about Parima. I take to be that which Sir Walter calleth Manoa. is fully established by the fact that he calls the lake by the name of Parima while that which Raleigh gives it is Cassipa who was not aware of the other. was an associate of Raleigh. and this account might be supposed made to favor his views . Braveeana.46 journey. a wholly disinterested witness. Eenao. subsequent to him. 571 . Lawrence Keymis. From tribes. I learned * Humboldt's Pers. There is at present a large collection of Indian nations in this region. The contrary has generally been taken for granted . whether a place called Manoa either a large city. which the natives call Manoa. as well as others.* is ELDORADO. On the Oronoque. that the ancient Indian from the head of the river Surinam. he also heard of it. states. Tiberacottis. I received the following list of which. in Cayenne. a large Indian population formerly existed in the region assigned for the locality of this lake. at two different places on the coast of Guyana. great injustice has been done to him. fifteen leagues distant from the Raudal of the Gua- An examination having been thus made into the existence. Wyomeera. viz. and the distance to it from the mouth of each river. : ed Mahanaos. Cawera. on Further. and prejudiced historians since. Mahanerwa. as it were. but that he did not copy the relation from him. on the different branches of the Essequibo. and gave him. it has already been observed. viz Macoussies. and the character of the lake Parima of geographers called by Sir Walter Raleigh the lake Cassipa. and on this assumption. addthe Charibee chief. p. which hariboes.

as a means of de- their dwellings with poisoned stakes. population at the east of it. boldt. dwelt on the mountains. they are reduced to a small number. too. for this object . and that on the summit are five houses. or close to their foot where the soil is strong and productive. means of destruction against their enemies . are Macoussies and Ackoways. and made slaves. which he ascended. who are now entirely destroyed. is mount Itaka. by Nicholas Hortsman. V. except this nation. the nations who inhabited the inundated district. also. or driven away to the Portuguese territories. and the greater portion driven away all of whom. On the Siperouni. : 47 from authentic sources. and the Turamas. besides a number of others. or main branch of the Essequibo. now principally The state of the tribes. taken down by myself also. —surrounding the other tribes purchase it. The Macoussies are numerous. or Atorees. or near the Rippununi are Macoussies. are the following On. and two or three other tribes. Appendix No. says the Essequibo journalist. were mentioned a century ago. according to Hum- — . possess a very pacific temper. I believe. One of the Macoussie mountains. and half-way up. and are the makers of the most virulent kind known in Guyana the woorara. It is true. one of the nations about lake Parima all which are in the Table. and almost all From these the tribes possess a number of slaves captured from them. Hancock says this mountain is an isolated peak. of the Tiberacotti. to this volume. Other tribes have lived here. known to commence aggressive wars. the Ackoways. as a causes. Hostile tribes accommodate their differences to join in an expedition against them. continue together for half a year but. They are never The Atorays. : — — — — whom fence . carried on. and submit quietly to any attacks upon them. tions of several travellers whom . with a few scattering Indians—the remains of tribes who have been reduced by the Charibees. which are. between the different nations of Guyana. and through them is the trade. difficult to climb. which form the judging from the state of the on the same Cordillera. from guages. They employ poison. The Ackoways. the two periodical inundations . the mere remnants of nations. Wapisanas. They possess their brave and warlike character. according to the relaI have cited. a numerous and warlike nation. Their language resembles that of this nation.. Dr. and Macoussies. but are of a very timid character and hence. steep and rugged. are attacked by them. Atorays. the two principal nations are the Atorays. Three of these nations. the Charibees. by the preponderating sway of . or arrow-poison. and also their enterprising and trading spirit . found a settlement of twelve houses. lake.ARROW POISON. or Atorees. I obtained vocabularies of their lan. and more inclined to industry than the other Indians . unknown in Europe the two first. On the sides of the mountains. as residing in this locality. They use it. denotes that this part of Guyana was once much more populous as they are. live either on the tops of the mountains. On the east. and some Charibees. are a branch of the Charibees. generally.

The Atorees are an industrious. full of immense the huts built on which. as the region at the sources of the Essequibo. that a traveller. observes Humboldt. corn. the Cassiquiari. surrounded and spread over with mountains. the cause of so many From the length which he givjes it of two hun. were likewise thickly inhabited. It is very probable. but the settlements of two contiguous nations were at such little distance from each other. says Alcedo. both on the north and south side. which he ascended ingly well. on whose banks are a multitude of natives. &c. have been found east of the Esmeralda. which is one thousand eight hundred observes. and pacific nation. in particular. or Erie. have been much more thickly inhabited than at present. a large arm of the Amazon. appear to — have come from that river. would as lake Ontario. In it. flowing in different directions with the Oronoke. according to La Cruz . From the situation of this lake. The Atorays. This space. the Oronoke. as to the state of the tribes on it. that the habitations of the Indians along the whole were near each other . which is directly west of lake Parima. taking a breadth for as Alcedo supposes. dred and forty-six miles and. while there the greatest number of nations. that there was an emigration from the Oronoke to this region. cassada. if. were not all in one rocks. . The borders of the Oronoke. which unites with the Rio Negro. And the population find a spot level enough for a was not only on mountains around the lake. or Atorees of the Essequibo (the name is number ways) are probably the Atures of the Oronoke of whom. it is it of fifty it miles. who are the most intelligent tribes on the Oronoke. plaintains. cover a space of twelve thousand square miles —as large a body of water rectangular. who makes the length of the Amazon about one thousand two hundred leagues a less estimate than that of Orellana. . or Rio Branco. Waterton speaks of a steep and high hill. can never flatter himself with learning enough to make himself understood along the navigable rivers. and appear to have written both — a degree of mechanical skill above the other tribes. They are the sole . are given rise many who have to the misfortunes and deaths. and that not merely in one nation. and which Raleigh compares to the Caspian sea. that sounds could be heard from the last habitation of one by several of the other. though they appear sterile. is The population is scanty remnants of tribes. that its borders were so thickly populated when he passed down in 1639. also. The Atures belong to the great stock of Saliva nations. and the Rio Negro. the Amazon and the Atlantic. exhibit the same appearance. that are spoken on the banks of the Meta.— a 43 ELDORADO. The variety of idioms. Humboldt says. thrive astonishMr. place. The tributaries of this river. however great may be his talent for languages. but dispersed wherever they could lodgment. a large assemblage of Indians would almost inevitably be collected A great number. and in the mountains many nations islands imaginary El Dorado. communicating with so many rivers. D'Acugna. was capable of The whole of Guyana appears to containing an extensive population. Some of the tribes now in it. from Angustura to the Rio Negro. would not fail to come to it by the there. is so prodigious. mild.

Essequibo journalist says there are four round houses. of so many rivers rising near each other. the others. The termination goto. for the same purpose by which their mutual ing or . and make a singular appearance in that wilderness country. 49 for rasps. These. a common rendezvous. of the A nation on the Oronoke. makers of the stone sava root. rilled with clay. according to a different pronunciation. belongs to the Cha- ribee language." But the tribes at a distance. on the Oronoke. The first syllable of each name is the same. and Arenacottis tribes now around the Eparagotos and Tiberacottis seem to have some resemblance consonant is sometimes put. The Essequibo journalist. goes on the whole year. for the purpose of trafficking with the articles grow- made in their respective regions . says : Alorays. before words to improve the — sound. an entrance. or market-ground. Awaragotos. exchanges could be more conveniently carried on. at the mouth of this river. which were erected from some singular notion the makers imbibed. and in the end would probably render the region of Parima. nations. Macoussies.a REGION OF PARI MA. as in the Tiberacottis lake. the Guykeries. and like the Atures. or more readily obtained here than elsewhere. and the Wapisanas are pursued by those of the Essequibo with such a determined spirit. and by short portages communicating together. 4 \ \ \ . would lead the borderers of the Atlantic coast and the Oronoke frequently to pass through Guyana to the Rio Negro and the Amazon. used by the other Indians grating the cas- Their houses are made with rather more art than those of the In the neighborhood of Mahanerwa's place. Who they were. were made by the Atorees. either had the additional motive to visit this found solely in it. whence these rivers rise. and this going — place is the great market all — every day strangers are coming and visits from quarters. Wikiries. the Guaranos. The Macoes. belong The Wapisanas. have not been able to learn. They are on an eminence. on the Rippununi. the Cassipagotos. that from Caycara. Wapisanas and Turamas. a little below the cataracts of the Atures. Thus. I was informed. are perhaps to the Saliva stock. by the Indians. being circular. the Indians formerly had a road that led to Essequibo and Demerara. speaking of his " The trade between the Charibees. visit to the Charibee chief. according to the entirely closed. I Raleigh says there were around the lake Cassipa (Parima) three mighty and Eparagotos. and those on the latter river to make the opposite journey. are one of the nations about lake Parima. the Guaypanabis of the Oronoke. This circumstance. except a space for Charibee chief. too. region to obtain many articles. Furious contests formerly existed between the Guaypanabis and the Charibees of the Oronoke. Humboldt says. that they have taken up their abodes toward the tops of the highest mountains. and dare not appear in exists same name the level country. are called Warrows . Some indications of this exist at the present day.

The 7- description relates to the scenery on that river interest. and on its top could be seen the king of vultures. without interrupting each other. oils. Hillhouse. and majestic mora. useful for food or other purposes. spreading out his immense wings to dry after the dews of night. J. the water gushes The opossum. was the towering lands. with which it abounds. " Supporting many other plants. and the gums.: 50 EL DORADO. . and beauty of the natural productions. Of the abundance. . E. afford to the traveller a . " At every turn of the river. by which the tiny colonists ascend and descend. and splendid plumage which adorn them the multitude of rare and curious quadrupeds with which the} are thronged. a field for his researches is presented. . with the combined advantages of a tropical sun and moist atmosphere. drink from the deep cup of the pines. Sometimes the marabouts. the many curious and valuable woods. and nearly impenetrable forest itself. published in 1833 . A naturalist might study for days one of these grand objects. and surpassing it in beauty. producing field to exhibit. . in the animals of all the orders which are peculiar to it. to the earth. a gentleman of intelligence and well acquainted with that colony. Its trunk spread out into buttresses. both in the animal and vegetable domain. ascended the Essequibo. was the silk cotton-tree. we descried objects of great The dense.Atlantic Sketches. ascending by the vines. and still he will find something new. are everywhere calculated to arrest his attention. and much to wonder at. &c. But in the mountainous region of Parima. the many new varieties found here of' those already known. the medicinal plants. caused the woods to appear as if hung with garPreeminent above the other sons of the forest. the rare vegetable productions. collected from the dews and rain. Guyana have always presented an interesting The great luxuriance of vegetation which they and tropical sun. forests of The the naturalist. not exceeded by that of any other country. with innumerable varieties of the insect race. were anchored ground by the bush-rope. produced by exuberant nature from the richest mould. who. or wild bees. in the interior of British Guyana. for if skilfully cut with a knife. an innumerable vari- ety of plants the many majestic and beautiful trees of singular forms. occupied our chief attention. Convolvuli and the flowers of parasitical plants of every variety. descending like shrouds pleasant beverage out. says the author. and other small quadrupeds. caused by a prolific soil . " Rivalling the mora in height. with double galleries down the stem. altogether new to me. on the topmost branches of the tree are seen the wild pine — while the vines. and a numerous colony of animated nature. branches are seen the black clay nests of the wood-ant. which contains nearly a In the forks of the quart of water. . variety. standing conspicuous in the landscape the great variety of birds of rich . surveyor of Demerara. in his Trans. and then proceeded up the Mazarouni two hundred and thirty-four miles. the following lively description has been given by Capt. accompanied by Mr. Alexander. to the Magnificent trees.

and the languid sloth. are' not unfrequently met with. bear. then the branches. . the wanderer may come ." Captain Alexander then gives an account of some remarkable quadrupeds of this region. They travel from tree to tree with facility.rope. and flits on ebon and leathery wings along the river's bank. The flesh of both these deer is delicious. fifteen feet in length. the manati. and are surrounded by the hanging nests of the black and yellow mocking-birds. or rushing. and the 4* . about the size of a pigeon. and at early dawn the hannaqua loudly repeats its own name. " Rushing through entangled brush. " The trees of the forest. " When the sun sinks rapidly in the west. or bell-bird. | . The dreaded vampire then leaves the shady nest. with the restless saccawabee. mies. the scaly armadilla. may be seen disporting themselves among the leaves. gorgeous macaws. where he had dosed during the day. here running up their stems. tree-porcupine. as the tapir. " Then advancing up a creek. with a white face. 51 occupy the place of the ants. will be heard a score or two The ant. to the water. or sea-cow . spread out horizontally. with panting sides. rocks and trees casting broad shadows into the pools to a lonely spot. or the red bajeer deer. returning from their feeding grounds. or hollow tree. the very peculiar and romantic cry of the campanero. of picarree hogs. but his animated description I am obliged to omit.WONDERS OF NATURE. and numerous families of these active little creatures.wood. or small red monkey. the snakes below. with white spots. It is white. affording flesh rich and delicate. far removed from their eneof the wild vines . but above all. the royal palmetto reared its head one hundred feet in height. These foul bats are sometimes three feet from wing to wing. and disappears behind the trees. and the stem seven or eight feet in thickness. " While we lay. " Here and there. shadowed underneath the thick wood. would be heard at intervals. singly or in groups. affording the mountain cabbage . and screaming parrots fly in pairs over head. in traversing these luxuriant and unbroken forests . the red men desire to meet with the amphibious laaba. like a fiery target. The straight gray pillar terminates in a green edible shaft. not to extend the extract to too great a length. in the noonday heat. is like that of a convent bell tolling at a distance. agitated by the slightest breath of air. and then joining branch to branch. or American elephant j the spotted jaguar . and the cayman. " During the night. about the size of a pig a year old. matted together by bush. the owls and goat-suckers lament with ominous cry. and the body brown. and he will there see the spotted wirrabocerra. from which depended the close-set pinnated and pointed leaves. and feeding on the nuts. by means ' with their offspring on their backs. reposing at noon. were at times alive on each side of the river. and the sound which it produces in the lone woods. with a leathery excresence on its forehead . to their favorite roosts. or alligator .

the deer crossing in every path. the green sparrow. . . a thin grayand I went in a canoe to visit him. the size of a lark. with red plumage so brilliant. whose bite occasions fevers and death in a few hours. at greater length. centipedes. the river winding into divers branches. crimson. the curry-curry. stalks conspicuously among flocks of wild other aquatic birds. who collected insects. tree . and medicinal plants abound in these romantic woods. or scarlet curlew. the blue-bird and rice-bird. and scorpions. but I am fearful of fatiguing many of those who honor these pages with their perusal. lantern and fire-flies of different species. I heard of a recluse. and of an elegant form . either for horse or foot . . . cranes and herons of white. nor more lively prospects . and spoonbill. and the birds toward the evening singing in every . the redfooted tarantula. that I know himself to of no fairer field in the universe for a naturalist to distinguish There are vast mineral treasures yet in. scented by the sweet liyawa . the rivers. and the falcon. and in a morning's walk under the matted trees. but decorated with splendid plumage. or by the side of the lonely creek. : gaw a more beautiful country. of beetles in cases of shining armor. and the Near the mouths of mighty-billed toucans yelp from the loftiest trees. &c." This sketch brings to mind. spices. but I must not stop to describe . headed man. Mynheer Faber. was so struck with the aspect of Guyana. the size of a pigeon. Jamieson. about will say it is impossible to look steadfastly on it. with a thousand several tunes. the various colors of which are beautifully arranged. the great trumpeter. that he breaks forth into the following enthusiastic terms respecting it "I never Raleigh. be discovered in the mountain ranges . displayed before me a rich and valuable entomological collection. the remarkable walking-leaves. easy to march on. With active though invisible wing. blue aras. the great variety of the feathered tribe that are met with in these wilds . . quickly and deeply sensihle to the beautiful and picturesque in nature. continually to new species of insects inhabiting the land or water. their hammering on decayed trees. " While on the Essequibo. the minute humming-birds are often observed . . hills so raised here and there over the valleys. a foot long. so as to enchant the eye of every beholder. a passage in the narrative of Sir Walter His mind. I might have been expected to enter more fully into the natural history of this region. sits the cock of the rock.52 woodpeckers commence EL DORADO. and above all the kishee-kishee. are seen with duck and teel. than that of Guyana. the most valuable gums. the metallic lustre of their Far removed from the hamlets plumage glistening in the sunbeam. that some It is a crested bird. pelican. gigantic bush-spider. I therefore briefly state. " As Prof. and powese or peacock-pheasant. the the plains adjoining without bush or stubble. are be met with. all fair green grass ground of hard sand. of men. consisting of the most beautiful varieties of the butterflies and moths. the the spotted tiger-bird. a pupil of one of the most distinguished naturalists of the age. but merely mention the names of the scarlet and brown maraddee.

dead and alive. to procure maIndians of terials for the gay and splendid plumery with which all the Guyana are accustomed to array themselves. observes Humboldt." At Guadaloupe.' &c. were besides. soon after Columbus. a captain of the Charibees came there from the river Corentine. and per- haps other nations. to could not attract to it visitors from other parts." This passage has. the air fresh with a gentle easterly wind. When we speak in Europe. or the macaw. as well for his own use as to carry to Spain . or the prejudiced enemies of Raleigh. Hancock. the letterwood of extraordinary solidity. the lanager. and contributed. is sufficient to acquit him of the charge of having framed the ground-work from his imagination. 53 and carnation. remarks Guyana the Indians. to trade for and rare birds. of one of which. and even to excuse the I warmth of his language. especially a splendid species of parrot. or of the articles fabricated by the tribes who inhabited it. of especially the Charibees." which the Indians are acquainted the odoriferous shrubs. The Charibees. in his pamphlet entitled Observations. might have but will confine myself to those attracted to it visitors from other nations will not indulge a conjecture. Columbus found. as a mere political rhapsody. with the glowing terms in which. of every color. and the humming-bird. make — who manufacture which they indications that they formerly made The variety of birds of beautiful plumage. were probably formerly. ductions of the region in . which of all the various natural prowhich the White Sea or lake Parima is situated. also. around the houses of the Charibees. in his the feathered race among them. perching on the river's side. hamacks and there are vestments of the same material. as they are now. was presented. fond of having beautiful specimens of Pinzon. the toucan. called guacamayo. to throw discredit upon his entire narrative. the balsams and oils found in the interior parts of Guyana the various beautiful woods growing there. fail. The variety of valuable and interesting cottons in the interior of is very numerous. that on his visit to the chief Mahanerwa. ' Dr. on the coast of Paria. although it may be admitted that his enthusiasm led him to paint the scenery of Guyana with the pencil of a poet. and variegated with marks their bows and war-clubs are made. no doubt. of a native of Guyana. sought for in this region. But." their This is an article in great it demand among into cloth. many household fowls. with parrots of the greatest number. "with a great multitude of peacocks. been viewed by superficial readers. Wild il cotton may be enumerated among them. with the virtues of — — — — . in other places he speaks of this country. which abound in that region. which are in no manner problematical. which they domesticated. whose head and waist are decorated with fine feathers of the macaw. also. we figure to ourselves a man. voyage to South America. the extract I have given from the account of a recent visitor to this region. cotton "spun The valuable medicinal plants. The Essequibo journalist states. as Martyr relates.: COTTON.

of the river. one of the tribes in the mountainous region of Parima. or blow-pipe. also. I presented to the Lyceum of Natural History of that city. says this early writer. . an evidence of which is seen in a fact stated by Martyr. is also obtained from them. ligent people.* * Discovery of the Amazon by Ch. and was found abundantly among the tribes in was an article of traffic among them. and the salt was made into small cakes. 1458. White Sea of Parima. poisoned at one end. my attention was not directed while in Guyana. or arrow-poison. with whom they had been long at peace. The Tupinambas. Is the Macoussies alone. sixty intel- and inhabit an island leagues in length. about eight inches in length. I likewise obtained the Indian (arrowack) names for twenty-nine of these species. through sarbacan. made by a naturalist on the Essequibo. 54 EL DORADO. and are the only nation who employ it in war. and that the principal thing they had from them was salt. was no doubt the This article was also in demand among the Indians. and had a regular trade with the different commodities with which each country abounded. we may be variety of the species the mountains of Parima. Honey. in the course of his voyage speaks of the importance this salt region would be to the inhabitants of — — — the provinces of Peru. a straight and hollow which a small arrow. which facts were stated in a short paper I communicated to Professor Silliman's American Journal of by Science. A — plain. Other Indians obtain it. is impelled by the breath . consisting of forty-two varieties and which. D'Acugna mentions this as a most interesting fact not having met with and even this article in its natural state. which the Parians procured by allowing the water of the sea. nearly They informed him that. when it rose and inundated a great attraction to the salt found there. which commences twenty-eight leagues below the river Cayari. were seven provinces adjoining one another. is a matter of astonishment. I was so struck with the beauty of a collection of preserved specimens of this valuable insect.York. to use in killing birds or other small animals. Although to researches in natural history.. used by all the Indians of Guyana. very populous. with which they trafficked. the Indians. who are the sole makers of it. to evaporate. and the different kinds of honey made certain. The reed. that I purchased it of him. in describing the visit of Pinzon to the coast of Paria that the Indians at some distance from it. are a very ingenious and in this river. The of bees there. D'Acugna. The fatal made by woorara. From a fact stated by D'Acugna. which came frsm a place not far distant from them. it seems not improbable the Indians on the Amazon supplied themselves with this article from the lake Parima. but the inhabitants were of little courage that there was another nation beyond them whose confines extended to these. were accustomed to come to it to obtain salt . nine or ten feet long. London. on my return to New. on the north side directly south of this lake.

This would be the case if there was a large population there. gums. from the head of the Surinam. "to the head." These fish-pools are agreeable to Avhat was related to me by the Charibee chief. Bancroft's History of Guyana.) may be had here in great plenty . compared with one given by Keymis. wild cinnamon monkeys . in the interior of practice of bringing viz : down from the interior to traffick with the Europeans. beeswax. balsam capivi roots of hiaree for fishing — oil of caraiba. which the Indians would have no difficulty in making ." The abundance of these articles along the coast. balsam. which continues for the space of ten days together. as the Macoussies. who are in the interior. all the Caciques or lords and captains. vanilla . are in the practice of going there in the dry season to get water. and brasil beds (hamacks. do come to a great drinking. and those very great. cerra —the canoes. parroquets. divers sorts of drugs. which always attract the attention of European visitors. who commonly purchase some of these "curiosities" to take with them on their return. Keymis says. which in large gourds. I add the following facts : 55 that at the present day the Guyana. each of three months or more. arnotta cassia festuta . wherein they have abundance of fish. he was told there was an infinite number of canoes in the lake. curious woods letterwood . and some of the others were no produced on the low alluvial lands of the coast. I extract from Dr.' To these remarks. and roots. and if this was resorted to there would probably be a number of such fish-pools. many curious and rare articles." he observes. an account of those which the Charibees and Ackoways were then in the Indians. hamacks. ducalla-bolla . two hundred years before. furnishes. Instead of giving a detail of them. "that once in every third year. in 1764.. resembling the palm-oil —a balsam called of Guinea — kinds of arrecois collected different ebony . • — in it. parrots." as one of my informants stated. This account. who now live near it. THE LAKE FESTIVAL. that after the lake had discharged itself there remained in it a pool. where is abundance of canoes. wild nutmeg . and if this place was much resorted to. are in the practice of bringing down the rivers Essequibo and Demerara. cotton. . also. Their fishing is in the salt lake. silk. fowling and hunting. for during the successive periods of inundation. where the Guyanians dwell. and all along the coast eastward. while it proves how little the customs of the Indians have changed during that time . &c. informed him. They have many fish-pools of standing water. The great quantity of them in the lake is also expressly stated by the Mariwin Inquirer. shows that the intercourse with the interior by the different for the hamacks were obrivers emptying into the Atlantic was great tained only from the Charibees. canulla alba . the visitors would come to it in canoes. also. is twenty days. " From the mouth of the Corentine. called cassamaima. by " digging a pit . Honey. the inhabitants on the mountains would otherwise have no means of communication with each other . some seven days' journey from Monooan. the productions of the forests or their own fabrics. another instance of the accuracy of his statements. The ancient Indians. which was full of fish. in which time they go sometimes fishing.


Limiting myself


to a simple and strict detail of facts, I will not allow imagine what consequences, besides those of mutual convenience for traffick, might have followed the assembling of Indians from various surrounding tribes, at this gathering place ; what alliances might have


been formed, what schemes of war projected, and how far the state of the Guyana might have been influenced by it. Nor will I attempt to sketch the scene which the White Sea would, on these occasions present, with mountains around it and dispersed over it, covered with granitic rocks, the micaceous particles of which glistened in the sun
population throughout
or, as the

Charibees said, "shone as
different costumes, but all


the cabins of the inhabitants

studding their sides to their very summit ; the various nations of every

gayly and fantastically arrayed nor amusement; "the fishing in the salt lake;" the parties traversing the rocky and woody mountains in quest of quadrupeds or birds, or in collecting the natural productions of the country; the meetings for bargaining or exchanging the articles found on the spot or brought from other parts, or their feasts and entertainments, always scenes of excitement and noisy
form and
their occupations during these assemblings, either for traffick or


will only remark, that so large a

Guyana, having
or saltish

body of water in the interior of and like the sea, salt the large collection of Indians which was probably around it,
the singular appearance of white

and the occasional gatherings there of those of surrounding regions, with the communications afforded by the different rivers, could not fail to give general celebrity to this place so that it appears to have been known along the whole coast of Guyana, at every river where voyagers stopped, although there was no magnificent city on the borders of the White Sea, nor its mountains abounded with the precious metals.






Raleigh, however, states that he
assured/' he observes,
the imperial city of

" a rich and magnificent city" existed on the lake, Sir Walter was positively informed. " I have been

"by such

of the Spaniards as have seen Manoa,
greatness, the riches,


that, for its


for the

excellent seat, it-far excelleth


in the world, at least so




known to the Spaniards, and it is situated upon a sea of salt water." The information on which he founds this statement was, as has been
from the Spaniards at Trinidad, especially from Admi-

related, obtained

Don Berreo, the Governor of that island, who had, previously to him, made an expedition from New Grenada down the Oronoke in pursuit of

El Dorado, which principally consisted of the relation of a certain Juan Martinez, who professed to have travelled to this city and seen it. Of this information, however, Raleigh gives no account, except of the relation of Martinez, on which he appears mainly to rely for his belief of the existence of this long-sought-for city in the heart of Guyana. An examination of it will therefore be made, to ascertain whether it justified the opinion which Berreo formed from it, and communicated to him. The circumstances which led Martinez to discover, as he reported, this new El Dorado, are thus stated by Sir Walter Raleigh He belonged to the company of Diego Ordaz, who was one of those who sought El Dorado by ascending the Oronoke. He proceeded as far as the residence of the Charibee chief, with whom Raleigh made an alliance, of which he saw evidence in a large anchor of his ship lying at his port and while there, his whole stock of powder having been set on fire, MartiBut nez, who had the chief chargp of it, was condemned to be executed. the soldiers favored him, and tried every means to save his life, but could light on no other mode than placing him in a canoe and suffering it to float clown the river. It was carried down some distance, when it was taken up by some Indians, who, having never before seen a white person, carried him into the country to be wondered at, and went from town to town until they came to the great city of Manoa. The Emperor, after he had beheld him, caused him to be lodged in his palace and well entertained, but restrained him from travelling about the country. He was brought thither the whole way blindfolded. He lived there seven months, after





which he obtained permission of the Emperor to depart, who sent with him a number of Indians to conduct him to the Oronoke, with as much But when he arrived near the river's side, the gold as they could carry. borderers robbed him and the Indians of all the treasure they had with them, save only two large gourds, which were filled with beads of gold He then went down the Oronoke to Trinidad, and curiously wrought. from thence came to the Island of Margueretta, and afterward to Porto Rico, where he died and in his last illness gave this relation, which Berreo informed Raleigh was still to be seen in the chancery of that island, and of which he had a copy. u It was this individual, Martinez," says Raleigh, " who firsf christened the city of Manoa El Dorado, which he did on the following account "The Guyanians are remarkably addicted to drinking, exceeding all other people ; and at their festivals, when the Emperor carouseth with his captains and tributaries, those who pledge or acknowledge him have their bodies covered over with a kind of white balsam, called Curcai, and certain servants of his blow gold dust through hollow canes upon them, until they are all shining from head to foot and thus adorned, they sit drinking by twenties and hundreds, and continue so sometimes six or seven days together. And from witnessing this, and for the abundance of gold which he saw in the city the images of gold in the temples, the plates, armors, and shields of gold which they used in their wars he called it El Dorado." Such is the foundation on which the magnificent city in the interior of


Guyana has been



an attentive examination, however, of this

will be found

entirely insufficient to support the splendid fabric created

by Barreo and

the Spaniards, and into the belief of which Raleigh



Martinez gives no relation of such things as are embraced in the idea well-built edifices, streets of a civilized city, still less a magnificent one

and squares.

The abundance of gold, and

the various gold articles


he describes to be in it, on which I shall presently remark, may all have been there, although it consisted only of a large collection of Indians, living in habitations very similar to those now seen in Guyana ; but who, like the Omaguas on the river Amazon, among whom such articles abounded, may have been somewhat more improved than the surrounding nations. But the relater calls this place El Dorado. It was Martinez, says Raleigh, who first gave to the city of Manoa this name. But it clearly appears, that he does not apply it from its possessing the accompaniments " of a
rich and magnificent city," but, as he expressly states

—because the Empe-

ror and the principal men,


their bodies covered over with gold dust

the abundance of gold in the city, the images of gold in the temples, the

armors, plates, and shields of gold, &c. The term El Dorado, Gamilla, in his History of the Oronoke, states

have before observed

— was


used in

New Grenada and Peru, from a

similar custom related to exist in some Indian nation

and the same opinion

expressed by Humboldt.

as nor. who gave him an account of the " fair and rich city of Monooan. one of the Macoussie mountains. the Governor of Trinidad. with his palace. for the views he formed on the subject were received from Berreo. The ancient Indian. "the gilded. In regard to the fact stated by Martinez. prepossessed with the idea of a rich and magnificent city. applies the term El Dorado. but Berreo." that the Emperor. as has been seen. even." added. and other stately edifices sumptuously decorated mere force of imagination. have given. The cabins of the inhabitants east of this place. until they are all . and with fires hardened. only with bars of wood. One of them. signifying in the Spanish language. which he had imbibed in New Grenada.MARTINEZ AND BERREO T 59 Reports being spread among the inhabitants of those provinces. only. that he listened with easy creduli- ty to the loose tales of the Indians — nor. calculated to give countenance to the ideas of the Spanish Governor. at the present day. the gilded King." And then he gives the " Their houses are following description of this " fair and rich" city : made and partitions in them. by the was created. and that the place called Manoa. that it enemies charged against him — a rich and splendid city in the interior was not a fable invented by him. — and when their minds were inflamed by these reports. was applied by them to the whole abounded region . on the same Cordillera. or Priest. simple Indian cabins. and. which led him to apply the name of El Dorado to the " city of Manoa. " ten days within the land. is described as fortytwo feet square. That this is a correct view. of a King. on which gold dust is blown. at the same time. that the country which he governed in gold the name of El Dorado. gives the following relation on the subject. only with lofts many larger than ordinary. by thirty-six feet high. that some extraordinary relations were subsequently made to him. hereafter. as they do their pots :" merely. by the Charibee chief on the Oronoke. at the sources of the Essequibo. that he was the first to frame this airy vision from the relation of Martinez . but not boarded. gave it this coloring to the relation. with his captains and tributaries at their festivals. But. the lower floor is spread very smooth. was even then only a collection of rude Indian habitations. from the head of the Surinam. his it is manifest. strictly as Martinez." or. although it may be thought that he embraced them without sufficient examination. yet it will be seen. is confirmed by a cotemporary witness. who first created the splendid fabric. have their bodies covered over with a white balsam. and convey- ed the same impression of to the mind of Raleigh. every child can tell of the riches of Monooan. a city with gold. and. The Mariwin Inquirer. in his relation. on mount Itaka. it was at first used . are of large size. whatever were the circumstances which led Sir Walter Raleigh according to the relations I into the belief of the existence of of Guyana. thirteen years only after the first voyage of Raleigh. whose body every morning was anointed and then covered with gold dust. in which this gilded king resided.

the year of Raleigh's expedition. black is the prevalent color. xxiv. come seven days' journey. (a river which is supposed to rise out of lake Parima. if some of the Indians. they appear to they stick spangles of silvery mica. be surprising. There is not an assembly held among them. which is not attended with a festival. at other times of a But particularly bright red color. with whom they are on amicable terms. that a party whom he sent to examine the Oronoke. in his account of the inthemselves in the same showy manner. It would not. and told them " of another rich nasprinkled their todies with gold. all the Caciques.. is a relation of Sir Robert Duddley. therefore. over ichich they strewed a shining sand. ch. as if clothed in a suit of figured satin. that an Indian chief. either for business or pleasThey are sometimes held by ure. An early writer. cabins described by the Mariwin Inquirer. the sixth of that month. foot. W. on the N. with the Charibees. so fully corroborative of Raleigh's statement.. " Their habitants of Nootka Sound. every part of the body is daubed with it. not only was the writer unconnected with him. cessive drinking. particularly. or and captains. coast of America. invites neighboring ones. . who made a voyage to the island of Trinidad. 2nd vol. and on these squares they attached the down of birds of different hues . ceremony.) are accustomed to stain themselves with arnotto. shining from head to to it. t Mears's voy. so that they appeared. says On visits of faces are generally ornamented with a sort of red ochre. at some distance. in sions."% This testimony. which were symmetrically arranged.* Rude nations in other regions. they painted their whole body with squares or other figures. to a great drinking. on their return informed him. it will not be difficult to give entire credit although the city should be no more than the collection of Indian This journalist also states. states. that gave them some plates of gold. Nar. to the N.60 ' ELDORADO. on which Seen at a distance. that the Guaynaves of the Rio Caura. on that as has been related lords — — river. Feasts and entertainments are of very frequent occurrence among the Indians of Guyana. of various colors. once in every third year. on these occaHumboldt.] applicable to the subject. is unimpeachable as. be dressed in laced clothes." &c. laid out in streaks on a black ground. which was before Raleigh who sailed from it. ornament Mears. p. they array themselves in the gayest possible manner. He states. t Hackluyt's coll. and to make broad transverse stripes on the body. one village the inhabitants of a village among themselves. Besides being decorated with a profusion of gold and feathered ornaments. but arrived at Trinidad the first of February. and are always scenes of exThis is the case. fact. We have sometimes seen them painted entirely white. — * Humboldt's Pers. and seemed to he gilt. &c. At others. of voy. tion. among other things. from Monooan. quarto edit. And how little left England . 57. thus describes the appearance of some of them at these times. 1595 . decorated themselves with glistening metallic ores. coast of America. When they go to war. W. " that once in every third year. On these occasions. which continues for the space of ten days together.

