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Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoevsky --------------------------------------------------------1866 FYODOR DOSTOEVS Y!

S CR"#E $%D P&%"S'#E%T (y Vir)inia *+ #orris, $sso-iate Pro.essor o. En)/ish, 0ohn 0ay Co//e)e, City &niversity o. %e1 York For Ra/2h and Dorothea *aum)artner SER"ES ED"TOR #i-hae/ S2rin), Editor, 3iterary Cava/-ade, S-ho/asti- "n-+ $C %O43ED5E#E%TS 4e 1ou/d /ike to a-kno1/ed)e the many 2ainstakin) hours o. 1ork 'o//y 'u)hes and Thomas F+ 'irs-h have devoted to makin) the *ook %otes series a su--ess+ 6C7 Co2yri)ht 1889 (y *arron!s Edu-ationa/ Series, "n-+ E/e-troni-a//y Enhan-ed Te:t 6C7 Co2yri)ht 188;, 4or/d 3i(rary, "n-+ CO%TE%TS CO%TE%TS SECT"O%++++++++++++++++++++++++++ SE$RC' O% T'E $&T'OR $%D '"S T"#ES+++++++++++++++++ DCR"$&T' T'E %OVE3 The P/ot+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Chara-ters+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Other E/ements Settin)++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Themes+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Sty/e++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Point o. Vie1++++++++++++++++++++++ Form and Stru-ture+++++++++++++++++ T'E STORY++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ $ STEP *EYO%D Tests and $ns1ers++++++++++++++++++++++++ Term Pa2er "deas+++++++++++++++++++++++++ 5/ossary+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Criti-s++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DCR"P3OT DCR"C'$R DCR"SETT DCR"T'E# DCR"STY3 DCR"V"E4 DCR"FOR# DCR"STOR DCR"TEST DCR"TER# DCR"53OS DCR"CR"T

$dvisory *oard+++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DCR"$DV* *i(/io)ra2hy+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DCR"*"*3 $&T'OR<$%D<'"S<T"#ES T'E $&T'OR $%D '"S T"#ES 6DCR"$&T'7 4hen Fyodor Dostoevsky 1as t1enty-ei)ht, he 1as arrested (y the

C=ar!s se-ret 2o/i-e and senten-ed to death, a/on) 1ith other mem(ers o. a )rou2 that su22orted revo/utionary 2o/iti-a/ and so-ia/ ideas+ 6'is 2arti-u/ar -rime 1as 2u(/ishin) i//e)a/ arti-/es advo-atin) -han)es in Russian so-iety+7 4hen the 2risoners 1ere (ound and 1aitin) to (e shot, and as the C=ar!s .irin) s>uad readied .or the e:e-ution, a roya/ messen)er dramati-a//y announ-ed a re2rieve+ The men!s /ives 1ere s2ared+ The s2e-ta-u/ar sa/vation had (een 2rearran)ed+ The C=ar had mere/y 1anted to .ri)hten the men and demonstrate his 2o1er+ Dostoevsky )ot the messa)e+ #ore im2ortant, his es-a2e .rom death.o//o1ed (y .our years o. im2risonment in Si(eria- had an enormous im2a-t on his /i.e and 1ork+ 4hen you read Dostoevsky!s nove/s, it!s easy to see ho1 his e:2erien-es in./uen-ed his -hoi-e o. theme and -hara-ter+ This is es2e-ia//y true o. Crime and Punishment, 2u(/ished in 186?, 1hi-h te//s the story o. a (ri//iant (ut emotiona//y tortured youn) man 1hose theories a(out human (ehavior make him think he is a(ove the /a1+ $t the end o. Part T1o o. the nove/, .or e:am2/e, Rasko/nikov, the main -hara-ter, sudden/y .ee/s @a (ound/ess/y .u// and 2o1er.u/ /i.e 1e//in) u2 in him+@ 'e -om2ares the emotion to the rea-tion o. @a man -ondemned to death and une:2e-ted/y re2rieved+@ The sour-e and si)ni.i-an-e o. that ima)e are over1he/min)/y -/ear+ Dostoevsky!s 2rison e:2erien-e 2rovoked his interest in the -auses o. -rime+ "t a/so made him 1onder a(out the use.u/ness o. 2unishment+ "n a /etter des-ri(in) his 2/an to 1rite Crime and Punishment, he said, @Punishment meted out (y the /a1 to the -rimina/ deters the -rimina/ .ar /ess than the /a1)ivers think++++@ 'e (e/ieved that in order .or 2unishment to 1ork, it had to make the -rimina/ a--e2t his o1n )ui/t+ 'is ideas a(out reha(i/itatin) -rimina/s 1ere .ar ahead o. the a--e2ted attitudes o. his time+ $nother o. Dostoevsky!s innovative attitudes a(out -rime and 2unishment 1as his em2hasis on the emotiona/ or 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ reasons 1hy 2eo2/e -ommit -rimes+ "n his time so-ia/ s-ientists had on/y (e)un to use emotiona/ .a-tors as an e:2/anation .or -han)es in 2eo2/e!s (ehavior+ The .ie/d o. -rimino/o)y, 1hi-h studies the various -auses o. -rime, 1as not -/ear/y .ormu/ated unti/ a(out 181A+ There are other e:2erien-es in Dostoevsky!s /i.e that are im2ortant to understandin) Crime and Punishment+ $t seventeen he /e.t home to study en)ineerin) in a mi/itary s-hoo/ in St+ Peters(ur) 6no1 -a//ed 3enin)rad7+ 'e 1as misera(/e there, 2art/y (e-ause he 1as rea//y more interested in /iterature than in s-ien-e+ $/so, in-redi(/e 2overty 2/a)ued his student /i.e+ O.ten he 1ent hun)ry, and he kne1 a// a(out 2a1n(rokers as a 2oor man!s on/y sour-e o. money+ 'e .re>uented taverns and 1as a->uainted 1ith the seedy 2art o. /i.e in the -ity+ The sti./in), 2overty-stri-ken s/ums and the teemin), drunken -ro1ds in the 'aymarket S>uare se-tion o. St+ Peters(ur) are so vivid/y des-ri(ed in Crime and Punishment (e-ause he kne1 them .rom 2ersona/ e:2erien-e+ From the (e)innin) Dostoevsky!s .i-tion de2i-ted des2erate/y 2oor men and 1omen+ Dostoevsky!s .as-ination 1ith dou(/in)- the 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ term to des-ri(e dua/ 2ersona/ities- is one o. the reasons he!s o.ten des-ri(ed as one o. the .irst modern nove/ists+ Chara-ters 1ith dou(/e 2ersona/ities e:ist in many o/d /e)ends and ta/es, (ut his ana/ysis o. su-h -hara-ters as emotiona//y, and o.ten menta//y, distur(ed 1as 2rovo-ative and in./uentia/+ "n .a-t, Crime and Punishment is sti// used in 2sy-ho/o)y /e-tures to i//ustrate the 2henomenon o. s2/it 2ersona/ities+

You -an understand even more a(out the ideas that o(sessed Dostoevsky i. you kno1 1hat ha22ened to his .ather+ $t a(out the time Dostoevsky moved to St+ Peters(ur), his .ather, 1ith 1hom he!d never (een -/ose, 1as murdered (y the outra)ed ser.s on his -ountry estate+ #any readers, sear-hin) .or 1ays to e:2/ain some o. the emotiona/ insta(i/ity in the author!s o1n /i.e, 2oint to this murder as a key in./uen-e+ Fathers aren!t ever de2i-ted very 2ositive/y in his 1orkB in Crime and Punishment the on/y .ather 1e see is a (ad one+ S-ho/ars 1ho!ve 1ritten a(out Dostoevsky o.ten su))est a -onne-tion (et1een the e2i/e2ti- sei=ures that (e)an to 2/a)ue him in the 189As and his .ather!s death+ "n Crime and Punishment the nove/ist himse/. su))ests a -onne-tion (et1een emotiona/ 2ro(/ems and 2hysi-a/ i//nessB it 1ou/d (e .as-inatin) to kno1 i. he sa1 his o1n i//ness as 2sy-ho/o)i-a//y (ased+ The 2eriod o. Russian history in 1hi-h Dostoevsky /ived and 1rote 1as tumu/tuous+ %e1 ideas .or -han)e 1ere in the air, as his o1n ear/y 2o/iti-a/ ideas i//ustrate+ Russian ser.s 1ere .reed in 1861+ #any Russian thinkers (e/ieved that their nation shou/d .or)e -/oser ties 1ith 4estern Euro2e and (e-ome @modern,@ an idea Dostoevsky reCe-ted+ *e/ievers in %ihi/ism, one o. the most in./uentia/ movements o. the 2eriod, 2rea-hed the need to destroy the e:istin) so-ia/ and 2o/iti-a/ systems even i. nothin) had (een set u2 to re2/a-e 1hat 1as destroyed+ Dostoevsky, a.ter his 2rison e:2erien-e, 1as re2e//ed (y this ne)ative vie1 o. /i.e, even thou)h its advo-ates o..ered some -onstru-tive ideas .or re.orm+ $nother idea that 1as in the air 1as that o. the @su2erman,@ an e:traordinary individua/ set a2art .rom most other men+ The 5erman 2hi/oso2her 5eor) Friedri-h 'e)e/ had 1ritten a )reat dea/ on the su(Ce-t, and his -ountryman Friedri-h 4i/he/m %iet=s-he deve/o2ed the idea in di..erent 1ays durin) the 188As+ 'e)e/ su))ested that a su2erman 1orks .or the )ood o. mankind, 1hereas %iet=s-he!s idea 1as that a su2erman 1as 2rimari/y interested in se/.-)rati.i-ation+ The -hara-ter Rasko/nikov in Crime and Punishment uses the idea o. the su2erman to he/2 Custi.y the murder he -ommits+ Dostoevsky -ha//en)es us to 1ei)h Rasko/nikov!s ideas a)ainst the seriousness o. his -rime and dra1 our o1n -on-/usions+ Dostoevsky!s .as-ination 1ith su..erin) is (ased on his re/i)ious (e/ie.s- .ervent (ut not a/1ays orthodo: Christianity+ Christian ideas o. .or)iveness, sa/vation, and re(irth 6or resurre-tion7 o. the s2irit are a/so -entra/ to Crime and Punishment+ The nove/ is e:-itin) to read (e-ause Dostoevsky makes these ideas -ome a/ive in a sus2ense.u/ story+ $s you read the nove/, you!// (e -ha//en)ed to .orm your o1n o2inions a(out -ontradi-tory vie1s o. human (ehavior+ Does Dostoevsky 1ant us to a)ree 1ith Rasko/nikov that some 2eo2/e have the ri)ht to -ommit -rimesD There are times 1hen you think he does, and other times 1hen you!re sure he doesn!t+ P3OT T'E %OVE3 T'E P3OT 6DCR"P3OT7

Rodion Romanovi-h Rasko/nikov is a des2erate man+ 'e thinks he!s e:-e2tiona/, e:traordinary+ 'e (e/ieves that )ives him the ri)ht to (reak the /a1 i. he -hooses+ *ut he!s a/so a 2hysi-a/ and emotiona/ 1re-k, a.raid to do the thin)s he 1ants to do to test his o1n -oura)e+ Driven (y his 2overty and the shame o. his mother!s and sister!s

sa-ri.i-es .or him, he 2/ans a (o/d a-tE to ki// a re2u/sive o/d 2a1n(roker+ 'er murder 1i// a--om2/ish t1o thin)sE )ive him the money he needs and 2rove he!s a su2erman+ The 2/an mis.ires+ 'e ki//s not on/y his intended vi-tim (ut a/so her mi/d, )ent/e sister, 1ho returns home too ear/y and sur2rises the murderer+ #ade 2hysi-a//y i// (y the trauma o. his deed, Rasko/nikov is -ared .or (y his o/d .riend Ra=umikhin+ *ut his (ehavior (e-omes so (i=arre that everyone 1ho meets him 1onders i. he!s insane+ &n.ortunate/y .or him, severa/ 2o/i-e o..i-ia/s, in-/udin) Por.iry Petrovi-h, the investi)ator in -har)e o. the 2a1n(roker!s murder, hear a(out his se/.-in-riminatin) a-tions+ 'e .aints in the 2o/i-e station 1hen the -rime is dis-ussedB he returns to the s-ene o. the -rime and makes a s2e-ta-/e o. himse/.B and he is o(sessed 1ith the detai/s o. the murder+ Even 1ithout any 2hysi-a/ eviden-e a)ainst him, sus2i-ion .o-uses on him+ The other side o. Rasko/nikov!s 2ersona/ity, the side that .ee/s sym2athy .or other 2eo2/e!s trou(/es, .inds an out/et in the midst o. his o1n stru))/e to es-a2e dete-tion+ 'e meets the .ami/y o. #arme/adov, a drunk 1ho is ki//ed in a street a--ident, he!s so a22a//ed (y the .ami/y!s 2overty that he )ives them a// his money to see them throu)h the .unera/+ 'e!s most intri)ued (y #arme/adov!s dau)hter, Sonia, 1ho has (e-ome a 2rostitute to (rin) in enou)h money to 2rovide .ood and she/ter+ To -om2/i-ate Rasko/nikov!s 2ro(/ems, his mother and his sister, Dunya, arrive in St+ Peters(ur) the same day #arme/adov dies+ They have -ome to 2re2are .or Dunya!s 1eddin) to the a../uent (ut re2u/sive 3u=hin+ Dunya!s .ormer em2/oyer, Svidri)ai/ov, a man 1ho has tried to sedu-e her and is sti// ea)er to see her, a/so sho1s u2 at Rasko/nikov!s a2artment+ Rasko/nikov .ee/s in-reasin)/y tormented, (ut he sti// 1ants to )o on /ivin)B he resists the tem2tation to ki// himse/. and end his trou(/es+ *e-ause Sonia #arme/adov is so .or)ivin) and, at the same time, )ui/ty herse/. o. immora/ a-ts, he de-ides that she is the on/y one in 1hom he -an -on.ide+ 'e -an!t i)nore Por.iry Petrovi-h either, thou)h, (e-ause he kno1s that the investi)ator sus2e-ts him+ Rasko/nikov a/ternates visits 1ith his -on.essor and his 2ursuer, (oth o. 1hom .or-e him to ree:amine his (ehavior+ *oth Sonia and Por.iry ta/k to him a(out s2iritua/ re(irth and 1ant him to turn himse/. in to the 2o/i-e+ They (oth (e/ieve he -an (e saved+ 'e resists (oth o. them+ Then he .inds out that Svidri)ai/ov has overheard his -on.essions to Sonia+ Rasko/nikov kno1s that su-h in.ormation, in -ourt testimony, 1ou/d -on.irm his )ui/t+ 4hat 1orries him even more is that the uns-ru2u/ous Svidri)ai/ov 1i// use his kno1/ed)e to (/a-kmai/ Dunya into a 2hysi-a/ re/ationshi2 to 2rote-t her (rother+ Rasko/nikov never hears a(out it, (ut Svidri)ai/ov does e:a-t/y 1hat he!d .eared+ Dunya resists his threats, ho1ever, and even tries to shoot him to 2rote-t her honor+ For-ed to .a-e his o1n de-aden-e and the .a-t that Dunya 1i// never /ove him, Svidri)ai/ov -ommits sui-ide+ Rasko/nikov has (een thinkin) a(out sui-ide a)ain himse/., (ut he!s not ready to die+ 'e de-ides that even the humi/iation o. a tria/ and the misery o. 2rison are (etter than dyin)+ *ut he a/so rea/i=es that he -an!t )o on /ivin) 1ith the tension o. tryin) to es-a2e dete-tion+ 'e )oes to Sonia .or her (/essin) and then )oes to the 2o/i-e+ 'is senten-e is ei)ht years in Si(eria+ $t .irst he is as arro)ant and se/.-invo/ved as ever, (ut a mira-/e ha22ens at Easter o. his se-ond year in 2rison+ 'e re-o)ni=es that, i. 1ide/y .o//o1ed, the

theories that /ed him to -ommit murder 1ou/d doom the 1or/d to anar-hy+ "n sheddin) his e)otism, he is a/so a(/e to re-o)ni=e that he /oves Sonia+ Thou)h their /i.e to)ether 1i// have many hardshi2s, they -an (e/ieve in the 2romise o. the .uture+ C'$R$CTERS T'E C'$R$CTERS 6DCR"C'$R7 *e.ore you read Crime and Punishment, you shou/d understand somethin) a(out Russian names+ Every -hara-ter has a midd/e name -a//ed a 2atronymi-, .ormed .rom his or her .ather!s .irst name+ For a man, the 2atronymi- ends in ovi-hB .or a 1oman, its endin) is ovna+ The 2atronymi- is -onsidered an im2ortant 2art o. a name and is -ommon/y used, un/ike our o1n midd/e names+ The -hara-ters are a/so o.ten identi.ied (y their ni-knames, so it mi)ht take you a /itt/e 1hi/e to rea/i=e that Rodya, Roddy, Rodka, and Rodenka a// re.er to Rasko/nikov+ "t!s a )ood idea to make a /ist, either inside the (ook or on an inde: -ard, o. a// the -hara-ters! names and their variations+ Trans/ators a/so use di..erent s2e//in)s+ #ost o. the variants are )iven in 2arentheses+ The s2e//in)s used here are .rom David #ar)arsha-k!s trans/ation+ #$0OR C'$R$CTERS ROD"O% RO#$%OV"C' R$S O3%" OV 6RODY$, RODDY, RODE% $, ROD $7 "s Rasko/nikov a -rimina/ 1ho shou/d (e severe/y 2unished .or his -rime- or a tortured youn) man 1ho makes a terri(/e mistake in tryin) to understand himse/.D *e-ause his -rime is so (ruta/, many readers think he!s a re2u/sive, se/.--entered -hara-ter 1ho es-a2es the 2unishment he deserves+ "n -ontrast, (e-ause he!s tormented (y his -ons-ien-e and .un o. 2ity .or the needy, other readers .ee/ that the murders 1ere a dread.u/ mistake that shou/d not ruin his /i.e+ Dostoevsky sho1s the reader (oth sides o. Rasko/nikov, (ut the stru-ture o. the nove/ su22orts the author!s (e/ie. that Rasko/nikov -an (e reha(i/itated+ The reader has to de-ide i. Dostoevsky 2roves his 2oint+ "n -hoosin) Rasko/nikov!s name, he has )iven one im2ortant -/ue to his -hara-ter+ The 1ord rasko/, in Russian, means @s-hism@ or @s2/it+@ Dua/ism is the key to Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter+ 'e is torn (et1een the desire to do evi/ and the desire to do )ood+ 'e 1ants to do evi/, to -ommit murder, in order to test his theory that there is su-h a thin) as a -rime o. 2rin-i2/e+ 'e (e/ieves he is (ri//iant and more )i.ted than other 2eo2/e and has the ri)ht to -ommit -rime to a--om2/ish his )oa/s+ $// he needs is darin)+ The 2ro(/em is, he!s not e:a-t/y sure 1hat his )oa/s are+ 'e a/so 1ants to do )ood+ 'e 1ants to save his sister .rom an unha22y marria)e and his mother .rom sa-ri.i-in) .or him+ 'e 1ants to he/2 the misera(/e #arme/adov .ami/y+ *ut he seems una(/e to motivate himse/. to 1ork or to .ind a 1ay to (reak out o. the 2overty that tra2s him+ 'e stru))/es -onstant/y 1ith se/.-dou(t, >uestionin) 1hat he does and (/amin) himse/. .or every de-ision he makes+ 'e is tortured (y dreams in 1hi-h he must -on.ront his o1n evi/ a-ts and )ui/ty -ons-ien-e+ 'e -onstant/y su))ests ne1 motives .or his -rime, and then reCe-ts them+ Dostoevsky attri(utes Rasko/nikov!s turmoi/ in 2art to his se/.-im2osed iso/ation, 1hi-h has 1ar2ed his a(i/ity to -o2e 1ith 2eo2/e+ 'is .riends think he is insane- or at /east menta//y

un(a/an-ed+ *ut, a--ordin) to ho1 Dostoevsky .ina//y 1ants us to see Rasko/nikov, it is not insanity, (ut a/ienation .rom humanity and .rom Christian ethi-a/ standards that a//o1s him to ki// the 2a1n(roker+ $.ter the murders, Rasko/nikov!s most im2ortant re/ationshi2s are 1ith Sonia #arme/adov and Por.iry Petrovi-h+ $t .irst he seeks out Sonia, the re/u-tant 2rostitute and devout Christian, (e-ause he -an .ee/ su2erior to her+ To her he -an -on.ess his -rime, and 1ith her he -an share his misery+ Eventua//y she (e-omes his ho2e .or sa/vation throu)h her /ove .or him+ $s Sonia is his s2iritua/ -on.essor, Por.iry Petrovi-h, the (ri//iant dete-tive, is his inte//e-tua/ e>ua/+ 'is heart seeks Sonia, (ut his mind seeks the -ha//en)e o. s2arrin) 1ith Por.iry+ Dostoevsky makes this 2attern -/ear (y -ontrastin) ea-h visit 1ith Sonia 1ith an intervie1 1ith Por.iry+ *y havin) (oth o. these -hara-ters more -on-erned 1ith savin) his sou/ than 2unishin) his -rime, the nove/ist a/so em2hasi=es the mora/ and re/i)ious dimensions o. -rime and 2unishment+ $--ordin) to Dostoevsky, the ki//er must re-o)ni=e he has -ommitted a sin a)ainst 5od and man (e.ore his 2unishment -an 1ork+ Rasko/nikov .ina//y does -on.ess and is sent to 2rison+ 'e has as many -on.used motives .or -on.essin) as he did .or -ommittin) the -rime in the .irst 2/a-e+ The most 2ositive reason is that he re-o)ni=es he has done 1ron) and must (e 2unished+ *ut Dostoevsky su))ests that 2hysi-a/ and emotiona/ e:haustion are e>ua//y a .a-tor in his de-ision+ The tension o. -onstant/y (ein) on his )uard .ina//y drives him to )ive u2+ $ third reason- that Svidri)ai/ov!s sui-ide sho-ks Rasko/nikov into re-o)ni=in) that un-on.essed -rime /eads to des2air and death- is a/so 2ossi(/e+ 'e kno1s he doesn!t 1ant to die+ Fina//y, many readers (e/ieve that Rasko/nikov seeks 2unishment a// a/on)+ That, they say, e:2/ains a// the se/.-in-riminatin) thin)s he says and does a.ter the murder, in-/udin) a// the times he starts to -on.ess and is 2revented .rom doin) so+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE $s you read the nove/, other reasons .or (oth Rasko/nikov!s -rime and his -on.ession 1i// strike you too+ *e sure to note 2assa)es in the nove/ that su22ort your vie1 o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter+ Severa/ di..erent reasons -an (e true at the same time, and Dostoevsky makes that very -/ear+ Com2/i-ated 2eo2/e -an never (e e:2/ained in sim2/e 1ays+ --------------------------------------------------------------------SOFY$ SE#E%OV%$ #$R#E3$DOV$ 6SO%"$7 Sonia, 1hose name -omes .rom the 5reek 1ord .or 1isdom, sho1s Rasko/nikov the 1ay to redem2tion+ *ut she is a -ontradi-tory, or dua/, -hara-ter, too+ 3ike some other 1omen in /iterature, she is 2ortrayed as a -om(ination o. the madonna and the 1hore, a 1oman 1hose sou/ is 2ure even thou)h her (ody is de.i/ed+ Sonia has (e-ome a 2rostitute (e-ause her .ather is a drunk, una(/e to su22ort his .ami/y+ *ut, mira-u/ous/y, she seems untou-hed (y her e:2erien-e, a/thou)h she a-kno1/ed)es the (ruta/ truth that /i.e on the street has on/y three 2ossi(/e out-omesE sui-ide, madness, or -orru2tion+ "t is (e-ause she is sin.u/ that Rasko/nikov is a(/e to -on.ide in herB (ut it is (e-ause she (e/ieves in 5od that she is a(/e to he/2 him+ She is in the (est 2osition to understand the s2/it in his -hara-ter, (e-ause she is intimate/y -onne-ted 1ith (oth sides o.

it+ 'e (e.riends her .ami/y at the time o. her .ather!s death, and he de.ends her a)ainst a .a/se -har)e o. the.t+ Yet he has ki//ed her .riend 3i=aveta, the 2a1n(roker!s sister, and he -ontinua//y reminds her o. the misery o. her /i.e and the use/essness o. her sa-ri.i-e+ Dostoevsky stresses Sonia!s (e/ie. in the 2o1er o. su..erin)+ She is .ervent in her (e/ie. in 5od and trusts that he 1i// re1ard her misery+ ". there 1i// (e 2ositive resu/ts, she -an to/erate her shame2erha2s even 1e/-ome it+ The nove/ a..irms her .aith, at /east to some e:tent+ *y the end o. Crime and Punishment, Sonia!s (rother and sisters have (een 2/a-ed in a )ood or2hana)eB she is a(/e to /eave her /i.e as a 2rostituteB and Rasko/nikov re2ents and is redeemed+ Readers res2ond to Sonia in di..erent 1ays+ You may a)ree 1ith those 1ho think she is near/y 2er.e-t+ The re/i)ious themes in the nove/ -enter around her, and she e:em2/i.ies 2er.e-t human /ove, 1hi-h a--e2ts others 1ith a// their .ai/in)s and asks nothin) in return+ For e:am2/e, she stru))/es to understand the -om2/e:ity o. Rasko/nikov!s inner turmoi/ and /oves him any1ay, even 1hi/e he is -rue/ and un-arin) to her+ ". you .ind a// her )oodness rather -/oyin) and unrea/isti-, ho1ever, you are not a/one+ #any readers think she!s too )ood, too 2assive, too 1i//in) to su..er 1ithout -om2/aint+ She rare/y e:erts herse/. or insists on her ri)hts+ 4hi/e Rasko/nikov seems very modern in his an)uish and a/ienation, Sonia seems o/d-.ashioned and /imited+ Remem(er that your 2ersona/ rea-tion is on/y one 2art o. eva/uatin) a -hara-ter+ You a/so have to take into a--ount 1hat the author intended+ *e-ause there is nothin) in the te:t that is -riti-a/ o. Sonia, a reader must re-o)ni=e that Dostoevsky meant her to (e the -hie. e:em2/ar o. )oodness in the nove/+ De-idin) 1hether she is (e/ieva(/e or /ikea(/e is one thin)+ Dis-ussin) ho1 she .its into Dostoevsky!s vie1 o. the 1or/d is another+ PORF"RY PETROV"C' Por.iry re2resents the authority o. the state, or the /a1, in his 2ursuit o. Rasko/nikov+ 'is te-hni>ue is mode/ed, in 2art, on the ty2e o. dete-tive that 1as so 2o2u/ar in 18th--entury .i-tion- an investi)ator 1ho is a(/e to so/ve di..i-u/t -rimes (y rationa/ dedu-tion rather than 2hysi-a/ investi)ation+ $/thou)h Por.iry does @so/ve@ the -ase (y dedu-in) that Rasko/nikov is )ui/ty, his ski//s as a dete-tive are not o. 2rimary interest to Dostoevsky+ Rather, the nove/ist -on-entrates on the due/ o. 1i//s (et1een Por.iry and Rasko/nikov, t1o (ri//iant and e)otisti-a/ men 1ith very di..erent ideas a(out 1hat is im2ortant in /i.e+ Por.iry is the on/y -hara-ter 1ho is Rasko/nikov!s inte//e-tua/ e>ua/, and the on/y one 1ho understands the -om2/e: motives .or his -rime+ The ironi-, mo-kin) tone he uses to ta/k to Rasko/nikov reminds some readers o. the arro)an-e Rasko/nikov himse/. sho1s other 2eo2/e+ The investi)ator!s em2hasis on 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ ana/ysis as a 1ay o. dete-tin) -rimina/s is a/most as revo/utionary as Rasko/nikov!s (e/ie. in -rimes o. 2rin-i2/e+ The maCor di..eren-e (et1een them is that Por.iry!s theory stresses the so-ia/ )ood, 1hi/e Rasko/nikov!s means so-ia/ anar-hy+ Some -riti-s su))est that Dostoevsky intends Por.iry to re2resent Russian so/utions to Russian 2ro(/ems in -ontrast to the 4estern Euro2ean sour-es o. Rasko/nikov!s mistaken theories+ Dostoevsky sho1s Por.iry o22osed to (oth the /e)a/ and the mora/

trans)ressions o. Rasko/nikov!s -rime+ 'e isn!t that interested in 2uttin) the -rimina/ (ehind (arsB instead, he!s -ommitted to )ettin) Rasko/nikov to admit the error o. his 1ays+ 'e em(odies Dostoevsky!s (e/ie. that 2unishment that is im2osed on a -rimina/ does /itt/e )ood i. the man himse/. reCe-ts his o1n )ui/t+ Por.iry a22ears on/y three times in the nove/, (ut many readers (e/ieve he is the se-ond most im2ortant -hara-ter+ They ar)ue that 1ithout him, Rasko/nikov 1ou/d never have (een sus2e-ted and, more im2ortant, 1ou/d never have (een reha(i/itated+ Por.iry!s su--ess i//ustrates Dostoevsky!s 2osition as a -onservative thinker 1ho su22orts -on.ormity to the /a1 and traditiona/ Christian ethi-s as the .oundations o. a 2rodu-tive /i.e+ Por.iry!s (i))est .ans insist that the reason he doesn!t a22ear more o.ten, and sim2/y disa22ears (e.ore the end o. the story, is that he!s rea//y more interestin) and a22ea/in) than Rasko/nikov+ They think that i. he 1ere in more o. the s-enes he 1ou/d (e-ome the nove/!s hero+ There!s no 1ay to 2rove this idea, thou)h+ "t seems 2retty -/ear that this is Rasko/nikov!s story+ $R $DY "V$%OV"C' SV"DR"5$"3OV *e-ause this is Rasko/nikov!s story, ea-h o. the other -hara-ters is -onsidered in re/ation to him+ 4hi/e Svidri)ai/ov!s /i.e and death are dramati- in themse/ves, their im2ortan-e to the nove/ /ies in 1hat they te// you a(out Rasko/nikov+ "n /iterary terms 1e 1ou/d say that Svidri)ai/ov 6and a/so Por.iry, Ra=umikhin, and 3u=hin7 a-ts as a .oi/ to Rasko/nikov+ $ .oi/ is a -hara-ter 1hose simi/arities to- and di..eren-es .rom- the main -hara-ter he/2 to de.ine the main -hara-ter+ 3ike Rasko/nikov, Svidri)ai/ov is a -rimina/+ 'e too is trou(/ed (y vivid, terri.yin) dreamsE dead -hara-ters haunt him, as they do Rasko/nikov+ The strikin) moment 1hen the t1o meet o--urs Cust as Rasko/nikov 1akes u2 .rom re/ivin) in his dream the murder o. the 2a1n(roker+ Svidri)ai/ov doesn!t 1aste any time te//in) him they are @(irds o. a .eather,@ an idea he re2eats .re>uent/y+ 3ike Rasko/nikov, he seeks /ove .rom a 1oman 1ho has sho1n 2ity .or him and 1ho, he (e/ieves, 1i// save him .rom death+ "n his -ase the 1oman he /oves- 1ith a )reat se:ua/ 2assion- is Rasko/nikov!s sister Dunya+ &n/ike Sonia, Dunya s2urns her /over!s advan-es+ She is re2u/sed (y him, and 1hen he .ina//y understands ho1 mu-h she hates him, he ki//s himse/.+ "n -ontrast, Rasko/nikov!s /ove .or Sonia tru/y is his sa/vation+ $nother simi/arity (et1een them is that Svidri)ai/ov is )enerous 1ith his money+ 3ike Rasko/nikov, he is the (ene.a-tor o. the needy, in 2arti-u/ar o. the #arme/adovs+ Des2ite the simi/arities, most readers .ina//y -on-/ude that the di..eren-es (et1een the men are more im2ortant+ For one thin), Svidri)ai/ov is de-adent+ You mi)ht .or)ive his havin) (een in 2rison .or de(t and havin) a//o1ed a 1oman to (uy his 1ay out+ *ut he is a/so a -hi/d mo/ester, a man 1ho -an (are/y -ontro/ his 2assions+ 4hi/e he ar)ues that he seeks out Dunya as his sa/vation .rom evi/ and (oredom, it seems mu-h more /ike/y that he is 2rimari/y interested in se:ua/ satis.a-tion+ #any readers are re2e//ed (y the .a-t that he tries to (uy her /ove (y threatenin) to (etray her (rother as a ki//er+ "t is im2ortant to rea/i=e, thou)h, that Svidri)ai/ov isn!t a tota//y evi/, des2i-a(/e -hara-ter+ 'is de-ision to -ommit sui-ide has

tra)i- e/ements (e-ause he!s so tota//y a(andoned+ 'e evokes 2ity .rom many readers, a/thou)h they are a(/e to see that he has invited his o1n destru-tion+ $s you read the s-enes in 1hi-h he a22ears, 1at-h the (a/an-e that Dostoevsky strikes (et1een the hate.u/ and the 2atheti2arts o. his -hara-ter+ $s you -onsider Svidri)ai/ov as a .oi/ to Rasko/nikov, ask yourse/. a .e1 >uestionsE 4hy does Rasko/nikov hate and .ear Svidri)ai/ov a.ter his initia/, rather .avora(/e, im2ressionD $nd 1hy is it that Svidri)ai/ov seems to (e a(/e to )et a1ay 1ith his -rimes 1ithout a// the an)uish that Rasko/nikov su..ersD Does that make Svidri)ai/ov a su2ermanD Remem(er, thou)h, that in the end Rasko/nikov /ives and Svidri)ai/ov dies+ $VDOTY$ RO#$%OV%$ R$S O3%" OV$ 6D&%Y$, DO&%"$7 Rasko/nikov!s sister may remind you in some 1ays o. Rasko/nikov+ Dostoevsky stresses ho1 mu-h they /ook a/ike and ho1 stu((orn and determined they (oth are+ &/timate/y, thou)h, Dunya yie/ds to the -onventiona/ .eminine stereoty2e and .inds ha22iness in marria)e 1ith Ra=umikhin+ That ha22ens, in 2art, (e-ause 1hi/e she shares her (rother!s 2ride and -oura)e to (e (o/d, she /a-ks his inte//e-tua/ turmoi/+ 'er re(e//ion is not as dramati- as his, nor is it -rimina/+ 'o1ever, 1hen Svidri)ai/ov threatens her virtue and her (rother!s sa.ety, she is 2er.e-t/y 1i//in) to ki// him and a-tua//y tries to+ She )ra=es him 1ith her .irst shotB the )un mis.ires the se-ond time+ You -ou/d ar)ue that it is on/y /a-k o. ski// that kee2s her .rom (ein) a murderer too+ She thro1s do1n the )un, instead o. .irin) another shot, thou)h+ "n doin) so, she reCe-ts the vio/en-e that Rasko/nikov tested+ 'er 2otentia/ .or vio/en-e is /ike his+ *ut stron)er than Dunya!s 2o1er to hate is her 2o1er to /ove+ She /oves her (rother, her mother, and eventua//y her hus(and+ Some -riti-s even (e/ieve that she .ee/s an attra-tion .or Svidri)ai/ov that is destroyed (y his overt se:ua/ity+ 3ike Sonia, she is 1i//in) to su..er .or those she /ovesB un/ike Sonia, she dra1s the /ine+ 3ike Sonia, too, her /ove is stron) enou)h to .or)ive Rasko/nikov!s trans)ressions+ $nd Dunya -an understand his de-ision to turn to a 2rostitute .or /ove and .or)iveness+ Dunya re-o)ni=es his an)uish and the stru))/e it 1i// (e .or him to re-over his menta/ and emotiona/ (a/an-e+ 4ise/y, she a/so rea/i=es that Sonia is the on/y one 1ho -an he/2 him+ Pro(a(/y Rasko/nikov!s most .oo/ish error o. Cud)ment is not trustin) Dunya and her 2o1er to .or)ive+ For many readers Dunya and Ra=umikhin are the t1o most norma/, a22ea/in) -hara-ters in the nove/+ Remem(er, thou)h, that Dostoevsky is usin) them as .oi/s to Rasko/nikov, rather than as 2rota)onists+ D#"TR" PRO OF"C' R$F&#" '"% You mi)ht think that Rasko/nikov!s .riend Ra=umikhin is a// the thin)s Rasko/nikov shou/d (e+ 'e!s 2oor, (ut he mana)es to .ind enou)h odd Co(s to )et (y+ 4hi/e he!s not as (ri//iant as Rasko/nikov, he!s not tortured 1ith theories a(out his ri)ht to -ommit -rime either+ On the other hand, he!s not as interestin) either+ Ra=umikhin sti-ks (y his .riend, even 1hen Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior is (a../in) or rude+ "t is Ra=umikhin!s res2e-t and admiration that -onvin-e many readers that there is more to Rasko/nikov than the sur/y, murderin) e)otist o. the o2enin) -ha2ters+ ". Svidri)ai/ov sho1s us the u)/y 2arts o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter, Ra=umikhin 61hose name is .ormed .rom ra=um, 1hi-h means @reason@ or @)ood