— — : canoes greater part having chains about their necks. to the city of Manoa. were seen by him in the city of Manoa. Marty n. at that period. but contiguous in to it . " The Indians of Trinidad. seen by Columbus. strong evidence that an opinion was prevalent among the Spaniards. there were few or none that had not a collar. there can be no doubt that gold ornaments were also common in this region. of the Indians they saw. Q\ : shows " In the my boat's absence. worn at the ears.) of Dominica. have not greater plenty of stones. it is the Indians referred to —as Guyana. crowns. chain. had some purpose for this discovery. the and that so commonly. All Cumana. " and the cannibals. . there is reason to believe. we might have done some good . are not a part of regions. and of the abundance of gold to be found in that country. "the abundance of gold in the city the images in the temples the plates. says further. that by our intelligence. armors and shields of gold. One was sometimes worn also at the nose. were in early times worn by the Guyanians." says the same writer. " also wore crowns of who could obtain them. at plays and triumphs. (Appendix No. this captain and I stayed some six or eight days longer for Sir Walter. of the abundance of gold ornaments in Guyana. is seen in certain interesting papers published at the end of this volume. and some men. the secrets of those places. The pearls were obtained only on the coast. describing some of the Indians on the coast " There came innumerable people in of Paria. and a large one hanging at the breast.) to the end.— MARTYN'S DESCRIPTION. which they used in their wars." These true. and his boats. it seems. The other circumstances related by Martinez. as I surmised."* " The Indians of gold. (Charibees. — a pinnace of Plymouth. and such other 'tirements and that when some of the Spaniards ' went ashore. of glass and crystal in their garlands. and bracelets on their arms of gold and of pearls to the ships. . but." he observes. or a bracelet of gold and pearls. also. that our women. we had discovered Also. (who. also. also the Indians of Paria.' he was under the influence of Raleigh. in connection with the subject of El Dorado.) and which furnish. time of his journal . there came to me of which Captain Popham was chief and if I had not lost my pinnaces. Ornaments of gold. II. yet as I have shown my history of the Charibees belonged to this nation. suspended from the neck. called by them caracolli. another part of his narrative. which contributed to induce him to apply the name El Dorado. garlands on their heads." we can have no difficulty in believing. wherein I might have carried victuals. of the existence of El Dorado in the interior of Guyana. and all those other * Decade. One of the gold ornaments of the Charibees was a plate in the form of a crescent. were delighted with them. who are spread over Guyana. I. Raleigh speaks. and another at the under in lip." A further proof of the existence of this custom among some of the nations of Guyana. he came not in six or eight weeks after. and many had all. girdles.

t Cayley. . where he had that eagle . 207. his associate." Robert Harcourt."f country. is ten days. ancient Indian affirmeth. spleen stones. according to Raone of the nations about lake Cassipa or Parima. in the account of his voyage to the Oyapoke. which I take to be images of gold. vol. although confirming his relations of Manoa. an historian of undoubted credit. leigh. vol." Thevet writes. 1. that the images of gold seen by MartiManoa. in "As I daily conversed among the Indians. 386. XVI. and on the Amazon. there were great store of the half-moons. or at least two parts gold. observes : eagle. by them called carrecoury. at the entrance of their houses. in the vicinity of that plates. p. other ornaments curiously wrought in gold. that at the head of Selinama (Surinam) and Mariwini. and eagles of gold. which held somewhat more than one-third gold. in the country called Sherrumirremary. Book 6. he said. and after that rate for lesser canoes. cannot be doubted. Indians inhabiting near about the mountains that run from Paria.) and other pieces of gold by exchange. by his trade with the Indians. taking for . It seemed I demanded. They get their moons (crescents. that within the city. to be gold . p. and his answer was. they hung caracoroure on the posts. and These statements. and the rest copper . "that the people wear croissants (crescents. where the Guyanians dwell. § Purchas. 'for in that form the Guyanians commonly make them." The Cassipagotos were.) of gold. as one part of it is derived from Thevet. and of another I bought a spread 1608." These were the caracollis or crescents of the Charibees. one piece or image of gold with three heads."§ And the Mariwin Inquirer. at these passages it appears. and points directly to the region of Parima. and one copper. he refers to a prominent official character. fashioned like an eagle. divers birds."* and that the Governor of Trinidad had. and others may be gotten on this coast. vol. chap. gives a similar account. one of their greater canoes. 2. Further. . 193. as the place from which these gold ornaments came. and I guess it was about the weight of eight or nine ounces. p. Troy weight. " From the mouth of the Corentine to the head. The head of the Corentine is very :{: near that of the Essequibo. have plates of gold from Guyana. And Lawrence Keymis. fishes. Some images of gold. which he called by the name of unnaton. his successor and associate. t Cayley. which he obtained in Guyana. that he had it of his uncle who dwelt among the Weearapoyns. says " The ancient Indian showed me a piece of metal. " The From nez. where is a great store of these images. {he same which he said did abound : with images of gold.62 EL DORADO. . . through the province of Venezuela and in Moraca. it chanced that one of them presented me with a half-moon of metal. another also gave me a little image of the same metal. and his ransom of divers of them. near the Cassipagotos country. were probably only the gold ornaments worn by the Guy* Cayley. 1. and in another. obtained great store of gold and images of men.

or pecays. Martinez relates. of the " magnificence of the city of Manoa. and then they may perceive the In regard I ions gold glistening in the ground." But whence were obtained the gold ornaments. Dr. Hancock. and other articles. is probably mount Maho. 63 were called images. to religious any houses. at this place ? Does native gold exist in the mountains of Parima ? and did the inhabitants. confirmatory of the relations of Raleigh: "The ancient Indian. is agreeable to the custom of ancient idolaters. while the exterior ranges. And he said. appropriated denote remarkable structures. of a minor elevation. may have caracollis The trous emblems of the moon. together .: The mountain which is mentioned. Manoa. they gather them the space of two months. as imain the descriptions of El Dorado ginary and fabulous that the roofs of its houses were covered with " tiles. about the breadth of a goosequill and this he affirmeth very earnestly. he spoke of a valley. The temples in which. of gold. and after the floods are fallen. which hath the like. by Martinez. originated the embellishment usually introduced before it was entirely discarded.". And the captains and priests. themselves. " temples" and " Emperor. which is called Wancoobanona. near the Essequibo. as related ture it ? to the first question. they find them . who placed their And this circumstance suggests an idols at the entrance to their houses. not far distant from thence." are used by Raleigh. — — occasioned all the illusion. toward the coast. which signifies mountain of gold. may be purposes and do not necessarily words. south of lake Amucu . do charge the Indians very strictly. MOUNT ORADDOO. thus hung up before the houses in important idea. makes the following. yea. told him of a mountain at the head of D'Essekebe. . among other remarks. which are presently after the great rains which wash away the sand and gravel from the grass. which Humboldt called Ucucuamo. before mentioned. where is a great rock of white spar. Also. in regard to the geological character of this region " The principal component parts of the interior mountains are granite. because they were idolaBeing suspended at the door-posts of the houses. Martin. anians. and their various modifications all denoting a primitive forma- — m . from ideas he had previously formed. The were images of gold." The equivocal meaning of the term. have been able to collect The Mariwin Inquirer gives the following statement. says.: : . -orphyry. have. which is called Oraddoo. manufacfound. Further. that they be secret. ia a comto Mr. gold plates. which place is called Mumpara. called the Oraddoo. is at this day A munication recent visitor to the vicinity of this region. These gold plates. the following are all the facts and opin. with punishment of the whip. in grains as big as the top of a man's finger . And of this they are very charie. he spoke of a plain seven or eight days' journey from the mountain. perhaps. from whom his other accounts of this region were received. which hath streams of gold in it. where is a great store of gold.

gave me in writing. in the Quebrada del Tigre. the following statement lias seen gold-dust brought by the Indians from the head of the Essequibo. who sent it to Holland. indicating a secondary order of formation. and of whose journal he had a perusal. the Indians of Encaramada found. are chiefly composed of indurated clays. Nar. from a disagreement with the Government.) a piece of gold two lines in diameter. The leader of the corps was Nicholas Hortsman. having the appearance of ore. of granitic rocks. is found on the Rio Meu. which Juan Martinez and Raleigh profess to have seen in the hands of the Indians. it may be said.) was not resumed. who commenced the working of a mine. whom I have before mentioned.. than mining operations. who held an official station in Demerara.* " are not justified in denying the existence of any auriferous land We in that extent of country. it was suspended in con: sequence of the mortality among the miners. like tin. common Substances of a metallic nature. .64 EL DORADO. employed a company of miners on the Essequibo in 1735. where ear-rings were made of it. I am led to think that gold. is sometimes disseminated. which That the West India Company of Holland. After making some progress in the work there. for gold.) we cannot help inquiring whence the gold was obtained. removed to another on the Cayouni. with sand and gravel-stones-— Veins of quartz are very in traversing the great mass of granite. on that river . which stretches between the Oronoke and Amai. and full of particles of a metallic brilliancy. micas. 470. * Humboldt's Peis. growing. of great are met with in the mountains hardness. but disliking its nearness to the seat of government. in 1820. without being able to admit that there is a ramification and intertwining of small veins. calcareous earth. (ravine of the Tiger. The working of the mine boldt. have been found mixed with sand. Not long ago. fled from the colony. which was given to the Director General of the colony on that river. the crystal mountain. Rock crystal is also found upon several mountains of Demerara.) opposite. are also very abundantly met with in the mountains. by ascending the Essequibo. in the mass itself. — rica. vol. and appeared to have been washed along by the waters. amorphous. From what I have observed in that part of Ame- On the same subject. and the opinion of the Dutch Government. p. Vast quantities of iron Some indurated clays. but still more plentiful among the falls or rapids of the river. That he in 1765. who. that it was more beneficial to the colony to attend to agricultural pursuits. from the fatality of the occupation to Europeans. were sent over to him. in an almost imperceptible manner. and crossing over (This was the individual mentioned by Humthe country to the Brazils. quartz and not far from. and oxyde of iron. a gentleman. out of beds of Red agate. in the dry season. (Maho." On the subject of the existence of gold in this region. (which are on the Oronoke Cordillera of Parima. and most perspicuous along the channel of the river. : Humboldt makes the following remarks " Amid part of the the mountains of Encaramada.

passing into micaceous and calcaceous slate. The manner in which the Epuremei gathered the gold. though to what extent remains very uncerBut admitting this to be a fact. was not severed from the stone ." '•' We must not be surprised. since the Europeans settled themselves. And he likewise states. that a piece of metal was shown him. can suppose was fabricated by him. What I saw of it and sixty-six and' seventy-one of longitude. . the Indians on that river ornament * Humboldt's Pers. and Robert Harcourt the same. over other rocks . This minute description. they fastened canes to the holes . p. and so. in the lofty mountains of Parima. and that the gold of which they were made. we hear less of the plates of gold. none but the most prejudiced enemy of Raleigh. which could heretofore be obtained from the Charibees and other wandering nations by barter. amulets of gold. they gathered it in grains of perfect gold. This chief informed him " that the plates and images of gold worn by the Guayanians. as well as in the The granite prevails there. plains of the Atabapo and the Cassiquiari.THE zon. in these wild spots. which was a composition of golJ and copper . and. And Humboldt says. we cannot thence conclude that the granite of Parima contains no stratum of auriferous quartz. seems not admissible of doubt. on the Oronoke. and' . E PURE ME I. the least ancient granite. Independent of the testimony of Raleigh.. These rocks appear naked. that it cannot be absolutely denied some of the ornaments and other articles of gold. that the Charibees on its borders continued to wear plates of gold. Indians inhabiting it. as big and that they put to it a part of copper. made by themselves or brought from other parts ?' Raleigh reports a relation of the Charibee chief. Mariwin Inquirer. Nar. are the least desti- tute of metals. and though. we saw the number of these strata and these veins increase. if. perhaps posterior Now. in a multitude of rivers. with holes. 258. 1. is agreeable to the relation lately given from the. is entirely the east of the Cassiquiari. in favor of the former view. with whom he made an alliance. found at that period among the Indians of Guyana. And when they had mingled the gold and copper together. were made by the Epuremei . were the ornaments worn by the tain. with the breath of men they increased the fire till the metal ran. and so made those plates and images. vol. that at present. ch.*" From these facts. toward the sources of the Oronoke. the granite of ancient formation is pretty generally destitute of gold. the historian of the Oronoke. "f as small stones . manufactured by themselves. in both continents. xxiii. (55 between two and eight degrees of latitude composed of granite and of gneiss. Gumilla. but that on the lake Manoa. 5 . a century since states. and that they used a great earthen pot. the existence of native gold in the region of Parima. . otherwise they could not work it . were made by themselves. gold dust. The granite of those countries appears to belong to a to the gneiss more recent formation. t Cayley. On .

it Some further particulars regarding this nation are collected from OrelHe came to a province on the north lana's voyage down the Amazon. they are the only one on the Amazon who wear apparel. or Om-aguas. from which went great roads paved with rows of trees . afterward. and wove with threads of different falls into the . wore also plates of gold. and had other gold articles in abundance. called side He then describes a number of towns called Aomagua. This nation has been already spoken of." (the Omaguas. ton-stuffs they made were very fine. with pitchers. a commercial people. that they were a very " Some of the cotwarlike. This is a very remarkable bors. as more improved than the other tribes that they cultivated cotton. and made vestments of it . which is but a short distance west of the Rio Negro. Yupura — — colors and and so neatly made. for which there was a sufficient cause : — by its various tributaries which descend from the eastern side of the Andes.. where the first El Dorado was sought. who were probaWy the Omegas. It is this nation. Nar. The river Potamayo. Came to several other towns one of them was divided into several wards. as To what has been ornaments. for it appears. which they work themselves in their It is possible. own manner. seemed as if the cloth was painted." nation. reported to inhabit a country abounding in gold. 1.irough which was a rivulet. Humboldt.) he passed after leaving Machiparo. West or Caqueta. — where they found some good cotton garments and a place of worship. and though some opposition was made." observes with the provinces of Peru. that the threads could not be distinguished. besides much gold and silver. and New-Grenada. " The Incas. These stuffs they made not only to gratify their fancy and for their own use. commencing three hundred and seventy leagues below the Napo. and extending along the river. vol. like those of o ir bishops. " had extended their arms and arts as far as the river Yupura. but to trade with their neigh. was the province of Aguas. two hundred leagues. and whom Urra professed to have seen. Some 01 the tribes on that river had arrived at a higher state of improvement than existed generally in Guythe communication afforded ana . with weapons hanging in it.66 ELDORADO. and * Humbold'ts Pers. they entered fine earthenware. who sought them with great avidity. and other sorts of vessels. very Machiparo. and another. as before observed. I add. at." of the Yupura. and found much provision in a house. on the north side the next considerable river to Amazon. and at the same time. from D'Acugna. all which things the Indians said were to be had up in the country. . as jars. another. and near it. with in the several colors . lemarked concerning them. and the islands in it. opposite this territory. brought from the river Amazon. and two mitres. . p. 193. On the third day he came to a small but handsome town. from D'Acugna. glazed and painted in lively colors. that the greater part of these gold articles were themselves with pieces of silver or gold.* however. " and bordering on another territory populous. with each of them a road to the river . to one '.

would greatly contribute to give it notoriety the communication which exists between it and the (Tronoke. . and so commodiously. As he left he continually met with the villages of this nation. " Eighteen leagues below this province. at the time he traversed . a very numerous and warlike nation who extend for sixty leagues along the river and the islands. those this place. The Rio Negro. where they obtained provisions. upon a coarse piece of wood. but there- by they maintained a trade with their neighbors. or for their own use. * Heneia. . The Rio Nee 'o being knrwn. He came to a village of theirs. by the Cassiquiari. being of a warlike and commercial character. made his voyage. must also. or on trading expeditions . either to conquer the territories upon them. <-he largest arm of the Amazon. besides. tribes on the latter moved through it from the former. and some very large towns. and continued so for the disEach of the houses contained not one family. that many of our carvers might take pattern by them and these things were — '. t D'Aucusna. that none can be contrived better. j. these rivers would be sometimes traversed ty them. side. are the Caripunas and Yorimans . and wear great plates of Some space farther down. the rivers which passed through them. that a constant intercourse listed it. there cannot be a doubt that the nations on the Amazon were all well acquainted with the countries around them. side." observes D'Acugna. and the regions to which they led. made not only to gratify their fancy. conquest or traffic. There can be scarce a doubt. but in which were least filled there were four or five families. on the south gold at their ears and nostrils. in the craftsmen that we saw in the country. forms of beasts. vol. besdes its superior size and importance. the first Indians on which are called by the same name all the rest are called Caciguaries. with so much curiosity. " the most ingenious and handy They make chairs. on the south another. A circumstance connected with it. have been explored and traversed to its sou! be by some of the Indians on the Amazon and the Wlvte Sea of Parima could not but have been known. is the river Cachiguara." jWith the fondness for travelling and intercourse with each omer. and the migrating disposition of the American aborigines wou^d sometimes induce them to change their residence. The houses were tance of a league. They also cut a raised figure so much to the life. one after Two leagues below the province of the Yorimans. All along there * villages. and so exactly. Some of them. which characterize the American Indians. contiguous to each other. from the like reives of curiosity. lxiii. An evidence of this is seen in the multitude of nations which D'Acvgna relates were upon it. could not fail to be known to the nation upon it to a great distance. were $7 middle a great square. its principal branch. " is that of the Yorimans.THE YORI MANS. on the south side. which was the largest he had seen on the river. Oronoke through the Rio Eranco. that this ri^er was in early times greatly — between the Amazon and and that probacy some of the.

you meet with the river Iquiari. and as existed on the Amazon. and partially improved people on the one or more of the warlike." we are not required to deny I improvement there should be no have supposed. some all gold. relates Herrera. whose inhabitants were who wore cotton in the same state of partial civilization as the Omaguas vestments and. it celebrity on the coast of Guyana and on fame on the Amazon by this river. " Shields of gold" are spoken of as having been seen among the Indians on that river soon after the discovery of it. but had ascended hjelf there. would spread its of it. * Herrera. was not only acquainted with the Rio Branco. several cover- ings for targets of fine goll. was presented by the Cacique. some all gold. although the state of were found tt an early period after the discovery of this Continent. " with plates of gold."* But on the subject of the ehjgration of gion of Parima. the from the south to the re- we it are not left nitirely to conjecture. It would. plates. wVich the Portuguese call the Golden river. nez. and had as complete a^et of gold armor as if it had been of steel.) which led to the expedition of Orsua.e made." described by Juan Martihim " in the city of Manoa. who brought to Peru the first account of the Omegas. Dec. and other defensive armor of the same kind. and established Yupura. said that they had shields of gold set with emeralds. which Grivalja put on. Such other than that . and others of the bark of trees tribes covered. I have observed before. like them. had at a very early period ascended this river to its source. over an extent of more than two hundred miles. perhaps. whose many branches.'" but if shields of I do not find mentioned in the voyages on the Amazon gold were used. anaothers of wood covered with gold . hence. The Brazillian savages. (Omaguas. it is nut improbable those who had them had also breastplates covered with gold. Book 1. and some thin board*} covered with gold for armor. it is certain. " On going up the or. covered with thin plates of gold breast- — — . One nation near Amazon. in the time of Raleigh. and established in the region of Parima a community somewhat superior to the other tribes of Guyana. designates a country where he supposes they were obtained.$g ELDORADO. They were. iv. to render them a more defensive armor. probably. as on the coast of Yucatan. comAmazon. where no other metal existed. among some American Indians. D'Acugna. as seen by Respecting "the armors and shields of gold. in speaking of the plates oJ gold he saw among the Indians on the Amazon. only plated with gold. the gold from which they we>. who made a voyage to this coast soon after Columbus. rise out The same causes which gave the Oronoke. in prodigious quantities. Grivalja. at least. It springs from the foot of a mountain hard by. their existence. 11. . Here They find it all the natives amass gold together. and introduced there a great portion of the gold plates and other articles of gold related to be in it. not be surprising if mercial. "Armors of gold. had gold plates and other ornaments of gold in abundance." He also presented him "with a Kead-piece. ch.

by which you descend in five days to the Rio Negro. the Manaos whom he saw. you come to a lake on the right hand. and writes the name Majanaos. by writing Mavagus. Manaos and Manaus. had with the Charibee chief of the Essequibo gave about me an and the Macoussie Indian. in spangles or grains of gold. Some of them make incursions in the territories of the savages." " These people. it. in his journal. of the origin of the name Manao. signifies to a supposed city on lake Parima. of 69 till a good alloy. which is crossed in a day.THE MANAOS. this fact to me. The latter were aware of the communi- . or Parahi. The Portuguese write it at present. Fritz. in the Brazillian language. called Marahi. which some days higher receives the Quiquiari. who also account of that lake. without any reference to the present subject. a gentleman of the first respectability in that colony. De G of Demerara. it resisted the arms of the Portuguese . constructed a bors. and from them the P. from this capital of the Manaos. dreaded by its neigh- are now.) were a warlike nation. The French translator of D'Acugna disfigures this name. and caused much dread." La Cruz." This idea of Condamine. or Manaos. this passage." and he makes on " The Manaos. but there many of them established on the Rio Negro. who passed over the country later than D'Acugna. water of the river . that these are the Yurubesh of mountains and mines. who came with the Indians on the borders of the Oronoke. which they beat at their ears it they form those bors. drawing the canoe over those parts which are bare. trade with among their neigh- who are called the Mavagus. I could obtain no positive intelligence of it. obtained their gold from the Iquiari. The people of this country that find this gold." says Condamine. said Mahanaos and Ackowavs live . Fritz is placed a large village of Manaos. " and that they were once a powerful nation. P. little plates. of nations in this locality. which has many falls. as the nation of Manaos have been transplanted and dispersed. there can be no doubt. which they hang and noses. that to traffick Portuguese purchase slaves. one of the tribes at present about that lake. and lived on the borders of a river named Yarubesh. in the same district. That these Mahanaos are the same nation with those on the Rio Negro. which is not extraordinary. explains it as applied by Sir Walter Raleigh. protector of the Indians on the Essequibo. the following remarks : (a missionary. By making inquiries. But it appears very probable. and map of it. has been fabricated the city of Manoa. I learned that in ascending the Yupura five days. which I Their name is in the list received in the interview . M. in reference to a place in this region also. which. still For a long time. and that thence. " are the Manaos. but are inundated during the floods. according to P. in his map. you enter into a river called the Yurubesh. The Manaos or Mahanaos I are. also. stated also. and Iquiari ? and that the former rises in a lake in the interior ? In the map of P. places them about the east branch of the Essequibo. Fritz writes the name Manaves. and a long resident in it. and comes from a country Can it be doubted. Fritz says expressly.

a knowledge of this internal communication. in 1639. and had light hair which was sufficient to satisfy us they were the Dutch. about the year 1720. which unites it with the Rio Negro. a distance of about one hundred and twelve leagues. used the same arms. formidable in his day. peopled with an infinite number of who are called Cara- some of whom we saw iron tools and weapons. 710. ignorant was on this river that the first settlements of the Dutch in Guyana were made. t D'Acugna. In order to obtain Branco. and on asking by his interpreters whence they had them.' observes " The remotest establishHistory Southey. with whom he traded by the way of the Rio Manao chief. swords and guns. Lumaloga stands upon the right bank. — among is too far north. such as hatchets.* It appears. 7U. and made themselves masters of it. . . for he was informed there that it had a large arm. The trade. which buyavas . 3. there were about seventeen settlements. which are inhabitants. Thirty leagues before you come to this river. How this intercourse was carried on. Ajuricaba was one of the most powerful Caciques of this Negro powerful nation. Between S. to be the river Phillipe." by ' the Rio Branco. is the river Basurura. the river Hijaa disem- remarkable for having been the head-quarters of a by name Ajuricaba. to which Juan Martinez. at a much earlier period. he learned when he came to the Rio Negro . from another writer. that the inhabitants on the Rio Negro had. the Rio Branco. invaded Guyana. bills and knives . no doubt. or Smooth river. in 1638. of Brazil. scoured the Rio Negro. He supposes the great river which it approaches. and still famous The Manaos were the most numerous tribe upon the Rio in these parts. and made an alliance with the Dutch of the Essequibo. where the Dutch have their settlements . with Dutch.70 cation afforded EL DORADO. Bares. Manaos. that they bought them of the people of the country who dwell nearest the sea. so that the country divided into divers large islands. on that side .f These facts furnish a satisfactory explanation of this rumored city of Manoa on lake Parima. A bogues. and captured all the Indians on whom he could lay hands. halberds. observes D'Acugna. he hoisted the Dutch flag. of Brazil. and Banibas. Jose and Lumaloga. who. and renders that which the Mariwui it —and Of the Essequibo. he appears to have been entirely * Hist. on his part. and after him Raleigh. on the right bank. four hundred and eighty-five leagues from the city of Para. is S. who were white men like us. and nine in his : leagues below the mouth of the Cassiquiari. consisted in slaves. which empties into the North Cape for he is certain it could not be the Oronoke. which came near another great river which empties into the sea at the north. side. cli. applied the name of El Dorado . them. pp. which enters the Amazon on the north It extends a great distance into the country and forms several great is lakes. now British Guyana. and had houses upon the sea-coast. Ixiv and Uv. vol. Jose des Marybatanes. which arm was. ment on the Rio Negro. they replied. which is The little inhabitants are a mixed race of above it.

and hold there a predominant sway. related to me. which they received in exchange from the Indians of the Iquiari.well known to the Spanish histoapplied to the latter that the idea of Manoa. the space between the Caqueta and the Rio Negro. or the rich — city. which he terms the Dorado of the Omaguas. that in 1687. Mahanerwa. though the expeditions were directed to two points . that thev were accustomed to carry. He remarks. and established itself in the mountains of Parima. was. ascended the Rio Branco. The view which city of Manoa. by which he meant the Mahanaos. have been a considerable nation . who.THEMAHANAOS. 71 Inquirer states the ancient Indian from the head of Surinam gave it> Parroowa Parrocare Monoan. as that of the Charibee chief. is commonly pronounced Manerwa. among other things. fell . Fritz relates. residing on the Essequibo. who. I have seen the name Mahanaos in a list of Indian nations of Guyana. been similarly characterized. he saw arrive eight or ten canoes of the Manaos. is different from that entertained by Humboldt. and where it introduced an abundance of ornaments and other articles of gold. Condamine states that P. mentioned at page 37. with the vowels reversed. even then. there is no doubt that the whole region from the Caqueta. there can be no doubt. was ever Raleigh received of Manoa. White Sea of the Manaos." he says. written Mahanoas. have not advanced west of the have thus given. in the narrative of Sir ted the golden country. there must have been a constant influx of them into this region. but unjustly. And as it probably kept up a constant communication with its primitive abode. and formed there a large settlement. and that between the Essequibo and the Oronoke. It is contracted. gold. This powerful nation. making its conquests in every direction. of the origin of the name of the Walter Raleigh. " I believe. and who. as they are so called by the Charibees. properly translated. or Yupura. that in 1783. in the midst of which lies this lake. from what has been stated. by Europeans. from their habitations! on the banks of the Yurubesh. at first. he witnessed on the Rippununi the last battle fought between the Charibees and Cannibals. generally denominaI Rippununi. availed themselves of the inundations to trade with his Catechumens on the north bank of the Amazon . spread abroad by the narrative of Raleigh. from which they were spread over Guyana. that the fable of Juan Martinez. small plates of beaten. where Condamine places the Mahanaos. or community3 which bore its name. or the Dorado. in the expedition of Pedro de Sylva. or Manoas. for it appears they were able to resist this powerful and most courageous tribe. who have themselves. but he denies and the gilded king. was founded on the adventure of Juan Martinez de Albujar. The Mahanaos must. and that the whole narrative of Martinez is a pure fiction. which he calls the Dorado of Parima . although they have subjugated all the others at the sources of the Essequibo. had reference to the former . that the information rians of the Conquest. " I can demonstrate. to the Cordillera of Parima. The European colonist.

tioned na —who made by visitors to the coast of their menGuyana. when he had arrived at Esmeralda. we heard of nothing in these mountains but the proximity of El Dorado the lake Pari- — and the ruins of the great city of Manoa. &c. to send an expedition expressly to discover this rich and splendid city in the interior of Guyana. from an Indian from the head of the Surinam. and gives an account of what he saw. De Pons. places upon the east side of his lake Parima. the supposed capital of Dorado:" designated by a mark. an Intendant of Angustura was induced. Humboldt. indeed. at the Oronoke. at that time. Narr. it was thought to exist by the French. that Albujar himself travelled to the place he describes. himself. which figures conspicuously upon it. "Journal of the Travels of John Grillet and Francis Bechemel. in the most distinct manner. I have already shown. in opposition to it.72 into the EL DORADO.. . I baxa. that no such place exists in Guyana. . entitled. in order to discover the great lake of Parima. . that. that the name of Manoa was it is princi- pally applied to a city or place on lake Parima. before Condamine heard While often — * Humboldt's Fers. a branch of the Rio Negro. spoke of a place called Manoa. neither Orellana. Such are the ideas entertained at so late a period. after they had formed their colony of Cayenne. by two missionaries. was published a work. wandered among the Charibees. may have been the individual Albujar ." I am inclined. or Berreo is evidently derived from an opinion he had previously adopted. published in 1805. that Juan Martinez is not the only person who. the richest in the world. But it will be hereafter shown.. that it was he who learned from the Charibee traders. hands of the Charibees of the lower Oronoke. before mentioned. on this subject. and the many cities said to be situated on its banks. xxiv. The tious. and that the relation is purely ficti- founded on reports of the Manaos of Yurubesh. ch. nor D'Acugvoyage down the Amazon. But. by several voyagers on the coast by Keymis. leigh to Martinez. during a four years' residence in the Spanish territories. the original seat of this nation). In this region. the name of the Manaos of Urubesb. prepared from observations made by him. . in 1775. by the representations of an Indian. too." (Uarathe Essequibo to the island of Trinidad. and rejntted raa. "Manoa. idea of Humboldt. nothing which prevents the belief. the last post on the Oronoke. The Juan Martinez of but there is Raleigh. also observes. "so near the sources of the Oronoke. in Venezuela and Spanish Guyana. After having by him know not whether he died at Porto Rico but it cannot be doubted.and consequently . nearly in — — — — the same latitude. In 1674. in his map of Venezuela. the desire of rejoining the whites led . either invented or imagined b)^ Raleigh. which is west of the site of this supposed city. to think.. Essequibo and Oyapoke rivers by Berrie. situated upon a lake in the interior of Guyana that it was heard of. on the Corentine and by the Mariwin Inquirer. that the author of the relation attributed by Rawas never there. the associate of Robert Harcourt. into Guyana."* Further. .

called Wacaraima. and that he also gave his name to Paramaribo. indeed. with whom he made an alliance.) were of Guyana. as the Mahanaos residing there explain the origin of the name . or Para-hi. and the nations " That all his people. however. or El Dorado. if a place # on this river. this — — — (that fine sounding Indian word. that they wore large coats and hats of crimson color. which contributed not less. were of the same cast and appellation. also. with all those it. as they could not be numbered aor resisted . it 73 ears. which could not fail to have reached their called by this name was situated in this region. who obtained the first grant of Surinam. for. with so great a multitude. or mention. Condamine was the first that connects it with this region. and were called Oreiones and Epuremei. In all that valley the people were of the and that. which he does. and the relait. name. called the inhabiting : valley of Amariocapana. Manoa. ancient Guyanians . to be the site but he does not speak of the city of of the golden country and lake . he transfers the lake Parima " It is no other. in consequence of the each tions . " than the little of which he knew nothing. of Parham. he said that he remembered in his father's lifetime when he was very old. beyond the valley. (the last province. who thinks that the lake inGuyana took its name from Lord Willoughby. except two — the Iwaraqueri and the . supposes the space between the Yurubesh and the Iquiari. the chief answered down the river toward the sea. communicated to him by the Charibee chief on the Oronoke. have been places. as far as Emeria. and making inquiries of him respecting Guyana. and who slew and rooted out the ancient people. lake Mari-hi. and that all the nations between the river and those mountains in sight. origin of as applied by the Indians to both Mahanaos being the principal nation in is immaterial to my purpose. at all. he relates other circumstances concerning it. The name may." he says. but he seems to take it entirely from Raleigh's narrative .: CHIEF'S RELATION. in the minds of some. or a dishonest fabricator of romantic tales. and himself a young man that there came down in that large valley of Guyana a nation. The relation of the Charibee chief he thus gives After acquainting him with the object of his visit to the Oronoque. its extent. who were very numerous. while it furnished further materials to his enemies to represent him as a weak dupe of his credulity. a word which might easily have been changed into Parima" an idea having as little foundation as that of an English writer. which is only to explain the designating a city in the interior of Guyana. but this it. to give interest to his narrative. in regard to the nations on the other side of the mountains. which he received from the Governor of Trinidad and other Spaniards. and that on the other side of those mountains was a valley. D'Acugna. which communicates with the Yupura. to this place.) the capital of that colony. from so far off — — as the sun slept . made concerning Connected with the account which Sir Walter Raleigh has given of the rich and magnificent city of Manoa. to impose on that of the public.

since the Christians threatened to invade his and theirs. and that they were the nearest of the Epuremei. and treasures. and who would more probably lead them than one of the Incas." he observes. But. immediately connects it with the flight of one of the Incas into Guyana. stated by Raleigh. were from there. that the Emperor now reigning. conquered the said empire of Peru. with them and many others which followed him. that they had built a great town. " the Oreiones were the lords Raleigh. it is probable that it was conducted by one of the Incas. birds. but that those of the land within were far finer. and that therein their great King kept three thousand men. the invaders of the Oreiones names by which Epuremei ." for Guyana are called . in consequence. of the invasion of from the Indian chief. 1. "there may arise some doubt how this empire of Guyana is become so populous. and supposes that it occasioned a highly improved state of society in it. which were scattered among the borderers. scended from the magnificent princes of Peru. which have no end and that their houses have many rooms.74 Cassipagotos . at the said mountain foot. and more appropriate to the inhabitSir Walter ants of Peru than to any other people of South America. called Macureguarai. they were all at peace. he has * Cayley. called Oreiones. and had put to death Atabalipa. from the and and nobles of Peru. and were fashioned after the image of men. who were immediately over them ? In regard to the improvement which he supposes to have it. pp. far and near. 239-240. son of Guaynacapa. EL DORADO. vol. he vanquished all that tract and valley of America which In this is situate between the great river Amazon and the Oronoke." f This relation of the Charibee chief possesses great interest. and. and adorned with so many great cities. vol. except the Iwaraqueri and the Cassipagotos. produced in Guyana. to his t Cayley. and took with him many soldiers of the empire. fishes. from the conclusion he draws been. . The " large coats and red hats of crimson color. when Francisco Pizarro. temples. p. one of the younger sons of Guaynacapa fled out of Peru. Such a large emigration could not have been produced but through the influence and under the guidance of some eminent chief. 1. that four days' journey from his town was Macureguarai. and must therefore refer to an invasion of Peruvians. "Because." $ description it' is proper to distinguish the fact." which they wore. and territories . is de. vol. Diego Almagro. and withall daily to invade and slay them. that of. towns. and traded with one another. to defend the borders against them. not doubting of this. For. beasts. and carried to other nations.* He told me further. are besides not applicable to any savage and uncivilized nation. P 264. Guyana by one The former was a If of the Incas. at the beginning of the great plains of . reasonable inference from the narrative of an invasion of Guyana was made by the Oreiones. 1. or nobles of Peru. Guyana. and the first town of apparelled and rich people and that all those plates of gold. 179. I thought good to make it known. late years. one over another . given scope t Cayley. and others. and were there made .

called CassanaIt is dwell not far from where the river takes its name . But. on the Oronoke. " that a nation of chthed people. who wear clothes. though they brought with them four prisoners of the clothed nation. both men and women. : — it were. by the impressions he received from Berreo." To this I add. it is entirely distinct from the position he assumes. "they are more industrious. and do not suffer strangers to come thither. Persick. the Spaniards made three successive expeditions into the interior. of which he and whether it existed or not. in 1820. of a more having great store of gold . of whom we had some gold." the Indians on the Essequibo. and among them is a very remarkable one. that in the time of their sway they were pretty generally clothed. as we are certainly informed by the lower Indians. of the council of justice of Essequibo. and the relation of Juan Martinez. than the other Indians of that region . called Parima :" which is the region ri. no remarks are necessary. and that the missionaries relate. upon the relations of a certain Indian chief. Key mis says. of apparelled Indians in the interior of Guyana. remarkable. he might almost say more civilized. could only be known when Guyana had been penetrated and explored but in forming such a picture. &c. and on which he founds it the emigration of one of the Incas . Respecting the plates of gold. De G protector of . and had considerable villages. . as his mind had already been prepared to fall into this delusion. as civil disposition (more civilized. remarks In the upper country they are apparelled . that they never desired to undertake it again. had no evidence 75 imagination. the following statement: " Lake Parima is inhabited by several nations. the deep forests of : — — into Guyana. which they bought and brought in the high country of Wiana :" (Guyana. being. I am examining the site of Manoa. Thomas Masham. and pictured a state of things as necessarily arising from such emigration. Humboldt remarks.) : lake Parima are inhabited by numerous nations . and other traders. saw. in the examination made of the relation of Martinez. however conjectural his idea was. to reach lake Parima . he was informed.) A much later writer has given a confirmation of these statements. Of the Guaypanabis. after what has been observed on the same subject. This he heard from several Indians. that M. some are clothed. . Thus. which the Oreiones and Epuremei are said to have possessed.APPARELLED INDIANS. some allowance should be made to him. who wrote the account of the third expedition made by Raleigh. filled with ideas of the rich cities of Peru. but were so much opposed by the Indians. and shun all intercourse with other Indians. " The borders of Hartsinck. and in the last especially. which Mr. remarks " The people in all the lower parts of the country go naked. and that far within they border upon a sea of salt water. the Dutch historian of Guyana. that intimations are given by several writers. In the year 1755. gave me. on the upper Oronoke.