sense@7 sho1s us the admira(/e ones+ *e-ause the truth a(out the murder un.o/ds s/o1/y .or Ra=umikhin, the reader 1at-hes him -are.u//y .or a -han)e in attitude, or .or reCe-tion o. his .riend+ 4hen his .riendshi2 1ithstands even the re-o)nition o. Rasko/nikov!s )ui/t, it is a si)n that the murderer -an (e .or)iven+ 'is roman-e 1ith Dunya is a romanti- /ove story, even in the torturous settin) in 1hi-h it deve/o2s+ Their interest in ea-h other deve/o2s as a resu/t o. their mutua/ -on-ern .or Rasko/nikov and is en-oura)ed (y Rasko/nikov!s e..orts as mat-hmaker, (ut their /ove has a 2o1er o. its o1n+ "n the midst o. a// the sordid and u)/y re/ationshi2s de2i-ted in the nove/, this one is so strikin)/y norma/ and hea/thy that it 2roves that human /ove -an ./ourish and )ro1 even under the most adverse -onditions+ Dostoevsky seems to take 2/easure in this re/ationshi2- in its norma/-y and in its 2romise .or the .uture+ PETER PETROV"C' 3&F'"% 4hi/e there are severa/ e:am2/es o. -rimina/ (ehavior in Crime and Punishment, there is on/y one -hara-ter 1ho is re2u/sive throu)h and throu)h, and that is 3u=hin, Dunya!s .ian-e+ 4hi/e he is )ui/ty on/y o. /yin) and -hara-ter de.amation- (y .a/se/y a--usin) Sonia o. the.the is 2ortrayed as tota//y re2rehensi(/e+ 'is -hie. -rime is his over1he/min), re/ent/ess arro)an-e and se/.-interest+ 'e is the on/y -hara-ter 1ho re.uses to re-o)ni=e his o1n .au/ts+ Further, he re2resents a -hara-ter ty2e that Dostoevsky des2isedE the se/.-satis.ied (ureau-rat+ 4hi/e he is hard/y a -entra/ -hara-ter- he is on/y in three s-enes- he e2itomi=es Dostoevsky!s idea o. the 1orst that man -an (e+ $3E%$ 6$3YO%$7 "V$%OV%$ She is the 2a1n(roker 1hom Rasko/nikov ki//s+ 'er youn)er sister 3i=aveta is a/so ki//ed+ She 1as a .riend o. Sonia #arme/adova, and she is des-ri(ed in the nove/ as meek, )ent/e, and /on)-su..erin) Cust as Sonia is+ SE#E% 6SE#YO%7 F$ '$ROV"C' #$R#E3$DOV 'e is the drunkard 1ho is ki//ed in an a--ident and 1ho has aroused Rasko/nikov!s sym2athy 1ith the des-ri2tion o. the ruin he has (rou)ht on his .ami/y+ 'is 1i.e!s name is aterina "vanovna+ She -an!t .or)ive her hus(and .or the misery he has 2ut them throu)h+ "n the nove/ she dies o. -onsum2tion+ She has three -hi/dren .rom a .ormer marria)eE Po/ina 6Po/ya, Po/enka, Po/e-hka7B 3ena 63eeda, 3ida, 3yona, 3ido-hka7B and their (rother o/ya 6 o/ka7+ The name #arme/adov -omes .rom the root marme/ad, 1hi-h means Cam or Ce//y+ "t!s another e:am2/e o. Dostoevsky!s use o. 2sy-honyms+ P&3 'ER"$ 6P&3C'ER"$7 $3EG$%DROV%$ R$S O3%" OV She is Rodion and Dunya!s mother+ $%DREY SE#E%OV"C' 3E*EFY$T%" OV 'e is 3u=hin!s .ormer 1ard 1ho (oards in the same house as the #arme/adovs+ FOS"#OV 6FOSS"#OV7 'e is Rasko/nikov!s do-tor+ -

$3EG$%DER 5R"5OREV"C' F$#ETOV 6F$#YOTOV7 'e is the -hie. 2o/i-e -/erk+ SETT"%5 OT'ER E3E#E%TS SETT"%5 6DCR"SETT7

The settin) o. Crime and Punishment -reates an atmos2here in 1hi-h the dread.u/ -rimes Dostoevsky des-ri(es are a// too (e/ieva(/e+ The nove/ is set in 'aymarket S>uare, a s/um se-tion o. St+ Peters(ur) notorious .or its into/era(/e /ivin) -onditions+ *e-ause he kne1 the -ity so 1e//, and had /ived in the kinds o. tenement rooms he des-ri(es, Dostoevsky is very s2e-i.i- a(out the si)hts and sme//s his -hara-ters e:2erien-e+ *y -hoosin) to set the nove/ in the summer, 1hen the drunken -ro1ds .i//ed the streets and the air reeked, Dostoevsky 1as a(/e to -reate the .ee/in)s o. 2hysi-a/ re2u/sion (rou)ht on (y an o22ressive environment+ *y mentionin) 2arti-u/ar street names and tra-in) the routes o. the -hara-ters, he 1as em2hasi=in) the nove/!s rea/ism+ Rasko/nikov kno1s, .or instan-e, that it is e:a-t/y ?;A ste2s .rom his house to the 2a1n(roker!s+ Even today, you -an 1a/k the route he .o//o1ed and -ount the ste2s+ 4hen the 2hysi-a/ detai/s are -on-rete, you tend to a--e2t the rest o. the in.ormation in the nove/ tooB even the most (i=arre thin)s seem (e/ieva(/e+ Crime 1as a very rea/ 2ro(/em in Russia at the time the nove/ 1as 1ritten+ $n es2e-ia//y )ruesome a: murder o. t1o o/d 1omen in #os-o1 in the summer o. 186H had )otten enormous 2/ay in the 2ress, and Dostoevsky -/ear/y had it in mind as he .ormu/ated his nove/+ Drunkenness and 2rostitution 1ere -ommon2/a-e, and the )a2 (et1een the midd/e -/ass and the 2oor 1as enormous+ *y do-umentin) these .a-ts o. /i.e, Dostoevsky 2rovides so-ia/ history- and even so-ia/ 2rotest- as 2art o. his study o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter+ 4hen the s-ene shi.ts to Si(eria, in the E2i/o)ue, the 2hysi-a/ -han)e si)na/s an enormous -han)e in su(Ce-t matter as 1e//+ The trans.ormation o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter, .rom arro)ant to 2enitent, ha22ens in the stark, re2ressive atmos2here o. a 2rison -am2+ 4hen he is 2hysi-a//y -on.ined and 2u(/i-/y humi/iated, he is .ina//y a(/e to .ind meanin) in /i.e that he -ou/d not dis-over 1hen he 1as .ree to a-t as he -hose+ *e-ause the E2i/o)ue is short, and the em2hasis is on Rasko/nikov!s @resurre-tion,@ there isn!t mu-h detai/ a(out /i.e in 2rison+ Dostoevsky!s o1n 2rison e:2erien-e 1as sti// vivid in his mind a do=en years a.ter his re/ease, (ut his 2ur2ose in this se-tion is not rea/ism, (ut reso/ution o. his theme o. sa/vation+ That is 1hy Rasko/nikov!s re-on-i/iation- 1ith Sonia and 1ith his o1n humanitytakes 2/a-e at Easter, the Christian season o. ho2e+ T'E#ES T'E#ES 6DCR"T'E#7

'ere are summaries o. the maCor themes o. the nove/+ Fami/iarity 1ith Dostoevsky!s ideas makes it easier .or you to understand 1hat various events mean+ "t 1i// a/so he/2 you de-ide 1hat to -on-entrate on as you study the nove/+ T'E CR"#"%$3 $S 'ERO

'o1 1ou/d you .ee/ a(out some(ody 1ho ki//ed t1o 1omen 1ith an a:D Cou/d you think o. him sym2atheti-a//yD Dostoevsky asks you to do Cust that in Crime and Punishment+ *ut he -reates a -hara-ter 1ho is 2art -o/d-(/ooded ki//er and 2art -om2assionate human (ein)+ The stru))/e (et1een those t1o 2arts o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter- his dua/ 2ersona/ity- is the -entra/ theme o. the nove/+ Dostoevsky e:2/ores his -hara-ter!s dua/ity in severa/ 1ays+ 'e sho1s his 2rota)onist!s 1i/d/y -ontrastin) a-tions and he -om2ares Rasko/nikov to vast/y di..erent 2eo2/e+ Rasko/nikov is /ike the se/.-sa-ri.i-in) Dunya in his -on-ern .or 2eo2/e 1ho need he/2, and /ike the de-adent Svidri)ai/ov in his e:treme se/.ishness+ 'e seeks the -ha//en)e o. Por.iry, to test his inte//e-tua/ 2o1ers, and the /ove o. Sonia, to /earn a(out the 2ossi(i/ity o. .or)iveness+ 4hi/e readers may di..er in their .ee/in)s a(out Rasko/nikov, they a// a)ree that his e:2erien-es are the -entra/ .o-us o. the nove/+ '&#$% 3OVE $%D D"V"%E 3OVE Stran)e/y enou)h, Crime and Punishment is a /ove story, or rather severa/ /ove stories+ 4hen Rasko/nikov is at /ast a(/e to admit his /ove .or Sonia and res2e-t her enou)h to a--e2t her (e/ie.s, he (e)ins his Courney to sa/vation+ "n -ontrast, 1hen his sister Dunya re2e/s the advan-es o. Svidri)ai/ov, he -ommits sui-ide+ Dostoevsky su))ests that human /ove is an e:2ression o. divine /ove, 1ith the 2o1er to save or damn+ 4hi/e Rasko/nikov!s re/ationshi2 1ith Sonia is not very romanti-, Dostoevsky makes the attra-tion (et1een Dunya and Ra=umikhin a more ty2i-a/ /ove story+ Their marria)e -on.irms that /ove 2rovides ho2e and Coy even 1hen the situation is other1ise (/eak+ *y e:tension, Dostoevsky su))ests that Rasko/nikov and Sonia 1i// .ind a simi/ar ha22iness+ 4hat do you think Rasko/nikov 1ou/d have (een /ike i. he hadn!t .ound SoniaD 4ou/d he have (een as sym2atheti- a -hara-terD T'E PO4ER OF DRE$#S Dostoevsky is -on-erned 1ith 2ro(in) the 1or/d o. dreams+ *e.ore and a.ter the murder, Rasko/nikov has dreams o. su-h start/in) rea/ism and 2o1er that he- and 1e, too- are not sure i. they!re dreams or rea/+ Criti-s inter2ret the dreams in di..erent 1ays sometimesB in the dream a(out the death o. the horse 6Part ", Cha2ter H7 various readers think that Rasko/nikov resem(/es the /itt/e (oy, or the murderin) 2easant, or the horse, or sometimes a// three+ *ut they a// a)ree that Dostoevsky 1as innovative in usin) dreams to revea/ dee2 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ truths a(out human (ehavior and to e:amine the su(-ons-ious .ears and desires that e:2ress themse/ves in dreams+ %oti-e, too, that (oth Svidri)ai/ov and Rasko/nikov have .ri)htenin) dreams at the end o. the nove/+ *oth see themse/ves and their (ehavior as it rea//y is+ The dreams are so 2ersuasive that ea-h man makes a -riti-a/ de-ision (ased on them+ CR"#E $%D "TS CO%SEI&E%CES Dostoevsky ana/y=es the e..e-t o. -rimina/ (ehavior, (oth on the 2er2etrator and on the 2eo2/e around him+ The 1orst -rimina/s- /ike 3u=hin- think on/y o. 2ersona/ )ain or o. reven)e+ They are doomed to iso/ation and .ai/ure+ Others, /ike Rasko/nikov himse/., -ommit more dread.u/ -rimes+ *ut (e-ause they -an reesta(/ish themse/ves 1ith their .e//o1 man and 1ith 5od, they -an (e sa/va)ed+ Dostoevsky does sho1 the e..e-ts o. environment on the -rimina/, (ut he is 2rimari/y

interested in the interna/, not the e:terna/, -auses o. -rimina/ (ehavior+ 'e (e/ieves a/ienation is the key to (oth the -auses and the -onse>uen-es o. -rime+ Rasko/nikov (e/ieves at .irst that there are -rimes o. 2rin-i2/e, -rimes -ommitted to 2rove an inte//e-tua/ 2oint+ *e-ause some 2eo2/e are more (ri//iant or )i.ted than others, he thinks they have the ri)ht to -ommit -rimes to a--om2/ish their )oa/s+ 4hat!s more, he (e/ieves he is one o. these e:traordinary 2eo2/e+ Dostoevsky reCe-ts the notion that -rime -an (e Custi.ied, and he -onstru-ts the nove/ to 2ersuade the reader to reCe-t it, too+ 'e a/so (e/ieves that a -hara-ter is u/timate/y res2onsi(/e .or his o1n (ehavior and .or the -onse>uen-es o. that (ehavior+ T'E PO4ER OF S&FFER"%5 Sonia and Rasko/nikov think di..erent/y a(out su..erin)+ She (e/ieves su..erin) makes a 2erson a (etter human (ein) and that it -an (e endured (e-ause 5od 1i// re1ard the su..erer+ She -an )o on /ivin) (e-ause she (e/ieves that a// her misery 1i// he/2 her .ami/y- and Rasko/nikov- and (e-ause she (e/ieves that 5od 1i// not /et her do1n+ Rasko/nikov insists that su..erin) is 1asted misery+ 'e!s im2atient 1ith se/.-sa-ri.i-e and into/erant o. the notion that 5od -ares+ #any readers a)ree 1ith his vie1 that any )ood that -omes o. misery is -oin-identa/, and insu..i-ient to Custi.y so mu-h se/.-torture+ The stru-ture o. the nove/ 2roves that Dostoevsky!s 2oint o. vie1 is /ike Sonia!sE su..erin) is (oth ne-essary and use.u/+ "ts e..i-a-y is 2roved (y Rasko/nikov!s redem2tion+ *ut readers 1ho .ind Rasko/nikov!s re2entan-e un(e/ieva(/e are not -onvin-ed that Dostoevsky is ri)ht+ T'E EFFECT"VE%ESS OF P&%"S'#E%T Can 2unishment reha(i/itate a -rimina/D Dostoevsky says the ans1er is yes, under 2arti-u/ar -ir-umstan-es+ 'e insists that 1hen Rasko/nikov re-o)ni=es that his a/ienation .rom mankind and his e)otism are 1ron), he is ready to 2ut his -rime (ehind him and (e-ome a ne1 man+ The .a-t that he is in 2rison, (ein) 2unished (y the state, seems -oin-identa/ to his ne1 a1areness o. his )ui/t+ $// o. the a)ony he su..ers a.ter the murder is as mu-h a 2unishment as the 2rison term+ One o. his most 2ain.u/ rea/i=ations is that he doesn!t measure u2 to his o1n e:2e-tations .or himse/.+ "n the .ina/ ana/ysis his reha(i/itation is 2ossi(/e (e-ause Sonia!s /ove and Por.iry!s 1i//in)ness to 1ait 2re2are him to a--e2t Christian ethi-s as his ru/in) 2rin-i2/e+ The rest o. the -rimina/s and evi/-doers aren!t so /u-ky+ *e-ause they are un/oved, they are doomed, a--ordin) to Dostoevsky, and -an!t (e reha(i/itated+ Can you think o. some other reasons 1hy 3u=hin and Svidri)ai/ov don!t seem to -han)eD "S T'ERE $% O*0ECT"VE #OR$3"TYD Dostoevsky makes very -/ear that he (e/ieves that man must /ive (y an o(Ce-tive ethi-a/ standard+ Thin)s are either ri)ht or they are 1ron)+ Ethi-s are not re/ative+ $--ordin) to this inter2retation, Rasko/nikov had no ri)ht to murder the o/d /ady, no matter 1hat his reasons+ The nove/ist reCe-ts the idea o. a murder o. 2rin-i2/e+ Yet, at the same time, he su))ests that immora/ and even i//e)a/ (ehavior -an (e .or)iven+ Sonia!s 2rostitution doesn!t kee2 her .rom