And before Sir Walter Raleigh is heavily censured. . against the Spaniards. that in support of the reality of Dorado. was baptized there. of the Incas. and died peaceably in off Yucay. (It is says he. in the Spanish provinces. lx. For when Pizarro. led by some ' * The title of the work is " Storia del America. certainly tend to show. led on by their chief. It appears. is neither so impossible The traditions among the Penor so improbable as generally supposed. upon the invitation of the Viceroy of Peru. 194." Southey. When he says &c. that the existence of some offset A more recent writer than either of the above." author. gave rise to the idea of the empire of the Incas in Dorado. that a younger brother of Atabalipa had fled after the was supposed destruction of the Incas. " acknowledged as the legitimate successor of to attend to the : Atahualpa. were seized and conveyed to Lima. of that of New Grenada. inquire.76 EL DORADO. He retired. and to that of the Awayos and Campoes. 1828. Sayri-Tupac. and beheaded on pretext of a conspiracy formed against the Spanish usurpers. Opera Originale Italiana in Continvazione del Compendio della Universelle. had conquered Peru. No. who was slain by the Spaniards. surrendered himself to the He was received Spaniards. who in his history of Brazil treats the whole account of El Dorado as entirely imaginary. observes. " it was said. was carried by stratagem from the forests of Vilcabamba. Tupac Amaru. after this event fled . and founded in the region." says Humboldt. the eldest. The work I have not seen j and my knowledge of it is derived from the North American Review. called the false Atahualpa. which. which observes upon it :* " In these volumes there is an The circumstances collected investigation of the far-famed El Dorado.) " Manco Inca. to him that Raleigh refers. and if there still exist any deThis supposition gave rise. vol. son to Guaynacapa. brother of Atahualpa. &c. for his belief of it what Hume calls his " chimerical flight of the Incas. to scendants of the Incas of Peru. within the interior of the continent. At the same period. Juan Santos. 480. with great pomp at Lima . where the golden city to be. that a body of their countrymen. Compagnoni. thirty-five distant relations of the Inca Atahualpa." . a greater empire than that of which his family had been deprived. 501. del Signer Compte de Segur.'"' will be proper remarks of some writers on this subject. and put to death Atabalipa. made war. has taken a view of this subject. The youngest son. Of his two sons. in order to remain under the inspection of the the fine valley of Audiencia. to be a fact. (Garcillasso. into the mountains and thick forests of Vilcabamba. an Italian which places the narrative of Raleigh in a still more favorable light. that Manco Inca. the famous rebellion of the Chuncoas. ruvians have been constant.. pp. whether 2. originating from reports spread in New Grenada of the wealth of Peru and there. one of the younger sons of Guaynacapa fled out of Peru. without success. from Humboldt. in 1741. at length. by Compagnoni. by Compagnoni.) It is interesting to any other princes of the family of Manco Capac have remained in the forests of Vilcabamba. and others.

and at length came which they then inhabited. a few leagues bflow the Rio Negro. and the hatred the injuries they received from them occasioned. was Pepodallapa. entirely. that he appears unconscious of the is of the Mariwin meaning of the name of the chief. signifying White Sea of the Manoas. Acariwanora. there. rather than submit to their yoke. — — ment made to him. Other instances have occurred in South America.THE TURPINAMBAS. . When D'Acugna made his voyage down tha Amazon. this relation Inquirer. in 1608 to whom I have several times referred. once in every third year. as was the case in Peru in later times ? The chief of Manoas appears to have possessed great power and influ- — — ence ing. for the Inquirer relates. it is proper to make . And that " the chief Captain. which might be considered a regular homage. . but observe. fled beyond the mountains. warlike and ingenious people. founded entirely upon well-authenticated facts. leaving not a single individual in any of their villages. explored. induced to abandon. he found the Tupinambas. These remarks are perhaps all that. an ample field for reflections will then be presented. and which may have been taken by the representative of the family. or as he called him. consistent with the plan of this volume. can there be ledge the surprise with which I met with this name a doubt that it was meant for Atabalipa. and it therefore free from the suspicion of having introduced . Parrooioan Parrocare Monoan. to favor Raleigh if. a numerous. and remove to some distant region. crossing all the rivers that descend from to the island it into the Amazon . Incas. however. and captains some seven days' journey do come to a great drink&c. or acknowledg. into regions not yet On the this subject there is a most extraordinary passage in the Journal of Mariwin Inquirer. who made a voyage to the Oyapoke. to form his own opinion on the Should the reality of the flight of one of the branches of the subject. their territories. called lake Parima. the associate of Robert Harcourt. extending over a vast country. far exceeding in interest any other passage in the history of the aboriginal nations of America. They made a long journey on the east side of the Andes. the name of the Inca slain by the Spaniards. the ancient Indian. into Guyana. I have observed that he states. lords. from the head of the Surinam. inhabiting an island sixty leagues in length. but when the Portuguese established themselves at Rio Janiero. I cannot. all the Caciques." I do not hesitate to acknowfor. and I might leave to the reader. ever be fully established. But this had not been long their abode. in which they had eighty-two villages . that this event does not appear to be wholly beyond the bounds of probability. They were one of the most important nations of Brazil. of nations whom the consternation excited by the invasion and conquest of their territories by Europeans. other circumstances did not protect him from it. they withdrew in a body." 77 of the surviving Incas. to A circumstance that gives weight is. indeed.

according to D'Acugna. and a people whom they found wild and savage. History of Brazil. but as he approached. and a small party. however. connected with the mysterious manner in which the founder of their race appeared among them. after being stripped of their costly decorations. and after many present happy and prosperous condition — grievances and humiliations suffered by them. its seats of magnificence plundered . were the dread and aversion which the European conquerors how intense must have been their operation in Ihe minds of the family of the Incas. and came with no intention to molest the natives. and overwhelm- ing events. that they were there when he came . and who also were the has his ' last its source near Cusco. demolished . If such inspired in these nations. but weawith the ill-treatment they received. and great. has been transmitted to their descend- ants to the latest times. and also more improved and — civilized than any other on not stated. says a historian. themselves and nation. and by their wise and benignant sway. arts. it is difficult for us to conceive. sequence not only beloved. that river. not a single tribe. put to death. The Indians of Peru. at last. the deity whom they worshipped. in his voyage down the Amazon. must have been very tion of this nation . made peace with them . Not the streams which flow into the Amazon. and part went up the Rio Negro j" although Orellana ap- peared with only a single vessel. there were some of this nation at the head of the Potamayo. . " It is surprising. How What some great was their mortification at these disastrous. removed . in possessed. filled with rich cities. from the province of Quixos. that saw its empire overturned . the effect of them was upon the Peruvians. but how long they had been on . and flourishing empire. Amazon. says Herrera. and so adored and revered by its subjects. which rises near Pasto. is remained when the ried. makes no men- but the Omaguas of Quito explain the circumstance : they relate. on the river Amazon. and joined themselves to their kinsmen on that river." observes the histo- rian. but. historians furnish evidence. possessed of such extensive power and authority. had elevated to their by whom they were in con. or comfortable abodes. which From a circumstance related by Southey. Such was the distress among them.' the dread and dislike of the Spaniards which the retreating Omaguas which they infused into their country- men. that many men and women killed themselves. their reigning prince. in 1748. When D'Acugna wrote. its splendid temples. but an extensive. already mentioned a numerous and warlike nation. to when the tidings of his death was spread abroad. without cultivation. on the Yotan. " that Orellana. reverenced as of Children of the Sun. they retired.73 ELDORADO. celestial origin It was a sovereign race. and those that the Spaniards arrived. a southern tributary of the Amazon. Another instance. is that of the Omaguas. to attend him in the other world. And the grief and regret they experienced. near Quito They came. containing edifices splendidly decorated with gold and silver. Atabalipa. who ruled over. they descended one of all.

X £1 Maiajjcn y Amazene. by a sort of tragedy . on a certain day. one of the largest tributaries of the Amazon. down the Ucayal. which is beyond the province of the Omaguas. who. and wear images of the sun and moon. they revive the memory of the death of Atabalipa."f Under the feelings which the remaining branches of the royal family would possess. pears from the extract I have made from Humboldt. be attended by a number of Peruvians . or yarrabies. who were immediately about the royal family. recovered from the effects of some one among them would embrace the some region unknown to their conquerors . Calocleugh to Sontli America. this event does not appear wholly improbable. and rises in the mountains around Cuscn. Deles. but the region mentioned. that after their spirits had. much That some of the Peruvians living at a distance from the capital.M_ANCO INC A. 1684. I have found this fact not only confirmed."% is no historical account of the progress of the family of the Incas. 79 have not forgotten the love they bore their native Kings. that they would be content to remain perpetually in a degraded state. was possessed by the Incas. A knowledge of the Amazon and the regions upon it. may reasonably suppose. and who are more immediately descended from the last Inca. and they have of late years debarred them the use of the stage in which they represented the death of the Inca. Descubrimentos—Madrid. which flows into the Amazon and would in such case. It can scarcely be believed. without this circum- * Relation of the earthquake at Lima. But their humiliating overthrow. " who are on the river Aprumack. Historia. and particularly the Oreiones. one of the streams which form the Ucayal. had extended their arts and arms as far as the Yupura . At these festivals they indulge in excessive drinking. which lament that unhappy transaction. and the mournful songs. t Travels of G. in a degree. the inhabitants in the interior of Peru. with other symbols of their idolatry. it would not be surprising if they resolved to remove to some other region. and use in every mode their liberty. according to Humboldt. In most of the great towns in the interior. is a fact well known . nor that the regrets and complaints of their subjects. could not fail. after the disastrous events which befell them. that it is admitted that they fled across the Andes . are chanted at this hour. but from the great aversion produced in their minds to their But on this subject we are not left to supposition. We project of endeavoring to restore their empire. Endeavors have been made by the Spaniards to suppress these solemnities. or of any of them. in which they clothe themselves in their ancient manner. not only from apprehension of meeting the fate of Atabalipa. hrotlier of Atahualpa. " All the Indians. . and in a Spanish work I have met with. in a corner of their former empire . to which they removed. It apconquerors. and he would naturally seek it by descending this river." says the author. or nobles. with a certainty.* later (in 1825) An English traveller. Although there would not be too painful for them to support. still continue to mourn for him. in . annually. are descendants of the army of forty thousand who fed with Manco remarks : " Inca.

from its mouth to its source nations upon of it : : D'Acugna. and also the Quichua. that these people were not far from the cities of Peru. another branch of this nation. one of the branches of this nation. rising near Cusco.(Ethno-graphical Atlas. on another river. the most numerous nation on that river. wearing apparel. which enters it on the north side. ch ix. who are spread along the coast of Guyana. to seek on its borders. who now inhabit the region of Pari- ma. he was informed by a Cacique in the province of Coca several hundred leagues from its mouth of a wealthy lord. Isv. was on the banks of the Assiveru. allied * D'Acugna. Nar. He often heard them mentioned above the mouth appear to — of the Meta4 The Maypures. was. t Humboldt's Pers. have also some words in their language like those of the Moxos." says habitants upon it. a region in which to establish himself and plant the germ of another empire. The Rio Negro which flows into this river one hundred and twenty leagues only below this province. xix. than the chief of the Omaguas. who were three hundred and seventy leagues below the Napo." says Humboldt. between the Rio Vichada and That of the the Guaviari. are probably the same with the Atures of the Oronoke. belonging to it. Its great importance. 80 ELDORADO. " that this river was inhabited by a great number of people. by the CassiIt was."f Mapoyes. would greatly encourage an enterprising leader in the family of the Incas to descend the Ucayal into this great stream. descend from the Cordillera of the Andes. " The the Charibees most ancient abode of this nation."* There was a particular circum- — . down the stream. + Humboldt's Pers. or their vicinity. stance. ch. from the Amazon to the bor- ders of the Oronoke. between the Meta and the Rio Paute. or Cuchivero. formerly a great channel of emigration from quiri. Nar. and who. stance. to obtain this information as the various streams that flow into the Amazon. I believe. and who could be no other. which is the general language of Peru. which.. I have observed. of different nations the last of which wear clothes and hats like ours which sufficiently convinced us.. Several of the branches of the Saliva nation —who 1 are mild and tranquil tribes. on the Amazon. are. and the many it. the west. probably. . were probably greatly traversed. unquestionably. on the Amazon. while their reign lasted. ch. On Orellana's passage down the Napo. according toBalbi. also. " appears to have been on the western bank of the Oronoke.. after have come from the Peruvian territories. also. nearly opposite to the Ucayal. of the — — — — — remote provinces of their empire and the countries adjacent. moreover. and particularly those on the Ucayal. to spread extensively the knowledge and there appears to have been a communication through the in" We were assured. having many gold articles among them and of Peruvian origin. or southwardly. who abounded in gold. were sufficient. The Arrowacks. calculated to give it general notoriety the communication existing between it and the Oronoke. and rises also from the Andes by the intelligence the Incas had. This large settlement of a partially civilized people. also known to them. . on the north and south side. and follow it. The Atorays.) speak a language incontestably similar to that of the Moxos of Peru.

though he had not directed his course to it. the Omaguas. or to Guyana . in which EI Dorado was first sought. and undertook to revive their empire . to which it led. his — I have remarked. where the Spaniards were then. as a region where he would be less the White Sea. excited in the minds of the Peruvians by the conquest of their empire and the execution of Atabalipa. and. had probably acquired as great celebrity on the Amazon as in other directions . as in Peru. This unknown region could refer to no part of Peru. which were easily accessible from the sea. but only to the southeastern portion of the latter province. to the borders of the Oronoke. And as he advanced farther. Saliva nation . He would also be informed of its principal branch—the Rio Branco and of the region of Parima and retreat. Southey. and likewise the Moxos and Quichua. where he had again built a city. that after it. states. pursuing their conquests. as their language has The period when the invasion of Guyana was made by the Oreiones and Epuremei. and part retired up the Rio Negro. for there was no passage into it by any of the southern tributaries of the Amazon west of the Rio Negro. that it was a general impression among them that he had fled to some region wholly unknown to them. and he states that the invaAnd the sion of the Oreiones occurred when he was a young man. VI. as liable to be invaded by the conquerors of his empire. the Manoas of the Yurubesh. states. that a circumstance which encouraged the idea of El Dorado in the minds of the Spaniards. hatred of the Spaniards. all which descend from the Andes of Peru . in determining to ascend the Rio Negro. corresponds with the time when the Spaniards were making their conquests in Peru. and whatever branch of the family of the Incas was on this expedition in search of a — attention would not fail to be arrested by this river. this last circumstance would strongly incline him to pursue the same route. as his relation was made to Raleigh in 1595. which. regarding . would have furnished him with a particular account of it and if they had been previously dispersed. as Humboldt. Avas an opinion among them that one of the Incas had fled to some other country. The country could not be any part of Brazil. must have been greatly increased by the persecution the whole of the royal family received . the region of Parima. or the northern or western part of New-Grenada. when he was in a very advanced age . from the information he received from the tribes on the Amazon. it has been observed.MAN CO INC A. it has been seen. to the si some words resembling the Atoray and Maypure. as related by the Charibee chief. he might prefer the deep forests of the interior of Guyana for an asylum. or by its western tributaries that flow from the mountains of New-Grenada. Tnese affinities are shown in the table. and overturned the empire of the Incas . thirty-five of his distant relations were seized and conveyed to Lima. In addition to the information which he might have acquired inhabitants generally of the among the Amazon. both which regions were unexplored. still nearer the Rio Negro— part of . and Compagnoni remarks. if they were on this river at that time. Appendix No. in its vicinity.

— EL ELDORA&a. ** that the chief captain. many which would . and establish himself in the bosom of its mountains. where he would believe himself in perfect security from the invaders of his empire . and as the account of this clothed nation was confirmed to me would De also greatly beneficial to geography. that the veil of obscurity which is over this that some scientific and enterprising region will ere long be removed . as of a city there. while they. a journey which and by the investigation of be useful — the various productions of this region. to conquer from the Guyanians the region from which the Branco flows. and kept up a constant intercourse between their two establishments —would determine to it as to the place of his refuge. was Pepodallapa. and disclose the history of the place. and the conquest achieved* feel proud to acknowledge themselves his subjects. and might be willing It is possible. if took and conquest of the region of Parima by the Mariwin Inquirer is to be credited. of Manoa. indeed. whose misfortunes could not but have been heard of by all the tribes of the Amazon and as they astonished. protected not only by its remoteness and obscurity. 1820 . who who are trav- probably still . Perhaps the royal exile may have been willing to accept the aid of this powerful and warlike nation. are yet in the same in place. If the relation of the — — tribes now inhabiting there it : in particular. as three nations described a century since by a eller as residing in this region. and if this name was meant for Atabalipa. bring to light to the world. to the 82 bly gave rise all his doubts name of Manoa. traveller will undertake to pass over the terra incognita which lies between the Essequibo and the Oronoke. reported to be there in 1755. but by their superior bravery . or Aqueriwanora. there would seem to be a connection between the Manaos and a branch of the family of the Incas. from respect to an ancient and venerated race. conduct him thither. but 3 without doubt. led to the invasion Manaos. that this expedition. not only gratify the curiosity of the naturalist. excited universal sympathy and regret would readily become their conductors to it. who are the clothed Indians avoid all intercourse with others. We may indulge the hope.

and in general. but brought by him from Africa. They endeavored to negative it. silenced by this evidence. with dag6* true signs of minerals." he observes. others asked. kept them. EXPEDITIONS TO GUYANA. as it is in most of the rivers of Guyana. he fully replies in his preface. But not having any means for the purpose. he incurred great censure and ridicule from enemies at that time. To all these charges. but some of them. mountains. " and the civil and apparelled people" who invaded Guyana. said it was not obtained in Guyana. and marvellous rich. its rich mineral treasures. OPINIONS OF HUMBOLDT ON THE SUBJECT. however. But he was assured that gold was to be found either in grains separate from the stone. Near one of the' rivers he found a great. and Sir Robert Cecil. or else in a kind of stone which they called white spar. " It is true. he found a cleft in the rock. ledge or bank of this white spar. what the Spaniards call el mother of gold. (the . all stones in the plain. EXAMINED. DIFFICULTIES IK WHICH RALEIGH BECAME INVOLVED AT HOME. in woods. from which. which he addressed to them. and it." he says. i i 1 Besides the account which Sir Walter Raleigh gave of the city of Manoa. that not far from the port where he anchored. seeking around the sides. others again. by bring- established themselves in his ing some of the ore with him to England. which he presented to the lord high Admiral Howard. which he endeavored to open. and of no value . and are the opinion. of the privy council. His enemies were not. and prove him a gross deceiver. but which men there with orders when brought he found was for each ta marcasite. "all the rocks. why he did not bring home a greater quantity of it . trusting more to their ideas than his and showed them in several places. and by the rivers. gold were found by him he afforded the most convincing proofs. . It was reported that the ore had been ascertained not to be gold . ta Guyana. he sent a party of his bring him a specimen. if the metal had been found.CHAPTER SIR V. indeed. . WALTER RALEIGH'S REPORTS OF THE MINERAL RICHES OF GUYANA. as there appeared on the surface some small grains of gold.) of several sorts of which his company brought also to England. WHICH SUSPENDED HIS HIS TRIAL AND LONG IMPRISONBIENT. there were found certain mineral stones which they considered gold. but are no other than raadre del oro. and has received the explicit condemnation of' some historians from representations made by him of the existence of gold But that specimens of in it. " that on being informed by an Indian. are thorough shining. asi he states in the preface of' the Narrative of his voyage.

which he brought to England. perhaps. was found to contain gers and the head of an axe. to diseases. it is proper to disHis tinguish the facts he states. that the gold was brought from Africa." To ingly replies the allegation. not the way of honor or good opinion. persons by whom the assays were made mint . same v though not able to accompany them * Cayley. But that he sincerely believed the expeditions he object. that they would be obliged to wade several feet deep. and thus. to cozen myself. observing. says held eight pounds six ounces weight of gold in the hundred. because his to. from his Narrative. I it with us to do not well comprehend.84 ELDORADO. he furnished the strongest further evidence. 1. 163-1CT. Of this several trials were made in London. inundating it so. in love with these long voyages. it was not possible for him to have remained to work it.) men brought other specimens."* The above defence bears the marks of great sincerity. veracity in the recital of the former. not only from this cause. led him to form extravagant ideas of the mineral riches of Guyana. there is no reason to question . or buying of gold ore in Barbary. and his whole enterprise defamed. those referred " all the others have been slandered. and had been absent a month. Guyana. " that had all the mountains been that he was of massy gold. to fare worse. tity. while a further knowledge of the country has shown. I am not so much . and lively imagination." (which were. he says. that the same ore was had from : Barbary. publicly appeals to their (He mentions the names of the some of them belonging to the " Trials were also testimony. first. to be subject to perils. from the views he formed upon them. on the dust of mine. that in ascending them. But I hope the better is sort will judge me by themselves. except the same had more comfort than the fetching of marcasite in Guyana." . and in an open road. be parched and withered. that his ardent and enthusiastic spirit. and if this should bo done. that the country was covered with such thick woods. which he left weakly manned. which But. at that time. and that the way of deceit. it was very difficult to find a place to land . Surely the singuFor mine own part. vol. ." In reply to the question. as to devise thereby. and that we carried larity of that device. he thus feel" Others have devised. but the heavy floods of water which fall. reaching to the very edge of the rivers. to penetrate into the country . by made to it the two succeeding years after. to all seasons to lie to hard. he obtained small quantities of the metal. for the himself. the same persons. and to sustain all the care and labor of such an enterprise. Further. In addition he was four hundred miles from his ships. why he did not bring home a greater quantity ? not bound to satisfy any one of the quanbut such as advertised. and in forming an opinion of Sir Walter Raleigh. in the account lie gave of the mineral treasures in this region. and it gold. pp. having neither men nor instruments for the purpose.) this made by lie. although he promised to return in fifteen days.

wealth which I understood to be therein. and jewsharps. states. that Armago. But lastly. to be a guide himself to any I sent fourteen men in my boat with most of the place that he spoke of.DDDDLEY'S VOYAGE. mine interpreter. and would trade with me answer. to I Seeawano we heard of a mine of gold dom of Iguire. as a voyager deserving the utmost credit. with some 100 men in canoes. (Igyuire. or more. that all along . the people next river They entered into a small river. where the king offered to bring one entering into another. Seea- wano.) The kingbe in a town called Wackerew. is that of Sir Robert Duddley. were in order these : The kingdom of Morocca. they from Margaritta to Cape de la Vela. that the names of the kingdoms on the main over against us. upon the Indians on the coast of Paria. " was first directed rations to obtain it. the called Cabotas. 85 Of the existence of gold in this part of South America. or four crescents or half-moons of gold. refused them . to come The great to Waliane. although it remains doubtful whether the ore exists there in sufficient quantity to justify ope" Their attention. named Veriotans a courteous people. and could in token whereof. he himself would make them he met them by force they should have nothing but blows. but if they would come thither. Ferdinand Columbus. yet. or very base gold. Waliane. and right against the northern part of In was called the highland of Paria. this Upon my boat went at his appointed place . he sent me three refine it. nearo. •observed. that ."* But this subject has been fully elucidated by the recent investigations of Humboldt in Venezuela. upon pain of life. captain of the mine. says he saw an Indian with a piece of Oviedo. was much to be esteemed. but offered. — — it that speci- . if they would bring him hatchets. the main . — — referred to. as large as an apple. and his biographer. not in words alone ." he observes. called by the Indians which is rather copper. Yguire Trinidad. who has shown that reports have always prevailed there of the existence of gold in various sections of mens found there that several attempts at mining have been made by the Spaniards. in the river of the Oronoke. the Indians But a testimony more applicable to the bartered for gold and pearls. Charibes. subject. The they passed was named Mana. found to be full of metal. " I learned of the savages. of a golden mine in a town of this kingdom. have been mentioned . of native gold have frequently been * Hackluyt's Voyages. — a canoe full of the golden ore . rivers. he bid them assure me he had a mine of gold. who made a voyage to Trinidad whom I have before in 1595 the same year with Raleigh's expedition pucci. weighing a noble a-piece. They found the main full of fresh discreetest men of my company. and the assurance that I had by an Indian. and to this purpose sent a canoe which returned and brought me this answer. various voyThe gold ornaments seen by Columbus agers and travellers also speak. it is the first kingdom of the empire of Guyana. that as they sailed along the coast of Terra-Firma. called Orocoa. knives. in his account of the voyage of Vesgold. and told them.

Here. near Baruta. which were anciently begun. when the Spaniards first settled there and founded the town of Caraccas." says Humboldt. xiii. of Caraccas remained forgotten for more than a h undred But toward the end of the last century. have auriferous quartz. among other minerals. Their operations were directed toward the ravine of Tipe . lodes of The labors there. * Humboldt's Pers. belongs. " was not fortunate. having seen some bits of gold in the hands of the natives. but they in to a country where labor is extremely dear. as be very The lodes are very often divided. Nar. were soon abandoned. . ques could not be peaceably wrought till the defeat of the Cacique Guaypearances. he : gives the following opinion " The rock of gneiss. to the southwest of Caraccas. been found to and the works of Buria. Don Jose Avalo. It is thought that. even in my time. or cease . and present the most delusive apin all the mountains of Venezuela. the ore has many other mines successively opened. "to the south of Caraccas. like period. and the ancient mines of Baruta. who so long contested with the Spaniards the possession of the In the mountains east of the valley of Caraccas. A and a —and ment little native gold. often been abandoned and renewed. the enterprise of the mines of Caraccas was totally The mines years. but. everything appeared to them gold and silver. they were resumed by an Intendant of Venezuela. which separate the valleys of Caraccas and Aragua. the metals appear only in kidney-ores. gold. ch. in the new Continent. succeeded in discovering. of the existence of gold in this region. at an early wrought the gold mine of Barquisemento. they filled the shafts which had been dug with The mines of Los Tewater.86 to the ELDORADO. In several spots of the valley of Caraccas. were feeble indications. sulphuretted silver. It is now impossible to verify the fact. : abandoned. and variable in its produce. in Germany. the gneiss contains a small quantity of new formation. disseminated in small veins of quartz. a little stream of gold. there was no inducepursue works so little productive. those in the valley " An Indian of the Guykeries. azure."* On of the subject. sulphuretted silver.• and after having incurred many useless expenses. the mines of Los Teques. had been found small quantity of auriferous pyrites. They could not distinguish a single rock ." province of Venezuela. generally. and there they. But these works. In these mountains the gneiss passes into a talckous state. Some Mexican miners were procured " The choice. the granite has not been hitherto remarked as very rich in ores worth working. in 1560. and contains. in the first of these valleys. and that. capuro. in the group of the mountains of Cocuimo. where the The zeal of Indians gathered. passing into a granite sometimes mica-slate. the natives had made some excavations in veins of auriferous quartz .." to these Next of Caraccas are the most remarkable. mining experiments have also been made. . to the most metalliferous rocks. the administration soon diminished . western mountains of Venezuela .

probably. although in its immediate vicinity .. Guyana. being a local fable. in some measure. and galena . or the Cordillera of Parima. though are important. and the palace of the gilded King . that popular traditions continued. prevented him. The attempt made by the Mexican miners to search for gold in the centre of the missions of Caroni. on which. Irocards.. and this palace." (These are the words of Raleigh. undertook a very considerable work in the centre of the missions They declared that the whole rock was auriferous stamping-mills. These remarks. to prevail in Spanish Guyana. do not. ch. according to popular traditions. " It were following are all the remarks he makes on the subject be wished. ixiv . (a mountain their labor. The mineralogical examination he made was not as extensive as at Caraccas. as in the fine and fertile province of Venezuela. the site of this city. the Intendant of of the Rio Carony. and the palace of the " gilded King. the independent Chari- bees went to Cerro de Pajarcaima. After having expended very large sums. no doubt. faithful to the labor of the fields. which his accounts relate. but. made as late as 1805. in a very distinct manner. 1. he marks on his lake Parima. The example of Germany : The to and Mexico prove. ch. and smelting furnaces were constructed. served to renew the ancient idea. Caraccas. he descended this river to Angustura. and the city of Manoa and the existence of which — is confirmed by the map of De Pons. though fruitless. but it remains doubtful. some Mexican who abused the credulity of Don Jose de Avalo. and this lake.. the banks of the Carony lead to the lake Dorado. " that every shining rock in Guyana. and in to Venezuela." which is the very region where Raleigh places his lake Cassipa. On his return from his expedition up the Oronoke. but if such is the character of the mountainous chain along the coast. that at the head of the Caroni was the lake Dorado. was put more recently. xiii. Humboldt states. as it has been shown that the second chain of mountains of South America."* The researches thus made by Humboldt. indeed. comprise the region visited by Raleigh. the capital of Spanish there. that . 87 copper ore. is una madre del oro. it was discovered that the pyrites contained no trace whatever of gold.) The gold-dust collected by and sold to the Dutch at Essequibo.) f brief. it might be dangerous I ally to be effaced. especially. These essays. shows that an * Humboldt's Pets. Nar. to the time of his visit. 2. to awaken remembrances that begin graduwas assured. the inhabitants. Still to the south of Veia into calebashes Guyana. whether these different metalliferous substances are not too poor to attempt working them. would not addict themselves too hastily to the search for mines. The fatigue of a long journey through a wilderness region. ! t Humboldt's Pert. miners. MINING IN CARACC AS. or El Dorado.Jhose which extend over that river into Guyana are of the same character . presents similar appearances. it may be reasonably supposed. that here. N«r. that in 1760. including its branches north and west of the Oronoke. that the working of metals is not at all incompatible with a flourishing state of agriculture .

who still dwell upon it that the facts stated by Martinez. (or Caroni. which they sold to the Dutch . and the channel by which they might have obtained them. and confirmed by his associates. In regard to the Charibees of the Essequibo. and some local testimony . for more than half the year. S3 ELDORADO. and not. called by the which may. from the Amazon : and. a branch of the family of the Incas . and that the Caroli. — which idea. as his enemies alleged. that there was. which examination has thus been made of the relations in the Narrative of I proposed to consider . and Cayuni. that the Charibees of the Essequibo. detracts nothing from his relation. who first applied the appellation " El Dorado" . show. that there is a large body of water in the interior of Guyana. that there are appearances of — in the middle of the last century.— — . by whom he supposes Manoa. or Manaos. : which remains. a fact which gives the highest degree of probability to the statement of Raleigh. this remark of Humboldt corresponds with a fact I have mentioned. rendering it probable. as Raleigh related. a — great influx of nations into Guyana. was built —an idea which he founds upon the relations of the Charibee chief on the Oronoke it has also been shown. that gold-dust has been obtained by the Charibees in that region. or the imperial city. as Humboldt states. but do not necessarily imply a rich and magnificent city Raleigh too readily imbibed from the oft-repeated rumors among the Spaniards of such a city. but on which he suffered his imagination to form extravagant and erroneous ideas in particular. into that belief. have been accustomed to wash the earth for gold from the remotest times . Keymis and Berrie. opinion then existed that gold was to be found in the neighborhood of thai river. The failure of the Mexican miners to find it in the particular spot where they sought for it. gold-dust and given it to the was brought down that river Director-General of the Dutch colony upon it. that the ore he took with him to England from the Oronoke. Peru. as stated by him. and that they had gold ornaments in abundance . probably. or may not be termed a lake Charibees the White Sea that it is salt. that the population formerly there was considerable. for it was with this nation with whom Raleigh chiefly had intercourse. he is fully supported by contemporary and later travellers. it is not necessary to prove that to it actually exists there in abundance. : — . that it is not wholly improbable. from the Mahanaos. in early times. or that this settlement probably bore the name Raleigh gives it Manao. was obtained by him there . has been pointed out Manoa. brought from other parts particularly. and from whom he obtained his information of Guyana. as to the principal facts which he states. who sent to Holland.) probably rises out of it that there is at present about it a great collection of remnants of Indian nations. to this place. it It is sufficient for the purpose which have led others. by the Rio Branco. and it has been shown that. Caroni. probably. 3. and their repeated enterprises to In regard to the invasion of Guyana by one of the Incas of discover it. from the additional remark of Humboldt. that there. In his defence. like himself. An Raleigh.

and that in Venezuela. and in general. indications of the existence of this ore have led to several enterprises to discover it . who. or the most impuSo ridiculous are the stories which he tells of the Incas' dent imposture. and the examination made by Humboldt. the were exany European ever touched there the 'Amazons. Can it be reasonably supposed he would have invested his money in an undertaking. the vast and incredible riches of that country. it is. may. and on the Essequibo. the next and second year after. or Manoa. under the influence of an ardent imagination. that after his first expedition to Guyana. two days' journey in length. north of the Oronoke. either in solid understanding. where nobody. the rich city of El Dorado. undetermined." the candid reader will not. on the 89 by the Spaniards. under the influence of political prejudices and an ignorance of the subject. two other enterprises to it for the same object . into a Quixotic scheme. long before . " the most impudent imposture. which were not substantially founded. completely to exonerate him . whether there is a sufficient quantity of it in Venezuela or Guyana. we can hardly doubt. morals. among whom is Hume. has : poured upon him the following unmeasured invective " Raleigh's account of his first voyage to Guyana. to employ the otherwise dormant energies of his mind ? But . abounding in gold and silver . as related to him by a Charibee chief. have fled from it. from want of occupation. some writers commenting on his relations respecting that country. from the facts I have presented. a name which. as His whole Narrative is a proof that he was yet. named as the deliverers of that country. have inveighed against him in a style of the severest censure. found any treasures. to justify mining operations. and to admit that. It has likewise been shown. his account of which was the ground of this invective. merely to amuse the public with an attractive novelty. But. however he may have suffered his mind to form visions of that country. I believe. and endeainvasion of Peru retired into the interior of this country — vored to foremost throw the brilliant lustre of his great name into the darkest shade . extremely defective. chimerical empire in the midst of Guyana. or both. he says. pressly old Peruvian prophecies in favor of the English. especially from the remarkable fact stated by the Mariwin Inquirer." In regard to the heaviest charge against Sir Walter Raleigh.HUME'S CHARGES. when he knew it would be thrown away. and if anything further were necessary to prove this. or to gratify his vanity by appearing as the patronizer of a splendid enterprise ? Or was he led. leave the question. or republic of women . in this sweeping denunciation. and by the same route . the last of which was prepared entirely at his own expense. that gold has actually been found in small parcels in various parts of it. that the chief of Manoa was called Pepodallapa. proves him to have been a man capable of the most extravagant credulity. was meant for Atabalipa. in regard to the mineral treasures which Raleigh related to be in Guyana. he made. although the results of them. in his history of England. who. that he was sincere and honest in what he stated . hesitate.

after they of their furnishing guides to him . He had resources within himself. after which he was refused by the Queen admittance to her court. why he did not. still distant less to countries. Walter Raleigh did not require to make him with occupation. But it may be inquired. An insinuation has been he was influenced by interested motives . his conduct furnishes the best possible evidence of his Would these several expedisincerity in the representations he made. he would have had in this occupation sufficient to gratify his utmost ambition. but the frowns of his sovereign ? not the applause of the public. with all the men to protect his people against the Epuremei. to provide voyages to foreign engage in enterprises of a chimerical character. partly at his own expense. from whom he obtained his information of that country. under the circumstances in which he was in regard to the But since he prepared not court. drawn out a highly colored representation of the wealth of Guyana." the chief and that he would himself accompany him. informed him that the Epuremei. but even had he not entertained the most sanguine hopes of its success. presenting itself to his mind in the most glowing colors. . that after wasting his time and property. such a suggestion.90 Sir ELDORADO. Had not this project. if Raleigh sincerely believed the mineral riches of Guyana were such as he depicted. in forming this enterprise. but its jeers and — The unsuccessful result of the first. he gives the following answer. which never failed. and the last entirely and one of which he accompanied himself — although the hope of reinstat- ing himself in his sovereign's good graces might have encouraged him in the undertaking. that on being asked if he should not be able to take "the answered town of the civil and apparelled people. on his first expediTo this inquiry. was sufficient to dispel from his mind a proridicule % ject not merely if it had been founded on very slight grounds. and left. chief. with an enterprise to conquer it. tions have been made by him when he was aware. not the smiles. in consequence was not in his power to spare that numthat it Raleigh being informed by first in the affirmative . he would be certain to meet. he would have found in the pursuits of literature sufficient to engage his attention. invade them. might be made with some plausibility. the plan of it advance himself. were fordable. captivated and engrossed it. from a wish to regain the favor of Queen Elizabeth. — He states that the Charibee on the Oronoke. anticipated. But this idea cannot It is admitted. the principal nation in the interior. made that. and whom it was necessary to subdue. as in a future season of adversity he fully showed . by flattering her with the prospect of a splendid acquisition. that if he had merely stand the test of examination. remain to prosecute the discovery of it. so. and had fame been his object. and the public received his accounts with incredulity. or —two of which were less than three expeditions for the purpose in as many successive years. or at least of uncertain result for that purpose. which he tion. were too powerful for him to attempt it with the force he had . and he left behind fifty rivers if the borderers. who would. without having taken any steps to embarked any property in the undertaking .