5odB Dunya!s /ies to shie/d her mother .rom Rasko/nikov!s tria/ are Custi.ia(/e+ Even Rasko/nikov is a (etter 2erson a.ter he tests himse/. and admits his .ai/ure and )ui/t+ "n other 1ords, some standards o. mora/ity are more o(Ce-tive than others+ For Dostoevsky, the un.or)iva(/e sins are an over1he/min) sense o. se/.-im2ortan-e and se:ua/ de2ravity+ $ DETECT"VE STORY Crime and Punishment is an un-oventiona/ mystery+ The -rime itse/. is so/ved+ "n .a-t, you kno1 .rom the (e)innin) 1ho is )ui/ty+ The unans1ered >uestion is 1hat Rasko/nikov!s motive in ki//in) the 2a1n(roker rea//y 1as+ 'e o..ers severa/ reasons, (ut he reCe-ts them himse/., even (e.ore the reader )ets a -han-e+ The ones that seem the most /o)i-a/- that he needed the money and that he 1as testin) himse/. to see i. he 1as e:traordinary- are -ontradi-tory+ The dete-tive story is unusua/ too (e-ause (oth the ki//er and the dete-tive are sym2atheti- -hara-ters+ "nte//e-tua//y they are 1e// mat-hed, (ut Por.iry has the u22er hand in their due/s o. 1it (e-ause he is ri)ht and Rasko/nikov is 1ron)+ Por.iry doesn!t .o//o1 the usua/ 2hysi-a/ -/ues either, (ut o(serves Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior, 1hi-h he -an!t kee2 himse/. .rom revea/in)+ The sus2ense is 2sy-ho/o)i-a/, and the dete-tive!s maCor aim is Rasko/nikov!s redem2tion, not his arrest+ T'E PO4ER OF F$TE Fate means di..erent thin)s in Crime and Punishment+ Rasko/nikov says over and over that Fate -ause his a-tions+ For instan-e, 1hen he overhears that the 2a1n(roker 1i// (e a/one, he says Fate ordains that he 1i// ki// her+ Dostoevsky reCe-ts, and 1ants the reader to reCe-t, this notion o. Fate as the 2o1er that 2redetermines events+ The nove/ makes very -/ear that Rasko/nikov -hooses to a-t, des2ite his o1n ea)erness to (/ame Fate+ *ut Fate a/so means the doom or ruin o. a -hara-ter as the -onse>uen-e o. his a-tions and (ehavior+ "n this 1ay Fate does 2/ay a 2art in Rasko/nikov!s story, at /east unti/ the mira-u/ous -han)e in the E2i/o)ue+ 'e determines his o1n destru-tion (y the thin)s that he doesB in other 1ords, his Fate is to -ommit -rime (e-ause o. his arro)an-e, and to (e 2unished .or that -rime+ Fate as the inevita(/e -onse>uen-e o. man!s a-tions is a re-urrent theme in the )reat -/assi-a/ tra)edies, and many readers think that Rasko/nikov resem(/es the tra)i- heroes, 1hose 2ersona/ities doom them to disaster+ STY3E STY3E 6DCR"STY37 &n/ess you!re ./uent in Russian and are readin) the nove/ in its ori)ina/ /an)ua)e, your im2ression o. Dostoevsky!s sty/e 1i// (e in./uen-ed (y the trans/ation you read as 1e// as (y the nove/ist!s -hoi-e o. 1ords and senten-e stru-ture+ The trans/ator!s o1n sty/e makes a (i) di..eren-e+ For instan-e, the /ast senten-es o. Part One read /ike this in one trans/ationE 'e did not s/ee2, (ut /ay there in a stu2or+ ". any(ody had entered the room he 1ou/d have s2run) u2 at on-e 1ith a -ry+ DisCointed s-ra2s and .ra)ments o. ideas ./oated throu)h his mind, (ut

he -ou/d not sei=e one o. them, or d1e// u2on any, in s2ite o. a// his e..orts++++ "n another, the same senten-es read /ike thisE 'e did not .a// as/ee2, (ut /ay there in a sort o. stu2or+ ". anyone had -ome into the room, he 1ou/d at on-e have /ea2t s-reamin) to his .eet+ S-ra2s and .ra)ments o. thou)hts s1armed in his headB (ut he -ou/d not .i: his mind on a sin)/e one o. them, he -ou/d not -on-entrate on a sin)/e one o. them even .or a short time, mu-h as he tried to++++ $ third version saysE 'e did not s/ee2, (ut sank into (/ank .or)et.u/ness+ ". anyone had -ome into his room then, he 1ou/d have Cum2ed u2 and s-reamed+ S-ra2s and shreds o. thou)hts 1ere sim2/y s1armin) in his (rain, (ut he -ou/d not -at-h at one, he -ou/d not rest on one, in s2ite o. a// his e..orts++++ Perha2s the -hie. di..eren-e (et1een readin) Dostoevsky in the ori)ina/ and readin) him in trans/ation is that the su(t/ety o. the /an)ua)e is sometimes unavoida(/y /ost+ 4hen Dostoevsky -a//s his 2rota)onist Rasko/nikov, he uses the name (e-ause the Russian 1ord rasko/ means s2/it or s-hismB the name he/2s de.ine the -hara-ter+ %amin) -hara-ters in this 1ay is a .re>uent /iterary devi-e, (ut it 1orks on/y 1hen the reader re-o)ni=es the -onne-tion+ Simi/ar/y, the Russian 1ord .or -rime, 2restu2/enie, is /itera//y trans/ated as a ste22in) a-ross or a trans)ression+ The 2hysi-a/ ima)e o. -rime as a -rossin) over o. a (arrier or a (oundary is /ost in trans/ation+ So is the re/i)ious im2/i-ation o. trans)ression, 1hi-h 1e use in En)/ish to re.er to a sin rather than a -rime+ Dostoevsky 1ants you to think o. Rasko/nikov!s a-tion as (oth+ There are other thin)s, thou)h, that trans/ation doesn!t a..e-t+ Dostoevsky uses di..erent s2ee-h mannerisms and senten-es o. di..erin) /en)ths .or di..erent -hara-ters+ Those 1ho use arti.i-ia/ /an)ua)e 1hen they s2eak- 3u=hin, .or e:am2/e, sounds /ike a 2om2ous (usinessman, 1hi/e 3e(e=iatnikov!s s2ee-h resem(/es that o. a ha/.-(aked 2o/iti-ian- are identi.ied as unattra-tive 2eo2/e+ #rs+ #arme/adov!s disinte)ratin) mind is re./e-ted in her /an)ua)e too+ You -an /earn a /ot a(out individua/ -hara-ters not on/y (y 1hat they say (ut ho1 they say it+ V"E4 PO"%T OF V"E4 6DCR"V"E47 Rasko/nikov!s story is to/d (y an omnis-ient narrator, a name/ess voi-e that re2orts to the reader everythin) that the -hara-ters do and say and a/so 1hat they think+ #ost o. the time the narrator kee2s his o2inions to himse/., sim2/y revea/in) the thou)hts and a-tions o. Rasko/nikov and the others+ There!s a /ot o. dia/o)ue 61hen t1o or more -hara-ters ta/k to)ether7 and interior mono/o)ue 61hen a -hara-ter!s thou)hts are e:2ressed as i. they 1ere s2oken7+ The narrator makes no -omment a(out these ideas either+ *ut he does des-ri(e the 2hysi-a/ environment, the /ooks on 2eo2/e!s .a-es, and the /eve/s o. tension (et1een them+ #ost o. the time 1hat you /earn is 1hat Rasko/nikov sees or .ee/sB

that!s a -/ue that he is the -entra/ .o-us o. the nove/+ Sin-e Rasko/nikov is the maCor -hara-ter, a/most everythin) the narrator te//s the reader is a(out him too+ The other -hara-ters and events are des-ri(ed 2rimari/y .or 1hat they revea/ a(out Rasko/nikov+ There are, .or instan-e, on/y a .e1 s-enes in 1hi-h he doesn!t a22earB and at those times he remains the .o-us o. attention, even 1hen he!s not 2hysi-a//y 2resent+ For instan-e, 1e see the -onnivin) 3u=hin and the de-adent Svidri)ai/ov a1ay .rom Rasko/nikov (ut on/y 1hen they!re doin) thin)s that make Rasko/nikov seem /ike a (asi-a//y de-ent 2erson in -om2arison+ Simi/ar/y, the narrator sho1s you the 1arm a..e-tion Rasko/nikov!s .ami/y and .riends .ee/ .or him in a .e1 s-enes 1here he isn!t 2resent+ These s-enes he/2 you rea/i=e that Rasko/nikov has many )ood >ua/ities that -an!t (e i)nored 1hen you de-ide 1hat he!s rea//y /ike+ So 1hi/e it!s true that the narrator doesn!t say @'ate this -hara-ter,@ or @3ove this one,@ the detai/s you!re )iven /ead you to the -on-/usions that Dostoevsky intends+ $n omnis-ient 6or a//-kno1in)7 narrator is a .avorite devi-e o. authors 1ritin) -om2/i-ated nove/s, (e-ause it is an e..e-tive method .or )ivin) the reader a -om2rehensive vie1 o. severa/ -hara-ters+ Dostoevsky 1orked 1ith severa/ other a22roa-hes (e.ore he .inished 2/annin) Crime and Punishment+ 'e -onsidered a .irst-2erson narration, 1ith Rasko/nikov te//in) his o1n story, and a -om(ination o. .irst-2erson and third-2erson narrators+ 'is .ina/ -hoi-e 1as a narrator 1ho -ou/d see the events .rom many 2ers2e-tives and /et you do the same+ 0ust as the 2rota)onist o. the nove/ isn!t an e:a-t auto(io)ra2hi-a/ ima)e o. the author, neither is the narrator+ 'is 2oint o. vie1 isn!t e:a-t/y the same as the author!s+ The narrator is as mu-h a -reation as any o. the -hara-ters isB you have to de-ide i. he!s someone you -an (e/ieve, Cust as you have to de-ide 1hen Rasko/nikov is (ein) honest+ #ost readers, ho1ever, .ind this narrator a -/ear and honest .i/ter throu)h 1hom they -an )ras2 Dostoevsky!s ideas+ FOR# FOR# $%D STR&CT&RE 6DCR"FOR#7

Crime and Punishment has a distin-t (e)innin), midd/e, and end+ "ts stru-ture he/2s to rein.or-e the tit/e and some o. the maCor themes o. the nove/+ Part One des-ri(es the -rime+ Parts T1o throu)h Si: e:2/ore the 2hysi-a/ and emotiona/ -onse>uen-es o. that -rime on the ki//er 6his 2unishment7+ The seventh 2art o. the nove/, the E2i/o)ue, 2resents the reso/ution o. his -ase+ $ )ruesome a: murder is the -/ima: o. Part One+ *e-ause Dostoevsky isn!t -on-erned 2rimari/y 1ith the -auses o. -rime, the events that /ead to the murder move >ui-k/y and take u2 on/y three days+ This se-tion a/so introdu-es, (y name, a// (ut one o. the maCor -hara-ters+ *y the time the 2a1n(roker dies, everythin) is in 2/a-e to (rin) her ki//er to Custi-e+ The .ive -entra/ se-tions o. the nove/ re-ount the events that .or-e Rasko/nikov to -on.ess+ 4hen he 2/anned his -rime, he 1as a/oneiso/atedB a.ter1ards he is .or-ed into the -om2any o. others+ *e-ause he must rea-t to them, he is .or-ed to (ehave di..erent/y and to think di..erent/y too+ The /ast 2art, the E2i/o)ue is set a2art .rom the rest (oth in time and 2/a-e+ Rasko/nikov is in 2rison in Si(eria+ Ei)hteen months have 2assed sin-e the -rime+ $t the -on-/usion o. the se-tion he is

rene1ed, re(orn, and /ooks .or1ard to the end o. his senten-e 1ith ho2e o. a ne1 /i.e+ The num(er ? is o.ten -onsidered a @ma)i-@ num(er, 1ith s2e-ia/ re/i)ious meanin)+ $--ordin) to the *i(/e, .or e:am2/e, 5od -reated the 1or/d in si: days and rested on the seventh+ #any readers (e/ieve that Dostoevsky de/i(erate/y stru-tured his nove/ in seven 2arts to make his messa)e a(out Rasko/nikov!s ne1 (e/ie.s stron)er+ Even readers 1ho .ind the -han)e in Rasko/nikov hard to (e/ieve have to admit that the stru-ture seems to 2rove Dostoevsky 2/anned his -on-/usion -are.u//y and didn!t Cust ta-k it on at the end+ P$RT<"JC'$P<1 T'E STORY P$RT " C'$PTER 1 From the moment you (e)in readin) a(out Rasko/nikov ho/ed u2 in his .i/thy atti- room, you kno1 he!s a -om2/i-ated 2erson+ 'e!s 2ara/y=ed 1ith dread as he 2/ans a mysterious @terri(/e a-t+@ $/thou)h he doesn!t say 1hat the a-t is, he -a//s it @horri(/e@ and @re2u/sive@B you )et the .ee/in) it must (e a -rime+ *ut as a1.u/ as his 2/an a22arent/y is, 1hat he seems most a.raid o. is that he 1on!t (e a(/e to )o throu)h 1ith it+ You -an sense .rom these -ontradi-tory .ee/in)s that Rasko/nikov is in menta/ and emotiona/ turmoi/+ 'e 1orries a(out everythin), and he!s -ut himse/. o.. .rom every(ody+ That!s a 2retty re/ia(/e -/ue to his state o. mind+ To sho1 that Rasko/nikov is the -entra/ -hara-ter in the nove/, and that 1hat he does and thinks are its su(Ce-t, Dostoevsky introdu-es severa/ mysteries a(out him in this -ha2ter+ Some o. them )et so/ved as the nove/ deve/o2s+ *ut o.ten the -/ues seem -ontradi-tory or /ead you in severa/ dire-tions at on-e+ This is one 1ay Dostoevsky kee2s you readin)- (y raisin) 2rovo-ative >uestions you 1ant ans1ered+ *y des-ri(in) the 2overty and u)/iness o. the environment, Dostoevsky e:2/ains some o. Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior and makes you understand ho1 a sensitive 2erson mi)ht a-t stran)e/y, even a(norma//y, under su-h -onditions+ 4hen he /eaves his )arret, he!s revo/ted (y the hot, sme//y streets and the drunken 2eo2/e+ 'e!s /i)htheaded (e-ause he hasn!t eaten .or t1o days, and he o1es /ots o. money+ The on/y 1ay to )et -ash is .rom a 2a1n(roker+ *ut 1hen he tries to 2a1n his .ather!s 1at-h, you -an see ho1 2atheti- his situation is+ "t tears him a2art to 2a1n somethin) o. su-h )reat sentimenta/ va/ue, (ut in the 2a1n(roker!s eyes, the 1at-h is 2ra-ti-a//y 1orth/ess+ She sho1s no sym2athy+ @Take it or /eave it@ is the 1ay she does (usiness+ Rasko/nikov takes the money+ *ut the mystery )ro1s a(out the @terri(/e a-t@ he!s (een 2/annin)+ 'e -a//s the visit to the 2a1n(roker a @rehearsa/,@ a/thou)h he doesn!t say 1hat he!s rehearsin)+ Dostoevsky teases the reader and (reaks the tension (y havin) Rasko/nikov enter a tavern, sudden/y 1antin) to (e .riend/y+ Rasko/nikov himse/. is a1are that his ra2id -han)es o. mood are stran)e, even 1eird+ "t!s hard to say 1hi-h is more 2er2/e:in)E his (ehavior or the 2/an he hints at (ut doesn!t e:2/ain+ $// you -an te// .or sure is that he a)oni=es a(out himse/. -onstant/y+ 6DCR"STOR7

P$RT<"JC'$P<K -

C'$PTER K

The so/itary drinker 1ho .as-inates Rasko/nikov at the end o. the .irst -ha2ter dominates Cha2ter K 1ith his tortured -on.ession+ &n/ike the morose, (roodin) Rasko/nikov, the drunken #arme/adov is ta/kative and seems a/most to enCoy des-ri(in) his misery and se/.-hatred+ 'e re-ounts every (itter detai/ o. the ruin he has (rou)ht on his .ami/y+ The most 2atheti- is the misera(/e story a(out his dau)hter, 1ho has (een driven to 2rostitution (y the .ami/y!s 2overty+ #arme/adov -a//s Sonia meek, a 1ord 1ith Christian overtones, and des-ri(es her as a .ra)i/e 1is2 o. a 2erson 1ithout edu-ation or ski//s+ 'e has .ai/ed her as a .ather, and her ste2mother has taunted her into 2rovidin) money .or the starvin) .ami/y 1ith her on/y assetE her (ody+ Sonia!s 2rostitution is a so-ia/ -ommentary on the (reakdo1n o. traditiona/ .ami/y stru-ture and em2hasi=es the des2erate 2/i)ht o. 2oor 1omen+ *ut Sonia is a/so eterna//y .or)ivin), a--ordin) to her .ather+ She )ives her .ami/y money 1hen she has nothin) .or herse/.B #arme/adov -a//s her a saint 1ho 1i// (e .or)iven (y 5od .or her sins+ That ho2e kee2s him a/ive+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE "t is ironi- that #arme/adov, a de)enerate drunk, introdu-es the re/i)ious ideas that are so im2ortant to the rest o. the nove/+ 'e (e/ieves in .or)iveness, mer-y, and the 2o1er o. su..erin)- ideas that, at .irst, are tota//y a/ien to Rasko/nikov!s 1ay o. thinkin)+ Re2eated/y, the o/der man insists that every(ody needs some1here or someone to turn to+ 4ithout that re.u)e, he says, a 2erson is doomed+ #arme/adov (e/ieves that even he 1i// (e .or)iven, a/thou)h you may not (e -onvin-ed he shou/d (e+ Dostoevsky never /ets on 1hat he himse/. rea//y thinks a(out #arme/adov, so you have to de-ide .or yourse/.+ --------------------------------------------------------------------4hen Rasko/nikov es-orts the drunkard home, the youn) man is a22a//ed at the s>ua/or in 1hi-h the .ami/y /ives and the eviden-e o. the -onsum2tion 6tu(er-u/osis7 that is ki//in) #arme/adov!s 1i.e aterina "vanovna+ Dostoevsky a/so sho1s us the vio/en-e that 2overty -an (rin)+ aterina "vanovna a(uses her -hi/dren, and she assau/ts her hus(and 1hen he returns 2enni/ess, Co(/ess, and drunk+ "m2u/sive/y, Rasko/nikov /eaves them money on the 1indo1si//, (ut he hates himse/. .or (ein) so so.t+ Dostoevsky is sho1in) us a ne1 side o. his -hara-ter, an a(i/ity to .ee/ sorry .or 2eo2/e 1orse o.. than he is+ Thou)h he s2eaks o. Sonia ironi-a//y as their )o/d mine, you -an .ind eviden-e o. his -a2a-ity .or -om2assion 1hen he thinks a(out ho1 her .ami/y takes her moneyE @They 1e2t at .irst, (ut no1 they are used to it+ #en are s-oundre/sB they -an )et used to anythin)L@ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE 4e /earn in this -ha2ter o. the ;A si/ver rou(/es Sonia earned on her .irst ni)ht as a 2rostitute+ This is a -/ear re.eren-e to the thirty 2ie-es o. si/ver that 0udas )ot .or (etrayin) Christ+ Re.eren-es to (etraya/, death, and resurre-tion o--ur .re>uent/y in the nove/ and are dire-t/y /inked to the theme that su..erin) is

re1arded+ The a//usion to the Christ story 1orks, even thou)h Soniaun/ike 0udas- is the (etrayed, not the (etrayer+ You mi)ht even say she!s the one 1ho is Christ-/ike+ --------------------------------------------------------------------This -ha2ter is im2ortant (e-ause it sho1s a ne1 side o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter, and (e-ause he hears a(out Sonia+ You!// see /ater 1hy that matters+ P$RT<"JC'$P<; C'$PTER ; The 2i-ture o. 2overty that has a/ready (een introdu-ed in the .irst t1o -ha2ters is e:2anded even more in the des-ri2tion o. Rasko/nikov!s room and his des2erate e:isten-e+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The dusty, shreddin) 1a//2a2er in Rasko/nikov!s )arret is ye//o1, a -o/or Dostoevsky uses re2eated/y in the nove/ to su))est de-ay, de)enera-y, and -orru2tion+ The 2a1n(roker!s .ur Ca-ket is ye//o1 1ith a)eB the identity -ard Sonia -arries as a 2rostitute is ye//o1+ %ear the end o. the nove/, 1hen Svidri)ai/ov has the dream that drives him to sui-ide, the 1a//2a2er in the room is ye//o1, too 6Part V", Cha2ter 67+ $s you read the nove/, 1at-h .or other e:am2/es o. this -o/or sym(o/ism+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov!s .ee/in)s a(out his .ami/y are the most im2ortant thin)s 1e dis-over in this -ha2ter, as he reads a /on) a1aited /etter .rom his mother+ "t is stran)e to think o. Rasko/nikov as a /ovin) son a.ter the 1ays he has (ehaved u2 unti/ this 2oint in the nove/, (ut his a..e-tion .or his mother and sister is -riti-a/ to any sym2atheti- understandin) o. him+ #any readers think it!s the most norma/ thin) a(out him+ The /etter revea/s that his mother and sister have had a dread.u/ t1o months, too, durin) the time he!s (een so iso/ated+ $nd their 2ro(/ems (e-ome his 2ro(/ems, in-/udin) Dunya!s di..i-u/ties 1ith the /e-herous Svidri)ai/ov, her .ormer em2/oyer+ *e-ause the /etter arrives 1hen it does, the ne1s o. his sister Dunya!s en)a)ement to the -ivi/ servant 3u=hin (e-omes a -riti-a/ .a-tor in Rasko/nikov!s .ina/ de-ision to -arry out his terri(/e 2/an+ Or, at /east, it!s a )ood e:-use+ For mu-h o. the -ha2ter, Rasko/nikov is 2assive, as he 1as in Cha2ter K+ $s he reads the /etter, there is at .irst no eviden-e o. his rea-tion+ 4hat Dostoevsky asks us to do is .orm our o1n o2inion o. 1hat Pu/kheria Rasko/nikova is te//in) her son+ You hear t1o thin)sE 617 the essentia//y .a-tua/ a--ount o. Svidri)ai/ov!s attem2ts to sedu-e Dunya 1hi/e she 1as his -hi/dren!s )overnessB and 6K7 the more am(i)uous a--ount o. Dunya!s en)a)ement+ Rasko/nikov!s mother re2eats severa/ o. her 2oints .or em2hasis+ Dunya is an an)e/ 1ho /oves her (rother+ 3u=hin has some un2/easant >ua/ities, (ut he is very su--ess.u/+ $nd the marria)e is )oin) to )uarantee Rasko/nikov!s .uture+ She te//s him that, (e-ause her -redit has im2roved on the stren)th o. the 2ro2osed marria)e, she 1i// (e a(/e to send him thirty rou(/es to tide him over, es2e-ia//y i. she e-onomi=es and trave/s third -/ass to St+ Peters(ur) .or Dunya!s 1eddin)+ Thirty rou(/es is so -/ear a reminder o. Sonia!s earnin)s

as a 2rostitute that the su))estion o. Dunya se//in) herse/. .or her .ami/y is ines-a2a(/e+ Rasko/nikov is so .urious 1hen he .inishes the /etter that he must es-a2e .rom his roomB his an)er shou/d -on.irm your uneasy sense that somethin) a(out the 2ro2osed marria)e is very 1ron)+ *ut noti-e a)ain that Dostoevsky doesn!t te// you 1hat to think+ P$RT<"JC'$P<9 C'$PTER 9 Rasko/nikov on-e more assumes -enter sta)e in this -ha2ter, as he e:2resses his outra)e at his sister!s a22roa-hin) marria)e+ $)ain, 1at-h 1hat he does and /isten to 1hat he says .or -/ues to his -om2/e: -hara-ter+ 'is a(i/ity to read (et1een the /ines o. his mother!s evasive /etter and his re.usa/ to a//o1 Dunya to sa-ri.i-e herse/. .or him seem to many readers assertive si)ns o. his inte//i)en-e and humanity+ The /etter has arrived at a -riti-a/ moment+ Rasko/nikov, .resh .rom his evenin) 1ith #arme/adov, .o-uses on the 2ara//e/s he sees (et1een his o1n .ami/y and the drunkard!s+ 'e de-ides that he, /ike #arme/adov, is the un1orthy re-i2ient o. someone e/se!s sa-ri.i-e and se/.-denia/+ "n his mind, Dunya is se//in) herse/. e:a-t/y as Sonia has done+ "n .a-t, he de-ides that Dunya is more -orru2t (e-ause she is se//in) herse/. .or /u:uries, 1hi/e Sonia is a-tin) out o. des2eration, to ensure her .ami/y!s surviva/+ 'o1 -an Rasko/nikov 2revent the sa-ri.i-e and the marria)eD 'o1 -an he avoid (ein) more inde(ted to his sisterD "nevita(/y, he returns to the mysterious, horri(/e 2/an o. the o2enin) -ha2ter+ 'e must a-t to sto2 the marria)e, or e/se he must )ive u2 and su(mit+ *ut the a-tion he 2/ans is sti// (uried in his an)uished -ons-iousness+ The reader is sti// un-ertain 1hat it 1i// mean+ Does his de-ision to a-t su))est a devoted (rother a-tin) to res-ue his sister .rom an unha22y /i.eD Or is this a handy, irrationa/ e:-use to do 1hat he 1antsD P$RT<"JC'$P<H C'$PTER H Rather than ans1er the >uestions raised at the end o. Cha2ter 9, Dostoevsky adds .urther -om2/i-ations as the 2a-e o. Rasko/nikov!s stru))/e s2eeds u2+ 'avin) tried to 1ork out his -on.used .ee/in)s on a /on) 1a/k, Rasko/nikov .a//s as/ee2 and dreams a horri(/e dream, the .irst o. many that 1i// 2/a)ue him+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Dreams 2/ay a maCor ro/e in the nove/+ They are -/ose/y tied to im2ortant events, es2e-ia//y vio/ent ones+ Dostoevsky 1as one o. the .irst nove/ists to use dreams to sho1 the menta/ and emotiona/ turmoi/ o. -hara-ters+ This is one o. the 1ays that he anti-i2ates and even in./uen-es modern ideas a(out human (ehavior, 2arti-u/ar/y the 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ inter2retation o. dreams+ Rasko/nikov in 2arti-u/ar has many di..erent kinds o. dreams that sho1 you the ideas and emotions 1arrin) in his mind+ Some o. his dreams revea/ or 2redi-t the .utureB others re-reate the terrors o. the 2ast+ 'is .irst and most dramati- ni)htmare does (oth+ ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Rasko/nikov dreams that he is on-e a)ain a -hi/d, reunited 1ith his /on)-dead .ather+ $s they 1a/k throu)h their rura/ vi//a)e, the (oy stares in horror as an a)ed horse is (eaten to death (y her drunken master+ 'e must 1at-hB it is a -om2u/sion, thou)h others try to /ead him a1ay+ 'e hysteri-a//y em(ra-es the dead anima/!s (/oody head and tries to assau/t the vio/ent 2easant 1ho has ki//ed the mare+ 'e a1akes in a -o/d s1eat, -on.used and a/most irrationa/+ For the .irst time he s2eaks his horri(/e 2/anE to smash the 2a1n(roker!s head 1ith an a: and stea/ her money+ 'is vio/ent tenden-ies have (een revea/ed in his dream+ *ut so have his .ear and revu/sion o. vio/en-e, 1hi-h make him identi.y not on/y 1ith the ki//er, (ut 1ith the /itt/e (oy 1ho is a22a//ed at the s-ene, and even 1ith the horse 1ho is the vi-tim+ You may .ee/ an enormous sense o. re/ie. as Rasko/nikov -omes to terms 1ith his dream+ 'e reso/ves not to -ommit the -rime+ 'e even 2rays that 5od 1i// sho1 him ho1 to es-a2e his evi/ thou)hts+ *ut does he )ive u2 his 2/an (e-ause he (e/ieves it is 1ron) or (e-ause he /a-ks the -oura)e to )o throu)h 1ith itD Readers have seen (oth o. these 2ossi(i/ities in his de-ision+ #oments /ater his reso/ve, his humanity, is am(ushed+ Fate, he insists, -han)es his /i.e+ For he overhears that the 2a1n(roker!s meek and mi/d sister, 3i=aveta, 1i// (e a1ay .rom home at seven the ne:t evenin)+ $// >uestions, a// stru))/es eva2orateE his vi-tim 1i// (e home a/one+ 'e -a//s it .ate, (ut is it rea//y a -onvenient e:-useD P$RT<"JC'$P<6 C'$PTER 6 The de(ate a(out .ate -ontinues as Rasko/nikov retra-es the )ro1th o. his 2/an+ 'as .ate rea//y 2/ayed a 2art in dire-tin) the murderD Does -han-e have that mu-h in./uen-e on human (ehaviorD Rasko/nikov insists it does, even /on) a.ter the -rime has (een -ommitted+ You may 1onder+ Dostoevsky doesn!t say dire-t/y 1hat he thinks, (ut he does )ive you some -/ues that Rasko/nikov makes the de-isions that he 1ants to make+ Events and emotions may he/2 e:2/ain 1hy he a-ts, (ut the de-isions are his+ 4e /earn that he has kno1n a(out the 2a1n(roker .or si: months, and that he .irst visited her si: 1eeks (e.ore the nove/ (e)ins+ 4e don!t .ind out here, or ever, 1hat made him )ive u2 his Co(s and his -ommuni-ation 1ith others a(out that time+ 'e e:2/ains, thou)h, that he (e)an to .ee/ su2erstitious and to (e/ieve that -oin-iden-e 1as he/2in) to .urther his o1n evi/ 2/ans and ideas+ The revu/sion that he .e/t .or the o/d /ady the .irst time he sa1 her is a/so intimate/y -onne-ted 1ith his 2/an to ki// her+ 'e 1as not a/one in his hatred o. her+ The very ni)ht he met her, he overheard her des-ri(ed as a se/.ish and a(usive /ouse 1ho 2/ans to /eave a// the money she has e:torted .rom 2oor 2eo2/e to a monastery+ There the money 1i// (uy 2er2etua/ 2rayers .or the re2ose o. her sou/+ The student 1ho des-ri(ed $/ena "vanovna as a /ouse and detai/ed the 1ay she mistreats her /on)-su..erin) sister a/so insisted that it 1ou/d (e doin) humanity a .avor to murder the o/d ha)E i// her, take her money, on -ondition that you dedi-ate yourse/. 1ith its he/2 to the servi-e o. humanity and the -ommon )oodE don!t you think that thousands o. )ood deeds 1i// 1i2e out one /itt/e,

insi)ni.i-ant trans)ressionD The idea -ou/dn!t have .ound a more re-e2tive audien-e- or one more /ike/y to a-t- than the eavesdro22in) Rasko/nikov+ 'o1 -/ose/y the student!s ideas su22ort his o1nL The -onversation seemed to him a 2ro.ound -oin-iden-e, @as i. there 1ere indeed somethin) .ate.u/ and .ore-ordained a(out it+@ *ut is he rea//y ki//in) to serve humanityor sim2/y to 2rove somethin) to himse/.D Readers have ar)ued that >uestion ever sin-e the nove/ 1as 2u(/ished+ The day o. the murder, the third day o. the story, Rasko/nikov s/ee2s most o. the time+ 'e has 1orked out many detai/s o. the murder 2/an a/ready+ 'is -are.u/ 2/annin) makes his -rime seem more a22a//in), more evi/- to himse/. and to us+ For many 2eo2/e, it is easier to .or)ive an im2etuous, s2ur-o.-the-moment murder than one 1hi-h is 2remeditated 62/anned7+ Our /a1s distin)uish -/ear/y (et1een 2remeditated and a--identa/ murder+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Rasko/nikov s2ends a /ot o. time thinkin) a(out -rime and -rimina/s+ 'e has a theory that -rimina/s (e-ome 2hysi-a//y and menta//y i// 1hen they -ommit -rimes+ They are una(/e to use their reason 1hen they need it most, to avoid dete-tion+ One >uestion he -an!t ans1er is 1hether the i//ness -auses -rime, or the -rime -auses i//ness+ "t is a >uestion that 2eo2/e are sti// askin) a(out menta/ -om2eten-e and -rimina/ (ehavior, es2e-ia//y in -ases that use insanity de.enses+ $s you read the nove/, think a(out 1here you stand on this issue+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov insists at one 2oint that, un/ike a -ommon -rimina/, he 1on!t )et si-k or (e una(/e to .un-tion at the time o. the murder, (e-ause 1hat he is 2/annin) is @no -rime+@ This idea may take you (y sur2rise, and the idea is dro22ed as sudden/y as it 1as raised+ 3ater on, thou)h, it 1i// turn out to (e very im2ortant in understandin) his motives .or ki//in)+ Rasko/nikov!s errati- (ehavior >ui-kens as the .ata/ hour a22roa-hes+ Time s/i2s a1ayB he is /ateB he must .ind an a:eB he -urses his distin-tive hat+ Des2ite some ho/es in his 2/an and some -are/ess mistakes, @/u-k@ or .ate seems to 2ush Rasko/nikov -/oser and -/oser to the @terri(/e a-t@ that!s (een o(sessin) him+ $t /ast he rea-hes the 2a1n(roker!s door+ "t is his third, .ata/ visit, and he rin)s the door(e// three ominous times+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The num(er ; is sometimes used as a si)na/ o. doom+ One modern usa)e you mi)ht -om2are is @Three strikes and you!re out+@ Dostoevsky uses the num(er ; over and over+ 4at-h .or it+ "t!s a/most a/1ays a si)na/+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<"JC'$P<? C'$PTER ?