" f That Sir Walter Raleigh made such a promise to this chief. when the would be fordable. is proved. Wanaritone. says Harcourt. who gave him an account of Manoa. gave of the inquiries the Charibees made of and their disappointment at his not fulfilling his him." says Raleigh. These reasons being taken by Raleigh into serious consideration. (nine years after) he observes. he had sent Captain Keymis in his place to visit them. (who inhabit there) often asked him of Sir Walter Raleigh and that one came from the Oronoke expressly to inquire respectnying it — —but Guyana some years . pp. and was from the Oronoke. and of so good discourse. ber. he 91 begged him to defer the enterprise to the next year. bered the arrival of Raleigh on the Oronoke. § Purchas's Appendix. 1. with Avhom he made a treaty. in 1604. No. the associate of Harcourt. to have made war against the Epuremei. Bancroft. t Cayley. and observed. vol. that when he found he could not return. and that Topiawari had drawn in several nations under two chiefs. in Cayenne. by rendering the Indians in the interior hostile to the English. «airl that Topiawari. as they were then to the Spaniards. of Voyages. § And the Mariwin Inquirer. 1. . and that he thought the Spaniards had slain him . states. captain of Canuria. " wondered that he had not heard from him according to his promise. in his history of Guyana. that the Charibees of Guyana at that time which was one hundred and seventy-one years after Raleigh's first voyage retained a tradition of an EngCharibees to his for his not fulfilling which. and the submission of the and that he had made a promise to return excused him."|| Dr. I — — *_Cayley.— RALEIGH AND TOPIAWARI. another to defer the enterprise rivers — this chief. vol. captain of Sayma. the Galibis. ch. not only by his actually sending out the next year another expedition to the Oronoke being prevented by his public engagements himself accompa- by accounts which voyagers. who sailed to the coast of after. f who made a voyage to the same river in 1608. t Paichas's 1. respecting them In the account of the voyage by Charles Leigh to the river promise. and he so behaved himself toward me in all his answers. or Charibees. proceeded to England. against Raleigh's coming. and giving him a promise to return at that time. Book vi. " is held for the proudest and wisest of all the Oronokoponi . &c. to sack and plunder making an alliance with and after year . p. xvi. and reflecting that an unsuccessful attempt at that time would injure his success hereafter. that had no help of learning or breed. 252-258. Region and Religion of the World.* " This Cacique. that the ancient Indian. published in 1766. and Wacariopea. by reason of his employments of great importance at home. as I marvelled to find a man of that gravity and sound judgment. says. upon it. that the chief made of his return. || Coll. Oyapoke. alleging the promise he Robert Harcourt. seeing he concluded to that they came for the same object. said that he rememsovereign . ing him. the Charibee chief on that river with whom Raleigh made an alliance. 240. relates. and that these chiefs were still expecting him.

had for years been the subjects of his thoughts to his enterprising . who. suitable achieve . which threw the brightest colors on objects that presented a favorable aspect to him. as well as the advantages expected from it. contemplation of difficulties an enthusiasm in and as hew armed with the the pursuit was produced which no soil . since. the possession of this faculUnder the inty seems to be necessary to the success of any enterprise. could be no other than Sir Walter Raleigh.them. and encouraged them to return and settle It is said they still preserve an amono. without its inWhen an fluence the gallant vessel would remain motionless on shore. and the dangers and hazards attending its pursuit. whose extent no one knew or could divine. and although it may sometimes drive it on shoals or rocks. as to produce an ardor and a passion of the mind to obtain it. which he left with them to distinguish his countrymen. and inspired him with an irresistible ardor to undertake Had he stopped to reason on the subject to balance arguments on it. pursuit. delay arises wears away. who first gave the account of " the rich The country he proposed . adds Bancroft. mind But this. The accounts which he had read of El Dorado and the wealth of Guyana. presenting to him a brilliant project. fluence of imagination. which added much to its charms. but without it. not Would Columbus have fostered the bold susceptible of grand conceptions and bold resolutions. This. pursued with the hope of success. until that .92 lish chief. and afford them assistance. which was once anxiously desired is viewed with worth the and magnificent idea of crossing the broad Ocean. traded with thenl many years persevere in enmity to the Spaniards . the novelty. doubt and indeobject is tion in cision follow . to EL DORADO. except by by the individual Juan Martinez. would have started up before him.no pursuit of what is difficult and uncertain would ever be attempted. English Jack. animated by the trait in the fire of a poetical genius. genius to the one side and the other —a — host of objections to explore. was wholly unknown. as too difficult to be obtained. Avhich washes the shores of Europe. with the expectation of finding a new world beyond it. Such was the case Avith Sir Walter Raleigh. so far from being extraordinary in the pursuit of distant and hazardous undertakings. or gives an energy to surmount them. had he calmly considered all the difficulties and hazards to be met with in the execution of the project. all the arguments in favor of and against his success ? indifference. and deliberately weighed But his mind. distant objects may be sometimes pursued that are airy phantoms . or if obtained. and in some of its features corresponding with the imaginative poetical cast of his mind. that a warm and brilliant imagination. promising It is undoubted. it struck into a congenial it. It is the breeze that impels a ship on a voyage. But when viewed through the medium of sober calculation. coolly weighed. it is presented by the imaginasuch bright and attractive colors. which overlooks all obstacles. could damp. when the idea was presented to it. was a conspicuous of Sir Walter Raleigh. it took complete possession of it. It had never even been at all entered by European footsteps.

abounding in gold. ought not tion to deter. excepting Urra. extending from the Amazon to the Oronoke. in the censures which some historians have passed upon him. The whole of Guyana. Orellana and Orsua } down the Amazon the whole length of it to the Ocean and numerous others. The oppoSpaniards caused him no apprehension. besides. in a wrong direc- and it may yet unexplored. the Indians inhabiting it reported to be of the most ferocious some even cannibals. by adventurers in various directions by Belalcazar and Pizarro. invariably. The country was yet unpossessed by Europeans the field was open he would endeavor to discover and possess it and if he succeeded in his attempt. says Mr. found rich cities inhabited of the Andes —may there not be such. and his attempt to conquer it would meet character. The disappointment of the numerous adventurers. examine it for this rumored Golden City. without giving any information of a city discovered by them at all — — — corresponding to the description of the one they sought. but hazarded their lives and fortunes to discover it fitting out the most expensive expeditions. who went on toilsome expeditions in search of it. maintain it against them. evinces their full conviction of . which." which certainly required confirmation. be found in the region now pointed out as its locality. If the Spaniards. j But his mind. perhaps. and with their opposition. This famed city had been sought. and they sought for it. And. that he is not the only one who was led away by the delusive idea of " the Golden City j" but that num. on the west at least one. 93 and magnificent city. The shores of North America had been examined and colonized under his direction. for a long time. have cost Spain more than all the treasures she has received from her possessions in America it is — surprising that so great a want of candor should have been shown to an English hero. and the colonists sent there were not repulsed or ill-used by the inhabit- met from them. in their conquests in South America. bers before him. it is But for that reason.— UNJUST CENSURE. a welcome reception. illumined by a fervid imagination. Then Guyana. . were not sufficient to daunt him. reality. it seems to have been entirely overlooked. whose chivalric courage and enterprising genius were excited by the same dazzling prospect. discovered east of this state of the country. enthusiastically followed the pursuit of it. was covered with almost impervious forests . . If they should not only have yielded to the belief of it. too. ? by the natives. brave military leaders and distinguished viceroys. through its whole extent. saw another prospect. would ants. its Their persevering pursuit of it. but sition of the — — . were desirous of acquiring this region. southwardly from Venezuela. The Spaniards. chain toward the Atlantic The rough and the ter- ror the native tribes inspired. from Peru across the Andes Philip de Urra. Southey. was wholly unknown. it might be desirable to true. whose narrative was generally considered too marvellous to be credited. men of the first rank in Peru and New Grenada.

in the plains of Macas. displayed an extreme ardor for reaching the imaginary lake of Manoa. Six Spaniards oifered themselves for this to which the Indian consented. him. "At Cuenza. he performed the religious ceremonies. whose journal Humboldt had a perusal the Paragua. of . with a bit of charcoal. by going up the Rio Essequibo. were made by the Caura and the Rio Paragua. in 1740. Nicholas Rodriguez and Antonio Santos were employed by the Governor.94 ELDORADO. the roofs of its principal The high-priest. from which he passed to the Brazils. in the kingdom of Quito. name of Captain Juraddo. yet solitary enterprises have been undertaken and encouraged by Governors of the Spanish provinces. the neatness of its its streets. Nar. Don Antonio Santos. He boasted a groat deal of the beauty of its buildings. a city.. even to the latest period. He asked him to serve as a guide to some Spaniards he wished to send on this discovery. the Governor of Angustura. down ' the Branco into the 5 Amazon History of Caraccas. vainly attempted to undeceive the Governor. An Indian of the nation of the Ipurucutoes. instead of pontifihouses were either of gold or silver. And even after his voyages to Guyana. from Avhich. and came and to St. gives some " When the wild Indian further particulars in regard to this adventure. which was believed to be situated in a country boldt. which he answered with as much perspicuity and precision as could be expected from one whose most intelligible language consisted in He. and no expeditions by any numerous bands of colonists have been made."* Santos is the individual who has before been spoken of. was. on the banks of lake Parima. rubbed his whole body with the fat of the turtle . then they blew upon it some gold-dust. although the ardor in search of EI Dorado greatly diminished. however. stir. then crossed the Cordillera of Parima. and the riches of people. that it was supposed Dorado might be readied from Dutch Guyana. whose inhabitants were civilized and regularly disciplined to war. went down the Rio Carony. known among the Charibees of Essequibo by the rich in gold. the ruins of the town of Logrono. Don Manuel Centurion. Rosa. as one of the four instanFruitless attempts ces of travellers who came near its the supposed site of lake Parima. They setoff and * Humboldt's Pep. and among others. so as to cover his whole body with it. geography has derived some advantages. undertaking. the city of which he had given a description. a tributary of the western branch of the Branco. and by false narratives inflamed the imagination of the Spanish colonists Another Indian chief. His ingenuity seduced the Governor. succeeded in making them understand that there signs. in his questions. . and several hundred persons perished miserably in their rash enterprises. appeared before the Governor of Spanish Guyana. cal robes. he was assailed with De Pons. however. ch. seek at the east of the Cordilleras. In The Indian sketched this attire. " I to We learn by the journal of Hortsman. According to the regularity of^its squares. on the Uaripara." observes Hum* met with some men who were employed by the Bishop of Marfil. on a table. one of and who went up the Caroni and branches.

at length. and headed two powerful factions. which cost him his life. and the hopelessness him of . They thus became rivals and enemies. 2. and in his correspondence. at length seeing all efforts to regain her favor. the swamps. under him. they all perished but He threw covered his whole body with red paint. vol. been courting the friendship of King James of Scotland. . the When those who survived thought themselves four or five days' journey from the capital city. The leaders of this expedition. the animosity of the minister to him again disclosed itself. found a very gracious reception from the Queen on their return . and Essex. t Hist. This event dismayed the Spaniards. found that Sir Robert Cecil had acquired a predominant influence with her. which divided the court. however. and on good terms with Cecil and the influence of Essex at the court was on the decline. the rains. destroyed almost all. They em- barked him on the river Amazon. represented to James. p. RALEIGH AND ESSEX. to not where they were. off his clothes. of the sincere belief of Sir Walter Raleigh in the representations he made of the wealth of Guyana at least for I do not know how much longer the idea of El Dorado possessed his mind after the three expeditions which he made to this. from this circumstance. who looked to the succession to the throne of England . Indian disappeared in the night. through the moat roads. — — causes contributed to foment the displeasure of Queen Elizabeth against her fixed dislike. which have been related there is the further strongest evidence and possession of this countxy continued afterward to be prosecuted by him with undiminished ardor although difficulties. that the conquest . and introduced himself among them by his knowledge of many of their languages. in which he became involved at home. He whom occurred to disguise himself as an Indian. in which Raleigh was engaged. and after a very long detention. some time before. it By degrees.f Raleigh was subsequently employed in various naval expeditions under Essex."* But in addition to the proofs which I have given. his own enemies were * Cayley. as has been mentioned. set on foot those acts for the overthrow of her government. 387. The danger to him. he fell into the power of the Portuguese established on the banks of the Rio Negro. They knew Santos. began to be less. of Caraccas.. until. and hoped to reach the end of all their troubles and the object of their desires. in the fact. the precipices. sent him back to his country. threw obstacles in his way. to add to his mortification. and. frightful 95 travelled nearly five hundred leagues to the south. and been appointed Secretary of State. in the mean time. and in the course of them. was a long time among them. and contended for the supreme direction of affairs. He had. Various region. the heats. from the jealousy and rival ship of contemporary statesmen. the buddings of which had appeared some time before. . the woods. p. 3. Hunger. as enemies to his succession 301-306. vol. as he was then in the favor of the Queen. in the expedition against the city of Cadiz. but Essex was dissatisfied that more had not been done . Indications of the opposition to him of the Earl of Essex appeared.

as well from the real character. among whom were An the Queen. 96 ELDORADO. mind against Raleigh. for his a loss to Raleigh. during the likely soon to than Raleigh found another rival appearing against him at the court. Upon this. 352-358. perpetual imprisonment. found it life of Elizabeth. attachment of peculiar strength appears to have subsisted between Prince Henry and him. Prince of Wales. among whom. who. he became suspected. with the sword hanging over his head. with great appearance of probability. were increased by other causes. or with the alternative of an indefinite. who was The cause of his opposition is but little known . Raleigh would naturally be included and. " No king but my father would keep such a bird in a cage. was imaginable . at that time on terms of intimacy with Lord Cobham . and he had many friends and pityers in his adverse fortune. being also out of favor at court. it appears. prudent. had a desire that he might be bound by articles and his enterprising and martial character was little agreeable to James. The leading conspirators were first tried. and by the influence of the court. No sooner was the blow struck against Essex. doubts also arose in regard to him. he was allowed various privi- leges. on the seventeenth of November. He was committed to the Tower. but it is ri- probable." was a remark of his. it is not surprising that he received neglect at court. 1603. to suffer under the constant apprehension of the execution of the sentence. that after the fall of Essex. was engaged in Among others.. the prepossessions thus early instilled in his Raleigh appears have been among those. Essex may be called the first planter of a prejudice in the — mind of James against him. cultivate the favor of James. macy with him. and this treason beIn consequence of Raleigh's intiing discovered. as from the future prospects t Campbell's Lives of the PP. in regard to the known feud between England and Scotland. he had an various schemes to revenge himself against it. intercourse with persons concerned in a Popish plot. condemned. Under these circumstances. their friendship terminated in a valship for power. of the widest extent esteem which he manifested * Cwley. and suffered the penalty of the law. On to the accession of James. was convicted of high treason. In his confinement. tried . and no thought Three months had not or action of his life. Admirab . perhaps.* He was. and the celebrated Henry. in his nineteenth year. Sir Walter Raleigh was then. His death. Sir Edward Coke. however. the good fortunes of Raleigh to rise no more. he speaks of Raleigh in terms of strong disaffection. who. before he was charged with treasonable practices against the government. which have been published. and in some of the letters. The tide of prejudice ran strong against him . abusive eloquence of the Attorney General. as well as Essex. }. to become his sovereign. without any color of evidence. f But the King did not sign the warrant for his execution. and the vehement. was any longer innocent.vol. they were all apprehended. He commenced a secret correspondence with him. elapsed. Cecil. With sank the death of Queen Elizabeth.

in the Earl of Somerset. six months had inspired him with the hopes of obtaining his freedom as. Raleigh effected by money. what the most powerful patronage could not accomplish. the superiority of his mind . His History of the World. with his prison hours enriched the world. given to two friends of the minister. seldom been more truly recognized. and which a superior mind could alone advert to. The death of Cecil. and many of his political pieces. tages of a cultivated understanding. he had a steady friend.* During his long confinement. when a coward reign : The warrior Then active fettered still." f As one of the most elegant writers of England observes " His vigor sunk not. he did not suffer his brilliant talents to be unemployed and wasted in unavailing The frowns of a monarch. were composed in the Tower . by SirWalter Raleigh. p. or the gloom repinings. . . vol. Fifteen hundred. procured their influence with and thus. intellect. have made him. were unable to repress the activity of his ardent and vigorousThe pursuit of literature and science in various departments. on the sevenhim. in the calm contemplation of his intellectual talents. of a prison." f Cayley. pounds. perhaps. 3. who succeeded him." says Mr. . or sullen indolence. IN PRISON. he found the resource of all others best adapted to relieve his situation. by this event. and the King's consent to his enlargement teenth of March. Sir Walter Raleigh at length obtained his freedom. which would naturally be much discouraged by the latter event. discovered in diversity of fortune. it may naturally be supposed. 1616. and much of his time was amused with chemical pursuits. than they were at this time. this. " have. and supporting the endless The disposition he made of his time. vol. " The advanas distinguished as his daring enterprises on sea or land.: RALEIGH before. and unrestrained. Cayley. and his efforts in which. 46. but were enVilliers then tirely dispelled by this minister's falling into disgrace. . for. was his constant employment. his mind Explored the vast extent of ages past. 2. to which he appears to have had a strong partiality. in alleviating confinement. not less than on other occasions. 97 which the Prince's patronage afforded him. pp. And * Cayley. 47-56. after an imprisonment of more than twelve years' duration. became the favorite and.

This persuasion was so strong upon him. (HIS IMPRISONMENT. in which he had formerly so enthusiastically embarked. that this was the richest country in the world. one would have thought his mind might have been otherwise occupied . sending. is seen by the following passage from Dr. IT EXPEDITION TO GUYANA —PREPARES ANOTHER —UNFORTUNATE FAILURE OF FOURTH) HIS HOME It may also be readily conceived. the favorite — to relax his ardor in the pursuit of How great were the distresses itand troubles into which he was plunged. a prominent one was his old scheme of settling Guyana . he held a constant intercourse with Guyana . if he had not been thoroughly persuaded. We have seen how as he first discovered. amid his — scheme which he had for years before pursued with persevering ardor the conquest of Guayana. a ship to keep the Indians in hopes of his performing the promise he made them. that amid them all. that. I have remarked that. a scheme worthy of him. the difficulties.' " Among the subjects which occupied his mind. his own eyesight and judgment. who now encroached upon them again. of coming to their assistance and delivering them from the tyranny and cruelty of the Spaniards. this enterprise. and which. in which he became involved at home. although. after the third expedition made by him to that country." . with whom Sir Walter con versed in the Tower. and so it must have been. while tion confinement — mind of Sir entertaining.CHAPTER HIS LIBERATION FROM VI. to the enterprising in Walter Raleigh. they were little able studies. especially. has just been shown. when. many voyages he encouraged during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. But. Campbell's ' Lives of the Admirals. every year. or every second year. was not forgotten. and the worthiest of being settled for the benefit of Britain. so he constantly prosecuted. and that upon the best evi- dence in the world. caused impediments to the attainment of his object. RETURN GREAT DISPLEASURE OF THE KING AGAINST HIM HIS TRAGICAL END CONSEQUENCES OF HIS VOYAGES TO THAT COUNTRY COLONIES SENT TO IT FROM ENGLAND SKETCH OF THE SETTLEMENTS MADE IN IT BY OTHER NATIONS. considering the many great employments he engaged in. as he no doubt would. In these ships were brough* out several of the natives of that country. the hope that the efforts he was continually making for his liberawould be successful the field of future action would. present itself. at his own charge. that. during his confinement.

But my name h*th still lived among them here. whom. who. but on which nothing could be done. he found their friendly sentiments to him were not in the least diminished. makes the following remarks on this period of his life " The sentiments of the nation were much changed in regard to him. A new and bright prospect opened to him. of which one was built at his own charge. which languished in the rigors of confinement . Stress of weather obliged him to put into Cork. Co-adveniurers likewise were obtained. with . even those of the most recluse and and they admired his unbroken magnanimity. 99 Two years before his liberation.: RALEIGH'S LAST EXPEDITION. f Hume. Of the other vessels. belonging to the He arrived on the coast of Cayenne. in regard : leisure to reflect on the hardship. of which eighty were gentlemen volunteers . twelfth November. they were stuck with the extensive genius of the man. 1617. and he accompanied in her as captain. of all his censurers. was altered. in the pursuits of literature. with the most ample grant of powers. and his mind was elated with the almost certain expectation. he made an amicable and long as had been the period of his absence. twenty-two years after the jirst expedimade by him for the same object. They feed me with all that the ccuj^ry yields. had surpassed. on his first arrival. vcO. with the means which he and his associates provided. as tenders. among whom were some foreigners. taking. were a vanity. Cayley. has inveighed most bitterly against him. he offered to the court a scheme for the settlement of it. 1595. 7* . which." and adventurers. and this enterprise received from it greater attention and encouragement than his former ones. viz yet able to obtain his discharge. he obtained a royal commission to undertake it at his own expense.* and as soon as he received it. '•' smaller size. In a letter which he wrote to Lady R. as he was not But soon after he was liberated. There were also on board of her two hundred men. May. 1617. equipped a fleet of eight vessels. at the river by the Charibee alliance same nation with in those on the Oronoke. PP.aleigh from this place. at . of his sentence . many of them his relations. a district inhabited Guyana. not to say injustice. Indians. could engage him to undertake and execute so great a work as the History of the World. : All oner to obey me. The opinion of the pubto him. who. the fleet had dropped down the Thames. 2.'" t * Campbell's Lives of the Admirals. on the twenty-sixth August of that year." Sir Walter Raleigh. which number was afterward increased. being educated amid naval and military enterprises. and under his circumstances. he says " To tell you that I viight be here King of the Indians. 6&-61. he made preparations for procuring funds Circumstances favored the underfor a new expedition to that region. of at length realizing the which he had so long been in pursuit. they pitied his active and enterprising spirit. Men had object of lic. and it was late in August the twenty-eighth tion On before he could proceed. most of them were of a sedentary lives his age.

and drove them to the woods . his trusty associate. and returned with his For not proceeding to it and making further disvessels to Trinidad. that the news of his son would hasten his end to which he added. which they He made : . entered the town. that it was also impossible to keep any companies at the mine. when they were set upon in the night and charged by the Spaniards. as the greater part of the thre/} companies guarded the town against the daily and nightly alarms. and being unable himself to accompany it. that he intended. with vhich they were troubled . his of one by in mentioned Raleigh. But the prospect of a favorable result to this expedition. no further attempts to reach the mine. gave Raleigh the unwelcome and most unexpected intelligence of the total failure of the enterprise. but.) to accomplish the absent above two months . sea and other inconveniences of a voyage. the air. not Wishing to incur his charge. he could when he landed his companies. from the lowness of the river. he gave as excuses to Raleigh. he prepared to discover the mine.100 ELDORADO. He remained at Cayenne river until the fourth December. to sail to the Oronoke. of which they took possession. He was at Trinidad. tending remain on the bank of the river until the next day. . coveries. or. two miles below the mine . they charged back. was soon Disastrous events commenced. in the course of the voyage. which was not extraoryears. which dissipated all his cherdispelled. who had commanded the second expedition made by him to this river. in 1596. the death of his son. and following the Spaniards in their retreat. to land. to proceed at once to the mine. innot aproach to it nearer than a mile . accompanied with the afflicting account of the death of his son. that the Spaniards had a settlement or town on the river. and led to consequences which finally entirely overwhelmed him. for want of provisions from the town. he gave orders to five small vessels. also. it was impossible to reach the mine unless they had been driven out for which they had no men. weight letters. ished hopes. and went to it in a shalBut on approaching near the bank where he intended lop with eight men. The town being thus possessed. each of which to have a company of fifty men. To repel this force. under the direction of Captain Keymis. laid the foundation for the unfortunate events that subsequently happened. rendering him dinary after his close confinement in the walls of a prison for thirteen little prepared to encounter a change of climate. He related. Keymis proceeded up the Oronoke with the vessels intrusted to —when. (the other ships remaining object of the expedition. and on his return. and wounded others. which slew two of to the company. he received from the woods a volley of shot. having been dangerously ill for six weeks any longer delay in prosecuting the expedition. were not abn is The following circumstance to carry up the mountains. His illness. and his fear that he was himself dead. as having had. that the Spaniards being in the woods between the mine and the town. in which assault young Raleigh was killed. which this welcome reception by the Charibees was calculated to inspire.

in planning the enterprise. 76-77. their boats were exposed. at this time. from the island of Porto Rico. addition. erected on the the enemy's garrison between instructions trial —which enjoined them and them. he suc- —apprised — ceeded in preparing another expedition for the purpose . thereone body. called St. pp. and forewarned of their coming. his son killed. never again to be resumed in — — — and himself lingering under disease this calamitous reverse was sufficient to depress. borne itself above every difficulty and adversity. through fear of havinoa garrison. to land in about three weeks after their departure. Spanish town as fore. through life.— ITS FAILURE. a chapel of Franciscan friars. overwhelmed him. containing an order for strengthening the Spaniards on the Oronoke. though lightly built with a convent. 191 in inducing him to give up the enterprise. seeing the fleet which he equipped. and intending to rest themselves on the river's side till morning. first their boats. Letters from the King of Spain were intercepted by him. and of the failure of this expedition : — main channel of the Oronoke. communicated to Raleigh. in the night-time. in his Life of Raleigh. and touch the shores of the country. probably. frustrated.Grenada and one hundred and fifty to have come up it. safely cross the ocean. contrary to Raleigh's orders. they were. and encamp between the mine and the town by which means. . landing by night nearer the town than they suspected. with ten pieces of ordnance . embarking all his property. under shelter of their camp and then to deal with the it should behave toward them. set upon by the Spanish troops. the arrival of which he was hourly apprehensive of. abundant cause existed for his deep dejection. who were to have descended the river from New. of. even his buoyant and gallant spirit. with one hundred and fifty soldiers. Thomas. After having resolved on this project more than twenty years even during his long imprisonment. . Keymis and the rest thought themselves obliged. and now."* But whatever were the causes which produced a failure of the expedition. And. . and by which he might have been inclosed. certainly. The letters and dispatches which he wrote to England. to deviate from their to carry a • little party to make of the mine. with gloom and melancholy. gives the following account of the cause " The five ships found a new Spanish town. They determined. are in the strain of a heart-broken man. * Birch's Life of Raleigh. consisting of about one hundred and forty houses. For. to him so full of bright anticipations . and the mine left untried. maturing plans for its accomplishment when his freedom at length obtained. v/hich had. Birch. though themselves were the stronger. the intelligence of it. and his confident expectations of obtaining the great results from it which he held forth. when about to seize the prize on which his eyes had so long rested to behold all his hopes suddenly blasted this last attempt made by him to effect his long cherished object. about twenty miles distant from the place where Antonio Berreo attempted to plant. and bear the strongest internal evidence of the sincerity of his intentions. .

which was a mere chimera. After he had heard the relation of Keymis. was found dead. or cast into the sea. he encountered a burst of public censure. and was thereby in danger to be — when he was. having the same object looked forward to his return to England. which was probably about May. have persuaded his eight thousand pounds. he withdrew. Raleigh. presenting the excuses he offered for his failure . he told him that he had undone him. within two days' — — slain. because it I refused to it ? " A strange fancy had whom I have lost. oh. on going to his cabin. Thomas. to the mine. by his own confession. an imaginary thing and experienced a most decided manifestation of His co-adventurers. and to been in me. why did I not keep my liberty when I had it ? Nay. as a gross deceiver and pretender . and having encouraged his company with the spoils of that place. Keymis himself. march of it to examine where the two ingots of gold which they brought were taken. and t * Cayley's Life of Raleish. with the most fearful apprehensions of the disastrous consequences to him. to procure his liberation.) could not force Keymis to go in. — — bearing the news of the failure of the present.* Raleigh. that his intention had ever been to plunder the Spanish town. which they found laid by for the King of Spain's fifth part. via. U3. which have persuaded my own son. why did I put my life in manifest peril to forego it ? If I had had a purpose to have turned pirate. Hume's Hist. England. in his apology. And they were most fully verified.! To all these charges. that I carried them with a pretence of gold. 1618. to have thence proceeded to the invasion of other Spanish settlements in South America. solicited Raleigh to write a letter to England. disappointed in crease the public displeasure against him. why did I oppose myself against the greatest number of my company. thus forcibly and feel- were deceived by him . their expectations. . who. when neither Keymis nor myself knew of any in those parts. which being declined. knowing the enemies he had at home that the King himself was his determined foe. St. having shot himself with a pistol. and ruined his credit with the King past recovery. and that he expected to repair his ruined fortunes by such daring enterprises. On the return of the fleet to England. my wife to have adventured the majesty gave them for Sherborne. contributed to in- They concluded that they had never known of any such mine as he pretended to go in search of. the royal displeasure.— 102 EL DORADO. If it had been to have gotten my liberty. or the small pieces of silver which had the same marks or stamps if they refused to send any one of the fleet into the country to see the mines which the Cacique Carapana offered them I say there is no reason to lay it to my charge. had held out the prospect of a gold mine in Guyana. that he ingly replies : " If they (his co-adventurers. and that the relenting of his resentment was produced only by the expectations he formed from this expedition . and recollecting what efforts had been made to discredit all his former enterprises. in his own name. deeply mortified at the result. and soon after. 5. p. vol.

to the acquisition of it. particularly. but the assurance of this mine ? thereby. made for the purpose . for this object. For that I had no purpose to have changed my master and country. and carefully watched his tion. be uninteresting to the reader. if I myself had not seen them with my own eyes ? For being old and weakly. is sufficient for the purpose for which it was made the exculpation of this distinguished man from the charge of deception. U0-1U. imagination and en- have been deluded into the belief of the existence ot great mineral treasures in Guyana. this last enterprise undertaken by him. The dissatisfaction was increased by his of the King with him at the failure of his expedition. who had established themselves on the Oronoke. which has thus far been given. But although in regard to the vindication of Sir Walter Raleigh. as his last expedition to Guyana. hope of enriching them by the mines of Guyana.HOSTILITY OF GONDOMAR. and to have restored my wife and children to the estate they had lost. Circumstances subsequent- pp. to be — entirely unfounded. it will not. my return in the state I did return. every particular of the voyage."* / The relation of the events which befell Sir Walter Raleigh. had acquired considerable influence over him. movements when he was preparing his last expedicomplained of it to the King as hostile and piratical to Spain . to travel and to watching to one that I should ever have returned— and of which. was the cause of his melancholy fate. sent for the patent to Raleigh and corrected * Cavley. and having looked upon Raleigh's former voyages with uneasiness. This envoy. and drew from his weakness. and. for which I have refused all other ways and means. to have done his majesty service. when in 103 that was spent. No candid person who reads the narrative of the measures taken by him in regard course of years . to persuade my wife to sell her house at Mitcham. through thusiastic temper. under the peculiar circumstances in which it was made. yet. in the representations he — — made of that country. ought to be sufficient to demonstrate the charge of deception and imposture made against him. but must be the influence of a warm convinced that. . connected with his expeditions to Guyana. I might my remarks . collision with the Spaniards. and after such a lapse of time. prompted by Gondomar. and not used to the air. and the long continuance thereof. to have bettered my country by the trade. the Spanish minister. I here close think. — what madness would have made me undertake the journey. which has just been related. which a better knowledge of the country has shown to be without foundation he fully believed in the representations he made. and the sacrifices he —however he may. may satisfy every honest and indifferent man. on which the King it. briefly to relate the events that sub- sequently befell him. vol. 2. and did not impose upon the world a fabrication of his own . by reason of my violent sickness. thirteen years it being ten in prison. it was believed. no man had any hope. through a long the strong possession the project took of his mind.

and being informed by the court of the order of the King. which he began to idolize. ashe confessed before his death. the state of his feelings. he once Still. with authorWith him he returned to Plyity to arrest and bring him to London. in giving his consent to this expedition. why execution should not be awarded against him ? — after apologizing for the weakness of . after encouraging. mouth. self of in it Such being availed him- Gondomar to procure his ruin. a privy seal was sent to the Judges to order immediate executo the Much deliberation . make 3tim suffer the penalties of the law. France. his constancy forsook him. Stukely.104 ELDORADO. Gondomar to exert still ly occurred. Accordingly. tion. and the project was laid aside. received a bribe and betrayed him. was exercised by the Chancellor and Commissioners. By all to these causes King James was prepared. and grew less in favor of Raleigh's enterprise. a warrant for the speedy bringing up of and he again attempted an escape his trust in the agents he employed. " Pirates! pirates! pirates!" without adding more. should be enforced and soon after the decision had been made known to the King. in the customary form. than he resolved to surrender himself. on the arrival of Raleigh. ring his vindication. Raleigh no sooner reached Plymouth. and charging such of his subjects as could give any information respecting it. he was apprehended and his person. In a boat. and in that in- terval wrote the apology for his voyage. when a messenger appeared to witli As he approached to London. by the expedient of feigning sickness. in regard to the manner of proceeding against It was at last determined. that the sentence which had been passed him. and heard of the proclamation. and even pretending to lend a hand in the design. the execution of which had been suspended. it is presumed. in the very act of making his escape in disguise. declaring his detestation of the conduct of the expedition. on the return of Raleigh. exclaiming. His relative. afterward a project being started of a Spanish matrimonial alliance. which enabled greater power over him. on the tenth of June. had placed great hopes on the discovery of But the mine which Raleigh had represented to exist on the Oronoke. against him fifteen years since. and asked. On his way to London he met with his relative. The King. where. the goodness of his cause meditated an escape to France. panic-struck. Sir Lewis Stukely. But he greatly misapplied committed Tower. however. published a proclamation. as soon as intelligence arrived to the London of Raleigh's proceeding. too much in the King's goodness. which continued two months. Yet he found it necessary. he found it more important to him to preserve peace with Spain. he proceeded King. on his journey to London. Raleigh was then called to the bar. prevailed over every apprehension. confiding. to gain time for prepaat . upon a closer view of his situation. to repair immediately to the privy council. as his wants were great at this time. on the ground of his having committed acts of hostility against a power with whom England was then peace and.

but it is a remedy for all diseases. : i have acted."* lain dormant for fifteen years Walter Raleigh lose his life. But he was interrupted by the Chief Justice. he might have obtained his pardon. which The Queen appears to have been in the number of proved ineffectual. he hoped that the judgment which he received should not be strained to take away his life. Guyana in lawyer * Cnyky's Life of Raleigh. under a sentence which had . and this without requiring him to make the expedition did Sir to Thus but when he consulted Sir Francis Bacon. 2. in 105 consequence of his late sickness. . " Sir. and was beheaded. the twenty-ninth of October. Ix. for his friends at court. where he had power. out of which some "Few — ' was conducted His countenance was cheerful. drawing and quartering. as well as solicitations from persons of distinction. the most eminent England. and after exhorting him to meet his fate in a manner suitable to his high character. that in case of treason. and not by implication. The warrant for his as a valiant and wise man. he had a power rarely intrusted to admirals. by one clause of which he was constituted Governor and commander-in-chief of the enterprise.' He then laid down. with ample authority . he body. without the least shrink or motion of his by the sheriff to the scaffold. by the patent for the conquest of Guyana granted to him by the crown. by another. as marshal. himself for his execution." says Mr. his intercessors. offered £700 to obtain it for him. and his pardon granted. Cayley. whether it were advisable to pay a sum of money for his pardon in the common form. on the life and death of others. through whom he had procured his liberation from the Tower. and smiling said to the sheriff. ch. ordered execution. by express words. he said. He saluted the lords and gentlemen of his acquaintance who were present. made a sign that he "was ready .EXECUTION OF RALEIGH. and which he considered was virtually ab. and after a short pause. vol. he said to him. He no longer expected he seemed not to wish for mercy. who told him that was not sufficient . he asked the executioner to show him the axe. with the spirit and firmness which Raleigh displayed in it. as his majesty had given him permission to proceed on a voyage beyond the seas. the knee-timber of . pardon was granted . execution dispensed with the former judgment of hanging. Having taken off his gown and doublet. and then Having finished. he prepared entered into an explanation of his conduct. And if he had thought it necessary. Some petitions are said to have been presented to the King in his behalf.' " On Thursday morning. who deplored his misfortune. The world is but a larger prison. This is a sharp medicine. with calmness. appointed Governor of the new colony he was to settle. which he considered discharged the judgment. proved no disappointment to him. ' are daily selected for execution. To some of his friends. The inefficacy of the intercessions with the King in his behalf. that of exercising martial law by sea and by land. and by the third. "so difficult a part in the last scene of his life. hi* voice. and felt the edge. rogated.

after examining the country. for his benefit . Besides. and that England actually considered it to belong to her. He was charged the with a piratical proceeding against the possessions of King of Spain. Robert Harcourt.106 EL DORADO. 2. who were sent out by him with two vessels and made the discovery. King James. under a grant from Pope Alexander Sixth. your voyage is money. To this extravagant pretension of Spain. Spain. only drew up a record signed by a number of their company as evidence that they had taken possession of it. on the other hand. which the King would not have granted. instead of the exaction of the literal penalty. first To this he replied. discovered Virginia. But he could not only justly complain of the form of proceeding adopted against him. and that no other nation had a right to any part of it on the ground of first discovery. while the sentence was suffered to lay dormant. although came afterward in his absence and made a settlement there . resting her claim to the country on no other ground than his discovery. that Guyana belonged to England. and relied on the assistance of the English against them. that the right of discovery gave a title to On this basis it was. the rightfnl owners who invited him among them. for the proceeding was equally piratical with the burning of a Spanish town. . while she wholly disregarded the rights of the aborigines in the new hemisphere. although Amidas and Barlowe. and given you power of martial law over your officers and soldiers. she made a grant of nearly the whole of it to Mr. in regard to the matrimonial alliance he had in view with it being desirous to preserve amicable relations with it found it expedient to yield. the King having. ana. seven years before his last expedition. having been discovered by himself twenty-three years before. might have considered the long confinement which he endured. was a fulfill- ment of it. Raleigh could also allege the amicable league he had made in behalf of the English with the Charibees. too. on the Oronoke. that he had committed no act rendering him amenable to law. he claimed it as belonging to England. vol. Against the claims of Spain to Guyor leaving a single person behind. pretended an exclusive claim to all the undiscovered land in it. under his broad seal. under the patent of discovery granted by Queen Elizabeth. in opposition to the — — * Ciyley. and treated the claims of Raleigh as a perfect nullity. was itself a virtual pardon. and on rightful grounds. while they expelled the of the country Spaniards. in 1609. possessions in the new hemisphere. for upon my life you have a sufficient pardon for all that is past already . Spare your purse in this particular. according to the rules adopted by all Protestant nations at that time. that having. and his liberation without any condition or restriction. for. the Spaniards . made you admiral of your fleet. and came away without making any establishment upon it. but he contended. he had the King's leave to sail to the Oronoke and take possession of the mine he related to be there . 63—64. pp. who then filled the papal chair. if he had considered that the country belonged to Spain ."* Raleigh.

197 and principles uniformily followed by England in regard to foreign and to sacrifice to a rival Power one of the brightest ornaments of his country.INJUSTICE TO RALEIGH. during that long period. while his unavailing efforts. no benefit to him. he was unable to achieve ." says Hume. who combined an assemblage of qualities seldom united in one individual. Charles Leigh fitted out a vessel. was deemed an instance of cruelty cute a sentence which and injustice. Esq. Robert Harcourt. To exe- was originally so hard. wrested the prize from him. claimed by try. even before his last voyage. to two voyages to it. by conferring on him a new trust and. in consequence of his discovery. and sympathized with the misfortunes of one so distinguished for his talents and services. being universally distasteful. That the proceedings against Sir Walter Raleigh were clearly unjust and oppressive. and took possession. Seaman. In 1604. they were not profitless to his counGuyana was. rules discoveries. which twenty-three years before in him the most and which. and gave rise. " No measure of James's reign. and which seemed to have been tacitly pardoned. and excited its enthusiastic desire for accomplishment . the life of the only man in the nation who had a high reputation for valor and mili. tary experience. and while he was yet in prison in the Tower. drew strongly public attention in England to this region . and sailed to the river Oyapoke in Cayenne. brought him But. and his history will ever remain a conspicuous. has been proclaimed by the unanimous voice of after times. Even his most violent enemies have been compelled to condemn the conduct of the Government toward him. Able pens have done justice to his merits. In 1608. after consuming all his estate." into with Spain. in his seized on the mind of this distinguished man. Soldier. Philosopher and Poet . of all the country lying between the Oronoke and Amazon. but clouded — page. where he arrived May seventeenth. in the history of his country. while they have exposed the iniquity of his condemnation. rendered the proof of his complaisance more Thus it has been seen that the project. therefore. public or private at once Statesman. commission. he ardently and perseveringly pux'sued. and commenced a settlement. " was attended with more public dissatisfaction than the punishment of Sir Walter Raleigh. for which he had so long contended. whose voyage and narrative have been frequently mentioned. England as belonging to her . To sacrifice to a concealed enemy of England. fitting him for any scene of action. by persons wholly unconnected with him. but only misfortune. for England.. He took " possession. set sail for the same river with a colony. with the glowing colors of a warm imagination. which had been so long suspended. The description he gave of this country in his Narrative. . and reaped the benefit of all his toils and efforts. and others soon entered upon the field which he had opened. was regarded as meanness and indiscretion and the still inti- mate connections which the King was now entering invidious and unpopular. although his enterprises to Guyana produced to a melancholy end.

Zealand. at that time the commercial rivals of England. commencing acts of cruelty against the Charibees. and about the same time had succeeded in In 1741. attention of the English appears also to have been early turned to the Surinam a company of colonists from England having settled there engaged in the cultivation of tobacco. as by it England claimed the country as belonging to her. of Parham. bounded on the north with the Oronoke and the sea. also. and on the last river they had a factory called Newfor trading purposes States General of Holland. on the east and south with the river Amazon. also. It was this grant which Raleigh contended completely exonerated him from the charge of any piratical proceeding against The Spain. of sufficient force to withstand them and maintain possession of the country. sent a colony to it. 122. were As early as also among the earliest navigators to the coast of Guyana. and before that time. thinking the lands near the sea more productive than the upper * Hartsynck Beschryving von Guiana. t Hartsynck. * ' The French. for they. the colonists on this establishing themselves on the Essequibo. also. for tobacco . under the river . Before 1596. together with Lawrence Hyde." On his return to England. p. in 1634. or Spaniards. with Sir Thomas Challoner and John Rowenson. they had made a settlement on the Essequibo. drove the Dutch away from this river and the Pomeroon. a grant from Charles II. where they were favorably received by the Indians and made a settlement on it. and on the west with the mountains of Peru. who sent to it a vessel with some men. Prior to the arrival of either the English or French on this coast. to settle all the lands between the Amazon and Spanish Guyana. a son of the Earl of Clarendon. obtained letters patent from James I. In 1602. a settlement had been made on the Surinam river by the Portuguese. But — — . the Spaniards looking on these proceedings with a jealous eye. he. also. they planted a colony on the river Berbice. from 1624 to 1652 but which were frustrated by the opposition of the Charibees. they attacked them. the voyages of Raleigh they before years some was 1580 which attempted to form settlements on the Amazon. and in 1652 he obtained. and in 1650 a plan for the colonization of it was set on foot by Lord Willoughby. who were the . But they. principal native population of that country — till at length an association formed France. river. name of the Province of Surinam. of all the country between Cayenne and Spanish Guyana. where they erected a fort. of all the spacious country of Guyana. privileged certain the In 1581. nine or ten armed vesindividuals to trade to this coast. and destroyed the settlement. The Portuguese were. and made successive attempts to colonize Cayenne. now began to turn their attention to Guyana. and Pomeroon. in 1663. which laid the foundation of the presin ent colony. . sovereign's name.108 EL DORADO. Oronoke.f sels from Holland were seen trading in the Oronoke. which was found deserted when the Dutch first came to it . under the name of the French Equinoctial Company. the first to settle on the Essequibo river.

England had conquered from the Dutch. § Martin's t Hartsinck. a Dutch fleet of three vessels. and which was before the first voyage of Raleigh. : . until the year 1667. as first discoverer. History of British Colonies. by Holland.± § PRIORITY OF DISCOVERY. now called British Guyana. but erected a fort upon it . Holmes's American Annals. and ascending it to the English settlement. and the grants of this district. for a valuable consideration. were ceded to Great Britain. this country. and the province of New-Amsterdam was yielded in like manner to England.1 . took the fort. and now one of the United States of America and by the treaty of peace which was concluded with her and Holland. undoubtedly." To the coast of Guyana.her on the ground of the first discovery by Raleigh. In this year. discovered by Sir Walter Raleigh. f In the mean time. and received the capitulation of the colonists. the Portuguese. during the war which then existed between England and Holland. under Admiral Cryssen. therefore assumed a which was not correct. and Berbice. * Martin's History of British Colonies. They also commenced them on the river Surinam. obliged them to discontinue them. it was agreed. on which they had previously settled. I Rees's Cyclopedia. as first discoverers. viz.* The acquaintance which the Dutch so early formed with the Oronoke. The Dutch made early settlements also. which were likewise thwarted by the measures the English took to maintain the colony they had established there. by a . as belonging to . p. she admitted the claim made by Raleigh to the borders of the Oronoke. and entitled. is not considered to affect his claim to the country upon it. their colony of New. and proved the clear injustice of the punishment which afterward fell basis upon him. in North America. from Cayenne to Spanish Guayana. although they were well acquainted with the expeditions of Raleigh to Guyana was made by Hondius narrative. subsequently made by England. in Cayenne but the efforts of the French to possess that country. as granted to Lord Willoughby. and was prepared from his A Chart of the Wonderful Region of Guyana.Amsterdam. Demerara. thirteenth August. . But asserting her right to it on this ground. 109 country.York. 1814. convention signed at London. had a precedent claim as the first discoverers . that each Power should retain the conquests it had made and Surinam was ceded in perpetuity to Holland. came to the river Surinam. 586. The colonies of Essequibo. began to form plantations on the river Demerara. as it does not I appear that they succeeded in making a location upon it. formed by the Dutch within the limits of Surinam. against the English. " in it . as they not only were the first to locate themselves on the Essequibo river. for the first map of Holland. an appendage to England. which continued with the bounds. in 1667. or that they Nor did they assert a right to entered into any treaty with the natives. afterward called the province of New.

its . which they viewed only as the abode of the savage streams tribes who inhabited. in forests. comprising an extent of coast of three hundred miles. Portugal. accompanied with the comforts.110 ELDORADO. but never discovered. which in other countries belong only to an advanced period of their existence . pursued like an ignis fatnus. found there was a richer mine in the fine alluvial soil along the coast of Guyana. the fable of El Dorado began to die on the ear the golden city. of the nam for the territory now constituting the State of . and even refinements of life. they surrendered for this territory. it has been seen. forms but a part of were from Cayenne to Spanish Guyana. from which they had been overpowered by the French and English. Nor in regard to the value of the country. not of such certainty as to be much relied on.) an area full as large as that of this State. and Holland. may be to thought by some incredible but it is be considered. and that before the close of two centuries. rapid succession spread. a prize contended for by various European powers. — — of population would. during the first part of the seventeenth century. exchange of the province of SuriNew-York. which extends westward from the Hudson river then an unbroken wilderness. itself possesses. At the period of this exchange. who had some years before commenced settlements in Cayenne and Surinam. at least. which they formed upon it. France. were the Dutch dissatisfied with the exchange. to foresee. fact The which I have stated. as they possessions in fable of it. But valuable as they are. which They had not the gift of prophecy. into the interior. was. gave the first impulse to the desire of Europeans to possess it. whose inroads they continually dreaded . the proof of which was seen in the profitableness of the colonies to Holland. but of mines of gold. well adapted to the cultivation of sugar and coffee . not only the El Dorado. Spain. what a contrast do they afford to the present elevated and flourishing condition of their northern colony. their small and feeble colony would the principal that become member of an important empire. —which bounds. and the mines of gold proved not to be so easily found. which Holland. and presented it to them for some time as a land of promise. Guyana. or when found. England. But the Dutch. that over the large expanse of country embraced within its bounds. with a population equal to parent State. that the present its colony which bears that name. in time. was at length considered merely an idle tale .it. and extending an equal distance. (embracing the portion now called British Guyana. The mineral riches reported to be there. subduing the and building up towns and villages without number. all endeavored to acquire were at that period .



examination of Sir Walter Raleigh's Narrative of Guyana, without adverting to some other matters The contained in it, of a tendency, unexplained, to affect him injuriously. censure and ridicule which he incurred from the relations he made in it, of the mineral riches of that region and the city of El Dorado, were probably increased by accounts which he gave of some extraordinary




his first expedition to

tribes in



one of which,


credit on his

whole relation


certain, contributed greatly to throw dis-

that of the existence in


of a com-

munity of female warriors, and
the denunciation he has

particularly mentioned by



made of him.


a candid examination, how-

ever, ,of these relations, which I propose to make in the present and succeeding chapter, his character will, I believe, be entirely relieved from any liability to censure in respect to them.

One of

these accounts,

vivas, inhabiting the

he thus describes


is that which he gives of a nation called Titinumerous islands in the Delta of the Oronoke, whom " In the summer, they have houses on ground as in

other places, and in the winter they dwell upon trees, where they huild very

towns and dwellings.

They never

eat anything that is set or
kill deer, fish,



use the tops of palmitos for bread, and


for their sustenance.

they sell into

They are, for the most part, makers of canoes, which Guyana for gold, and into Trinidado for tobacco."*
Walter heard


that Sir

account, there cannot be any doubt.




inhabit these islands are the Guaranos,

whom Gumilla thus
by the

speaks of


their islands are periodically inundated
piles, to

of the Oronoke, they erect their huts on

be above the water.

These huts are made of
the leaf, they

the mauritia palm,

which grows abundantly

these islands, and are covered with the leaves of


the fibres of

and bow* a weblike integument that serves them for the slight covering they wear. On the productions of this tree, also, they entirely subsist. The pulpy shoot is eaten as cabbage, and the tree bears a fruit like the date, but somewhat larger. When the inundation ceases, the tree is cut down, and


hamacks and

their cords for fishing,


the pulpy shoot that ascends from the trunk,


* Cayiey's Life of Raleigh, vol,


p. 215.


from which they make a drink.
interior substance of

bein<j perforated, a palatable juice exudes,



then taken out, and thrown into vessels of

water and well washed, and the ligneous fibres being removed, a white sediment is deposited, which, dried in the sun, is made into a very palatable bread."* It is not improbable they formerly lived in the manner that Raleigh for Humboldt thus speaks of them, describes, if they do not at present " Du. but only on report, as he did not descend the Oronoke to its outlet ring the inundation, they sometimes ascend the mauritia palm-tree, and remain on it while it continues, hanging mats on it, which they fill with


and kindle, on a layer of moist clay, the


necessary for their

household wants."

Thomson, the elegant poet of the Seasons,' has introduced among his an account of the singular mode of life of this people in the

following lines



o'er his isles, the

brandling Oronoque
the native drives

Rolls a

brown deluge, and

To dwell
At once
It is

on life-sufficing trees, dome, his robe, his food,



not necessary for the defence of Raleigh, to inquire whether the
this nation,

accounts he heard of
are correct or not.

and which are confirmed by Humboldt,

It is

sufficient to prove, in his vindication, that they

are not his invention, that so distinguished a traveller as the one just mentioned, has repeated the same.







of these Indians, as described by both, without

a parallel. Herrera observes, that at Maracaybo, on the coast of Venezuela, were houses set upon piles in the water, so that boats could pass under them,! and that Balbao observed, on the shores of the Isthmus of Darien,
states further, that

He Indians living on trees above the height of the overflowing waters.^: on the South Sea, in the province of New-Grenada,
" were barbarous people

who had

their houses



because the country

come down to reap and fish, and returned back to their houses to avoid drowning. "§ In the account of the first voyage of discovery, made by Vespucci, there is also mention of a people on the coast of South America, living thus above water. He first saw land on the coast of Brazil, two hundred leagues from Paria, from which he proceeded westward along the coast, often trading, till he came to a place " where he saw a town in the water, much in the same manner as Venice, containing twenty-six large houses, like bells, raised on pillars, with draw-bridges to go from one house to
subject to be overflowed


at the proper seasons

It is probable, indeed, these were the Guaranos, who are described as sometimes having their houses on piles, and sometimes living

in trees





said to be eighty leagues from Paria,


agrees with the distance of the Oronoke from
* Gumilla, Chap,

t Dec. 6. cb. xxv.

t Dec.


§ Dec.






Sir Walter Raleigh speaks of the Tibivivas, (or Guaranos,) as for the most part, " makers of canoes, which they sell into Guyana for gold, and The same account is given of them by very into Trinidad for tobacco. Dr. Hancock, who resided some time on the Oronoke, recent writers.


in his


Observations on Guyana,' says




are skillful makers of canoes, which


their principal


ment during the recess of the waters. They construct them on the best model for beauty and safety. The pith of the large branches of the mauritia, divided into thin lamina, furnishes them sails, and the fibres of the leaf, materials for ropes. The famed Spanish launches on the Oronoke are made by them." And another writer says, that " from their skill on the water, and their knowledge of its mouths, they are accustomed to hire themselves as sailors in the colonial craft, and constitute a
great majority of the crews."*

Of the language

of this nation,
is in


obtained a vocabulary, taken

down by

my own

hand, which

the table,

Appendix No.


very singular remark is made by Raleigh, respecting this nation, which has not attracted any notice " The plains of Saymas," (Chaymas, which extend from the Oronoke to Caraccas,) he was informed, " were


inhabited by four principal nations




are the



the second

Assawai ; the third and greatest, the Wikiri the fourth are called AroThe Guaranos are called by the ras, and are as black as negroes." Charibees, U-ara-u ;f and by the European colonists, Worrows ; and inThis circumstance mentioned regarding them, is partially confirmed by travellers. Dr. Bancroft, in his History of Guyana, says, " their color is much darker than that of the Charibees." Captain Alexander, in his late Travels,
habit not only the islands, but also the adjacent coast.
also says, "their color is darker."

This was also mentioned





striking peculiarity in their appearance.



made by


was informed at Hayti, from the south and southwest, the heads of whose javelins were pointed with a sort of metal called guanin. Charlevoix conjectures, that "these black people may have come from the Canaries, or the western coast of Africa." But the southern direction from which it is said they arrived, is at variance with this hypothesis, while it
brings to mind a circumstance of which Columbus
that black

men had come

to this island

agrees with the residence of the Guaranos ; and the metal guanin,

is fret/ie

quently mentioned by the early voyagers, as found among the Indians on

northern coast of South America, and spoken of as an inferior species of

but which was a compound metal, consisting of gold, silver and



following relation
to represent


made by Sir Walter Raleigh, was calculated him as a dealer in fable and romance,



Next unto Arvi, (a branch of the Oronoke from the south.) there are rivers, Atoica and.Caora and on that branch which is called Caora,
* Mr. Hiilhouse's Journal Gee?. Soci.of




because every child in the provinces of Aromaia and Canuri. India and Ethiopia abound in wonders. and was altogether uncon. vii. and bark. although in regard to the wealth of Guyana. The son of Topiawari. the men have Ctesias speaks of feet turned backward." It is this account. " certified me of the headless men. which.. he observes. and their mouths in the ribee chief on the Oronoke. The Anthropophagi—and of the men whose Do grow beneath their shoulders. who were said by travellers to be wonderfully deforced. that they are the most mighty men of all the land. genial with his fine genius and elegant taste. several mountains inhabited by men with the head of a dog." heads is all that is necessary to be on first view. a decided presumption . which proved in regard to his justification." Lawrence Keymis. and use bows.) are a nation of people their shoulders. and as common as any other in all the — provinces. who commanded the second expedition made by him. which had That Raleigh heard these relations. that in a mountain in India. and clubs. covered : with the skins of wild beasts. it is wholly improbable he should fabricate so strange a relation. from rude and savage nations. speaks. were related to them. to his fair to introduce the following passage in the tragedy of Othello. called Nul. he told me that it was no wonder among them . affirm the same . he might be led undesignedly to exaggerate. in his time. in his Natural History. there is. instead of speaking also. and when I seemed arrows. and the charge of imposture made only against the relators. on entering the Oronoke. (the Chawhom I brought with me into England. though it may be thought a fable. no doubt. never has been doubted. lib. is Chiparemai. and the Guyanians call them Ewaipanomos. for. and the travels. but that they were as great a nation. wonders lie had seen in his "Of Die Cannibals. Megathenes lelates. which led the great dramatist of England. who each other eat. describing hearer the hardships he had endured. of a . He remarks. and eight toes to each foot. it is not the first time that wonhave been brought by travellers. where the Moor. and that "their mouths in their breasts are exceeding wide. am resolved it is true . no tendency it. while it added nothing to the dignity of his narrative. makes a similar relation. And which strange and extraordinary as derful tales it it is.) middle of their breasts. thrice as big as any of Guyana to doubt of it. the great object of his pursuit. Pliny. " They are reported to have their eyes in their shoulders. whose heads appear not above I (the Caura.114 EL DORADO. has recited the names of a number of notions. The name of the nation in the Charibee language. A Charibee captain v/ith whom he conversed. told me. but was rather calculated to injure to advance ins object by representing such a deformed nation to be in that region. they are called Ewaiponama.

An old Indian. " in Cinnabar. and who boasted of having often eaten human flesh. affirm that inhabited by a race of men who have but who one eye. alone. were a species of baboon. also. JBeloe. mouth in the neck enter. in the region which he visited. Herodotus the country beyond them is are north of the Scythians. word for one. The forests of * Terpsichore. and who leap with surprising : They are the neighbors of the Troglodytes at a little to the west of these are some men who have eyes in their shoulders. the channelThese barbarians. remarkable for their : : boldness and ferocity. they are called Arimaspians. that Sir Walter Raleigh should have been subject to ridicule for having done the same. and whose shoulders reach up This monstrous appearance is artificial . who had their mouths in their breasts. 1M." says he. who had the heads of dogs . it will be seen. and there the missionaries place the nation of the Rayas. and spu an eye. is moreover established by the highest evidence that of Humboldt. from arima. As to the Acephali. viz " men without heads. it is extraordinary. whom the Africans considered as men observes with the heads of dogs. race of men. if we may so say. • 8* . the mouth of the Sipapu are altogether unknown. are not related by Pliny observes. — " After ascending the Oronoke. and to give it to their children. the translator of the Greek historian. Mr. whom we met at Carichana. who have only one without heads. and who have eyes in their shoulders. In the list of Pliny. is a description of a nation resembling that of which Raleigh has given a relation. who have their mouth oa the naval. is actually spread. In the Scythian tongue. and by Gryphins. the relation of Pliny. as well as the Acephali. 28)." or the Acephali of Herodotus." Here. The same historian — of men in Africa. have their mouths in their breasts. I can give no better account than by copying the ingenious author of Philosophic Researches concerning the Americans " There is. he observes. it If such accounts related by ancient is not wholly some of a similar kind may be heard among the American Indians and if Herodotus and Pliny have thought proper to embody them in their history. so as to the vertebrsa of the who have hardly any make the bone. ch. and of others. from a distance. they put enormous weights upon their heads. (clavicule). seem to have breast ." writers. beyond the cataract of Maypures. and then on the west. a race : of savages to the ears. if the Libyans may be credited. the Scythian. had seen these " Acephali" with his called Tipapu by the Indians ."* repeats. that . These marvels. in ignorant or enthuto siastic travellers. (Book 4. incredible. and leg." he observes. 115 agility. be taken are be men without heads. " we passed first on the east. " are the Cynocephali. however. and might well enough. who are guardians of the gold. even at the present day.ANCIENT HISTORIANS. neck. Rio Vichadi. But that such a report as he has related. in a note. " The Cynocephali. who. also. that " the Issidones. the mouth of the Rio Sipapu.

as a dealer in fable But it is for the and romance. long. at all We cannot is to say. when they are just born. NewBarcelona. . When at Cumana. or with sheer imposture. It is there that grave missionaries have placed nations. the classical soil of fable and fairy visions. on account of the pretended analogy with the fish of that name. and approach the coasts inhabited by the whites. and other seaports which have frequent communication with the missions. the principal nation on the Oronoke. increase in improbability in proportion as you increase your distance from the forests of the Oronoke. persons of be surprised that such a desert region should times. They derived them. as they please. Cof the river Tobago." the Hyperboreans. by Peter i\e Cicscti. for Ciesca. they are called Raya. you betray any incredulity. speaks of it as found in the provinces of Cali and Quimboya.) They accompany with men."* account Sir Walter Raleigh has given of a nation of female warriors. that European race. " where they shape the child's head when first it is born. by a Cacique who said he had been on that river. west of the Andes. This account is as follows " I made inquiry among the most ancient and best-travelled of the Oronokiponi. (the Amazon. the mouth of which seems as if forced below the body. These tales of travellers and of monks." The report of the existence of such a nation may have originated in a custom practiced by some Indians. you are not always permitted to doubt the existence of the Raya Indians. that he has been principally charged by his detractors with gross credulity. you are reduced to silence by but far above the great these few words " The Fathers have seen it rustic missionaries : — cataracts. similar to that of the people of Cinnabar . own and these three establishments contained scarcely six or eight white persons. gave themselves." (the name which the Charibees. which they do with little bands. others very . so that some have no nape of the neck others the forehead sunk . tlements above the Great Cataracts along the shores of the Oronoke. and their chief places are in the islands on the south side of it. and will relate what I was informed of as truth about them. None of the missionaries who had described the Oronoke before me. in a great. an early traveller. where eyes.116 ELDORADO. Their country is on the south side of the river. or the mouth below the stomach. in the province of Tobago. part from the recitals of the Indians.) " respecting the warlike women. These absurd fables are spread as far as the Llanos.) Beyond the great cataracts an unknown land begins. with one eye on the forehead. had We found but three Christian setpassed the raudal of the Maypures.) and beyond it also. once in a : * Travels in South America. have been. It is there they have found all that the ancients relate of the Arimaspes and It would be an error to suppose that these simple and had themselves invented all these exaggerated fictions. existing on the river Amazon. (In a note he observes. in an extent of more than a hundred leagues . some sixty leagues from the mouth. in New-Grenada. the head of a dog.

that F. I have observed before. I do not find to be true. In regard to this account. that one of the Caciques mation of the Amazons. Orellana proceeded down the river about invited * Cayley's Life of Kn. its discoverer. him to see their lord. vol. and then the rest cast lots for their valentines. they also accompanied with them for a time. came boat. whom he had accompanied. as if he were the only one who had ever stated the existBut such reports are almost coeval ence of them in South America. respecting the ex- banks. whose name was Apuria. which he had heard from Indians on the Oronoke. he descended the river Napo.'eigli. choose their companions. The name of the largest river in the southern continent. they take care of them and bring them up. from whom the account of his voyage down the Amazon is taken. was informed. he proceeded two hundred and twenty leagues. and drinking The whole month is end of which. in the first place." that he should have been subject to so much censure and ridicule. it is to be observed. . Herrera. at the mouth of the Napo . signifying Great Ladies. but in the end certainly killed them . males. at this town. the next day four canoes offering provisions. those women being very numerous. Raleigh does not express a belief of it.* I . which are in the form of crescents which they obtain in exchange for a certain kind of green stones. which ble. Gaspar de Carvajal. at the spent in feasting. by his observing. . derives its name from an account brought by Orellana. with the discovery of America. that if they were going to see the Amazons. which the Spaniards call piedras liijados. that if in their wars they took any prisoners. that after separating from him. relates. and we use for spleen-stones. they all if depart to their homes. which falls into the Amazon . in his search for El Dorado . for they are said to be very cruel and bloodthirsty. 1. pp. They have also a great quantity of those plates of gold. Children born of these alliances. and of the great wealth that Leaving this town. who was present. The Kings of the Borderers assemfirst and the Queens of the Amazons. 1M-195. for a month. year. where the principal men were dressed in gold plates and jewels. gives the following particulars learned istence of such a nation on its by him. I have related by what circumstances he was induced to leave Pizarro.THE AMAZON S. when he came to another town on the same side of the river none having been seen before "gave intiwas farther down. subject I will deliver what has been told me. He mentions that Orellana heard of it first. dancing. But that they cut off the right breast. of having met with such a nation on its banks. He seems rather to guard against this being implied. and at the mouth of it came to a town. is 117 in April. for publishing relations of this kind." —and afterward They — to another on the opposite side. especially to such as offer to invade their territories. and said. they send them to their fathers if daughters. that whether true or false. " that on this And it is extraordinary. whom ne called Coniapuyara. Proceeding to the thus in sight of good towns. who . they were too few.

a place where the Indians. the structures of .. like that country farther on. in a brigan* Herrern. that I neither dare believe nor report them. so desperately. and presently after. In 1541. their cities walled . to make inquiries of the About the same time. 4. Orellana held on his way. with fiftytwo men.) passed between very large towns and provinces. and were very rich in gold and silver. and assigning nearly the same locality to it. many questions and was informed by him. Having passed it. very tall.* But Orellana is not the only one who has given an account of the existence of such a nation on the Amazon. where he asked a prisoner he had. he color of the river. in search of gold. and explore the waters. that the country was subject to women. upon which the Indians fled. Dec. wound about in tresses. He then came to them toys by way of barter. taking in provisions. he went to rest in a wood of oaks. These women appeared to them they beat them to death with cudgels. and east of the country of the Moxos in Peru. when he landed at a place where the Indians defended themselves with large bucklers . and on their landing fought furiously . emptying into the great one. (From the distance he had run. to the lake Xarayes. and so many other particulars. stark naked. book 6. and if any one happened to run away. 118 five EL DORADO. or its vicinity. seven or eight of whom the Spaniards killed. Ribeiro set out on the twentieth December. At one town he took an Indian. says Herrera. Reports of a similar kind have been ^repeated by a succession of voyagers down this river at great intervals of time. Cabeza de Vega ascended the Paragua. their hair long. positive relation of Spanish south of the This lake. of Parima. that they wounded five of the Spaniards. on the left hand he saw another river. . John. which the Indians wore at their festivals. iii. who said that the Amazons were ladies of the place . Carjaval says. who lived like Amazons. Orellana then passed through a country which he called the province of St. on which he ordered the vessels to steer to the place. He had sent before him Hernando de Ribeiro. and had five temples of the Sun. plated with gold. and meeting with no annoyance from the natives. and marched into the country toward Peru. in which were garments made of feathers of various colors. extending one hundred and fifty leagues along the coast. to dance in. them came from the Amazon. carrying bows and arrows . which F. when he offered made a jest of them . stopping occasionally. and the Indians there shot such a flight of arrows. passing through a well-peopled country. hundred leagues farther. and they found a house there. and the Proceeding on. — their heads stone . is placed between twenty and fifteen degrees of south latitude. they did as being tributaries of the Amazons . a very territories. cli. this must be the Rio Negro. which. and that he and all the rest saw ten or twelve of them fighting like commanders before the men. that these In- dians durst not turn their backs . in a brigantine. is a tract of country periodically inundated. strong-limbed and fair . the water of which was as black as ink.

in 1639. descended the Amazon from Peru. and then five by land. in Ribeira's report. proofs. and he answered. in search of the country of gold. pp. obtained in the new kingdom of Grenada. and eight days they travelled through water up to their middle. Upon this. because the sun sunk into it. a tribe having the same language and customs as the Xarayes. he set out on his march. the chief came out and received him hospitably. who live together and maintain their government alone. some Indians to carry the baggage of his company. are so strong and convincing. he arrived there. the chief gave him a few silver trifles and a little plate of gold. They came to the Siberis. and plates tribes came. and so warlike as to be dreaded by all their neightheir bors . and who. both of the white and yellow metal • seats and all the utensils in their houses on the western side of a large lake. vi. the Spaniards renewed their inquiries respecting the Amazons. particularly affirmed that one of the provinces near the Amazon is peo- pled with a sort of warlike women. as the country was inundated. is called chafalonia. and was eighteen days going to them. and asked what he was in pursuit of. or El Dorado. a century in the existence of this " The community of female warriors. Sun. seek their society to perpetuate their race. They lived which they called the Mansion of the Another confirmation of the account of Orellana. The locusts had for two succeeding years devoured perable obstacle. impossible. when They proceeded. gold and silver. and still through floods. tine. and who expresses his belief. Of these of a metal. in which many witnesses were heard." he remarks. and on the ninth day they would reach the Urtueses. Here some Indians of the adjoining They wore coronets after the fashion of Peru. but. obtaining from the chief. and plague had followed the famine which they occasioned. as I have already related. they possessed plenty. D'Acugna. but at certain seasons of the year. governed by a woman. who. would be This he did not regard . that they told him of a nation of women. who told them it was a month's journey to the land But here they found an insuof the Amazons. ch. to the nation 119 of the Xarayes. which. that giving credit to would be renouncing moral certainty to scruple do not build upon the solemn examinations of the sovereign court of Quito. came to this nation.ORELLANA'S ACCOUNT. Ribeiro solemnly swears. as one of the principal. without the company of men . and he had won it of the Amazons that it When — was a two months' journey to them. in the most positive manner. people. who were born in these parts. was given by after him. Nor will I insist on other information. in the * Scuthey's Hist. " that give assurance that there is a pro- vince of the Amazons on it it. and to reach them then.* were made of them. of Brazil. . of all I matters relating to the countries bordering on Peru. the banks of this river. 156—159. and lived there a long time. saying this was all he had. No food was to be had. everything in the country. who told them they would have four days more to travel through water.

) Thirty-six leagues below their last village. they receive them with their bows and arrows in their hands. knowing their object. that there are such women in the country. their neighbors visit . which river is called Cunuris. are the Tagaris and above these. and inured them early to the toils of war. — * Voyagts and Discoveries in Soutli America. . that eastward was a nation of warlike women. 120 ELDORADO. They never fail to make this visit once a year. as well as inured to labor. to the eastward of the Moxos. royal city of Pasto. which commences about two degrees below Rio Negro. as you descend the river. he accompanied his father on one of these visits. are the Guacares. Above them on it. who. and instructed by the use of arms. who formerly were part of the nation of the Moxos but dissensions among them induced them to separate and remove to a country about twenty leagues distant. who are the people that have conceal what I . and am compelled to say. between them and the Tupinambas. if girls. are brought up by the mothers.. and concerning the truth of which. at certain seasons of the year. another stream enters it from the north side. geous. who remain with them a few days. who children. and their customs. . and have always maintained without the them at a time appointed by them. But the common report is. a child. was in the . it is when he was missionary. and assured me that they gave their male children to their fathers on the next occasion of their visiting them. and exercise them as if about to engage with enemies but. where several Indians were examined but I cannot have heard with my own ears. but brought up the females with the utmost care. The children that are born from this yearly inter- course. Cyprian Bazarre. 1 have been making inquiries from my first embarking on the Amazon . intercourse with these valiant women. and killed all the males who were born. from the Indians who dwell upon it nearest its mouth."* not certain As to the male saw an Indian. Another account of them was given by F. They all informed him. them in what they do with them. The country where this writer was informed they were. But the most distinct information of the province where they reside. that I have been informed at all the Indian towns in which I have been. and every one gave me an account of them by marks so exactly agreeing with that which I received from others. that it must needs be that the greatest falsehood in the world passes throughout all America for one of the most certain histories. toward a long chain of mountains through whom he obtained some knowledge of the Amazons. Loudon. was obtained in the last village which makes their frontier town. I told me that. admitted men among them. they lay them down and receive them as their guests. are the Apotoos next to them. which comes from the very province of the Amazons . These women are very courathemselves alone. (The Tupinambas inhabit an island. at the close of the seventeenth century. 1698. a Jesuit He performed his labors among the Tapacuras. When at an appointed time. that they kill all their males as soon as they are born. help of men. By Christopher D'Acugna.

that is to say. of Brazil. in their republic of living without women. who are the nation that have intercourse with them. He learnt at Coari that he was dead but he spoke to his son Punilha. and who commanded the other Indians of the same village. (in 1774. Gili. at the head of which are the Guacares. all that he had adHe found a man who well remembered Punilha. between Tefe and Coari . that he spoke to four of them. there being in his time. Topayos. He assured him. his voyage.f that " he had heard the same account from him.:}: The account which Condamine gives of their having passed to the north. language. (and he was a native of Cuchivara. on the river Cunuris. women without husbands. It is remarkable that Sir Walter Ra. Below Coari. men the north . as he expressly avows his disbelief of the existence of such a community in South America. one of whom had a child at the breast. He added. direction in 121 which Ribeiro. all tending of there being in South America a and that they have removed to . in great quantity. from the information he received. furnished another strong confirmation of the existence of such a commu" He interrogated. who said vanced. among whom. as Condamine was informed. Nar. who appeared seventy years of age.* The voyage made by Condamine down Amazon. he found certain green stones. or by some other northern branch of the Amazon An Indian of St. and that those had them of the cougnan tainse couma . everywhere.CONDAMINE'S ACCOUNT. and to establish the fact all told him that they had heard their fathers speak of them. in 1744 and 1745. Joachim told him. that his grandfather had actually seen these women pass the mouth of the river Cuchivara . . leigh says. by the Rio Negro. with some variety in Among the the circumstances. that in leaving Cuchivara. Thirty years after Condamine. " there is a province in Guyana called Cunuris. he observes. and mentioned the name of each of them. that they had passed that place on their way to the north. on the south side. a Portuguese who traversed the Amazon and the tributary streams which run into it on the north side. on the spot. find at Coari an old man. they crossed the Grand river and passed up the Rio Negro. which is governed by a woman. but all agreed in the principal point." These accounts Ribeiro collected with so much more impartiality. t Humboldt's Pers. the Indians everywhere told him the same things. known by the name of the Amazon stone . in the course of nity in South America. whose father had seen the Amazons. they add.) and affirmed that it was a received tradition there. a missionary on * Lockman's Traveb of the Jesuits. that he should. in the country north of the Amazon. they are found astronomer. it has been seen. perhaps. adding a thousand particulars.) M. confirmed. and they told him they inherited them of their fathers. Ribeiro. speaks of is confirmed by other travellers. sought them the from Paraguay. that they came from the mouth of the Cayame. D'Acugna. Indians of different nations. t Soutliey's Hist." A more recent writer.

. They -admit. the river on which he obtained his information. They have a great quantity of plates of gold. and that they had them of the Cougnantainsecouma. of a report existing in South America. that Condamine. perhaps. one of the relaters. he Pajuroas. : the Oronoke."* These Vokearoes are. and related that the Aikeambenanoes were a community of women. the without husbands. I instantly comprehended the sense of this last word. and by a missionary on the Oronoke." » Humboldt'* Pew. a river in the province of Tobago." says Raleigh. It appears. Nar. which is a The Indian confirmed my compound. who fabricated long sarbacans and other weapons of war. which gives name to the people. falls into the Amazon on the south side. " the Amazons received these plates of gold in exchange for their green stones. or spleen-stones.122 EL DORADO. or women rayes. male children born in this horde of women. that " they obtained them from Amazons :" and Raleigh says. in his journey from Paraguay." And Condamine remarks. " among the Topayos. " is on the south side of gives to them." Ribeiro. (the river Topayos. the men of the neighboring nation of Vokearoes into All the their society. It thus appears that the relation made by Sir Walter Raleigh in his Narrative. was informed by the Xaamong whom he saw plates of gold. once a year. and send them back with presents of sarbacans.) he found certain green stones. cited by Humboldt. has been confirmed in the amplest manner by various voyagers on the Amazon . places them in the same locality which he " Their country. observation. the Well acquainted with the Tamanae tongue. the Guacares of D'Acugna. which the Spaniards csd\ piedras hijadas. named to me the Achirigotoas. what ment on this subject Indians inhabited the Cuchivero. are killed in their infancy. of a nation of female warriors there. and the Aikeambenanoes. makes the following most positive state" Upon inquiring of a Quaqua Indian. known by the name of the Amazon stone . also. among whom they are found in great quantity. which they obtain in exchange for certain green stones. one hundred and fifty leagues above Para. and signifies women living alone. also.

with the following passage. and I will state. who dwell above the sources of the Oyapoke. offered to show him a one might ascend to a small distance of the river. by which he said 5 country inhabited by the Amazons. in which he assigns a locality to it. the exI learned on the subject. assured him that a detachment to which he belonged. which have been mentioned. from having heard. they answered. which he called the Irijo. RESPECTING THEM OPINIONS OF DIFFERENT WRITERS ON THE SUBJECT ACCOUNT OF THE GREEN STONES. and having asked the Indians where they obtained them. however. receive from me more than a passing notice . had been seen by me although I was aware that Orellana had given the name of Amazon to the river discovered by him. that it was a marvellous tale of the Indians. and whose country was seven or eight days farther to the west. which he too readiNone of the relations of a similar kind. (this is a part of the coast between the Amazon and Cayenne . that such a nation was upon it. and that there they had seen on the necks of their wives and daughters. At that time. and particularly. all that In perusing the Narrative of Raleigh. traordinary relation made by him. " An Indian of Mortigura. — The Guyana reader will. in 1726. or nation with long ears. did not.' and which empties into the Atlantic. and in perusing it. I had in my possession the voyage of Condamine . now under consideration.) and an old soldier of the garrison at Cayenne. between Macapa and the North Cape. penetrated among the Ami- ouanes. The subject did not escape my attention during my residence there. the same green stones of which I have spoken . whether in into which have at positive manner in which he states having received accounts in various its vicini- quarters of the existence of such a community on that river or ty. with the utmost exactness. a mission near Para. different from that before given. and would unavoidably spread —they they know. that they came from the women who had no husbands. such reports. if any time been heard. was much struck with the — a country which the Oronoke and Amazon border. as he relates. who was then living near the falls of the river Oyapoke. having adopted the opinion of others. by other travellers ly believed. THEIR PECULIAR ORNAMENT PROBABLE ORIGIN OF THIS NATION. THE SUBJECT OF THE AMAZONS CONTINUED RELATIONS HEARD BY THE AUTHOR IN GUYANA. be desirous to existed. and near those of another river which passes into the Amazon . sent into ' ' the interior to explore the country. I have no doubt. at first. in South America.' " ' .— CHAPTER VIII.