The tension e:2/odes in the murder o. the 2a1n(roker+ Rasko/nikov hits her on to2 o. her head three times 1ith the (/unt end o. an a:e+ She dies instant/y+ Does Rasko/nikov rea-t as he theori=ed he 1ou/dD Do his 1i// and

reason, 1hi-h he needs to )et a1ay 1ith his -rime, ho/d u2D 4hy does he shake so mu-h that he -an (are/y remove the keys .rom the 2a1n(roker!s (odyD 'e is terri.ied that he is /osin) his mind+ $t .irst takin) -are not to )et (/oody, (ut .ina//y smearin) his hand in the (/ood, he snat-hes the dead 1oman!s 2urse .rom its hidin) 2/a-e around her ne-k+ Then he uses her keys to un/o-k her trunk+ *ut he has on/y (e)un to stu.. his 2o-kets 1ith )o/d @2/ed)es@ 1hen a .aint sound .rom the other room start/es him+ #omentari/y, he -rou-hes, una(/e to (reathe, and then he (ursts into the murder room, a:e -/ut-hed in his hand+ 3i=aveta, the 2a1n(roker!s sister, has returned+ Stunned, she stares in horror and (a-ks a1ay, one hand .ee(/y tryin) to 1ard o.. the (/o1 she kno1s 1i// -ome+ Everythin) has )one 1ron)+ &sin) one s1i.t (/o1 1ith the (/ade o. the a:e, Rasko/nikov s2/its o2en the head o. the horri.ied 1oman+ Terror 1ashes over him+ The un2remeditated murder a..e-ts him as the e:e-ution o. the o/d 1oman had not+ Reason deserts him+ De/i(erate/y, s/o1/y, he 1ashes his hands and the a:e and e:amines everythin) .or stains+ #inutes ti-k (y, (ut he makes no e..ort to ./ee unti/ sudden/y the ur)en-y to )et a1ay strikes him /ike a (o/t+ $)ain the tension (ui/ds+ The .ront door is o2en+ Someone mi)ht have seenL 'e s/ams it -/osed and (o/ts it, /o-kin) himse/. in 1ith his vi-tims+ Then momentary -a/m returns, and he on-e a)ain 2re2ares to /eave- on/y to (e -on.ronted 1ith .ootste2s mountin) the stairs+ "nstin-tive/y, he kno1s they are -omin) to the 2a1n(roker!s+ 3o-kin) the door >uiet/y, stran)e/y -a/m, Rasko/nikov 1aits inside 1hi/e .irst one man and then t1o rin) the (e// and ratt/e the door hand/e+ 'o1 -an the inevita(/e (e avoidedD 'is -a2ture is sure/y Cust a matter o. minutes a1ay+ *ut the ironi- /u-k 1hi-h has (een 1ith him a// a/on) res-ues him a)ain+ The -on.used men /eave in sear-h o. the 2orter to .ind out 1hat is )oin) on+ Rasko/nikov s/i2s a1ay, hidin) (rie./y in an em2ty a2artment and .ina//y returnin) to his o1n room, -are.u//y re2/a-in) the a:e 1here he .ound it+ T1o 1omen are dead+ Their ki//er has )otten a1ay, a22arent/y unnoti-ed, /eavin) no -/ues (ehind+ 'e has 2roved his theoryE i. you kee2 your 1i// and your reason, you -an )et a1ay 1ith murder+ Or has heD 'e ./in)s himse/. onto the so.a in his room and .a//s into a stu2or+ P$RT<""JC'$PTER<1 P$RT "" C'$PTER 1

'ours /ater, sti// in a stu2or and on-e a)ain iso/ated in his )arret, Rasko/nikov tries to -o2e 1ith the memory o. the murders+ Chi//s and tremors 2/a)ue him, and he -om2u/sive/y e:amines his -/othes .or (/ood-stains+ Sudden/y he remem(ers the /oot in his -oat 2o-kets and hides it (ehind the torn 1a//2a2er 1ithout -ountin) the money+ One thin) the murders haven!t -han)ed is the se/.-dou(t that haunts him+ Rushin) around the room, he seems una(/e to de-ide 1hat to do ne:t+ 'e -uts o.. the (/oody .rin)es o. his trousers and tears the stained 2o-ket .rom his -oat, (ut -an!t .i)ure out 1hat to do 1ith them+ @Can this rea//y (e the (e)innin) o. my 2unishmentD@ he asks+ Punishment is somethin) that he has never thou)ht a(out unti/ no1+ *y sho1in) Rasko/nikov!s hysteria, Dostoevsky 2i-ks u2 on one o. the

youn) man!s theories- that i//ness a--om2anies -rime+ Does his rea-tion 2rove that he has -ommitted a -rime a.ter a//D Remem(er, he 1as sure he 1ou/dn!t rea-t the 1ay an ordinary -rimina/ 1ou/d+ 'is on/y so/ution is to )o to s/ee2+ *ut he a1akes to a /oud kno-kin) on the door+ 'is .irst thou)ht is that he has (een .ound out+ "n his state he doesn!t rea/i=e ho1 un/ike/y that isB he de(ates 1ith himse/. a(out ho1 he shou/d res2ond+ Fina//y, he sim2/y o2ens the door+ 'is 1orst ima)inin)s seem -on.irmed 1hen he is handed a summons .rom the 2o/i-e+ On-e more, Dostoevsky dra1s the reader into Rasko/nikov!s an:iety+ "s it a// over a/readyD "n .a-t, the summons is a(so/ute/y unre/ated to the murder+ *ut Rasko/nikov -an!t 2u// himse/. to)ether+ Fear that he 1i// )ive himse/. a1ay tortures him+ 'e is in su-h a state that he /eaves his room un/o-ked, 1ith the (/oody shreds o. -/othin) /yin) in 2/ain si)ht and the 2a1n(roker!s money and 2ossessions -/umsi/y hidden+ The -oin-identa/ summons 6.oreshado1ed (y the maid in Part ", Cha2ter ;7 and the tension it 2rodu-es are Dostoevsky!s 1ay o. sho1in) us Rasko/nikov!s .ra)i/e )ri2 on himse/.+ %o 1onder Rasko/nikov!s 1orried a(out )ivin) himse/. a1ay+ 'e ou)ht to (e+ 'is inner -on.usion is 2ro.ound 1hen he arrives at the station and -on.ronts, in turn, three re2resentatives o. the 2o/i-eE Fametov, the -hie.--/erkB "/ya Petrovi-h, the .iery /ieutenantB and %ikodim Fomi-h, the -a2tain+ 4hen he /earns .rom the -/erk that he is (ein) sued .or his de(ts, re/ie. 1ashes over him+ Enou)h o. his o/d arro)an-e returns so that he -an even ta/k (a-k to the /ieutenant+ You may (e a(/e to remem(er rea-tin) this 1ay yourse/., 1hen you!ve )otten a1ay 1ith a -/ose -a//+ For a// his stran)eness, Rasko/nikov is a very rea/ -hara-ter+ "n his eu2horia, he te//s the sad story o. his -rushin) de(t and his unha22y /i.e, (ut the o..i-ers aren!t im2ressed+ C/ear/y there is nothin) ne1 in his e:2erien-e, and they!re -a//ous a(out su..erin)+ Their /a-k o. interest de2resses Rasko/nikov 2ro.ound/y, another indi-ation o. his emotiona/ state, .or @his sou/+++ 1as tormentin)/y -ons-ious o.+++ eterna/ /one/iness and estran)ement+@ 'is a/ienation .rom his .e//o1 men is in-reasin)+ 'e .ee/s an ur)e to -on.ess, to )et it over 1ith, to te// a//+ *ut he resists Cust in time to overhear the three men en)rossed in a -onversation a(out the 2a1n(roker!s mysterious murder+ Then, 1hen he stands u2 to /eave, he .aints+ $ more dramati- moment is hard to ima)ine+ Sudden/y, every(ody is enormous/y interested in him+ *ut no1 their interest .i//s Rasko/nikov 1ith .ear and dread+ P$RT<""JC'$PTER<K C'$PTER K To )et rid o. the in-riminatin) 2urse and trinkets, Rasko/nikov )athers them u2 and de-ides to thro1 them a// into the -ana/+ 'e sti// hasn!t -ounted the money, and he never does+ 4hi/e he 1as 2/annin) the murder, Rasko/nikov had -/aimed he 1anted the o/d 1oman!s money so that he -ou/d he/2 others- es2e-ia//y his sister+ This motivation doesn!t o--ur to him no1, in his .ear.u/ state+ ReCe-tin) the -ana/ (e-ause 2eo2/e mi)ht see him, Rasko/nikov 1a/ks on to1ard the %eva River+ *ut (e.ore he )ets there, he -han)es his mind and (uries the /oot in a deserted /ot, under a stone (ehind an o2en draina)e dit-h+ %one o. this (ehavior su))ests a man o. 1i// and reason+

The more he thinks a(out his (ehavior 1ith the 2o/i-e, the more he (/ames himse/. .or -rin)in) and (ein) a.raid+ 4orse, he hates himse/. .or not -ountin) the money+ The on/y e:-use he -an .ind is that he is i//, a re-o)nition that .i//s him 1ith hatred .or everyone, in-/udin) himse/.+ $.ter a//, (e.ore the murder 1asn!t he sure he 1as di..erent .rom every(ody e/seD For a reason he -an!t rea//y e:2/ain, he rea-hes out .or -om2anionshi2 and )oes to visit his o/d .riend Ra=umikhin 1hom he hasn!t seen .or .our months+ One inter2retation o. this de-ision is that there is a hidden 2art o. him that 1ants to 2ut his a-tions (ehind him+ *y seekin) out his o/d .riends, he -an start over+ Perha2s it is more honest to re-o)ni=e that Rasko/nikov is 2hysi-a//y i//somethin) his .riend rea/i=es a/most immediate/y- and sim2/y needs he/2+ "n his de/irium, Rasko/nikov stru))/es to e:2/ain 1hy he has -ome and 1hy he -an!t stay, 1hy he doesn!t 1ant 1ork a/thou)h he is des2erate .or money+ Even the )enerous Ra=umikhin is an)ry at his (a../in) (ehavior+ C/ear/y, Rasko/nikov doesn!t kno1 1hat he 1ants+ Sti// i//, he 1anders into the street, 1here he is near/y run do1n (y a team o. horses+ The sho-k, and a sma// amount o. money a -om2assionate 2asser(y hands him, (rin) him (a-k to his senses .or a moment+ *ut 1hat he rea/i=es a(out himse/. distur(s him+ 'is 2ast is )one (e-ause o. his -rimeB he is -ut o.. .rom it+ *y ni)ht.a//, he is serious/y i//+ 'e ha//u-inates that his /and/ady is (ein) (eaten (y the 2o/i-e /ieutenant, and he!s so e:hausted .rom /istenin) to the ima)inary in-ident that he .a//s un-ons-ious+ This -ha2ter reesta(/ishes Rasko/nikov!s /ink 1ith his o/d .riend and his .ormer /i.e+ %o1 a// o. the 2rimary -hara-ters have (een introdu-ed, and Dostoevsky -an (e)in to deve/o2 Rasko/nikov (y sho1in) him in re/ation to other 2eo2/e+ P$RT<""JC'$P<; C'$PTER ; The 2hysi-a/ and emotiona/ -o//a2se that Rasko/nikov su..ers in the ne:t .e1 days- a nervous (reakdo1n 1e 1ou/d -a// it today- makes him tota//y de2endent on others+ The -hie. ar-hite-t o. his re-overy is Ra=umikhin, the 2erson to 1hom he had turned in his 1ret-hed rea-tion to the murders+ Ra=umikhin has taken -har)eE it is a ro/e he 1i// maintain .or Rasko/nikov!s .ami/y .or the rest o. the story+ 'e has (rou)ht a do-tor, -aCo/ed the /and/ady, and )ot ne-essary in.ormation .rom the 2o/i-e to retrieve the dama)in) "O&+ 4ith the money Rasko/nikov!s mother sends, he (uys the youn) man an entire/y ne1 1ardro(e+ $s Rasko/nikov (e)ins to rea/i=e ho1 many 2eo2/e have (een around and ho1 si-k he!s (een, he )ro1s des2erate to kno1 i., in his de/irium, he has revea/ed his )ui/ty se-ret+ 'e may (e 2art o. so-iety a)ain as .ar as other 2eo2/e are -on-erned, (ut sti// -onsiders himse/. se2arate+ $nd he kno1s ho1 im2ortant it is to kee2 his se-ret+ This tension even kee2s him .rom enCoyin) Ra=umikhin!s rather in.e-tious humor+ 'e /on)s to (e a/one, even to run a1ay to $meri-a 6a 2/a-e Dostoevsky uses .re>uent/y in his .i-tion as a )oa/ .or a// sorts o. disre2uta(/e 2eo2/eL7+ P$RT<""JC'$P<9 C'$PTER 9

$/thou)h Rasko/nikov takes no 2art in the -onversations in this -ha2ter- one a(out Ra=umikhin!s 2/ans .or a house1armin) 2arty that evenin) and another a(out the murder o. the 2a1n(roker- he is keen/y interested in the se-ond -onversation, and o(vious/y dire-t/y invo/ved+ *ut he is the on/y one 1ho kno1s it+ *e-ause Ra=umikhin has invited the 2o/i-e -/erk Fametov and the e:aminin) ma)istrate, Por.iry Petrovi-h, to his 2arty, the ta/k >ui-k/y turns to the murder+ Ra=umikhin e:2/ains he disa22roves o. the 1ay the investi)ation is (ein) hand/ed+ One o. the 2ainters 1ho had (een 1orkin) in the 2a1n(roker!s (ui/din) on the evenin) o. the ki//in) has (een arrested, (ut Ra=umikhin and his .riends are sure he!s inno-ent+ "n the midd/e o. the dis-ussion, one remark unsett/es Rasko/nikov -om2/ete/y, and he s2ends the rest o. the time starin) at the 1a//+ The maid announ-es, >uite out o. the (/ue, that the murdered 3i=aveta had on-e mended one o. his shirts+ This is another o. the -oin-iden-es that .i// the nove/+ Readers disa)ree 1hether detai/s /ike this make the nove/ more rea/isti- and 2o1er.u/, or too arti.i-ia/ and -ontrived+ "t!s somethin) you mi)ht think a(out+ *esides 2rovidin) detai/s o. 1hat the 2o/i-e kno1 a(out the murder- 1hi-h isn!t mu-h- the -onversation 2rovides some serious -riti-ism o. 2o/i-e methods o. investi)ation+ Ra=umikhin a--uses them o. arrestin) .irst and thinkin) a.ter1ard, and o. not askin) the ri)ht >uestions+ The stron)est -riti-ism, and the one that has the most (earin) on Rasko/nikov, is the one that (others Ra=umikhin the mostE the investi)ators 1i// inter2ret even the /east si)ni.i-ant 2hysi-a/ eviden-e as im2ortant 1hi/e i)norin) 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ eviden-e a(out the a--used!s menta/ state+ 4ith o22osition /ike that, Rasko/nikov has /itt/e to .ear, and he kno1s it+ P$RT<""JC'$P<H C'$PTER H

The stran)er 1ho -omes to the door in the midd/e o. this -onversation a(out the murder is /ookin) .or Rasko/nikov+ *ut his identity is a sho-k+ 'e!s Peter Petrovi-h 3u=hin, Dunya!s .ian-e, the man Rasko/nikov is 2re2ared to des2ise+ Very /itt/e time 2asses (e.ore a// Rasko/nikov!s .ears a(out him are Custi.ied+ 3u=hin is 2om2ous and 2atroni=in), e)otisti-a/ and i)norant+ "n res2onse, Rasko/nikov and Ra=umikhin are rude+ 3u=hin!s e:2ensive and ostentatious 1ardro(e is des-ri(ed in detai/, and so are the -hea2 hote/ rooms he has rented .or Dunya and her mother+ 'is -hara-ter is .urther de.ined 1hen he tries to in)ratiate himse/. 1ith the youn) 2eo2/e (y es2ousin) vie1s that he thinks they 1ish to hear, (ut 1hi-h rea//y e:2ress his o1n vie1 o. /i.e+ 'is ideas are that 617 2eo2/e shou/d /ove themse/ves .irst, and 6K7 that 1hat is )ood, e-onomi-a//y, .or the individua/ 1i// u/timate/y he/2 others+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The se/.ishness and essentia/ immora/ity o. 3u=hin!s ideas are at the heart o. 1hat Dostoevsky de.ines as -rime in the nove/+ %oti-e ho1 .re>uent/y this -rime o. @me .irst@ -omes u2+ --------------------------------------------------------------------")norin) his 2resen-e, Ra=umikhin and Fosimov return to their dis-ussion o. the murderer+ 'e must, they think, have (een a -/ient o. the 2a1n(roker+ Sudden/y, Rasko/nikov rouses .rom his /ethar)y+