) agree. That the Charibees on the river Mariwin are those who associate with them. and none could be more suitable. who gave Condamine information of the Amazons.. and others toward the west all these different directions meet in one centre. If they discover him with a woman they kill him. " as well as those of which mention deserves not less attention.") This relation of the Charibee chief ation of the river is extremely interesting. they convey him home. at the head of the Essequibo river. 105 *C nodamine. p. whose name is Teyrous. was in the interview which I had with Mahanerwa. but had heard his father and others speak of them. from the account of Harcourt's voyage there 1608. to this river in ap- pears. and who also states. as follows not seen them. and since hy two Spanish Governors of the province of Venezuela. . which is the mountains in the interior of Guyana . I was then residing. or nation with long ears. ch. that I is have omitted. but. to which he replied. and in a district where neither the Portuguese of Para. I inquired of him whether he had " He had ever heard of such a nation. upon the fact of the existence of these Amazons .) to be actually a branch of the Oyapoke. the veteran saw the green stones.. which the it women without husbands wore. I The it. could strongly to arrest my and to lead me quiries on that subject. nor the French of Cayenne. that it may be known if any one has entered it. have Amazons. and that while these different relations designate the east.) of Cayenne. I found the river Ouassa (acFrench orthography." adds Condamade. and the entrance is through a rock. situit Wasa I did not inquire of him. That Their place of abode is surrounded with large they live on the Wasa. (Don Diego Portales and Don Francisco Torralva. he informed me. again. He had a son living there. The first to which presented itself. but was aware be near that must be cording in Cayenne." * This account. "All these testimonies. xvi. when a favorable opportunity make some inoccurred. that was a great number of great-eared nation on the Mariwin — and. resided and who said they lived seven or eight days' journey west from the Amiouanes. That when in their journeys they capture a man. from the Mariwin being stated to On examining. that t Purchas's Coll. most of the Indians on this river were Charibees. a to the map of Guyana. some toward the north. pointing not fail to a country in which attention.f pp. on which river it was that the old soldier. in the informations made in 1726. The account of Condamine thus agrees Book VI. are the Teyrous (Tairas. some toward — hitherto penetrated. others. among whom of it. who dwell above the sources This nation. what mine. the retreat of the is. the Charibee chief. and a communication is maintained between the Charibees of that country and those on the Essequibo. afterward. . (the branch to which his family be: long. were this Charibees . in substance.. rocks.124 1 EL DORADO. and who obtained them from them. and shut him up in a cabin. before the door of which they place a heap of sand. The branch of the Charibees to which he belonged. 102—103.

I think : proper to add the following passage from the Mariwin Inquirer " The passage to the head of the Mariwin. wherein harbor bats of an unreasonable bigness. but much in the same manner as other accounts of the Amazons. I conversed on the subject with the Indian agent. This relation conforms to that heard by Condamine.) is very dangerous. ceived of them from a Macoussie Indian. from the men with long ears. I stopped at the plantation of Mr. and the entrance their country is surrounded . I give I yenne are the Indians with one . Bou!. partly of Indian extraction. De G protector of the Indians whose testimony I have once or twice produced on other subjects and on stating to him what had been told me. while the Mariwin flows from south to north. In the words of Martyr. within the limits of his agency. whom they associate. do wound the passengers shrewdly . by a stream through an opening in them. and the number was about His wife. and put over their heads some of their 5 crab-baskets. which. and inquiring his opinion respecting it. c!i. report of them to the . 125 with the relation of Mahanerwa. yea." But. describing them. had with him. that the Charibees of the Mariwin are who associate with the women without husbands. . '* On my return to the post. in a separate conversation I . residing on the river stated to Demerara me * positively that such a people existed 0. its say. and oftentimes deprive them of life. for the rocks are close about and fashioned like an Indian house. that f urclius. xvii. locality. — — with rocks. (which is the thirteenth town from the mouth. which are These accounts place them in a different in the mountains of Parima. " hcec dant hcec it accipito. by reason of the passage through hollow and concave rocks. The sources of this river are in the same mountainous country in the interior of Cayenne. as those of the Oyapoke . I omit several other accounts I received of this nation. the Oyapoke runs from southwest to northeast. and he said there was certainly such a nation in the interior of and that he once made a Governor of the colony.) ihey are forced to make great fires in their canoes. with many particulars. that such a nation exists somewhere in the interior of Cayenne . During which passage (which is some quarter of a mile. who was present. and that given to me by the Charibee chief. and who said their abode was at the sources of the Mazerouni. British Guyana. although not vouching for truth. to defend them from the force of their claws and wings. On passing down the river. Arewya. who that the entrance to their country is through this relation as I heard it. and very dark. he said he had been informed by an Indian. with their claws and wings. also said he had heard of this nation that the Charibees of Cavisit them one by an arched rock. and will only mention the two following to it : that they are visited by men once a year A native of the country. added an account she had refive hundred. but by the turning of the coast. by which you pass into a wide open country.OF THE the Indians AMAZONS. the son-in-law of Mahanerwa. .

in Cayenne. they work their own grounds. or sarbacan. and use the blow-pipe. one of the tribes there. but from the circumstance stated. which was not twenty translated for bee language. but having previously made a vocabulary of the Charifound that woree. shoot the bow and arrow. as I spelt the word. and had a taste His journal is interspersed with remarks on subjects relating to it. for these instruments are all obtained from the Macoussies. remarkably coincides with the relaBut the most interesting fact tions generally given of this community. and unknown region. I find aunig to me I and from the various modes in which a word is pronounced by different branches of this nation. and thus Wirisamoca would signify women alone. He was by name James Glenn. and it was from that I obtained the Indian names for twentynine species of honey-bees in Guyana. by which they are called. Of this journal I had only a hasty perusal. to have had some advantages of education. their male infants they kill. as connected with the fact I have I copy them just related. the brother of the relater had been to them many times. which I took from it. I have thought worth presenting here. on the Essequibo. I was desirous of seeing it. This account. a native of Scotwho had been a non-commissioned officer in the British army. In one prepared by Biet. They told other Indians.126 EL DORADO. not with the least reference to the present subject. the Amazons. signiwomen. I was informed there was in the possession of a gentleman of Demerara. as their residence at the Indian post. signify alone. which nations. Now. was received from a very diffeSubsequent to this time. for most of them are radically and essentially different even from their next neighbors. that they might visit him to tell the men of them once a year. amoc or amoca may be the same word . appears for natural history. and once brought from them a green stone three inches in length . and as exhibiting the character of the writer. The following remarks respecting the Indians. and made but a few extracts from it. which I have mentioned in my remarks on lake Parima. but his nation not and more than at a time. it seems probable that it is in the mountains of Parima . are called. or wooresan. literally. among the Indian The other account. but from a wish generally to obtain some information of that land. a journal made by a person who had resided some time in the far interior of the colony. Gili says. He " Of every circumstance attending these nations. who ajre the sole manufacturers of them This locality would agree with that mentioned to me in British Guyana. on a visit I made to the gentleman who had it. nothing strikes me with more wonder and admiration than the difference of language .) hold no intercourse with other Indians . the name in the Tamanae tongue by which. with whom they associate. it will be perceived. which is the same meaning as Aikeambenanoes. that their name is Wirisamoca . (sarbacan . The particular locality of the Wirisamocas I did not inquire. as to invent a language . on the Cuchivero. fied in it . I will relate. that they use the blow-pipe. rent source. in it is the name Wirisamoca.

" He then mentions the following nations as belonging to the Essequibo. giving unexpectedly a further account of the nation of female warriors. branch of Macoussies. Itali. by which.. Yakanaiama. Maipurian. of these nations do. Europeans. and several branches of the last. Arrowack. he makes the following remarks " The last thirteen are mountaineers. Piannakotto. Wapesana. from comparing his list with other accounts. branches . Charibes. (Charibes. he must mean those which are nearer to it than the Oronoke. Wyado. do never go to war. are the Warow. ) } ^ .) Awani. than many. Waikiri. Arekuna. but hospitable and kind to friends. Mahanaos.'''' This passage. Atorays." Another '•' extract. or meteor that they have not a yet a name for the — fall ral history very far short of these Indian nations in this important article of natuthat is. if not a specific or distinct name. (Portuguese) on the Karibis. 127 exceeds the powers of the human mind. more particularly and descriptive. perhaps all. '. and the interest it produced. genus or kinds . especially. c of K Ackoways. Quarin. " The Querin dwell on the very highest mountains are large and tall . a question here naturally arises from whence comes this variety and difference of languages among tribes totally ignorant of letters ? for there is not an animal. Parawyaddo. dwelling in far among the high and rocky inlands. was the following On all the rivers emptying into the Atlantic. mineral. men. Sapora. was . which I "List of nations which inhabit made from his Guyana :" journal. Waiki. All the rest are warlike nations. the Parima." After this list. Uresan. Makei. Dobuli. on Macoussie. but I defy Linnaeus or his disciples to specify animals. Ackoways. Karianna. observation and experience. Quabianotto. Their male infants they kill. name for . Karayou. Akuriya. M The Urisan are all women use bow and arrow — like the other Indians. On the Oronoke. branch of the Corentine. and his mentioning some on other rivers. or civilized nations. on the Karibisse. on the Parima. J . greatly surprised me .: GLENN'S JOURNAL. Kamoya. vegetable. -rr Jvamaranai. so far as their own clime and soil presents to their . " Urisan and Utili. " Paramuna.

" testimony of Condamine. it is possible there may be two From the explicit and decided nations or companies of " the Amazons. It is remarkable that the circumstance mentioned of existence : the Wirisamocas. This may perhaps that they dwell in " far among be removed by the fact stated by James Glenn. did not mention them me. it corresponds with that which was given to me at the Indian post. for this chief only spoke of them as existing there in the time of his father. heard of a nation of the same kind. a missionary. that the Charibee chief had no particular curiosity regarding " the Amazons . the writer does not appear to be aware This nation is also introduced in the list in a simple. it is to be found in the interior of Cayenne unless it has removed . on the Cuchihas. that perhaps the nation related as being on the Oyapoke. As it cannot be suppowithout any reference to the reported Amazons." by the several have given part placing them in the interior of Cayenne. is also related of the . it seems that it cannot be doubted. are probably now between the sources of the Branco and Essequibo. thinks his testimony May not the latter tribe have passed across too strong to be rejected. I — —which show that relations to that believe. in Cayenne. and expresses his entire belief in its and the learned author of Mithridates. the Charibee chief. — vero. although he heard from his father of such a nation being in Charibees to Cayenne. a branch of the Oronoke. that Urisan is. As my purpose heard in Guyana is not to prove the existence of such a com- munity. But Gili. sed. but in justification of Raleigh. however. therefore. different locations assigned to " the The Amazons. effect are been fully accomplished the determination of these questions I might leave to the reader. women . as I have already observed. increased by the fact. or lead to a conclusion that none of them should be relations I — — to relied on." for." which must denote a community consisting entirely of females. The discrepancy might produce a hesitation which to adopt. In regard to their locality. that they use long sarbacans. was spoken of in that region by the Indians. as one of the tribes inhabit- — — ing it. as the residence of "the women without husbands." and it is evident. of. yet it appears he never made any inquiries about them. however. artless manner. has removed. and another in the mountains of Parima is also a difficulty to overcome in crediting them. in crediting this and the other this nation accounts which place to of " women alone" mountains of Parima. so particularly confirmed by the Charibee chief. or. Guyana to the region of Parima ? I have shown that several nations of the Oronoke. exists. the high and rocky inlands .128 EL DORADO. if such a nation exists anywhere. that the name he gives to them was invented by him." in the A serious difficulty. I may add. the whether he saw the Urisans. in the Charibee language. who associated with the same branch of the which his family belonged. and this. or gives conclusion seems to be unavoidable an account of them only on hearsay that a nation denominated " the women. that Mahanerwa.

p. obtained afterwards. that savages of countries the most distant from each other. point to the same the — centre. Carli. credulous. communi- Southey. 9 . an Italian writer. The latter. who has attentively examined American Antiquities. where they are so positively . not only in the most positive manner state that they heard accounts of the kind over and over again. : fond of the marvellous . should have concurred in imagining- same fact. before theSpaniards had penetrated there those it — —and it has been mentioned since amongis who had never before seen Europeans. that if they removed from that situation to' the country which has since been represented as their abode. These accounts agreed. from whatever quarter they came. Cochinvara. among the Indians of South America. as to shown by the advice given by the Cacique Orellana. and the other as having crossed the river Amazon. or one of the streams which flowed in same direction. Professor Vater. have likewise given their assent to the' conclusions they have drawn from them. but none of them had ever heard of the ancient Amazons of Diodorus and Justin and this nation of women without husbands. and who have no intercourse together ?"* Other writers. among so many nations.OPINIONS OF SOUTHEY. and so universally at Maynas. D'Acugna. at any time. Other accounts. who have commented on the testimonies produced by these voyagers. * Condamine. and that this pretended fable should have been adopted so uniformly. and all agreed that these women had retired up the country by the Rio Negro. in his learned work Mithridates. and at Venezuela. When Condamine came down same river. explored. as well as the traditions reported by D'Acugna and Baraze. does not hesitate to express his entire belief in the existence of such a ty. the Can be believed. might subject but there is not the least reason for doubting the veracity be doubted : . without any foundation for ft-'. of Acugna. at Para. in his History of Brazil. Aikeambenanoes of of Gili. he heard the same story. "The reports which the Spaniards heard in Paraguay. inclines to the belief of the " Solle Donne. thus expresses himself on the " The testimony of Orellana and his Dominican vouchers. at Cayenne. assigned them a very different situation but it must be remembered. in placing the Amazons in the heart of South America which no Europeans had. by two of the Governors of Venezuela. From all the various tribes along its course. In regard to the opinions which have been entertained by others. as he thinks his testimony is one which is not to be disregarded. it been seen that Orellana. was spoken of. 109. 12£ Condamine also speaks of two branches. but likewise avow their full belief in them. He the certainly heard what he has related. in " I am well addition to what I have before cited from him." of Gili . remarks aware that the Indians of South America are great falsifiers. he omitted no opportunity of inquiring into the truth of the story. one- whom as living at the sources of the Oyapoke. and gone up the Rio Negro. on the lias general subject of the existence of such a nation in South America. and Condamine. in 1743.

and yet it must Had we be admitted. la Condamine has produced my return from the Oronoke and the river Amazon. Since — contributed to give great importance to the first narratives of Orellana. which is spread among various nations The testimonies who have no communication with each collected by M.) whose chamberlains. that they came from the country of the women without husbands. other. Of Gili. motives do not. who resisted the Castillian I point out the motives which led those writers. on a review of all the testimony on the subject. crossed A taste for the Maragnon to establish themselves on the Rio Negro. as it was prompted by no partiality to Sir Walter Raleigh. too strong and coherent to be lightly disbelieved. He gave the description of the rising of that gilded King. has. suffice. "We found. without hesitation. in seen. or green stones of Guyana.. according to an ancient tradition. as has been fied censure. de la Condamine's assertion. by M." This opinion of the celebrated writer." he observes. (Coug- — nan-tainse-couma. . I think. without husbands. believe in those of America. in the direct line of their emigration. I have often been asked. is intimately connected with that of the warlike women. furnished with long sarbacans. tion of which he proposed the great empire of Guyana. The evidence is in favor of the existence of this race of warlike women. together with a wish to adorn the descriptions of the new Continent with some features drawn from classic antiquity. than the warlike republic of women. who have given heroes. has expressed a similar opinion which was not seen by me until two years after I received. most reputation to the Amazons of America. de many testimonies in favor of this tradition. the relations I have given. in Guyana. whether This is the place for I embraced the opinion of that learned man. which had been published. de la Condamine. to exaggerate but these . at Paris. is EL DORADO. but nothing could be bet- ter adapted to strike the imagination of Queen Elizabeth. Queen Elizabeth on to the after having rubbed it over with aromatic oils . "in the possession of the Indians of the Rio Negro. He sought to fix the attenSir Walter Raleigh had a less poetic aim. I zons of antiquity. ( Aikeambenano. that the Amazons of the river Cayenne. not the less likely for that reason . no doubt. whom the travellers of the sixteenth century na- med the Amazons of the New World. who.f ) The history of the jade. 130 said to have been. M. Their existence is never heard of the Amashould. that the probable truth is made to appear suspicious by its resemblance to a known fable. known by the name of the Amazon stones because the natives pretend. are very t * Of Condamine. the marvellous. for rejecting a tradition entirely. me to express myself with frankness. the conquest of Government. on a tradition which has so romantic an appearance and I am farther led to do this. is entitled to greater weight. Humboldt. Another eminent writer. (El Dorado. blew powdered gold every morning on his body. some of those green stones.*) or women living alone. has received from him unquali- regard to his account of El Dorado.

" Numerous. whether the existence of such a community is so improbable. it is seen that Humboldt imputes to him a desire to exaggerate in the account he has given of this community. 5. however.. E. he in the country he described fastly to truth. that if this traveller has passed in France and England for a man whose curiosity was most constantly awake.) "What must we conclude from the narrative of the ancient missionary of Encaramada ? not that there are Amazons.] made in the above extract. Nar. recite a testimony of some weight. rendered them warriors . Not knowing anything of the tongues spoken on the Oronoke and the Rio Negro. and unprejudiced of all the different narratives that have been made. In ex- amining this subject. Riberio." And so far from expressing his positive belief in their existence. I adding : " that they cut off the right breast. remarkable. by a Cacique. but still it may be a matter of curiosity to inquire. do not find to be true. as the traveller who has adhered most steadThirty years after M. (staccado . in favor of a supposed character may be such as attend it. artless.) that the desire of preserving their independence. He found the same traditions among the Indians . that no amount of evidence will render it credible .aleigh expressly disclaims the resemblance. all that the learned Frenchman had advanced. no desire to assimilate them to the Amazons of On the contrary. that he relates what he had heard. and that they received visits from a neighboring and friendly horde. given to it. and on the origin of the green stones. who has traversed the Amazon and the tributary streams which run into that river on the northern side. as the testimonies may fact. But I think it will appear on a more In the remarks attentive examination. (which I have already related. M.— VARIOUS TESTIMONIES. is No embellishment. I shall. vol. he merely states. perhaps a little less methodically than tradition relates." [Pers. and not to verify them which made believed has been sufficiently attained in the remarks already might here close the subject . I could learn nothing certain on the popular traditions of women without husbands. and will relate what I was informed of as truth about them. respecting these women. antiquity. united themselves together like the fugitive negroes in a palenque. has confirmed. and he collected them with so much the greater impartiality. that doubt will still The object of this examination being only to show that such relations have been made. but that women in different parts of America. wearied with the state of slavery in which they were held by the men. on the spot. on the banks of the Cuchivero. however. and is I have a pleasure in adding. "I made inquiry among the most ancient and best-travelled of the Oronokoponi. 131 He has published them in detail. its be. de la Condamine. that of Father Gili. on Sir Walter Raleigh. or whether — it is I there are any circumstances which may have given rise to it. a Portuguese — considered in Quito— astronomer. we are to view this nation as they are generally . as he did not himself believe that the Amazons formed a separate horde. or coloring. to be the most simple. to give it so great a degree of improba- bility.

some will not be difficult to suppose real. to the different circumstances mentioned in 1." of those who have spoken of them. and other warlike weapons cultibut are visited vate their grounds. with whom they associ- The account given by most this. of inhabited by new hemisphere. Dec.132 represented by those EL DORADO. others. encountered at St. also the war-club. From the latter circumstance. and not that they asso- ciated with them only at periodical seasons. and others <c Roth sexes possess the same nation. ate . who fought as And at Guadaloupe. that this was the character of females in various nations of the Columbus. a nation of women. In regard to some saying they are killed. divested of appendages which some have added Amazons —such — probably to assimilate them to the ancient as that of cutting off the right breast. but 3. When their husbands are at any time absent from their homes."* The fe- males of the continental Charibees. or in Guyana. like birds. that their reality. As to the warlike character of these females. that this relation. f Herrera. who has himself collected testimonies in support of He maintains. armed females. -were some women. iii. prohibiting his landing. Croix a canoe. are brought . the women. great power. credit to. and not only used the bow and arrow. The argument also. they are given In regard of them it to their fathers.. after the death of their husbands. But to this. possessed the same character. no community of women could possibly be induced to live apart from men. Martyr remarks . are capable of moulding. considers the whole as a fable. perverting. This there can be no difficulty in giving Abundant testimonies can be produced to show. in which. and live separate from the other sex annually by the males of some particular tribe. the relations vary up by them. Dec. that political institutions. "f I was informed. " in the bloody struggles which they made against the Spaniards. i. . the sons. from the use of the bow and poisoned arrows. attributed to them. defended themselves with such desperation that they were taken for Amazons. their yearly mating time. Southey replies " He must have studied history and observed mankind to little purpose. book * Herreva. is simon the river Amazon. the Portu- guese astronomer. he saw on the beach an array well as the men. whatever may be their power of exalting human nature. among the Indians. their wives protect themselves from injurious aggressions. if it were true which I absolutely deny would : — apply to the nunneries of his own nation — not — to the Amazons who had. its instincts. and even extinguishing. who has not learned. ch. 1. their wives accompanied them. Ribeiro. Of these islands. on his second voyage of discovery. ply There is — . who have spoken to it of it. in a manly manner. and that the daughters born. The same writer observes. that in the wars which the Charibees of that river formerly carried on. on the Essequibo river. and their living in a state of perfect separation from the other sex. who use the bow and arrow.

mentioned the exscinded breast and an Indian of Coari. the whole tribe relies for a supply of the pro- ductions of the earth. and securing. that if ever there could have been Ama- zons in the world. it is . and seek to form an establishment where they might recover their independence. are accessory circumstances. " species. a tribe engaged in war was conquered. who never had any men living in their society. is. * Condamine. On their labors in the fields. . The only circumstance in the above account which is of a marvellous character. that freedom for their daughters. their wives. that this tribe of females should prefer to live separate from the other sex.VARIOUS TESTIMONIES. among the native tribes both of North and South America.. parlot is The women usually hard among savages. one of whom had an the . and difficult to be believed. which d'Acugna attributes to them. off the yoke of their husbands. and resolutely oppose uniting with them. I will content myself with remarking. and the males all slain . the to the men have no concern . repulsed them. by several writers: "The would be honorable to our in resistance to oppression. and were accustomed to the use of Another reason arms. where the women follow their husbands to war and being not happier at home. The following explanation has been given of it existence of such a tribe. returned upon the foe. may have rallied. and at least not be reduced to the condition of slaves and beasts of burden. to whom frequent opportunities offered. it is in America. 2. whose grandfather saw four Amazons. which they had obtained for themselves. In regard to their cultivation of the ground. they had been accustomed to accompany them to battle. pp. does not speak of this circumstance. as an independent nation. who accompanied them. inasmuch as of it must have originated The females of one have perpetrated what the Danaides are said to have done before them. " All. too striking not to be remarked." This explanation. 106 — 108. whom he calls Coniapuyaras. though they allowed of occasional visits from them. by such a system of life." he observes. before. 133 To this employment. " that is necessary to establish is. has also been given by Humboldt J Condamine."* When may be given for the existence of such a community. the existence in America of' a tribe of women. which have probably been altered or added by Europeans. who informed Orellana of infant at her breast. by hunting and fishing. Amazons. It is their appropriate and exclusive province. but from a stronger provocation . are trained. it has been seen. In fact. whose duties are confined procural of game. the idea may have been suggested to their minds. to assimilate them to the Amazons of Asia." says Southey. . and continued ever after an independent horde. The other customs. there is nothing that can even be thought improbable to their establishing themselves as an independent race . females universally. horde may ticularly that of cutting off the breast. With the cultivation of them. to perpetuate their community. and if. as is not unfrequent. not said that the Cacique. If the impossibility of their existence is alleged. took the same view. to shake .

rocky dike that crosses the Oronoke. and we now discover whence they were obtained. They were formerly frequently met with in Demerara. however. although both these explanations may be sufficient to explain the some other reason must be found to account for the fact of their never having been subdued by any other nation. that Humboldt found them among the Indians on the Rio Negro. wherever they extended themselves among whom polygamy prevails who pride themselves on the number of their wives. as described by Humboldt. it yields an almost metallic sound. missions of the Caroni and at Angustura. cylindrical and perforated. in — — bee chief on the Essequibo I stated. I have observed. Spanish soldiers pretend to have found the fine kind of saussurite (Amazon stone) of which we have spoken. . But other animals where did the women living alone obtain them ? " We are told. where two of the relations made to me respectHumboldt again observes " In the ing this female nation. according to popular belief." says Humboldt. but now rarely where they were called MacuaOne of them is in my possession. Thus they have been for ages an article of trade. and arc the most highly valued of all their ornaments. Nar. that in Cayenne a number of them are strung together and worn But they are sometimes made in the form of fishes and as a necklace. on the Rio Negro and in the neighboring villages. they preserve the wearer exists will. It takes a fine polish and passes longs to the saussurite to the real jade. or Calicot stone. fevers. and sonorous to such a degree. that they associate. and loaded with The substance of which they are composed." These green stones are also -»vom by the Charibees. : * Humboldt's Pers. It is translucent at the edges. and the sting of venomous serpents. a nation whose warlike spirit prompted them to the subjugation of all the tribes around them. that they have not been conquered and their community broken up by the Charibees. but suffered particularly as to those reported to be to remain in their separate state — now Guyana. extremely tenacious. Biet relates. both on the north and on the south of the Oronoke. ."* Both these directions point to the mountains of Parima. that the sources of the Caroni are the native spots of the green stone. is that coast of Guyana of the Persapolitan cylinder. that the sources of the Oronoke east of Esmeralda . forming the Randal of the Guahariboes.134 EL DORADO. — from apple green to emerald green. place them. as the Chariobtain an addition to them. beinscriptions and figures. Their common ba.5." he says " suspended from the neck as amulets . This tradition is. longitudinally perforated. " They are worn there. perforated at the centre and suspended by a thread. A solution of this singular circumstance be found in those green stones which they possess. vol. The Charibees made them known on the The form given to them most frequently. p. origin of such a tribe. because. 306. " at San Carlos. that being formerly cut by the natives into very thin plates. I believe. and whose wars are frequently undertaken to Yet it is with this very nation. — — if in reality such a nation from nervous complaints. and in the . But. form there is.

and give it the figure and impression they desire. 5„ t Trav. according to Condamine. beginning of the conquest. which gives the color." observes Humboldt. uncertain . had seen it in its natural place. (the same nation from whom. quarries of this stone . that " neither Surgeon Hortsman. in a primitive soil.) that the material is a soft mud. and the common opinion is. the perforated and sculptured emeralds which are found in the Cordilleras of i New-Granada and Quito. hardness. " the Indians of our day. articles prepared for a certain time in the river. they say. having stated that a mineral of this kind has nowhere yet been found in Guyana. that they came from the river Amazon. Humboldt observes." (which must be the nations about the sources me that the of the Essequibo. 135 and the Indians whom I interrogated on this subject. made of a mud they find at the bottom of certain places in the and they make it into what forms they please. assured green stones. make them . of white color. des Marchais. nor Don Antonio Santos. a rock of euphotide. . Nar. green stone. * Humboldt's Per. and stated by the Chev.f consists in necklaces of polish to these stones. Among a very singular popular delusion prevails as to their origin." But should this discovery be made. and remarks. who went from Spanish Guyana over it to the Amazon. — But Parima does not appear to be the native place of this mineral. " I have been assured." says Barrere. It is this water. and in Demerara. which come from the river Amazon. who pasthe region of sed from the Essequibo down the Braneo. observes " Although a distance of five hundred leagues. that pierced such hard like substances. the natives of the Oronoke and Amazon. . — whom we find in the last degree of bai'barism. a difficulty would still exist how it was worked into so many different forms ? "It is not. macauba which is probably the same word. there never have been found in that island or else- where. were purchased from the Guiacas and Guaharibos who traffic with the hordes much farther to the east. called piedras de macagua at Esmeralda. They keep the the natives themselves. the mud of which hardens."* wherever these green stones are found."$ Humboldt. that connects the savage : nations of Guyana with the civilized nations of at the vol.. containing the piedras de macagua. giving them the form of animals and fruits. separates the banks of the Amazon and Oronoke from the Mexican table-land . And Charlevoix is speaks of a green stone with which the Haytians hollowed out their canoes . who live one hundred and fifty leagues ahnve Para. that the name of these stones on the Oronoke is macagua. Domingo. although history records no fact. found green stones p. that of finding. £ J History of St. 463." The same is The greatest riches of the Galibis which river . the monk Ber- nard de Sahagun. they are obtained..THE GREEN STONE. denote anterior civilization. A fine geographical discovery remains to be made in the eastern part of America . Such works. which they work into a paste. on the Amazon. when exposed to the air. " that a nation called Tapouyes. in Cayenne.) It is worthy of remark. Anahuac .

in tribute to the and of all these stones. vol. of Mexico." I Concerning these green stones of Mexico. and work them . green stones . Quetzaicoati. Quetzalitzli was the name of theao Gtonoc Hence. preserved at Cholula as relics. " In fact.York. p. and still are. : ' Quetzaicoati was. cornelians. . to him or the Sun. cated this word signifies to. at his ears. stones resembling emeralds. " serpent clothed with green feathers. of which they are made.* The Mexican jewellers not only had skill in gems. and says Ttxli. said. from the following passage from the same author " With respect to precious stones in Mexico. stones dedi- the mineral. hung gold ear-rings and green jewels . & Clavigero. and some green . paid a King. diamonds." of this deity signifies. 1. The Cholulans preserved with great veneration some small green stones. of Mexico. is . have collected the follow. vol. 14. but likewise understood how to polish. Green ican sacrifices. also. pp. Thut : there were. 62. to the worship of " The usual ministers.— Note. two lofty pyramids were erected one. Oavigero's Hist. At Cholula. 2. appears probable. the god of the air. and made them into whatever form they chose. quetzalli. it is not difficult to explain. to the Moon. very well cut. amethysts. and not much inferior to them tecans. which bad belonged in This mysterious personage the time of the Toltecs the Buddha of the Mexicans. p. to whom I showed it. wore a crown of green and yellow feathers . II 2. or.f Torquemada. was the mineral " nephritic-jade. in Mexican. were six priests . the Mixtecas." " coaii cignifipt! Clavigoro. The green stone which I brought from Guyana. and had those names repeated to him by the ancient people. some of which are preserved in different Museums in Europe. pp. i«. vol. Zapowhose mountains they were found. says that the name . 2. with which he was identified .^ serpent. p. the color of green was appropriated and to this deity. per- whom. or belonging Quetzaicoati. a scientific person in New. stone. the chief performance of his functions. vol. vol. as the effect of the heat light of the sun is to promote veg- and clothe the earth with verdure."§ stones and green feathers. to. ] 36 to EL DOr. in the haps emeralds. || Why etation. green feathers. according to Clavigero.: . among the Mexicans." observes Clavigero. the same mineral as those of Guyana. 22. which were of made to this deity. 2. They are. t * Hist.ADC. the other. and Cohuxians. though few in cumber . turquoises. The Mexicans formed of this mineral various and curious figures. who perfectly understood the Mexican language. Clavigero. 21. by contraction. The Mexican name is Quetzalitzli but they are commonly known by the name of the nephritic stone. cut. . 11—14. was found in Mexico. " of the MexQuetzaicoati. and all the other nations of Anahuac. appertained. t Clavigero. first He appeared founded the religious congregations and established a government similar ing additional facts to that of Meroe and of Japan. which they said had belonged to him.

THE GREEN STONE. while another portion. and descended that river to its mouth and then spead over Cayenne. . although the derivation of any of the nations of Guyana." These green stones were used in Guyana also. for the most part. at least. diamonds. " All their money is of white and green stones. be of a sacred character . who was a missionary among them. as a medium of exchange . The females believed themselves price of a slave."* The inquiry now arises. " with inscriptions and figures . that some of the nations of Guyana. "more than we do gold or when they had Sir They were They valued them. for Lawrence Keymis. and observes. considers the their way into Guyana? existence of them in this region very difficult to be accounted for. disorders radically of They were by an actual experiment he made. probably. For this reason.) But. as well as those of other parts of South America. A necklace was the Walter Raleigh met with them on the Oronoke. " the most precious of their jewels. These green stones may. that connects the savage nations of Guyana with the civilized nations of Anahuac. " for they are covered. " that they cure these but that they suspend them as long as they are worn . of to 137 Guyana. as history records no fact. according to Garcillaso. and those of New-Grenada. moved southwardly into New. for everywhere they are current money. or of the The same opinion of them existed among the inhabitants West India islands. satiswho are the most numerous and predomfied myself. I have. which their wives. as the ancient people of Peru." he says. has even in a measure asspleen-stones. that the Charibees had this origin . vol. and some other disorders. it has been seen. and into the Brazils. that they are everywhere worn as amulets from an — opinion that they are a preventive of epilepsy." an idea which is supported by the fact. " Every King." and when at the Corentine. and the Indians do extraordinarily esteem them. wear. several of them on.Grenada. in what manner did these green stones find Humboldt. are found along this coast . held by the Charibees in the highest regard. speaking of the Charibees. part of them spreading along inant nation of Guyana the coast of Terra Firma. * Cayley's Life of Raleigh. by some of the streams that flow south-eastwardly from the Andes. (the ancient name of Mexico. came from it through the Isthmus of Darien. p. 360. " It is not true. are also held in the highest estimation. they are called by the Spaniards piedras-hejadas. as related by Herbest arrayed. below the Oyapoke. or Cacique. by the person. even. placed between the skin and the flesh. where they were found among the Charibees." — rera." says Humboldt. therefore. has not been heretofore traced to Mexico yet. and thence. he remarks. 2. observes. had one. Labat." says Barrere. it is very probable." he was convinced sented to this opinion. "some images of gold and spleen-stones. and some other Indians on the Arawari river. have been brought into — — . passed to the Amazon. flowed from the same source. The green stones They appear. and they esteem them as great jewels.

D'Acugna and Condamine both consider the locality to which the first expeditions in pursuit of Dorado. were directed. 139 EL DORADO. (out of which it was probably supposed they took their meals. like other Indians on gold In regard to the temples. that they are their peculiar ornaments and And the answer to this jewels. (which he had before mentioned as gol- den ornaments. and other nations. had gold ornaments. from the following account given by George de Espira. these ornaments ." The relation of Orellana is further rendered not so improbable. informed him that the country was subject to women. It is remarkable that this ambiguity has led Humboldt He represents them into a mistake regarding the Amazons of Guyana. I think the circumstance of their having these jewels. plated with gold.) which they obtain in exchange green stones. who may have come there from the But it is a more probable supposition. that they.) which they received in traffick for these green stones . related in Orellana's account of his Amazons.. suffer them to remain in their state of isolation. that they are hence viewed by the Charibees emigrating from the same region. he gives as follows " An Indian whom he had taken prisoner. in regard to the existence of this nation' why they have been suffered by the Charibees to remain in their state of separation from the other sex. as a similar ambiguity in the word. I think. or other nations. as described by Raleigh. and are always obtained from them ? Guyana by them. for a certain kind of form of a crescent. or Yupura. who lived like Amazons. and were very rich in gold and silver. region. as having golden vessels. by an examination of the question whence it arises. same — question. This conjecture is supported by the following fact. and had five temples of the Sun. then arrived on the banks of the Caqueta. plated with only have been that they had gold plates hung up in them that is. will also explain the principal difficulty. from the existence of native gold there. • and that it is from a sentiment of religion. while Raleigh actually says. that they. Near this river . — it may houses in Manoa. with feelings of reverence . one of the adventurers who went in pursuit of El Dorado. which falls into the Amazon some degrees west of the Rio Negro . denote that they were originally attached to the worship to whom they were dedicated . he crossed the Meta. He relates. and traditional ideas. and wearing them as their peculiar ornaments. The last report which he heard of them. devoted to the service of the — — temples appropriated to his honor . " they have a great quantity of those plates of gold. perhaps gave rise to the idea of golden tiles on the roofs of the the Amazon. To this conclusion. that they were brought from Mexico by the Amazons themselves. &c. before their final emigration into Guyana. the space between which and the latter river. or the golden country. that they were of the Mexican divinity once a religious community of vestals. we shall be led. there : is nothing improbable in the fact stated. who may have been established some time in New-Grenada." Allowing for much exaggeration in this account. as I have observed. as in the — has been related. that after leaving Coro and proceeding southerly.