C/ients (ein) interro)atedL That demands his .u// attention+ &n1ittin)/y, Ra=umikhin tortures his .riend (y des-ri(in) 1hat he thinks the murderer must (e /ikeE an ine:2erien-ed -rimina/ saved (y -han-e .rom (ein) dis-overed at his .irst attem2t at -rime+ Chan-e, or .ate 61hi-h Rasko/nikov has a/ready identi.ied as a 2o1er.u/ .or-e in his /i.e7 is no1 su))ested as the most im2ortant e/ement in the murderer!s su--ess+ The -rimina/!s ine:2erien-e is 2roved, Ra=umikhin insists, (y the .a-t that he /e.t 1HAA rou(/es untou-hed in the dresser dra1er+ Perha2s the most 2er-e2tive thin) he says is that the ki//er must have /ost his head+ 'earin) that doesn!t he/2 Rasko/nikov!s se/.-res2e-t+ 3u=hin tries to )et (a-k into the -onversation (y askin)rhetori-a//y- 1hy there is so mu-h -rime+ Ra=umikhin su))ests that -rime is easier than 1ork, (ut it is Rasko/nikov 1ho has the more 2rovo-ative ans1er+ ". 2eo2/e (e/ieve that they shou/d serve themse/ves .irst, that is ade>uate e:2/anation .or -rime+ Peo2/e /ike 3u=hin 1ho advo-ate su-h ideas are to (/ame+ Rasko/nikov 2resses his 2oint even .urther+ The .a-t that 3u=hin 2re.ers a 2oor 1i.e 1ho 1i// have to (e )rate.u/ to him is a/so -rimina/+ Sudden/y, the a--usation is very 2ersona/+ 4hatever -han-e the t1o mi)ht have had .or to/eratin) ea-h other has disso/ved+ 3u=hin -riti-i=es Rasko/nikov!s mother+ Rasko/nikov, in turn, threatens assau/t+ The .urious 3u=hin /eaves, and Rasko/nikov insists that the others /eave too+ *ut his irrationa/ity ama=es his .riend and his do-tor, and they reso/ve to .i)ure out 1hat is on his mind+ *oth are .as-inated (y his 2assionate interest in the murderB his determination to (e a/one has .ound determined enemies+ P$RT<""JC'$P<6 C'$PTER 6 $.ter severa/ -ha2ters 6and days7 o. (ein) 2assive, Rasko/nikov reasserts himse/.+ Sti// 1eak and di==y, he .ee/s he must /eave his re2u/sive room+ 4hen he is a/one and -a/m a)ain, he dresses in his ne1 -/othes, 2o-kets the remainin) t1enty-.ive rou(/es .rom his mother, and /eaves his room+ %othin) has -han)ed in the -ity, a/thou)h he has .e/t an enormous trans.ormation in himse/. sin-e the murders+ 'e is des2erate to reso/ve the -on./i-tin) .ee/in)s that 2/a)ue him+ 'e .ee/s he -an no /on)er /ive an unreso/ved /i.e+ *ut he has no idea ho1 to )o a(out -han)in) thin)s and -annot (ear to think a(out it+ You mi)ht de-ide he rea//y hasn!t -han)ed very mu-h, des2ite 1hat he thinks+ The (e))ars, drunks, and 2rostitutes he 2asses in the street de2ress him, (ut he )ras2s at one insi)htE that 2eo2/e 2re.er to /ive under the most dread.u/ -ir-umstan-es rather than to die+ This thou)ht re-urs to him many times in the days that .o//o1B you mi)ht say it!s 1hat kee2s him a/ive+ Enterin) a tavern in order to .ind the ne1s2a2er a--ounts o. the murder, Rasko/nikov .inds himse/.- a)ain (y -oin-iden-e- 1ith Fametov, the 2o/i-e -/erk+ Far .rom tryin) to dis)uise his .as-ination 1ith the murder story, Rasko/nikov ./aunts his interest in it+ 4hat seems even more se/.-destru-tive is that he taunts Fametov unti/ the -/erk says 1hat is on the reader!s mindE @Either you are mad, or++++@ 'o1 e/se -an you e:2/ain 1hat Rasko/nikov is doin)D 'e uses 1ords /ike -on.ess and reminds Fametov that he .ainted 1hen the murder 1as dis-ussed in the 2o/i-e station+ #any -riti-s have su))ested he does

this (e-ause he 1ants to (e -au)ht+ They think he is una(/e to dea/ 1ith his o1n sense o. )ui/t and un-ertainty+ Others think that he is testin) himse/. and tormentin) Fametov .or his o1n amusement+ Either 1ay, this is a -riti-a/ -onversation+ You 1i// dis-over /ater that Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior in the tavern is one o. the reasons Por.iry Petrovi-h is so sure he!s the ki//er+ Crime is the to2i- o. -onversation+ 4hat (etter su(Ce-t .or a 2o/i-e -/erk and a ki//erD $t /ast Rasko/nikov has an o22ortunity to e:2ress his ideas on ho1 -rimes -an (e -ommitted e..e-tive/y+ $nd it )ives Fametov a -han-e to ta/k a(out the mistakes that 1ere made at the murder o. the 2a1n(roker+ $)ain, Rasko/nikov seems to (e takin) -ra=y risks, as he e:2/ains 1hat he 1ou/d have doneE (ury the money he had sto/en+ Pushin) even .urther, he asks, @4hat i. it 1as " 1ho ki//ed the o/d 1oman and 3i=avetaD@ "t is hard to te// 1hi-h o. them is more u2set (y the -onversationB Rasko/nikov seems the /ess ./ustered+ For some readers his (ehavior is eviden-e that he!s menta//y un(a/an-edmad, as Fametov 1ou/d say+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE You -an!t (e sure 1hat Fametov is thinkin) durin) his -onversation 1ith Rasko/nikov+ *e-ause the reader kno1s the identity o. the murderer .rom the start, it is hard to te// ho1 mu-h either Fametov or Ra=umikhin has .i)ured out at any )iven time+ That!s one o. the 1ays Dostoevsky (ui/ds sus2ense+ --------------------------------------------------------------------3eavin) the tavern, Rasko/nikov runs into Ra=umikhin+ 'is .riend is )enuine/y, dee2/y -on-erned a(out him, (ut Rasko/nikov res2onds (y (ein) in-redi(/y rude+ 'e insists he is sane, res2onsi(/e, and un1i//in) to (other 1ith other 2eo2/e+ *y the time he .inishes 1ith his atta-k, he is .urious/y an)ry, @ravin) mad/y and -hokin) 1ith ra)e+@ Ra=umikhin!s an)er at this treatment is Custi.ied+ The .a-t that he 1i// not a//o1 himse/. to (e a(used a..irms him as a stron) and a22ea/in) -hara-ter+ *ut (e-ause he is a )ood .riend, his an)er disso/ves into -on-ern+ 'e en-oura)es Rasko/nikov to .or)et the un2/easantness (et1een them and -ome to his 2arty+ Re.usin), Rasko/nikov /eaves+ $.ter a .ruit/ess attem2t to .o//o1 him, Ra=umikhin )oes (a-k to Fametov to .ind out 1hat has ha22ened+ Don!t underestimate the im2ortan-e o. Ra=umikhin!s a..e-tion .or Rasko/nikov+ One o. the thin)s that -ontri(utes to our .ee/in) that Rasko/nikov has )ood >ua/ities des2ite his a-tions is that 2eo2/e 1hom 1e admire /ove him+ "n a -om2/e: nove/, the rea-tion o. others to a -hara-ter is -riti-a/ to your a(i/ity to make a Cud)ment yourse/.+ $s Rasko/nikov 1a/ks on, he )ets 1eaker and 1eaker+ 'e .ee/s that he is a(out to .aint a)ain, 1hen he is start/ed (y a 1oman Cum2in) into the -ana/ in an a22arent sui-ide attem2t+ 'e is torn (et1een a desire to end his 2ro(/ems and an ur)en-y to /ive+ The sui-ida/ 1oman seems to have made her -hoi-e+ *ut (e.ore she -an dro1n, she is 2u//ed .rom the 1ater (y a 2assin) 2o/i-eman+ Rasko/nikov!s emotions are in su-h turmoi/ that this in-ident has an enormous im2a-t on him+ Shou/d he -ommit sui-ideD Shou/d he )o to the 2o/i-e station and -on.essD Rather than doin) either, he returns to the s-ene o. the 2a1n(roker!s murder, .or @an irresisti(/e and ine:2/i-a(/e desire dre1 him on+@ The murder remains the -entra/ .o-us o. his -ons-ious and su(-ons-ious /i.e+

". his (ehavior 1ith Fametov seemed se/.-in-riminatin) and mad, it is mi/d -om2ared to the 1ay he a-ts at the s-ene o. the -rime+ 'e 1ants to kno1 1here the (/ood is, des2ite the .a-t that the a2artment is (ein) rede-orated+ 'e!s astonished not to .ind the -or2ses and disa22roves o. the ne1 1a//2a2er+ 'e rin)s the (e//, three times+ 4hen the 1orkmen 2ress him .or his identity, he te//s them to -ome to the 2o/i-e station, that he 1i// te// them there+ 'e a-ts even more (i=arre 1ith the -ro1d )athered at the )ate, identi.yin) himse/. (y name and tauntin) them a(out their sus2i-ions o. him+ 4hat 2ossi(/e motive -an he have in (ehavin) this 1ayD $re 1e to think that he!s )one o.. the dee2 endD On-e more he es-a2es+ *ut, ask yourse/., ho1 o.ten -an this ha22en (e.ore he!s arrestedD 4ith every intention o. )oin) to the 2o/i-e, Rasko/nikov /eaves the s-ene, (ut his attention is distra-ted (y a /ar)e -ro1d, .u// o. shouts and ./ashin) .i)hts+ P$RT<""JC'$P<? C'$PTER ?

The dread.u/ -arria)e a--ident and the man dyin) in the street re-a// t1o s-enesE Rasko/nikov near/y .a//in) (eneath the horses in Cha2ter K and the attem2ted sui-ide o. Cha2ter 6+ *ut this vi-tim 1i// not es-a2e .rom death+ The man /yin) (roken in the street is no stran)er, eitherE it is #arme/adov+ Re2eatin) over and over, @"!// 2ay, "!// 2ay,@ Rasko/nikov arran)es to have the inCured man -arried home+ The house o. death is a 2atheti- 2/a-e+ The ra))ed -hi/dren and the distrau)ht mother seem even 1orse o.. than they did a .e1 days (e.ore+ aterina "vanovna is tou)h and doesn!t .aint+ She is (eyond 2ity .or her hus(and+ She o..ers no -onso/ation to him, (ut instead s2eaks shar2/y+ She doesn!t 1ant him to ask her .or)iveness, and she o..ers none+ %or does she hesitate to te// the 2riest that she thinks 1hat #arme/adov has done to a// o. them is a sin+ She doesn!t 2ut mu-h sto-k in 5od, either+ aterina "vanovna!s attitude to1ard her hus(and is un1averin)B even his death does not -han)e it+ 'e asked .or 1hat he )ot, she insists+ 4hat did he e:2e-tD 'er overridin) -on-ern is, 1hat 1i// she do no1D You 1onder i. she has any .ee/in)s at a// (eneath her tou)h e:terior, (ut, sti//, it is hard not to sym2athi=e 1ith her+ C/ear/y, she has had a dread.u/ /i.e, and mu-h o. it 1as #arme/adov!s .au/t+ Sonia, ho1ever, is .or)ivin), and #arme/adov dies in her arms+ 'adn!t he kno1n a// a/on) that his dau)hter /oved himD For the .irst time in the nove/, .aith is a..irmed+ Rasko/nikov, 1ho has 1at-hed the s-ene si/ent/y, tried to -onso/e aterina (y re-a//in) ho1 mu-h #arme/adov /oved her+ #ore im2ortant, he o..ers her money .or the .unera/E the rou(/es that remain .rom his mother!s )enerosity+ Promisin) to -ome a)ain, he rushes .rom the room+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Can you .i)ure out 1hat 2rom2ts Rasko/nikov!s )i.t to the #arme/adovsD There has (een eviden-e (e.ore that Rasko/nikov is moved (y su..erin)+ *ut to )ive them near/y a// the money he has seems astoundin)+ $re 1e to admire him .or his sa-ri.i-eD Or is it .urther eviden-e that he has /ost the 2o1er to think reasona(/yD "t!s entire/y /ike/y that he himse/. -ou/dn!t e:2/ain 1hat his reasons 1ere+

--------------------------------------------------------------------$s he /eaves the #arme/adovs, Rasko/nikov .ee/s reCuvenated- /ike a man 1ho had (een -ondemned to death and then une:2e-ted/y re2rieved+ 6Remem(er that this ima)e has s2e-ia/ re/evan-e .or Dostoevsky+ 'e kne1 1hat it 1as to (e re2rieved .rom death+7 *ut (e.ore 1e dis-over the sour-e o. this mira-/e, Po/enka, Sonia!s ten-year-o/d ste2-sister, -at-hes u2 1ith him, 1antin) to kno1 his name and 1here he /ives+ To sho1 her )ratitude and her 1i//in)ness to /ove him, she hu)s him and )ives him a -hi/dish kiss+ 4at-hin) Rasko/nikov 1ith her, you!// 2ro(a(/y .ind it hard to remem(er that he is a ki//er, or even the rude, se/.--entered 2erson 1ho a/1ays 1ants to (e a/one+ The ha22iness he .ee/s as he /ooks at her is somethin) he doesn!t understand, (ut he is tou-hed 1hen she -ries+ Even more, he is 1i//in) to ask her to 2ray .or him+ Dostoevsky has added some more mystery to his -hara-ter+ Returnin) to the (rid)e 1here ear/ier in the evenin) the 1oman had tried to -ommit sui-ide, Rasko/nikov is sure that his /i.e is sti// (e.ore him+ 'is i//ness is )one, and he!s ready to reassert his stren)th+ 'e!s not sure ho1 this trans.ormation has ha22ened, (ut he kno1s it has+ The narrator -autions that 2erha2s he has -on-/uded too >ui-k/y that his /i.e did not die 1ith the o/d 1oman+ That doesn!t o--ur to the Cu(i/ant Rasko/nikov+ 'e is so e:-ited that he de-ides to )o to Ra=umikhin!s 2arty, (ut he is too 1eak to )o in and Coin the .estivities+ 'e ta/ks to his .riend on the stairs+ $ s/i)ht/y drunk Ra=umikhin tries to e:2/ain 1hat Fosimov, Fametov, and even Por.iry think o. Rasko/nikov, (ut it -omes out so mudd/ed that neither Rasko/nikov nor the reader is sure 1hat anyone thinks+ Rasko/nikov -on.ides in Ra=umikhin that he has )iven the #arme/adovs a// his money, (ut his e:2/anation o. the evenin) is -on.used+ There is a -/ue, thou)h, to his -han)ed attitudeE @" have (een kissed (y a -reature 1ho, even i. " had ki//ed any(ody, 1ou/d sti//++++@ Even thou)h he does not .inish the e:2/anation, it is -/ear/y his sense o. (ein) /oved that has made su-h an im2a-t on him+ You!// dis-over that /ovin) and (ein) /oved are im2ortant to Rasko/nikov and to Dostoevsky!s ideas a(out sa/vation+ Di==iness s1ee2s over Rasko/nikov, and Ra=umikhin he/2s him to his room+ *ut 2ani- returns+ There!s a /i)ht under the door+ The murder isn!t (ehind him a.ter a//+ *ut it isn!t the 2o/i-e 1ho 1ait .or him+ 'is mother and his sister thro1 themse/ves on him in e-stasy+ The sudden re/ease o. tension is too mu-h .or Rasko/nikov+ On-e a)ain he .aints+ P$RT<"""JC'$P<1 P$RT """ C'$PTER 1

Rasko/nikov -omes to >ui-k/y, (ut the sho-k o. his .ami/y!s 2resen-e over1he/ms him+ 'e /ooks so i// that his mother is terri.ied+ $// he -an say to them is @5o home++++@ "t!s hard/y the )reetin) they e:2e-ted+ $s i. everyone 1eren!t unha22y enou)h, Rasko/nikov (/urts out his an)er to Dunya+ 'e -ate)ori-a//y .or(ids her to marry 3u=hin+ 4antin) des2erate/y to sa/va)e the situation, she tries to 2ost2one the dis-ussion, (ut he 1on!t sto2+ 'e insists that he 1on!t /et her sa-ri.i-e herse/. .or himB he re.uses to -onsider that she has any

other motive .or marryin) 3u=hin+ 'is u/timatum- 3u=hin or me- .o//o1s them as they /eave+ *y this time even the 2atient Ra=umikhin has had enou)h+ 'e shoutsE @You must (e out o. your mind+@ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Everyone 1ho has -ome in -onta-t 1ith Rasko/nikov sin-e the murder resorts to e:2/ainin) his (ehavior as madness+ You!re 2ro(a(/y tem2ted to a)ree 1ith them+ *ut Dostoevsky doesn!t intend insanity to (e an e:-use .or Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior+ --------------------------------------------------------------------4hi/e the unha22iness o. the reunion /in)ers, the mood o. the -ha2ter -han)es dramati-a//y as Ra=umikhin takes the 1omen to the s/ea=y hote/ 3u=hin has -hosen+ "t is a/most .unny to 1at-h him .a// in /ove 1ith Dunya+ 'e -hatters on, in a ti2sy eu2horia+ *ut his romanti- ha=e doesn!t 2revent him .rom -arryin) out his res2onsi(i/itiesB he is very de.inite/y in -har)e+ Pu/-heria $/e:androvna and Dunya are dee2/y u2set (y Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior+ Their 1orry is never .ar .rom the sur.a-e+ *ut Dostoevsky distra-ts our attention .rom their misery (y his des-ri2tion o. Dunya+ "n 2arti-u/ar, 1e /earn that she resem(/es her (rother, not on/y 2hysi-a//y (ut a/so emotiona//y+ This -onne-tion (et1een them (e-omes in-reasin)/y im2ortant as the story -ontinues+ For one thin), it is one 1ay in 1hi-h Rasko/nikov!s a22ea/in) >ua/ities are i//ustrated+ ". Rasko/nikov has .ai/ed them, Ra=umikhin does a// he 2romised+ 'e sett/es them in and returns a/most immediate/y to re2ort that Rasko/nikov is s/ee2in)+ 4ithin an hour he (rin)s Dr+ Fosimov to reassure them a(out the 2atient!s -ondition+ "t!s -/ear he!s (e-omin) very im2ortant to the Rasko/nikov 1omen+ "t!s a ro/e he treasures+ @Some sus2i-ions o. menta/ distur(an-e@ and @some indi-ations o. monomania@ are the do-tor!s dia)nosis+ 'e advises them to avoid u2settin) Rasko/nikov the ne:t day, 1hen they try another reunion+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE This em2hasis on madness 1orks severa/ 1ays+ 3a(e/in) Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior monomania 2rote-ts him .rom (ein) a murder sus2e-t+ 'is o(session 1ith the -rime is e:2/ained as a menta/ distur(an-e+ $/so, i. he is menta//y si-k, his .ami/y and .riends are 1i//in) to .or)ive a /ot o. o(no:ious (ehavior+ You have to -onsider, thou)h, 1hether /a(e/in) someone menta//y distur(ed rea//y 2rote-ts him+ #ay(e it is the /a(e/ers it rea//y 2rote-ts- .rom .a-in) the truth+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<"""JC'$P<K C'$PTER K