It ladies. who have intercouse with them. sailing along this coast. &c. that they are on an arm of it. 1. there were three principal idols worshipped in their several temples. on the coast of Yucatan " Grijalva. Some think they live in the manner of the Amazons. that there are other islands inhabited by women. is very interesting. dated July 8th. a relation. and They are said to be whiter than that they are regarded as goddesses. Espira found a Casa del Sol. having been pp. like character.ORIGIN OF THK AMAZONS. among other things. found. supposo them tn. It would not be extraordinary. too. others.* And the name by which Orellana heard them called when he first heard of them. . lived ten days farther. as a religious community." says M. The the reported Amazons. following relation. in which only women lived. he says. in a town twenty leagues distant. t Decade. and a convent of Virgins. as nuns. in which. Those who have considered the matter best. dedicated to religious services. but do not keep the male children. he virgins. 4th. if. Martyr. or Yupura. who exscind the right breast. which signified great they were order. 433-434. and the * Vol. 139 Caqueta. or the Queens among them. he has a design to penetrate in the province of Azatlan. The other particulars as to their warthe other women of the country. But this. and that they are visited by men. Cai'li. or as the vestals among the Romans. some of the vestal communities connected with the religious establishments there. they are visited by men. to pass into the country of the Amazons. after their destruction. which he called the islands of Sacrifices. " I think a fable. that in those parts. also. on the conquest of those countries. similar to those of Peru and New-Grenada. relates the following instance of females living in : manner. that they may the better use the bow and arrow . this whole nation. without intercourse with men. (Lettres Americaines) " though generally thought so. but to the respected. came to a bay. stated by Herrera at Ybuerras. and is rendered more so by the following fact. It is reported. : sent over from Spain to govern on the coast of Honduras. James Lopez de Salvado. in which were three small islands. are the same as those usually given. Some say that they live on the sea . at Omitlan. solely to prepare their fields and gardens for them. also. who. and the emigration of the Indians consequent upon it. was not the first who gave an account of Nugno de Gusman sent to Charles V. in which sacrifices were made to great extent. or temple of the sun." says Martyr. 1530. There were other islands on the neighboring shores. At certain seasons of the year. favors the idea of the religious character of " Orellana. should have also transplanted themselves. denotes that much and considered as a community of a superior was not applied to a few. he said. Coniapuyara. "f Connected with the view I have taken of the probable origin of the Amazons from Mexico. that the Amazons. and four leagues from Truxillo another.

immediately sucThese women are not employed in the common occuceeding Hispana.:}: " St. that the island Matinino was all inhabited by women. pointed to the eastward and said. and are protected with plates of brass. as they are called. of South America. On this voyage he first visited Guadaloupe. and thence sailed toward Martinique. they protect themselves with their arrows. like their husbands. who are the sole inhabitants of another island.) being asked where the Charibees dwelt. the Indians whom Columbus saw on the north coast of Hayti. of the islands in the is West Indies. says Martyr. . that Columbus heard of them also on his second voyage. the Indians he had on board. in Churchill's Collection. next to Hispaniola. They cohabit with a race of women. || were taught the use of the bow and arrow. but. which they shoot with great dexterity. liv. If the accounts given by the natives of South America. whom he had taken to Spain on his first voyage. are * Decade 3. an island fifteen leagues from that town. as well as some who had fled to him at Guadaloupe from the Charibees.. r book 3.A1JO. in the letter he wrote to his royal patrons from Lisbon. but they retained the daughters with them. with whom the Charibees cohabited at certain seasons of the year . sort of stone like They had all the shape of women. entirely fabulate writer thinks that the idea lous tales received from the Indians. which. and.* One group. they fly . but a single Concerning the question of the existence of such a nation in the West remark is necessary. to have been inhabited.§ 140 third in EL UUK. as we heard on the first voyage who were visited at a certain time of the year by the Cannibals. (on his return to Europe in his first voyage. arose from the circumstance that the wives of the Charibees. and if — — their pursneias attempt to enter them. 1. (which was Croix) he observes. to which. and if they brought forth sons. is iii. Indies. and said it was inhabited solely by women. J This Letter found in the Edinburgh Review. and are objects of great terror to them. were accustomed to defend themselves But the relation by Martyr represents this from the attacks of enemies. pations of their sex. nation as living entirely distinct from men. giving an account of also stated . solely by women. II § Decade. p. by some historians. ch. t Chap xxxvi. No. his biographer. are considered by their neighbors very ferocious. belonging to the Charibean by the early writers. at the His son Ferperiod of their discovery by Columbus. observes. dinand. of a similar community on that Continent. carry bows and arrows. in the absence of their husbands. Dec. sent to them to be brought up . if the cannibals visit them at any other time than the stated period. The islanders of Charis. and with all the circumstances mentioned of the Amazons. 46.f And Columbus himself relates the same. made of a green marble. called Madaninna. 1816. they gave them to the fathers to carry away. lrving's Life of Columbus. his discoveries. with which their country abounds. These relations have been considered. on his return to Europe. A of such a female nation in that island. They are said to have subterranean retreats. (the Charibees) and the sons born." Martyr relates.

IV. West too strong to be resisted. THE END. Charibees are their mates or associates. and the would seem not improbable. and maintain there the same state of society that previIndeed. on the emigration of the Charibees to the islands. respecting the inhabitants of Martinique. of the Amazons. to Hi be entirely discredited. the relations made to the early voyagers to the Indies.* * Appeaiis.ORIGIN OF THE AMAZONS. must be equally But if the evidence in favor of the existence of the former is discarded. No. ously belonged to them. . that some of them would accompany them. if it is true that we cannot totally deny Guyana is the residence it the reality of the latter.


whose chief . until by experience we shall discover the truth thereof. an apothecary. &c. where likewise Arawacas dwell. I Relation 6. but was four days' short of Moresheego. " Of the information given by Fisher. village. lately inhabited by Pariawagottos and Yaios. plore : passable* Indian Maperitaka. and other observations of the river Marwin. and eighteen others and proceeded eleven days up the river. called by Harcourt his " Cousin Fisher. That it was twenty days' journey from Taupuremune to the head of Mariwin. and a servant to attend him. so called. having holes through their ears. where the Arawacas dwell." and which is placed immediately after the voyage made by Robert Harcourt to Guyana. of which Maperitaka and Arapawako were chief captains. who ever since. hath performed the part of an honest man and faithful friend. that six days' journey beyond Moresheego." os." But that it was made by Fisher. on returning it. he gives the following account " When the waters of the Mariwin rose. and some nostrils. after his unsuccessful attempt to exstopped at the third town from the mouth. and the river became : down the Mariwin. from Purchas's Collection of Voyages.: APPENDIX NO. distant from the sea above a hundred leagues. luyt's papers. to a town of Charibees. &c. a little little village. Moyyen. He understood. &c.) and were. both for their travel and otherwise. on comparing some passages in the account of the voyage of the former. having first taken order Harcourt. far exceeding other Indians. in company of the apothecary. Book "Relation of the habitations. Hack: the author. which I term that of the Mariwin Inquirer TOWNS ON THE MARIWIN. Yai- and thai a day's journey from thence to the landward. which is inhabited by Arawacas." whom he sent to explore the Mariwin. Inquirer. with a part of the Relation. and then observes " At this town I left my cousin Fisher. Purchas states in the margin « I found this fairly written among M. Secondly. by the relations of the Indians of Taupuremune and also of Areminta. which is also a town of the Charibees— the chief captain thereof is Areminta. but know not who was with Maperitaka for their diet and other necessaries. the country is a plain The following is an extract from the " Relation. and nether lips. Suppaios and Paragolas. according to his promise. What the Indians report of the greatness of their ears. cheeks. a Thirdly. of strength and stature. the there are divers mighty nations of Indians. " Imprimis : Maracoun. there can be no doubt. of the Mariwin Chapter xvii. I forbear to mention. and champaign ground. entitled." &c. he began the discovery thereof. so called. called Taupuremune. covered with long grass. (whose names are mentioned. . in 1608.

Charibees. King of Emeria. the A day's journey from thence. and the fourth. driving them to their canoes in which fight he escaped. Tapouremee. . the land. as he saith. " Further. and he said they gather them the spn.) who reported to me that he was one of them which. and they are reported after to be a very gentle and loving people." He then mentions eleven towns in succession. by chance fell asleep which they espying. : .?e of two moneths together which two moneths are presently after the great raines which wash away the sand and gravel from the grasse. The reason why they put him not to death. by the means of Caripana. This Yaio told me of a mountain r And his name is Weepackea <X the head of Dissikeebee. where is a great rocke of white spar. (three of which were Arrawacs. knowing his crueltie.nt . which is called Wancoobanona. a town called Mooreshego. and "I was also informed linama (Surinam. all and with inhabited whom ice continue. and went up Selinama. while they were a-fishing. who came down the river Secanoe. and Suppay. where is great store of gold. is a town called last of which is : is Aretonenne. whose inhabitants are About some twenty days' journey from Mooreshego. . punishment. . and put in chains and handled cruelly Within some small space. he spoke of a vail )y not far disu. went with some companie to conquer it. where dwell Pariawagot- Arwaccas. to a town of the Aiwaccas. Also. way and champaign ground with long grass. The captain of the Spaniards was called Alexander.rom thence. there went as overseers over them four Spaniards thre^ of which. was present at the killing of nine Spaniards and a Spanish Pedas. where he now dwelleth. and how rich they were. and to be very fair is a day's journey in is. and a great many of his Himself was taxen prisoner." spoken of by Sir Walter R. with another Yaio and three Arawaccas. an ancient man. in grains as big as the top of a man's finger. But the Cassipagotos. 144 captain is APPENDIX. tivenly days farther is the head of the River Marwin. .. went into the woods a-fowling. and his ears nailed to wood. and after the floods be fallen they find them which plaine is called Mumpara. after his informing them of the Cassipagotos country. whose Inhabitants be Careebees.: .leigh. traveller. thought it better to fight it out than to trust to his clemency. were chosen to goe a-fishing some two days' journey from the town. which groweth in tuffets. they report the Some tvs. and to slip from the shore with their ca oes. which is called Oraddoo. he speaketh of a plaine which is some seven or eight days' journey from the mountaine. Likewise. But yet afterward. called Coorcopan. which is the information that he was particularly directed by Harcourt to obtain as will appear by the following extract from it. as I judge. . by Charibees. agreed to release themselves. which is the part from which I have made my — quotations in the text by a Yaio. was because he had been a great and so they kept him for a guide. that it A further evidence that this sists of principally con- an account of "Manoa. with four others and a boy. and. . which hath streams of gold in it about the breadth of a goose-quill and this he affirmeth very earnestly. and how Morequito was put to death. and one Yaio. ! . which was left for the overseer. being the captain with whom the General left us. and so overthew him and his companie. which hath the like . . about four-score years or little less. who was born in Orenoq.) in a little . ami how he would be their guide. it was his mishap to be again in the hands of his adversarie." the journal of Fisher. and knew the countries well " It so chanced that the Spaniards. having verie long ears hanging to their shoulders. which I conjecture was a Pillourie. with Morequito and Putimay. and pinched with pincers for his Indians hanged. seven days' journey from the head there jf. Maperitaka. He then continues "Twelfthly. . he.

how he knew the two nations of Tivitivas. but could never finger him. Further. Further. under a mountain's side. which I take U be that which Sir Walter called Manoa. and Wacariopea. that after a man is up at the head of the river. He likewise knew Francis SparWalter left behind him at Topiaiwari his house. but could not get it of him. they are friends. . how the Spaniards were killed at a mountain called Riconeri. yet they dare not warre with them. Wickeri. where there is great store of these images. " He likewise spake of a very fair and large city in Guyana. " He further said. . all the Caciques or Lords 10 . with punishment of the whip. there were great store of the half-moones. how that once in every third year. at the head of Selinama and Mariwin. may perceive the gold . near the CassipaFurther. the weight of eight or nine ounces. against Sir Walter his coming. cleare. and had drawn a company of Indians for the aide and assistance of Sir Walter. that Topiaiwari wondered that he heard not from Sir Walter. Likewise. Captaine of Canuria. that they be secret and not reveale it to the Spaniards. he saith how the Epurewei have now two very fair towns. the Spaniard hath for the most part destroyed them. And of these they and the captains and priests. are very charie Sir Walter Raleigh. But it seemeth they are willing the English should have it. called Ciawani and Warawitty. ivhich standeih by a salt lake. Captaine of Sayma. He her said. and. who likewise doth expect Sir Walter his coming. he saith. : Further he addeth. it was about . as I guess. and sayth he is yet living and Captaine of Arawaca. if I come up in their high countrie for since the death of Topiaiwary. And now. It seemed to be golci. accordingfti and how Topiaiwarie did verily thinke that the Spaniards had met to his promise He likewise said how Topiaiwary had drawn in with him and slaine him the Indians of Wariwackeri. it would dazzle his eyes exceedingly. a Napoy. as he called him. But I imagine the Dutch at Selinama have bought it of him for their only coming was for axes. he said. yea. which he called Monooan. in Putimay's countrie and how Putimay expected long for Sir Walter Raleigh. in the country called Sherrumerrimary. how Putimay is yet living. and offereth to go up with me thither. every child can tell of the riches of Monooan.weight. further. Likewise. . . or pecays. He showed me. I offered him an axe. and bend their forces against the Spaniards. one called Aruburguary. who are forced in the floods to build their houses on the top of trees. hearing that the Dutch were at Selinama. Amiariocopana. as he said. if a man looked on it. to be revenged for his part of killing the nine Spaniards. and the other Corburrimore and saith they are not good people. to have warred against the Yeanderpureweis and as yet Wanuretone and Wacariopea do expect his coming. " He spake very much of Sir row and the boy which . He further affirmeth of the men whose shoulders are higher than their heads. which he called Wywaypanamy. that gotos countrie. and all the people that belonged to Wanuritone. . which he refused to which I added four knives. which is called Mattuick that on a sunshine day. which he called by the name of Unnatons. and some ten days' journey within the land. he addeth. troy. high and huge rocke. which he called Parrooivan Parrocare Monoan. or at least two parts gold and one copper. He added. I demanded where he had that eagle his answer was. in the province of Asaecona : the Chief CapMin or Acariwannora. a piece of metal fashioned like an eagle. He further spake of a white. . before his departure from me. keeping divers of them to make and mend his canoes. or else he would not have related so much of the state of his countrie. he had it of his uncle.APPENDIX then they 145 lie glistering on the ground. who dwelt among the Wearapoyns. he knew Toparimaca. doe charge the Indians very strictly. and how the Spaniards have laid great waite for him. was called Pepodallapa-.

and with fires hardened. but with bars of wood. they build their houses." and from the head Dissekeebee t<> the . Marawin to the head of Dissekeebee head of Orenoq. Their houses be made with many lofts. that within the citie at the entering in of their houses. they hang Caracoore on the " posts. that but a month's journey by land. from the head of . a month's travel. a3 they do their pots then. presently. only the lower floor on the ground is spread with clay. very smooth. where is abundance of canoes. do come to a great drinking. They have a store of wild porkes and deer. which are very great. . some seven days journey from Manooan. their fishing in the salt lake. Also. but not boarded. which continueth for the space of ten days together. and other beasts. They have many fish-pools of standing water. he affirmeth. it which is I take to be Images of gold. fowling and hunting .146 APPENDIX- and Captains. wherein they have abundance of fish. of^ He likewise saith. and partitions in them. which are very good meat. in which time they go sometimes a fishing.

from the sons of certain inhabitants of this city. concerning El Dorado. that they were presented to the privy council. which he states were found in a prize vessel." The authority of these papers cannot be questioned." Sir : " We have new We 10* . delivered them to some of Queen Elizabeth's council. who. on his own return to England. have it for certain. it does not appear that any doubts were entertained of the genuineness of these letters. There is gold in such abundance. saving of a discovery lately made by land. and the detraction and ridicule which he. sailing to the windward of Margueretta. and that gold there is in great abundance. The following testimony is his Narrative.APPENDIX NO. as reference is thus publicly made to Captain Popham. two month's after. Alonzo's letter from the Great Canaria. in letters written from thence by some that were in the discovery. some Spanish letters. the year before his expedition. Nor would Raleigh have made the assertion. I have sent you these. in consequence. unto their parents in this city. And. Commander of Lucar. being St. had such not been the case. concerning El the Spaniards. taken by Capt. which is two days' journey. called Nuevo Dorado. Lucar. in 1594. to his brother. is fifty leagues to the windward of Margueretta. to distinfrom the former sought by the Spaniards. southwest of the Rio Negro. toward the Amazon. St. received. as the like has not been heard of. I purpose (God willing) to bestow ten or twelve days in search of the said Dorado. in further support of the opinion given by Sir Walter Raleigh. and the existence of extracts of . II. They write of wonderful riches to be found in the said Dorado. from a land newly dis- Nuevo Dorado. George Popham.) (The name it Alonzo's letter from thence to certain merchants of Dorado. in an Appendix to he entertained of the wealth of in it of the rumored El Dorado. as I pass in my journey toward Carthagena. notwithstanding the attention given to his Narrative. that was sent to his majesty. which might also have been easily shown to be false. of late. in a no news worth writing. with part of the information of this discovery. called it. who were in the discovery. The course to fall in with covered. It consists Guyana. K There have been certain letters received here. hearing of his discovery. or the new El Dorado." guish of Nuevo Dorado. was given to it.

and gave us much gold and the interpreters asking from whence that gold was. peace. and to the end the gold may cover them. by whom they were well received and the document referred to. the Indians there. where he entertained us well. They promised us that. In furtherance of his object. and many sorts of wines. The eighth of May we went from thence. uncle of Morequito. in the above letter.) appears that after they were gone out of their country. which claim of possession was afterward renewed before the Charibee chief. on the 23rd of April. they take of the said gold. The principal of this people came and met us . from the King of Spain. as At the foot of a hill. and he was called Revato. . and so in which country. and well inhabited. in this It has been remarked in the first chapter. having at their next coming. whose principal is Topiawari. To this. who ascended to the residence of the Charibee chief. being ton of known and heard of their former cruelties upon the Borderers. ual. in great abundance. they took of the earth. He entreated us to go to his house. brought us to a very large house. as no doubt they would kill us. we found men and women. to give them any other. to make the braver show. in dus( and anoint themselves all over therewith. all in a principal. the first chief on the river. Domingo de Vera. he sent two officers to explore the Oronoke. who had obtained a patent for the purpose. and pulled and digged it up the grass by the root. he answered. a peaceable man- ner. for a further discovery. This information is of great importance in the history of El Dorado. where there are so many Indians as much gold. putting in great buckets. in his remarks prefixed to these letters. Raleigh. they wrought into eagles. and with much victhens and venison. The interpreter asked where he had those hens.148 APPENDIX. and that which came in powder. or drunken feasts. them employed. goes on to say: "The first of May." He commences by stating. and marched which they carried about five leagues. being of five hundred houses. and rest that night in his town. they anoint their bodies with stamped herbs of a gluey sub- stance. is an ac- new : . or drunken feasts. and other of the Indians elsewhere. we came to a province about five leagues thence. who styles himself "Master of the Camp." The master of the camp. having further consideration of the matter. having stated his taking possession of the country. he performed various ceremonies for taking possession of for Berreo. we were told they went to a certain down or place. thence passed to the town of Toroco. they prosecuted the said discovery to the town of Carapana. (the Charibee chief. that on landing upon the Main. prepared by one of these officers. He said they with three thousand Indians. they and entertain them in another manner of sort than they had done before that is. to wash at the river. Governor of Trinidad. expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh. that two years before the locality. they kept for their borracheras. Governor General for our Lord the King —between the Oronoke and Amazon. when they . they slew and buried them in the country they so much sought. called Arataco. they would aid us. which done. an attempt for the discovery of it was made by Eerreo. as all yonder plain will not contain it would shadow the sun. being five leagues farther within the land than the first nation. and General for Antonio de Berreo. count of this expedition. From a province not passing a day's jour' He ney off'. as they protest. but they were such infinite numbers. Other possession they have not had since. of all sides inhabited with in much people. 3 enter unto their borracheras. if we would go unto them.' And in they have war with those Indians. observes iards iS : Although the Span- seem to glory it much in the formal possession taken before Morequito. And being asked how they got the same gold. The fourth of were provided to receive — We May. and the Island of Trinidad. and that which was a piece. 1593. Neither do the Indians mean.

. yea. We took an Indian. Christians. the news seemeth to be very certain. He said they had many eagles of gold hanging on their breasts. in exchange of a knife. we went about weighed twenty-seven pounds of gold seven leagues from thence. said that rich but lately The Report Dorado.. of Sherbrooke. in many places very broad . or drunken feasts. bringing in a portraiture of a giant. in every point truly said that the Oronoke hath seven mouths or outlets to the sea. ple the said Dorado. of Jamaica. He saith. We said we would go thither. *' of a Spaniard." . The Indian said unto us. Nuevo Reyno yieldeth very many gold mines. goeth inclosed in Alonzo's letters. Reports of certain merchants of Rio de Hacha. Lucar. so rich in gold." Report of Domingo Martinez.* making head to go and conquer and peo- * Cayley's Life of Raleigh." but it shall appear by the information The letter of George Burien Britton. and wonderful was discovered a certain province. I do not here set down. being at Trinidad. They told us they were now in their borracheras. concerning El Nuevo Dorado. if we would see them we should give him some hatchets. pearls in their ears. so many as the grass on the ground and if we would have any we should send them jewsharps. apparelled. that in 1593. &c. which cometh to Paracoa in Trinidad and that. the riches that were. because there is no place that goeth to his majesty. of weight forty-seven quintals. Captain with Berreo in the discovery of El Nuevo river That the information sent to the King was. and gave him five hundred harps the hens were so many that he brought as were not to be numbered. concerning El Dorado. to a province where we found a great company of They told us that. which the Indians there held for their idol. from the said Canaries. that Antonio de Berreo lay at Trinidad. and that they danced being all covered zoith gold. and is called El thereof may seem incredible. No. within the River of Oronoke. if we came to fight. those plains with Indians to fight with us but if we came in peace. The master of the camp gave him one hatchet he brought us an eagle that The eleventh day of May. Appendix. concerning El Dorado. and be well entertained of them. Antonio de Berreo made the said discovery. as the report It is there in such abundance. . where were many Indians. 149 were brought from a mountain. it And then they told us of for all it . . not passing a quarter of a league thence." " They . it was in great abundance. of gold. It is a thing worth the seeing. a Frenchman dwelling at St. being at Carthagena. there all came a frigate from the said Dorado. " He saith. " Sir. DC . Part of the information of the discovery that went to his majesty. for they would give for every one two hens. . We asked how they made these borracheras. because it passeth for good among the best of this city. of a quarter of a pound." The Report " of a Frenchman. there that a little discovery called Nuevo Dorado. and my very good cousin : there came of late. called Bourtillier. APPENDIX. called Las Siete Bocas de Dragon that the said River runneth far into the land. certain letters from a new discovered country. unto his cousin. because they had a great desire to see. not far from Trinidado. Nuevo Dorado. they would fill up Indians. concerning Trinidad and Dorado. The said Indian told him he had it at the head of that River. . he had of an Indian there a piece of gold. in 1591. and before his it was a general report of a late coming thither. which they write hath gold in great abundance . we should enter.

. makes two gashes down their back from : each shoulder obliquely in the form of a cross. living only on some uncooked roots. and keeping a very strict fast. that among bees in Brazil. and carry their provisions and weapons. during I * Ogilby's Hist. The gashes are then rubbed with the ashes of a wild gourd. ficiator. my History of this nation " It is unqestionable. (the meal of manioc. fifty leagues to lift together. and leap as the men. and then unbound. and. which he thus describes They are then made to stand on a flat stone. from head to foot. and they are placed in a hamack. to which much used. though the pain they feel they manifest by the grinding of their teeth. swim. of America. i account of the bravery and warlike character of the Charibees. without eating or drinking the least of anything. to remain in it a month."* his sons. with the tooth of the Agoutis. a little farina. that the females run. to them. which greatly aggravates the pain. III. On the coast of Paria. not a single sigh escapes them. Then their arms are tied close to the body. analogous bands. They follow labor they are so men in wars. In this situation they remain three days without being allowed to converse with any one. venture two or three leagues into the sea. but are not allowed. without any boat or floating pieces of timber. they were themTheir hair is first cut close selves to undergo an ordeal. not quite so rigorous as the last . being not yet allowed to touch the earth. (which also was inhabited by some the of this nation. and their contortions of body. that they will bear on their shoulders. when females arrived at the age of about fourteen. to remain there a second month and undergo another abstinence. in a more cruel manner than in the first operation. and round their necks are hung the teeth of a certain animal. and wholly prohibited from eating anything else. which causes the blood to flow. The ordeal which the father idea that his patient endurance of underwent on the birth of it would impart bravery from a strange was sometimes the Chari- practiced in the case of the daughters. " # to the character of their hus- Of the Cumanians.) Martyr remarks. and the ofto the head or burnt off.: APPENDIX NO. and cut over the whole body. At the end of the three days they are to be taken from the hamack. and a hardihood of character.) Ogilby observes. the women oftentimes. which is bound round with cotton cord. and placed upon the flat stone. and renders them ineffaceable. such luggage as three Spaniards are scarce able 1 from the ground. And Lafitan says. they are taken from the hamack. (a branch of this nation. After which they are returned to the hamack. and several other cuts. At the end of the month.) and water. in which they are so enveloped as not to be seen. and that they were trained to possess a physical activity full p For a more I extract the following passage from and energy. They are then placed in the hamack. that the wives of the Charibees engaged in the warlike encounters of their nation.

1. chap." || The Charibees of the Continent possess the same character. who was the wife of the Cacique. * Laptan. and would have strangled him had not .f " And Columbus. and one of the Spaniards died within a few days. " • engagement which he had with some which they fought furiously with poisoned arrows. § Ining's Columbus. chap. Dec. one of the men was killed by an arrow shot by a woman. nor converse with any one ." says a the maidens fought as well as the men. for provisions The boat not being able to land. . She was accompanied by a son. and overset as well as the it. to inform . cliap. to leave the 151 hamack a moment. ran their boat forcibly against the canoe. p. one being killed.* That the wives of the Charibees assisted their husbands in their wars. iii. of a wound he had received from a female warrior. (I omit several instances which I have recited in the present volume. "J " In this skirmish the Indians used poisoned arrows. given in the first men and as many women. strenuously defended themselves.1T (now Carthagena. a native of the Canaries. I have observed that on his second voyage one of his boats had an encounter at St. Dec. vii. book boon 2. where their husbands were.APPENDIX. and clubs of hard And " there was one. from the respect paid to her. 3. extremely swift of foot. men. they are rubbed over the whole body with a black dye. seemed to be a queen. and add only the following:) Herrera relates that in the expedition made in 1532. 10. \ Dec. The Spaniards then canoe of the Charibees. But the Indian women. Croix with a of the Antilles. a youth of a robust form and terrific look. 3. 2. When their husbands are at any time absent from their homes. others come to his assistance. for the conquest of Caramari. At the expiration of the second month. on his sending a boat ashore. by De Heredia. had great difficulty in overtaking and when she perceived she was likely to be overher. he sent two of the Indians he had on board swimming. Dec. witnessed several instances of female bravery. which were Herrera adds the following particulars " As the canoe approached. who wounded another severely. and commence again to work in their fields. clasped him in her arms. coming forward with bows and arrows to hinder their landing. both men and women discharged their arrows with astonishing rapidity and before the Spaniards could cover themselves with their shields. The ships proceeding thither. they fled to the mountains. and fought no want of evidence. as captives. while swimming in the water. 6." vo». : . and collecting on a covered rock. forty females and three boys. in an Indians. a great multitude of men appeared. There was a female in the canoe. shooting great flights of arrows and the boats firing on them and wounding some. with not less activity sent forth their darts against the Spaniards . One of the females shot with such force as to pierce through a target. book Herrera.) the inhabitants of which considered themselves descended from the Charibees. t Martyr. but were at length taken. in wood. there is : In the account chapter of his progress through these islands. !l 1. . as the sea ran hio-h. i. them they came only on which they replied that they should go to the other side of the Island. t Herrera.^" p On the second visit made by Columbus to Guadaloupe. on his discovery like them. before reaching it. for she ran like a stag taken. and are obliged to be occupied continually with picking and spinning of cotton. One of the females. in which were four taken. who. she turned. they protect themselves from injurious aggressions in a manly manner. One of the men. this time. possessed so much strength and agility as almost to resist the attempts of the Spaniards to take her. Of the Islanders Martyr remarks "Both sexes possess great power from the use of the bow and poisoned arrows. 1. the men beheld the sight of an assemblage of many females on the beach. Columbus sent on shore a party of men who brought away. on his return to Spain.

it is uncertain which sex among The wives of the Sarmatians. and when the great exploits performed by their men and by their women are considered. &nd encourage them. much surprised at the courage of the Indians. with a quiver full of arrows. and principally of their wives. pursue the chase on horseback. (Sauromats) them was most conspicuous. I Garcillaso. Instances of it met with. who sprung from the Scythians. pp. says Justin. &c. vol".) which lasted seven hours but they seeing the number of men they had lost. their neighbors for the tilled lands. V Garciltuso. among other American Indians. sallied out against them.§ But this was also the character of the females of the Scythians. old. and were seconded by many women. while Ihe fire of their enemies increased. when the combat became warmer. and that they sought rather to die than be conquered. being about eighteen slew with her bow eight Spaniards. sometimes with. years are by Purchas. and full of rage and hatred braved the danger and exhibited a courage beyond their sex. 406-8. where a similar scene occurred. p. 326. 291 . of which there are some remains to be seen at this day. vol. p. observes Herodotus. for their defence. t Hist. before they could take her. Hist. not even wounding one. to fight with At that time a very brave man. telling them they ought not to fear their enemies. These women having done wonders. except only some caves. The Spaniards broke through them and pushed on to the town. who fought very valiantly. others with swords. also.J De Soto afterward attacked another village. and some made fortresses on the highest hills. The Scythians. book 5. who. between whom and the Charibees so many strong points of resemblance have been shown to exist. without houses or settled dwellings. 2. vol. which they adroitly made use of. "love war and are acquainted with stratagems. called Zapona. for the Indians and their wives fought in despair. All this time some women were already fighting at the side of their husbands. But as soon as the Spainiards saw they fought only against women. quoted APPENDIX. Louisiana. they all ran en masse. (now Mobile. were . and sometimes without their husbands. wandered about in docks like the Arabs. where they settled. but die as In the narrative of De Soto's expedition to Florida. made several walls of dry stone. trenches and forts. but as at last vanquished . jious encounter with some Indians at a place he calls Mauville. took up arms as soon as they saw the Spaniards. Some of their women are so fond of their husbands as to go to the wars with them. "The Choctaws. 1. who cornbatted with more obstinacy than the men. and their name forgotten. 2. we have also a true men. they spared them. and dressed in the * Purchas. "Before the time of the lucas. " who. De Soto sounded a retreat and returned to camp. who subdued a considerable part of it and ihe Indians say the war was carried on very resolutely by some women. by Zapona. Hist. and called on them to revenge the death of the many brave Indians who had been killed. by De Soto. implored the aid of the women. and showed they preferred death It becoming late." observes Herrera. Conquest of Flo! da by De Soto. to slavery. have been as much distinguished by the valor of their females as by the victories of their warriors. They stand by their sides in the battle. soon as they were thus called on. their husbands. The inhabitants."f He had a separticular account of the martial bravery of some Indian women."* But this trait is not peculiar to the females of the Charibees.152 writer. Conquest of Florida. halberds and lances which the Spaniards had left in the They all placed themselves in front of street. called Tula." This trait is also found among the females of some North American Indians." observes Bossu. started up in the province of Callao. some with bows and arrows. chap i. who were unapprised of his approach. " the inhabitants of Peru went naked.

With first shall have killed an enemy. armed. says Abul Ghazi." . and even to battle.APPENDIX habits of 153 respect to their institutions men. " pride themselves on being the most robust and brave of all the of marriage. value themselves for an approved They often go to war with their husbands." were another branch of the same nation. The same character belonged to the wives of the Tartars. and their wives and daughters ride as well as themselves. also. who " The Tartars of Great Bucharia. and carried them with them to war. no female permitted to marry. The women of this country. until she bravery. They married several wives. They never go out without being well Tartars. frequently engage is in battle. and do not fear to come to blows upon occasions. having also the reputation of managing their arms very dexterously." " The Tangasi are good horsemen.

and heir-apparent to the throne. ! . Shall man have authority from the Fountain of good to do . behold him. oh my prince hear them not. : May it please youe Highness "The following sheets are addressed to your highness. elegance of language. and how . You are in the succession to a throne from whence no evil can be imputed to you. The other piece is entitled " Instructions to his Son and to posterity . writings. as affording the strongest evidence that . at one time. Be careful. a letter which he wrote to Prince Henry. we cannot but admire the diversity of talent which he exhibited. I extract from his Biography by Mr. and the thirst of praise which I have observed in you. as affording also a specimen of his literary ability. laying down rules to regulate the conduct of man in all his private relations and daily intercourse. in a remote part of this island. but all good must be conveyed by you."f in perusing which. His majesty's wisdom. We — : SIR " WALTER RALEIGH TO PRINCE HENRY. * Pace 49.* who in his adversity proved his steady friend and which I select with more pleasure. and not to that of being all-good. as it is believed that for vigor of style. fly from their deceits. . studying the philosophy of ordinary life.APPENDIX NO. under the present constitution. IV. and elevation of sentiment. the doctrines that are lately phrase has obtained of calling your royal father God's vicegerent which ill men have turned both to the dishonor of God. who would conduct your noble nature into tyranny. I cannot avoid referring to the noble and elevated sentiments which he possessed. the son of King James. : . seizing with enthusiasm the bold and magnificent project of achieving the conquest of a rich and splendid empire in a distant country an enterprise attended with the utmost at another. from a man who values his liberty and a very small fortune. You come into the world. Cayley two pieces First. it is to be hoped. will save him from the snare that may lie under such gross adulations but your youth. T Page 216. above all the riches and honors that he could anywhere en- joy under any other establishment. with risk and difficulty the sagacity of a Bacon or a Franklin. They adjoin the vicegerency to the idea of being all-powerful. Your father is called the vicegerent of Heaven. Having Raleigh closed in the my examination of the different relations made by Sir WalterNarrative of his expedition to Guyana. and the impeachment of his majesty's goodness. may possibly mislead you to hearken to these charmers. few compositions in the English language surpass it. and are exhibited in his he was incapable of the deception and fabrication imputed to him by his enemies in that publication and for this purpose. and. sir. far the see.

1611. while you make the power of rendering men happy the measure of your actions. Whatever some men would insinuate. from a condition as much below that of brutes. impaired by a disability of doing injuries. suppose their power. " I am. right can flow from God. sir. " London. they are an ease and help to you. Choose. to be the king or the conqueror of your people it may be submission. you While your highness acclamations. ray prince. is my prince. obedience. and to your divine right of being their benefactors. therefore. This way of thinking. that is passive. " Your highness's most faithful servant. Preserve to your future subjects the divine right of being free-agents. will appear as absurd to your great understanding. ! your subject when you have lost his inclination . If want of power to do ill be an incapacity in a prince. to secure your fellowcreatures from slavery . consider the laws as so many common-places in your study of the science of government. oh. you are to preside over The soul is the essence of a man . is what gave men the glorious appellatives of deliverers and This made the sight of them rouse their beholders into fathers of their country. it is an incapacity he has in common with the Deity. as to act . While this is your impulse. . without reason is less miserable than to act against it. let mean and degenerate spirits. not the bodies. but it cannot be have lost the minds. and your every power be extended sentence have the force of a bounty. with reverence be it spoken. evil ? 155 which want benevolence. of bearing their very appearance withConsider the inexpressible advantages which will ever attend your highness. own royal house the is Believe me. " Exert yourself. When you mean nothing but justice." . in the glorious cause of liberty and assume an ambition worthy of you. and you cannot have the true man against his inclination. against such sycophants. and made mankind incapable out applauding it as a benefit. " WALTER RALEIGH. of men. how easily will that The glance of your eye will give gladness. there no other forming yourself for a throne. No. August 12. but all plans which do not carry in them the mutual happiness of prince and people. generous prince. as disagreeable to your noble nature. " Let me not doubt.APPENDIX.

and all wherein thou shalt trust such a one -will be discovered. thou hast done will be lost. . school-mistress. And although I persuade for every man's folly ought to be his greatest secret. with any matter that is friends for may endanger thine estate . and when thou leavest to feed them. thereall nations. be sure of this that thou trustest. . CHOICE OF FRIENDS. so long as they do well thy country. hateth to-morrow . And if thy friends be of better quality than thyself. because they have more to lose than thou hast the second. as are thy inferiors. . and refuse to do the like but once.) then therein trust no man . . than to make choice of by them thou sbalt be judged what thou art. in hope of a better in future. but not in the honor and to venture a sure estate in present. they will hate thee and such kind of men." . and such men will become thy mortal enemies. shunning always such as are poor and For if thou givest twenty gifts. And great men forget such as have done them service. that they will be more careful to keep thy counsel. be wise and virtuous. Let thy love. Take also special care. . and leave thyself alway to his mercy. I could give thee a thousand examples. tnou shalt never find a friend in thy young years. but take heed that thou love God. will follow thee but to eat thee out. or at least with thy peers. if thou preserve thy estate. and he that loves to-day. thy prince. but let reason be thy . and I myself know it and have tasted When thou shalt read and observe the stories of it in all the course of my life. will alway be had. they will esteem thee for thyself. will please thee after thou . that thou venture not thy estate with any of those great ones that shall at- tempt unlawful things. for so shalt thou make thyself a bond-slave to him And. that thou never trust any friend or servant. Let them. There . therefore. and not for that thee to associate thyself with thy betters. fore. But if thou be subject to any great vanity or ill. therefore. yet remember alway. thou mayest be sure of two things the first.SIR WALTER RALEIGH'S INSTRUCTIONS TO HIS AND TO POSTERITY SON. than acknowledge it. (from which I hope God will bless thee. which thou dost possess. for such labor for themselves and not for thee thou shalt be sure to part with them in the danger. ' nothing more becoming any wise man. when they have obtained what they would and will rather hate thee for saying thou hast been a means of their advancement. be to the best. all that needy. and none of those that follow thee for gain. But make election rather of thy betters than thy inferiors. . thou shalt find innumerable examples of the like. is mere madness. which shall ever guide thee aright. and thine own estate before all others. Such. For the fancies of men change. whose conditions and qualities comest to more discretion and judgment and then all thou givest is lost.

thou art yet free to choose again. but that she may live according to thy estate for. Remember. yet the bond of marriage dureth to the end of thy and. . that if thou marry for beauty. that though life these affections do not thy last. and that thou wert fond of her after a while thou didst love thy dry nurse. and them provided find. that thou be beloved of thy wife. second. and didst forget the other after that thou didst also despise her so will it be with thee in one year . that was not made dishonest by one or other in the end. On the thou have a fair wife. a while thou shalt find an alteration in thyself. for the desire dieth when it is attained. rather than thyself besotted on her and thou shalt judge of her love by these two observations. For when humor shall change. is 157 And the wise and foolish. will despise thee. if thine own estate be not great. The next and greatest care ought to be in the choice of a wife.) est thyself all Remember. if thou perceive she have a care of thy estate. . there being few or none that ever resisted that witchery yet I cannot omit to warn thee.. which perchance will never last nor please thee and when thou hast it. and thine and shall possess the quiet of thy labors. For I never yet knew a poor woman exceeding fair. enjoy thy love. and be sweet unto thee. leave But howsoever it if thou hast whatsoever thou thy wife no more than of necessity thou must. And if thou have care for thy races of horses and other beasts. . by which all men in all ages. APPENDIX. especially be. but only during her . or third love. Yet always remember. For the present time. be not sour or stern to thy wife thing than hatred. for she is the companion of plenty and honor. Have care therefore both together . when thou wert a sucking child. for cruelty engendereth no other Let her have equal part of thy estate while thou livest. : thy liking in elder years. . as of other things which may be thy ruin and destruction. have been betrayed. (if thou give thyself that vain liberty. But remember. ! And. therefore. This Bathsheba taught her son Solomon. she saith farther. remember that thou givest it to a stranger. and eateth not the bread of idleness. secondly. that thou leave not thy wife to be a shame unto thee after thou . in respect thereof. for if and a poor one. above all the rest. in conversation without thy instruction. and spend with joy and ease what thou hast spared and gotten with care and travail. that a icise wo?nan overseeth the ways of her household. yet forbear to link. CHOICE OF A WIFE. have a care thou dost not marry an uncomely woman for any respect for comeliness in children is riches. For he that shall marry thy wife. credit. First. for love needs no teaching nor precept. and see another far more pleasing than the first. . than in a wife. Have therefore evermore care. . and safety. favor is deceitful and beauty is vanity . and the affection perisheth when it is satisfied. that every man prefers his fantasy in that appetite before all other worldly desires . thou bindthy life for that. and most times to an enemy. value the shape and comeliness of thy after . the fruit which thou hast planted. if nothing else be left them. thy memory. beauty. it will be to thee of no price at all. care of honor. . . or lew children. art dead. leaving the only danger therein. it is true. that then thou didst love thy nurse. other side. therefore. if she study to please thee. Yet I wish thee. if thou find her sparing and honest but what thou givest after thy death. assure V-hyeelf that love abideth not with want . And though I know it vain to use reasons or arguments to dissuade thee from being captivated therewith. though thou canst not forbear to love. children before alliances or riches. better to be borne withal in a mistress. and exercise herself therein the other.

they that praise thee. And because all men are apt to flatter themselves. yet remember that thou sowest on the sands. encourage thee in all evils. destroy thy health. if it be late ere thou take a wife. cowardly persons. therefore.. because she cannot defend the house like a dog. Take for care thou be not made a fool by flatterers. but behold. . and receive of thy faults . For if she love again. To conclude wives were orin which thou livedst upon earth while it lasted. except thou wilt be counted a neither take delight in the praises of other men. so doth a flatterer a friend. Let thy time of marriage be in thy young and strong years . there seemeth right to a man. and turns again. widowhood. Furthermore. and hatred only. for howsoever affection. or vice from virtue. vital blood FLATTERERS. a lewd please thee for a time. my people. which being left to strangers. said by Isaiah in this manner. that how many mistresses soever thou hast. and dost mingle thy woman with corruption. so many enemies thou shall either perish. impoverish thy estate. let her not enjoy her second love in the same bed wherein she loved thee. not to transfer them. thou shalt spend thy prime and summer of thy life with harlots. and that thou shalt enjoy it but once. and endanger thy life and be sure of this. and not in thy wife. but so shadow and paint all thy vices and follies. or . by their will discern evil from good. ahalt purchase to thyself in hatred or disdain. and she will study to destroy thee. and not sigh and grieve at the account thereof. . terer. Do vain-glorious fool. who. and diminish them and therefore thy house and estate. Thy best time will be toward thirty. abused by these. and purchasest diseases. therefore. the longest day hath its evening. as thou shalt never. they are base. are in effect And better were it to be unborn. If thou canst not abstain from them in thy vain and unbridled times. correct thee in nothing. for even the wisest men are . it. wherein thou oughtest to plant and sow all provisions for a long and happy life. to entertain the additions of other men's praises is most perilous. 153 APPENDIX. dained to continue the generation of men. than ill-bred . for thereby thy posterity lost. except thou it deserve warn thee from such as are Avorthy and honest. Know. that it never Use it therefore as the spring-time. . for flatterers . for believe it. not therefore praise thyself. . ever the young wife betrayeth the old husband. thou wait hate her in the end. thou shalt hardly see the education of thy children. for there never was any such Remember the saying of Solomon. either to choose or to govern a wife and family. that flatterers are the worst kind of traitors they will strengthen thy imperfection. which soon departeth. seduce thee and disAnd David desired God to cut out the tongue of a flatorder the paths of thy feet. repentance. and she that had thee not in thy flower will despise thee in thy fall. but the issues thereof are the which ended not is a way which wages of death . which liveth either in continuance or ability . and full A flatof protestations for a wolf resembles a dog. creepA flatterer is said to be a beast that biteth smiling it is ing. remain a shame to thy name and family. thy youth so. and thou shalt be unto her but a captivity and sorrow. Bestow. terer is compared to an ape. they are so obsequious. For as the younger times are unfit. so if thou stay long. nor fly to future pleasures with those feathers which death hath pulled from thy wings but leave thy estate to thy house and children. and will withal have never any virtue. But it is hard to know them from friends. . While thou art young thou wilt think it will never have an end . that thou mayst have comfort to remember it when it hath forsaken thee. in thy son. is to be preferred.

for any respect. and those that are not guilty. or at tables . . And by thy words and discourses men will judge thee. . as Solomon saith. and safety thou be once engaged. carry thyself bravely. he tliat keepeth his mouth. utter it when it may do thee honor. also. therefore private fight. 159 labor as an ox. and less pains in the world a man cannot take. every man. keepeth his profit them. is a niggard in deeds and. than to do wrong. but will seek to be avenged of thee. for he adventures thy mislike. vanity thou err in the first. and not with ignorant persons . is for there are thy friend. among choleric or quarrelsome persons ruffians. which is one of the most universal follies which bewitcheth mankind. but remember how much thou art bound to God. Therefore be advised what thou dost discourse of. dangerous if in the third. upon good terms. and such will thy deeds as thy affections. if it the offence proceed not from thyself. And as there is nothing more shameful and dishonest. Defame not any woman publicly. If thou therefore contend. QUARRELS. Speaking much. doth therefore yet play tricks and pxovoke laughter. and the tongue man causeth him to fall. or endure public disgrace for better it were not to live than to it Do therefore right to all men. cannot endure to be taxed. life. or discourse in argument. or bear burdens as a horse. is a sign of vanity for he that is lavish in words. state.) and thereby thou shalt avoid malice and revenge. because what he knoweth. and such thy life as thy deeds. But . or . Be careful to avoid public disputations at feasts.) than Notwithstanding. than to hold his tongue . . therefore. such as thy toords are. for if thou overcome. be well advised is that they may fear thee after. thou shalt be accounted profane . APPENDIX. Do not accuse any man of any crime. I would not have thee. or thinkelh. thou art dead or disit be with wise and sober men. and doth hazard thy hatred few men that can endure it. and utter what they have learned from thee for their own . live a coward. and what thou maintainest whether touching religion. than under the cruelty of the law to hazard thyself. and thou shalt and forbear to speak evil things of men. but if thou know more than ether men. lose to be an accuser. for thou shalt thereby instruct those that will not thank thee. or country for there is nothing more dishonorable (next to treason itself. For as Socrates saith. every place. though it be true. if honored. and eschew evermore to be acquaintedj or familiar with For thou shalt be in as much danger in contending with a brawler in a private quarrel as in a battle. delighting in self-praise. Remember the divine saying. . He that cannot refrain from much speaking. it shall be better to compound thou art thou art overcome. for To shun in thy words and behaviour of a honor and shame in the talk. who hath made thee wiser. so truth itself cutteth his throat that carrieth her publicly in . where may thereby get much love . if mayst get honor to thyself. If it do. he utlereih. Thou mayst be sure that he that will in private tell thee thy faults. cannot endure unjust reproach. if it be not to save thyself. indiscreet and foolish. let . and not in assemblies of ignorant and common persons. (he mouth of a wise man is in his heart. for the most part. though thou know her to be evil for those that are faulty. such will thy affections be esteemed . the lieart of a fool is in his mouth. is like a city without walls.. . of whom thou must learn by reasoning. thy reputation. (if thou be net constrained. thy prince. if thou observest this rule in for if . wherein thou to thy prince and country. if in the second. Jest not openly at those that are simple. .

it need not. A liar is trusted of no man he can have no credit. all quarrels. life and death are in the power of the tongue. except in the extremity of saving life . mischief. and greatest evil that is done in the world. found a liar for a lying spirit is hateful both A liar is commonly a coward for he dares not avow truth. man. how odious and contrary to God a liar is . also. that God hateth false lips . John saith. he hath no inheritance if for a lawyer. And to conclude. and he that speaketh lies shall perish. to God and man. mayst see and find in all the books of God. if for a merchant. lying being opposite to the nature of God. ever found that . for a liar is a base. . he is not thy friend at all chooseth harm to itself. that thou never spend anything before thy servants and officers. that thou know what thou hast. that thou be not. and more men's fortunes overthrown thereby also. . give him a part of what thou hast third is. The . the surety for another. and scourged for other men's offences. take care of thy estate . if for a poor man. . for the speak tongue is the instrument of the greatest good. such persons are most base and unworthy. if thou thyself observe these things. to abuse thee . .. than by their vices. According to Solomon. and not to hearken to tale-bearers. assemblies. to spare for friendship rather if he press thee farther. and destruction. . every unbridled tongue in the end shall find itself unfortunate for in all that ever I observed in the course of worldly things. hatred. paying the reckoning of other men's riot. . 160 all APPENDIX Restrain thy choler. And as thou shalt be happy. If thou smart. nor to be believed when we say the truth. if thou observe three things. Thus thou verbs. know that our Lord in St. if for a rich . .' men's fortunes are oftener made by their tongues than by their virtues. that thou suffer not thyself to be . smart for thine own sins and above all things. If any friend desire thee to be his security. assure thyself. or enchanter. . and such as busy themselves with other men's estates that creep into houses as spies. thou shalt seldom err. that it is a vice proper to Satan. as from a man-slayer. but not to be It is said in the Protrusted of any. arise from unadvised speech and in much speech there are many errors. for the best profit and return will be this. that it never did any man good. hearken much. out of which thy enemies shall ever take the most dangerous advantage. If thou be bound for a stranger. and to see that thou art not wasted by The second is. for thereby millions of men have been beggared and destroyed. thou have it for borrowing is the canker and death of every man's estate. and the charge of other men's folly and prodigality. and cowardly spirit. be not made an ass to carry the burdens of other men. to learn news which concerns them not for. which is. thou must pay it thyself. bless thyself. Among all other things of the world. thou puttest thy estate to learn to swim if for a churchman. First. if thou force him for . than offereth it. and for the world. which thou shalt ever preserve. and as EuI ripides truly affirmeth. what everything is worth that thou hast. and little . so shall it be most profitable for thee to avoid their companies that err in that kind. . that Therefore from suryteship. to inquisitive persons. wounded for other men's faults. unworthy. believe it. thou art a fool . Take heed. he will find an evasion by a syllable or word. PRESERVATION OF ESTATE. which consisteth in truth and the gain of lying is nothing else. . neither in public nor private and if there were no more arguments than this. . and I never knew any of them prosper or respected among worthy or wise men.

and print it in thy thought. who else would be honest. the rich-have it is farther said. draw thee to that worst of worldly miseries. will cost thee treble as . that what virtue soever thou hast. and beside. Let not vanity therefore. or persuasion. he will never thank thee. that he shall be sore vexed that is surety for a strange?. and defend themselves and thine own fame. having no means to show them . the poor is hated even of his many friends. it Lend not lost. for these will . if thou be poor withal. and an eye-sore to thy friends. thou shalt be a burden. whom +o 161 . to natter unworthy men. . count be surety. thou shalt be driven basely to beg and depend on others. pay it himself. God will never prosper thee in aught. soon wear out of but money thy purse will ever be in fashion fools and no man is esteemed gay garments. thou shalt drown thee in all thy virtues. poverty provokes a man to do infamous and detested deeds. take heed that thou seek not riches basely. a vexation of every worthy spirit thou shalt neither help thyself nor others. And whatsoever thy servant without. thy hire. save thee from many perils. to make dishonest shifts . He that hath pity . thou and thy qualities shall be despised. but by and women. pine not them and their children to add superfluity and needless expenses to thyself. On by the other side. verbs. poverty is ofttimes sent as a curse of God it is a shame among men. for if thou him that is it. And it is most detestable before God. every man will fear thy company . RICHES. be it never so manifold. If thou trust any servant with thy purse. But use thy poor neighbors and tenants 11 well. . APPENDIX. and to conclude. for if not surety above thy power. therein. but laugh thy simplicity to scorn . gaineth thereby. 'tis the way to make thy servants thieves.. he will become thy enemy if thou use thou wilt be a beggar and believe thy father in this. to wrest anything from the needy and laboring soul. relieve the poor and thy honest friends. Exceed not fashion for . I myself. for those that will serve thee thee but yeomen. think to pay but Be own neighbor. and give means to thy posterity to Where it is said in the Prolive. comfort in sickness. but mightier than thyself. means destroy no man for his wealth. an imprisonment of the thou it art bound. keep thy mind and body free. if thou offend evil . and he that hateth suretyship. Beside. have therefore lost more than I am worth. to pay thyself. relieve thee in thy elderyears. in the humor in of rags and bravery. SERVANTS. nor attain them nor take anything from the poor for the cry and complaint thereof will pierce the heavens. BRAVE RAGS. and most dishonorable before worthy men. to thou lendest him. is sure. Let thy servants be such as thou mayst command. mind. If thou be rich. it will give thee pleasure in health. thou wilt then afterward for tediousness neglect it. and entertain none about whom thou givest wages . to much as they that know thy fare. be sure thou take his account ere thou sleep for if thou put it off.

maketh a man contemptible. what offence they give . the night unquiet. loveth wine. and if thou love it. who have trouble without . we draw on. that such a cureless canker pass not thy youth. the . commit disorders.162 APPENDIX. for it dulleth the spirits. . therefore. and he that delighteth in. . untimely. shall one time or other fall into it himself. the secondfor pleasure. thy own and thy friends. lewd dreams. Take heed. and the older he groweth. misfortune. eyes watery. the third for shame. stripes without cause. brings a man's stomach to an artificial heat. saith Solomon. as are ordered to be relieved. Whosoever secret. and are driven to povon such have thou comerty by mischance. And. . take this for a general rule. and God most of all. and wasteth the natural heat and seed of generation. a swift. will despise thee. and scorneth the misery of another. the fourth . Take especial care that thou delight not in wine. his prayer shall be heard of him that made him. the more he shall be subject to it . offend all virtuous and honest company. Anacharsis saith. such as are old and cannot travail. and destroyeth the body. poisoneth the breath. poor who are vagabonds and beggars. not only a beast. but those that labor to live. shall be free from it himself. decayeth health. to conclude. and not by riot or careless expenses Make not the hungry soul sorrowful. and Pliny saith. fighting. and a life free from pain . or as the worm that engendereth in the kernel of the nut. for he cannot keep a Wine maketh man wife. the sooner she will forsake thee. men care not what they say. the 7 even they that sit at wine. but in youth there is not so much as one draught permitted. defer not thy gift to the needy for if he curse thee. and trust altogether to art. for there never was any man came to honor or preferment that loved it for it transformeth a man into a . (which is the drunkenness of feeding. to be subject to any vice than to it but a drunkard will never shake off the delight of beastliness . hasty. and after thy death. a stinking breath in the morning. they forget comeliness. and. rotteth the teeth. shall not be trusted of any man. such poor widows and fatherless children. nor such a beastly infection thy old age for then shall all thy life be but as the life of a beast. WINE. And. destroyeth natural heat. and an utter forgelfulness of all things. in thyself and companions for it is a bewitching and infectious vice. thy children. remember my words. hated in thy servants. draught servethfor health. on another man's sorrow. by wine or spice. as ivy doth the old tree. for it putteth fire to fire. old age. for the longer it possesseth a man. thou shalt only leave a shameful infamy to thy posterity. he that hath mercy on the poor lendeth unto the Lord. and I do not understand those for tlie Lord will recompense him what he hath given. and God will bless thee for it. but a madman . wine maketh the hand quivering. and the poor tenants that travail to pay their rents. soon old. in the bitterness of his soul. and an infamous. until thou find and the sooner thou beginnest to help that time hath decayed thy natural heat Who have nature. cruel. except thou desire to hasten thine end. andfaintness of eyes strain themselves to empty cups. that beast. . and. Remember this precept. that it were better for a man for all other vanities and sins are recovered.) saith Hesiod. who shall study to forget that such a one was their father. passion. to whom we daily pray for health. therefore. And St . who have sorrow and grief. to conclude. and despised of all wise and worthy men. the more he will delight in it. In drink. deformeth the face. that first for madness thou never add any artificial heat to thy body. and yet by drunkenness and gluttony.

for the world. lest if he frown he confound all thy fortunes and labors. . but he that is honest.nd fatherly instructions. APPENDIX. sink deep into thy tices thereof. Drunkenness is a flattering devil. 163 . whose mind is alienate. which whosoever doth commit. whereof the owner was given to drink. I know it too well to persuade thee to dive into the prac- upon thine own guard against all that tempt thee thereunto. GOD. quid turpius ebrioso. a. prodit occulta. quod qui peccatum not facit. qui promit stulta. sed ipse est peccatum. suave peccatum facil. hath not himself. Let my experienced advice. what other mischief doth it not design ? Whom have not plentiful cups made eloquent and talking 1 When Diogenes saw a house to be sold. ebrielas est blandus daemon. nay. rather stand . which whosoever hath. . or may practise upon thee in thy conscience. he would spew out a whole house and revealeth There is no secrecy sciebam inquit. fades transformatur ? Nullum sequid non aliud designat malum 1 Fcccundi calices is filthier . and face transformed ? where drunkenness rules . cretum ubi regnat ebrielas. qui seipsum non habet Innocentius saith. tremor in corpore. Serve God. in this manner Tiabet. What than a drunken m. and fill thy heart with his grace ! 11* . . So God direct thee in all his ways. or thy purse resolve that no man is wise or safe. a pleasant sin. please him with prayer. to whom there is stink in the mouth.. cui fcetor in cui ore. a sweet poison. Now. but he himself is wholly sin. heart. quod. quern non fecere disertum ? secret things et mens alienatur. quoth Diogenes. doth not commit sin. Augustine describeth drunkenness dulce venerium. commend all thy endeavors to him that must either wither or prosper them. quod domum tandem evomeret. trembling in the body who uttereth foolish things. thy reputation. like the drops of rain on the sandy ground. I thought at the last.an. let him be the author of all thy actions.

Serika. Capouee. River. Homoo. Maire. Oupti. Moko. Heart. Papa. Waneekoo. Capoui. Brother. Parai. Day. OF FIVE INDIAN NATIONS IN GUYANA. Ema. Waiyu. Toonacashaza. Sadahana. Cono. Warao. Woman. Month. Ee-e-waireesa. Cooranahoo. Tree. Conopo. Oupootpi. Achpo. Sanaqupong. Azanzema Woonee. Takarai. Yapo. Wianu. Teekainai. Hotakwi. Eena. Head. G0AR»NO. Kiapou. Onda. Capoui. Wyeemeeree. Mohoo. Amoune. Pekii. Qpropata. Sun.* Man. Oneana. Fire. Red. Kwa. Camaiepo. Achu. Father. Daoona. Haikoonso. Hill. Capa-capai. Eehuwaw. Yaa. Star. Kipuag. Touna. Etaiboo. Quemya. Ho. Woronope. . Bone. Ayunsai. Achta. Owo. Heeoo. Ayeemootoa. Oopopu. Yaieena. Ouyapti. Reerwoo. Pee. Opota. VOCABULARIES OF THE LANGUAGES Ackoway.APPENDIX NO. Tekewa. Earth. Caraieepa. Woreshe. Pandaiee. Waranabee. Aka. Mother. Thunder. Hotoo. Black. Wonee. Oboro. Yawanai. Toona. Aiyairairee. Booroho. Toonansai. Haiboo. Serika. Apoupi. Atamoou. Papa. Oputpa. Oondah. Tapera. Foot. Nyano. Mama. Way. Naiboora. Moon. Meko. Paoo. Water. Mamoohoo. Macoussie. Nahamootoo Aha. Tippara. Pikerara. Teekairee. Reanaro. Way. Sister. Hair. Yioa. Yabeelai. Death. Taumutna. Bodalee. Canoco. Blood. Ewathanie. Apoto. Tinoonung. Lightning. White. Aneahou. Orie. Eyes. Padeekuoo Naba. Woreesan Ayupai. Obee. Moutb. Yellow. Island. Evil Spirit. Oyawa. Atoray. Api. Hand. Kwareesabarote. Anee. Taiwinkoree. Ayainu. Wind. Ochta. Yaa. Supreme Being. V. Teera. Moo. TlBBRACOTTI. Rain.

Coosan. Dehanamoo. Pama. Maropema. Seerde. Tookai. Hotobooroo. Good. Karaka. Yaiwootoo. Wiyou. Moomtaineesak Warow-eesak. Osororow. Cararee. Hirera. . Daiwoo. Nowcom. Manamoo. Sweet Potatoe. Pitarie. Caroweena. Okopui. (one person) (one person) * Thia word I take from the Travels of Grillett and Bechamel in Cayenne. Mareesee. Pratana. Ooreeda. Six. House. Aikaiseelee. Long. Pakeekoo. Kawi. Tobacco. Kareweara. Oko. Four. GUARANO. Koukame. Karan. Oreeton. Haa. Plantain. More. Aanie. One. Three. Piruru. Platana. Badaeekee. Eekan. Moonarahee. Bad. Patie. Houta. Boomoita. Apura. in 1674. Wide. Cheere. Shooma. Ackoways. Kiawa. Yaako. Knife. Conica. Saneemai. Arrow. Ohi Kioah. Sameekeera. Pawara. Aikai. Wakeeton. Little. Taiwinyaieena. Great. Maize. Bow. Yatawari. Orowa. Kabooredasa. Maree. (one hand) Bananee. Cassava. Marea. Houta. Stave. Eehailee. Outa. Salt. Woorapai. Orairai. Two. M. Pank.VCOUSSIE. Twenty. Opito. Kisa. Koosan. Eeshaka. Hamack. Hataboo. Five.APPENDIX. Kirey. Ooboonee. Saa. Shaak. 165 Tiberacotti. Wak. Owee Carena. Hano. Taiwin. Oorabookaioo Moohabasee. Atoray. Kawi. Fowl.

one of which is in Appendix No. Reanaro. t N'ukiri. Pepper." . p. Mapa. The following Table exhibits a comparison of the Arrowack. VI. Kejape. * Garcillaso s Hearo. - tUchu. Book 8. Mareesee. N'uchii. 9. N'uchabi. Moxos. is the pronoun di. Hachi. Catti." same Commentaries on Peru. Moxos. 318: " Their maize is of two kinds. Atoray. (the fying my.APPENDIX NO. Nose. the otbers from Professor Vater's Mithridates. : Arrowack. p. Honey. in that language. D'acoosee. Arm. Mapa. Hand. Ueni. D'adinna. Jucu. Water. is probably only a pronoun. taken from vocabularies I made in Guyana. * Muruchu. Tekairee. signif Garcillaso's as the Spaniards call axi. Uni. as the letter (D. whicli is the Haytian name for it. Achta. Woonie. Maba. Mopomo. Anumo. Heaven. t N'usiri.") t The (N) prefixed to these words. Maypure. Woman. Mareesee. Wooni. Moon. Atoray. 318: "Their red pepper they call uchu. N'uanna. Fire. Maypure. III. QUICHUA. except where noted . chap. chap. and those which follow in the same lists. Hekehe. Eye. Katchi.) the first in the corresponding words of the Arrowack. N'uboa. 9. Book 8.. Commentaries on Peru. Ayamooni. Uni. D'ackaboo. one of which they call muruchu. and Quichua languages the words from the two first. Eno. D'asseeree. Maize.

. ASSISTED BY IN ADVANCE. Henry C. PARK BENJAMIN. free of postage. the size of the for increasing The price of this work alone this (350 large New World. Esq.. 30 Ann St.—Three Dollars a year. all the new books of .York. HEJNRY C. to announce -that they have made the most extensive and expensive arrangements to improve and elevate its literary character. New. however. presented as heretofore in all . however cheap. It is the BOOK OF THR PEOPLE and eloquently pleads the cause of tlie oppressed and humble classes. anfr Ntvas THREE DOLLARS A YEAR. AND A REVIEW. and glean encouragement from its pages the haughty may read it. its pages." critic. which now almost unoccupied in our country. we add From ." will be given as H. and the wicked may realize the certain. To these gentlemen the department of Reviews will be chiefly committed. and partaking more of the newspaper than the magazine. to list show the value and interest which the following new inducement our already large subscriptior. It is the ambition of the Editors to make a journal. fairly and faithfully. and to give it a lofty tone. PREMIUM TO SUBSCRIBERS. in advance. A MAGAZINE. 2lrt. C. and take warning from its lessons the good may learn to honor goodness. Mackay is this an excellent classical scholar. Esq. The proprietors take occasion. and the Rev. New-York- THE NE*W*WORLD. The humble may read it. though perhaps tardy consequences of guilt. the Boston Atlas. its principal : Editor.: " Periodicals. Deming is no new acquaintance of 01. EDITOR. in its leading characteristics It will . At the same timu. and he will be assisted by two highly-accomplished scholars and men of talent. Btxtnit. however small. and by his admirable translation of the " Mysteries in his labors of Paris. . It will more closely resemble the critical London Spectator than any is other journal. DEMING AND JAMES MACKAY.) is $1. Address J. Mr. be . Deming. advance . Park Benjamin. review. Two copies Five Dollars. ON. by whom the New World was commenced. respects complete. and which the Boston Atlas proa premium to every subscriber who will remit $3 for New World one year. as are now arrayed (in their lists of contributors chiefly )"in the pictorial The New World is now the only publication of its kind in the country the only survivor of the class of large papers— the Brother Jonathan and the Boston Notion having gone back to the folio shape." translated by nonnces to be "the book of th» people. James Mackay. "The 'Mysteries of Paris' is a picture of human life. will contain as many ROMANTIC ATTRACTIONS articles by presenting numerous tales and poems. "THE MYSTERIES OF th* PARIS. without a mark to desig- and no publishers' notices will appear.jor tlie People" published by JO Winchester. value issued both from the English and American press. viz..1 readers. upon which the public can implicitly rely for the truth. on the commencement of a new volume of this favorite weekly newspaper. and brief has been greatly enlarged and as many as heretofore. A careful compend of the Foreign and Domestic News will. except they are paid for as advertisements. he is known by many brilliant and eloquent articles signed " D. as heretofore. will be duly noticed according to its desert. It will henceforth present the combined attractions of A NEWSPAPER. Its list of correspondents POPULAR AMERICAN AUTHORS will be engaged to contribute to monthly magazines. will continue. Mr. . and it will take that high ground. thus preserving its character as THE BEST FAMILY JOURNAL IN THE for UK. every work. and. and nate them as such justice of its opinions. A WEEKLY FAMILY JOURNAL OF JJopular Cit£ratxtr£. Mr. a pure and graceful writer and highly competent as a the Notwithstanding it new effort to make New World the best critical authority." which have attracted general applause. in TERMS. octavo pages. without reference to the sources from which they emanate. No puffs of any kind whatsoever will be admitted. 30 Ann-street. of interest. WINCHESTER. fidelity. . possesses. Demin».

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PRICE. we cannot conceive of a character more all trials. " MYSTERIES OF PARIS. Herbert. Matilda. as this same ian. would She then. Ursula and the influences which made her what she was. Indeed."— [N. is upon the canvas of his imagination the portraits of royalty. There is infinitely more truth of nature and vigor of delineation in this work than in any French itself to place its author. Y. Eugene Sue. and effect—the pictures of Mademoiselle de Maran. and its consequence— the decadence and death-scene of Ursula— are of this class. falls in love with the abused and deserted wife. There are chapters of terrible energy and insight— such as will compel you to turn back and read them again. M. her sole guide. and. She not above listening to conversations intended to be private. " Yet it is by no means without of women. BY AUTHOR OF EUGENE TEDE SUE. We have little the most extra- kept up with incommon power and ability. It is translated by Henry W. Herbert. . to faults. Through temptations. and most faithfully rendered. ~~ THE MEMOIRS OF A YOUNG WOMAN. Second Notice." ETC. the French are doubtless unequalled and this is to peruse this . and is destined to distinguished eminence as a novelist. so large and well- merited a sphere of renown. ail sufferings. W. and sketches luccs his readers to scenes of splendor lovelist. i Iatilda. * visits the hails of light..' and we antici- ate a popularity for equal to that obtained by that magnificent effort of genius. are among the master-pieces of modem literature. interest. scarcely inferior. or all The morality unquestionable. while the wretch who is her legal husband still lives. in the front rank of conand it suffices in novel we have ever met with . in " Matilda is a work of great power and respect. wretchedness and crfme. MATILDA. as one of the most brilliant and successful novelists of the day." — [Boston We regard this work of M. in the end.. well-balanced minds. and were never more powerfully affected. temporaneous authors. Herbert." [N. Y. :ue delicacy. work thoroughly during a recent journey. In the novel of society. even though to read be agony.—" We found time one of the best of the school. and rove that the standard of Parisian fashionable morality must be low indeed. with many others. when their subject deeply interests her. by impelling them to think other characters are given with equal force the Marquis of Rochegune. hesitation in declaring it " H. Aurora. These are sad drawbacks. but not of the highest order hope of reclaiming hiin. The work before us is translated by that popular Bee. TRANSLATED BY HENRY WILLIAM HERBERT." Books for the People. True Sun. is. of society ever published is " This Romance. Indeed. W. Sue is evidently a master-spirit. 75 CENTS-A LIBERAL DISCOUNT TO THE TRADE. known most favorably throughout this country and Great Britain.' n this work. Tribune. we now not where beside to find a modern book so well calculated to inspire intense detestation of Vice in general." ETC. Winchester. which no woman of common sense. having been treated with every brutality nd indignity by hev husband— as was to be expected— and finully deserted by him.' The interest is caster (Pa. Y. more naturally is depicted. OR. and and broad relief as any that have ever been conceived by poet or romancer. Tribune. fights a duel with indifference. 30 Ann-Street. to the ' Mysteries of Paris. probably the perior to the ' best novel in France. And yet. Indeed. it equally as powerful and finished a work as any the ' Mysteries . The letter of Ursula to De Lancry—the ravings of Matilda on the desertion of her husband. Then ths ero." "THE BROTHERS. Y. all the true men in the book are duellists on provocation. than the heroine.) Journal.' translated by is H. a noble being. the author has taken a new path. " Such a work as this will exert a salutary effect on strong. ETC. Ursula. IN NUMBERS. in many respects. strange though it be. nd especially of the brutal tyranny and lust of which Woman is so often the law-devoted victim. New-York. Esq."— [N. Sue as decidedly great. standing out in as full The — and act on the evils whose frightful abysses it uncovers. as issued from the same press. De Rochegune. AUTHOR OP "MARMADUKE WTPIL. exquisitely imagined."-[N. although not quite so extensive or iversified in its range of subjects.' which has lately obtained." published by J. and great ones. falls in love with another and is on the point of attaching herself to him. and the moral evolved by the machinery of the story in the most attractive manner. Matilda silly is She marries a known and say nothing of flagrant libertir.e in the do. virtue her sole guardian. and introand magnificence. greatly su- Mysteries of Taris. of ' " Sue's thrilling story Matilda. her ample and sufficient revvard. Instead of describing scenes of guilt."— [Lan>rdinary thing we have ever read— greatly superior to the ' Mysteries of Paris. and wounds is adversary.

25 sous la le caractere est entitlement neuf. of Languages. Professeur de Langues. $16 a hundred. et des Americains qui sont verses dans la langue Francaise. au moins line ou deux par semainejusqu'k la conclusion livraison. ce qui sera tres avantageux pourceux qui litudient la langue Francaise.York 30. le Cette edition est iditee et corrigee avec plus grand soin par C. with great care and 1 hereby certify that the edition is literally correct. P. il y a en outre aux Etats-Unis. TERMES.000 Francais. C. therefore. et du Canada. " I take this occasion to ecommend the public to test the excellence of Mr. Germans. as well as of the large' numbers of Americans and others who read the French tongue. which places it entirely beyond the means of the great body of French citizens. l'edition du New World. des rnjlliers de personnes qui parlent ou liserit avec facilite la langue Francaise . les proprietaires du New World ont done tout lieu d'esperer que leur entreprise recevra 1'approbation et le support non seulement des Frangais etablis aux Etats-Unis. No better exercise for learners could be devised. Professetjr de Langues. from which this has been copied. certifying to the cor. each Part containing one volume of the Paris edition.York alone there are over 30. Je considere done l'edition du New World comme la plus parfaile qui existe. This is. to be completed in not njore than eight Parts. et sera composd de huit livraison contiendrn tin volume de l'edition de Paris. TWELVE rectness of this edition "A CARD. P. Winchester. The numbers will be issued as rapidly as possible— at least one. ENTREPRISE IMPORTANTE! toujours croissante des " Mysteres de Paris. but those which occurred in the best original Paris edition. The work will be printed on good paper and new type. BY EUGENE SUE. from which we reprint. We give below Prof. dont le prix est $150: lei rapidement que possible. almost entirely populated by Frenchmen and their descendants. who are conversant with the French language. j'ai corrige les erreurs qui se trouvaient par hasard dans l'edition de Paris qui a servi de copie. Cet ouvrage sera imprime sirwun papier excellent. Co . till completed. sans faire mention des habitants de l'etat de la Louisiana. mais encore. P. )-' . I have not only corrected the errors of the press in the present.ssi 1 1 de l'ouvrage." published by J. Deming's translation. as well as of the thousands of English. BORDENAVE. 30 Ann-street. non seulement j'ai corrige avec le plus grand soin. BORDENAVE. Bordenave's Card. In New. L'6dition de Paris qui nous sert de copie revient dans ce pays-ci. de se procurer ce bel ouvrage d'Eugene Sue. BORDENAVE. se vend aux libraires et aux agents $16 la cent. Price 25 cents each Part. Le certificat. BORDENAVE.000 French residents and to say nothing of the State of Louisiana and the British province of Lower Canada. "I have read four proofs of each and every page of the New World edition of the 'Mysteries of Paris. and Americans." TERMS OF PUBLICATION. IMPORTANT ENTERPRISE! Cf of the extraordinary popularity and large demand for copies in the original. and in compliance of tlie wishes of many French gentlemen. OR II New mined to issue A FRENCH EDITION MYSTERIES OF PARIS. UNDER THE CRITICAL SUPERINTENDENCE OF The Paris edition. PROFESSOR C.' in French. Prof. comme extremement correcte. des Allemands. has deterWorld. New-York. the most perfect edition extant. qui suit. Chnque livraisons scront emisea ai.YSTERES DE PARIS. Je prends plaisir en meme temps a recommn nder au public de comparer la traduction de M. by comparing it with the French. parties ou livraisons. ce prix 6norme doit necessurement empecher beaucoup de personnes. II y a dans la ville de New. a dotjze dollars. there are thousands who read or speak the language as native. To Booksellers and Agents. Deming avec celle-ci. Ayant lu et corrige avec le plus grand soin 4 epreuves differentes de l'edition Francaise des Mysteres de Paris publiee par les proprietaires du New World. P. the publisher of In consequence The at the suggestion. qui sont la plupart Francais ou fils de Francais. and probably two in each week. Complete en huit livraisons a 25 sous chaque. the price of which is $1 50. ruais encore des Anglais. and the publisher cannot permit himself to doubt that the present enterprise will meet with the favor and support of the French people throughout the Union.: " Books for the People." la demande reiteree qui se fait tous les jours de l'original de eet ouvrage extraordinaire ont engage les proprietaires du " New World " a donner au public one edition Francaise des La popularity M. je la recommande au public. fera preuve du soin avec lequel cette edition est publiee. C. cannot be had in this country for les9 than DOLLARS. .

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