Rasko/nikov is the main su(Ce-t o. -onversation in this -ha2ter, (ut he never a22ears+ You dis-over 1hat Ra=umikhin, editin) dis-reet/y, te//s Rasko/nikov!s mother and sister a(out him and 1hat they have noti-ed themse/ves+ Ra=umikhin has (e)un the day in a .it o. de2ression (e-ause he .ee/s he has dis)ra-ed himse/. (y (ein) so 2resum2tuous and @dis)ustin)@ 1ith Rasko/nikov!s sister and mother+ Des2ite his 1orst .ears, ho1ever, he is )reeted enthusiasti-a//y at the hote/ and treated as

a dear and trusted .riend+ 4hi/e he tries to s2are the 1omen!s .ee/in)s, he is dire-t and honest a(out Rasko/nikov+ "t 1ou/d (e hard to .ind a -/earer ana/ysis o. the 2ro(/em than hisE @"t is as i. he had t1o se2arate 2ersona/ities, ea-h dominatin) him a/ternate/y+@ On the )ood side, Rasko/nikov -an (e 1arm and )enerous+ *ut the (ad side seems to have the u22er hand+ 'e is de2ressed, hy2o-hondria-a/, -o/d, un.ee/in), e)otisti-a/, and se/.--entered+ This e:2/anation 2ro(a(/y -on.irms our o1n o(servations, and it arti-u/ates Dostoevsky!s interest in dua/, or dou(/e, 2ersona/ities+ Dunya, )rate.u/ .or his honesty, su))ests that 2erha2s 1hat her (rother needs is a 1oman!s /ove+ *ut Ra=umikhin isn!t sure that 1ou/d 1ork either, (e-ause he isn!t sure Rasko/nikov is -a2a(/e o. /ovin) anyone+ Pu/-heria $/e:androvna admits that he has a/1ays (een di..i-u/t+ Ca2ri-ious and -ranky are the 1ords she uses+ She is distrau)ht and she admits she has a/1ays (een a.raid he mi)ht do thin)s no one e/se 1ou/d think o.+ $ re-ent e:am2/e 1as his ine:2/i-a(/e en)a)ement to the /and/ady!s dau)hter+ Ra=umikhin has no e:2/anation .or that inter/ude, e:-e2t to say the )ir/ 1as @2/ain+++ si-k/y+++ and odd+@ Rasko/nikov!s mother is honest enou)h to say she!d (een )/ad the )ir/ died+ The -onversation then turns to 3u=hin+ Ra=umikhin admits that Rasko/nikov 1as rude to the man+ This time he doesn!t use i//ness as an e:-use+ $nd he admits he is ashamed o. his o1n (ehavior+ *ut Rasko/nikov and Ra=umikhin!s assessment o. 3u=hin!s -hara-ter is a(out to (e rein.or-ed+ The 1omen sho1 Ra=umikhin a /etter in 1hi-h 3u=hin demands that Rasko/nikov not (e 2resent 1hen he makes his mu-h de/ayed visit that evenin)+ 4orse, you -an re-o)ni=e a de/i(erate /ie+ The /etter des-ri(es Rasko/nikov )ivin) a1ay his t1enty-.ive rou(/es to @a notorious/y i//--ondu-ted .ema/e+++ on the 2rete:t o. .unera/ e:2enses+@ You kno1 2er.e-t/y 1e// 1hat rea//y ha22ened+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE On-e a)ain, Dostoevsky has )iven you more in.ormation than any o. the -hara-ters have+ 'e e:2e-ts you to use it to dra1 your o1n -on-/usions a(out 3u=hin+ --------------------------------------------------------------------$s the -on.used 1omen 2re2are to meet Rasko/nikov a)ain, they are s/i)ht/y (etter 2re2ared to -o2e 1ith him+ $nd you have a /itt/e more in.ormation 1ith 1hi-h to .i)ure out 1hat he 1i// do ne:t+ P$RT<"""JC'$P<; C'$PTER ; The enthusiasti- o2enin), announ-in) Rasko/nikov!s re-overy, des-ri(es his 2hysi-a/ hea/th, not his emotiona/ 1e//-(ein)+ Dr+ Fosimov 1at-hes him -are.u//y, tryin) to ana/y=e his (ehavior+ So does the reader+ $nd, ama=in)/y, he seems to (e in -ontro/ o. himse/.+ For the .irst time, he seems a(/e to -arry on a -onversation and even sho1 a /itt/e mo-kin) 1it 1hen the do-tor says everythin) 1i// (e .ine i. he Cust )oes (a-k to s-hoo/+ Even more im2ortant, there are rea/ ./ashes o. a..e-tion that de/i)ht his mother and Ra=umikhin+ She, in 2arti-u/ar, thinks ho1 1onder.u/ he is+ *ut remem(er that in the 2ast Rasko/nikov has .ound her /ove smotherin) and into/era(/e+ The .ee/in) that this re-on-i/iation -an!t /ast .orever is too -/ear to

i)nore+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE "n this s-ene every(ody is ta/kin) at -ross 2ur2oses, and the -hara-ters! thou)hts over/a2 and (/end into 1hat they a-tua//y say+ The resu/t is an atmos2here o. -on.usion and tension+ Dostoevsky uses this te-hni>ue to sho1 Cust ho1 -om2/i-ated the re/ationshi2s (et1een these 2eo2/e are, and ho1 di..i-u/t it 1i// (e .or them to have a true re-on-i/iation+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov admits to his mother his ine:-usa(/e a-tion in )ivin) a1ay her money, a ./ash o. honesty that revea/s his (etter side+ "n 2arti-u/ar, he 2uts into 1ords the rea/ 2ity he .ee/s .or su..erin) 2eo2/e+ This en.or-es the reader!s sense o. his humanity+ 'is vu/nera(i/ity -omes throu)h too+ @$re you a.raid o. meD@ he asks Dunya+ *ut 1hen he reassures his mother that there 1i// (e 2/enty o. time .or ta/k, he rea/i=es immediate/y that it!s a /ie+ 'e!// never (e a(/e to ta/k to any(ody honest/y ever a)ain+ 'e is so de2ressed he near/y 1a/ks out o. the room+ 4hen he tries to e:2/ain the re/ationshi2 he had 1ith his .ian-ee, he admits he 1as attra-ted to her (e-ause she 1as si-k, and says he 1ou/d have /iked her even (etter i. she had (een /ame or de.ormed+ This stran)e attitude is /e.t han)in) in the air+ 4e don!t understand Rasko/nikov any (etter a.ter he des-ri(es his en)a)ement, (ut 1e do have a -/earer sense o. Cust ho1 distur(ed he is+ The (urnin) issue o. the visit is sti// unsett/ed, (ut Rasko/nikov 1i// not i)nore it any /on)er+ 4ith an insin-ere a2o/o)y .or his (/untness the evenin) (e.ore, he a)ain demands that Dunya must -hoose (et1een (ein) 3u=hin!s 1i.e and (ein) his sister+ She -an!t (e (oth+ She insists it is her o1n (usiness+ *ut he 1i// not a--e2t that+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Rasko/nikov is -onvin-ed that Dunya is marryin) .or his (ene.it, and he hates her sa-ri.i-e+ "s this another e:am2/e o. his e)otismD Or does he rea//y have Dunya!s ha22iness at heartD Dostoevsky /eaves the ans1er u2 to you+ One o. the thin)s that shou/d in./uen-e your de-ision is 1hat you kno1 a(out 3u=hin+ --------------------------------------------------------------------The simi/arities (et1een (rother and sister are -/ear in their >uarre/+ She is as stu((orn as he+ $nd 1ith a (ar( that on/y Rasko/nikov and the reader -an understand, she shouts at himE @". " destroy any(ody it 1i// (e myse/. and no(ody e/se+++ " have not ki//ed any(odyL@ Rasko/nikov a/most .aints, (ut he 2u//s himse/. to)ether+ Dunya insists he read the /etter .rom 3u=hin, 1hi-h on/y makes the situation 1orse+ Rasko/nikov insists the man is i//iterate, (ut more, he -/aims that 3u=hin has /ied a(out him+ *e-ause you kno1 that Rasko/nikov is te//in) the truth, mu-h o. the rest o. 1hat he says has -redi(i/ity too+ ". Rasko/nikov is ri)ht a(out 3u=hin (ein) a /iar, and you kno1 he is, 2erha2s you shou/d (e/ieve the other thin)s Rasko/nikov says a(out him, too+ Dostoevsky (ui/ds u2 the sus2ense a(out ho1 this 2ro(/em 1i// turn out+ Dunya insists that Rasko/nikov (e 2resent at the intervie1 1ith 3u=hin+ $nd she makes -/ear that she has a/ready made u2 her mind+

4e 1i// have to 1ait .or her de-ision, and so 1i// Rasko/nikov+ P$RT<"""JC'$P<9 C'$PTER 9

$s i. the tension 1ere not hi)h enou)h, Sonia #arme/adova 1a/ks into the room+ She is shy and timid, and .or a moment Rasko/nikov doesn!t re-o)ni=e her+ She isn!t dressed .or the street, and seems 2oor and very youn)+ 'er humi/ity .i//s him 1ith 2ity, and he treats her )ent/y+ You -an see another -ra-k in his e)otism, as you did 1hen he )ave aterina "vanovna the money and 1hen Po/enka )ave him a hu)+ Sonia has a mission, and she!s ea)er to .inish and /eave+ She has -ome 1ith an invitation to Rasko/nikov, .or the .unera/ and the dinner a.ter1ard, events, she 2oints out, that his money is 2ayin) .or+ 'er ste2mother im2/ores him to -ome, she says+ 'er o1n invitation is uns2oken+ Thou)h she is ea)er to /eave, Rasko/nikov insists that she stay+ Des2ite her o--u2ation, he de/i(erate/y introdu-es her to his mother and his sister, em(arrassin) a// o. the 1omen+ *ut Dunya and Pu/-heria $/e:androvna are tou-hed (y Sonia!s )ratitude and her demeanor+ The )ir/ is -/ear/y astounded that anyone as 2oor as Rasko/nikov 1ou/d have (een so )enerous to her .ami/y+ Dunya even mana)es to (o1 2o/ite/y as they /eave the room+ For Cust a (rie. moment, Rasko/nikov is serene/y ha22y, -onvin-ed that /i.e is 1orth /ivin)+ *e.ore Rasko/nikov 1i// a//o1 Sonia to /eave, he dra1s Ra=umikhin aside to te// him that he 1ants to see Por.iry Petrovi-h, the investi)ator in -har)e o. the murder, to re-/aim the 2/ed)es he had /e.t 1ith the 2a1n(roker+ Ra=umikhin is de/i)hted and ur)es that they )o at on-e+ $ 2rovo-ative /itt/e in-ident distra-ts our attention .or the moment, (e.ore 1e Coin Rasko/nikov and Ra=umikhin on their 1ay to visit Por.iry+ Sonia is -ons-ious o. (ein) .o//o1ed (y a sty/ish/y dressed man 1hen she returns home+ 'e stays (ehind her, and .o//o1s her u2 the stairs to the same ./oor+ 'e e:2resses ama=ement at the -oin-iden-e that they /ive ne:t door to ea-h other+ *ut 1e are /e.t -om2/ete/y in the dark+ 4ho the man is and 1hat he 1ants is a mystery+ Remem(er the -oin-iden-e thou)hE many -riti-s .ind it a si)ni.i-ant 1eakness in the nove/ that the un.o/din) o. the 2/ot de2ends on su-h an un/ike/y event+ $.ter this di)ression, 1e reCoin the men on their 1ay to visit Por.iry+ Ra=umikhin!s e:-itement a(out the visit )ro1s (y the minute, and he -an!t dis)uise ho1 de/i)hted he is to hear a(out his .riend!s dea/in)s 1ith the 2a1n(roker+ For him, it is -/ear, Rasko/nikov!s o(session 1ith the -rime no1 has an e:2/anation+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Dostoevsky!s te-hni>ue may (e a /itt/e hard .or you to .o//o1 here+ 4hat Rasko/nikov is thinkin) and 1hat he is sayin) are (oth e:2ressed in dia/o)ue .orm+ You have to re-o)ni=e 1hi-h is 1hi-h+ The Cu:ta2osition em2hasi=es the division in his 2ersona/ity+ Further, 1e /earn a(out his determination to use his (rains in order to -ontro/ the situation+ --------------------------------------------------------------------&na1are o. his .riend!s interna/ dia/o)ue, Ra=umikhin .a//s into Rasko/nikov!s de/i(erate de-e2tion+ 0ust as Rasko/nikov intends, they enter Por.iry!s house /au)hin) (oyish/y+

P$RT<"""JC'$P<H C'$PTER H Rasko/nikov, as 1e have seen, de/i(erate/y sets u2 a Covia/ atmos2here at the (e)innin) o. the -onversation 1ith Por.iry Petrovi-h+ *ut he is una(/e to -ontro/ the tone o. the rest o. the meetin), (e-ause he has met his mat-h+ 'e has a s2e-i.i- 2ur2ose in -omin), (ut Por.iry has another 2ur2ose in kee2in) him there+ To (e)in 1ith, Rasko/nikov is u2set to .ind Fametov in the room+ 'ave Fametov and Por.iry (een dis-ussin) Rasko/nikov!s in-riminatin) (ehavior in the tavernD "t!s reasona(/e .or us- and Rasko/nikov to assume so+ $/thou)h Por.iry is a sma//, stout .e//o1 1ho doesn!t seem very -ommandin), his eyes revea/ his 2o1er+ "t doesn!t take /on) .or Rasko/nikov to de-ide @'e kno1s+@ The truth is, he 2ro(a(/y does+ Rasko/nikov -ontinues his a-t, (ehavin) as he thinks he ou)ht to, in order to kee2 himse/. .rom (ein) sus2e-ted+ *ut every on-e in a 1hi/e, Por.iry thro1s him .or a /oo2+ For e:am2/e, he!s kno1n a// a/on) that Rasko/nikov /e.t 2/ed)es at the 2a1n(roker!s, and he is -are.u/ to say that Rasko/nikov is the /ast one to in>uire a(out them+ For a moment, Rasko/nikov!s se/.--ontro/ -ra-ksB he -urses himse/. and /ets his an)er sho1+ On-e more, 1hat Rasko/nikov is thinkin) is 2/ain/y s2e//ed out+ 'e is distur(ed to rea/i=e ho1 mu-h Por.iry kno1s+ $nd he has reason to (e+ The su(Ce-t o. the a.ternoon is -rime+ The .irst theory dis-ussedone that Ra=umikhin dismisses as nonsense- is the so-ia/ist!s vie1+ Crime, they say, is a 2rotest a)ainst so-ia/ inCusti-es+ ". the e-onomi- system 1ere .air, this theory says, there 1ou/d (e no -rime+ Por.iry -om2/ains that Ra=umikhin!s not )ivin) a .air a--ount o. the idea, (ut Ra=umikhin is adamant+ $--ordin) to him, a theory that does not -onsider human nature as a -ause o. -rime is nonsense+ Por.iry insists, thou)h, that environment does have a /ot to do 1ith -rime+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE *e-ause so mu-h modern theory a(out -rime ado2ts Por.iry!s vie1, 1e tend to a--e2t his idea+ $s a resu/t, Por.iry seems even more /o)i-a/ and thou)ht.u/ to us+ You may -onsider Ra=umikhin!s o2inion that evi/ 2eo2/e -ause -rime o/d-.ashioned, (ut remem(er that it!s the vie1 Dostoevsky su22orts+ --------------------------------------------------------------------*ut it!s Rasko/nikov!s vie1s that Por.iry 1ants+ 'e says that he!s read an arti-/e that Rasko/nikov has 1ritten, -a//ed @Con-ernin) Crime+@ Taken (y sur2rise, Rasko/nikov admits that he hadn!t kno1n it 1as in 2rint+ *ut he!s even more ama=ed that Por.iry kno1s 1ho 1rote it, (e-ause it 1asn!t si)ned+ C/ear/y, Rasko/nikov!s .ear o. the investi)ator!s 2ersisten-e is Custi.ied+ "t -omes as no sur2rise to us that Rasko/nikov!s -on-ern in the arti-/e is the 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ -ondition o. the -rimina/ and the i//ness that a--om2anies -rime+ 4e a/ready kno1 that he!s .as-inated (y this idea+ 'e!s )iven a /ot o. thou)ht to ho1 a -rimina/ 1i// a-t 1hen a -rime is -ommitted+ 'e!s to/d us that a/ready+ *ut Por.iry has other thin)s on his mind+ "sn!t it true, he asks, that the arti-/e -/aimed that some men have the ri)ht to -ommit -rimesD Does Rasko/nikov rea//y (e/ieve that the /a1 shou/d not

a22/y to -ertain @e:traordinary@ 2eo2/eD 4ithout denyin) the overa// idea, Rasko/nikov insists that he e:2ressed it a /itt/e di..erent/y+ There are severa/ e/ements o. his theoryE 1+ $n e:traordinary man does have the ri)ht, 1ithin himse/., to @overste2@ the /a1 i. his ideas re>uire it+ Rasko/nikov e:2/ains that many o. these @ideas@ may he/2 humanity, and he uses the e:am2/e o. the s-ientists %e1ton and e2/er+ ". 2eo2/e had stood in the 1ay o. their disseminatin) their ideas, they 1ou/d have had the ri)ht to @remove@ these stum(/in) (/o-ks+ K+ #en 1ho make ne1 /a1s are a/1ays trans)ressors+ To make a ne1 /a1, you must (reak an o/d one+ Rasko/nikov insists there is nothin) ne1 in this idea, and he is essentia//y ri)ht+ The e:am2/es he )ives are 3y-ur)us, So/on, #ahomet, and %a2o/eon+ ;+ There are t1o -ate)ories o. 2eo2/e, ordinary and e:traordinary+ The e:traordinary ones are those 1ho have the ri)ht to overste2 the /a1, (ased on the )reatness o. the idea they 1ish to e:2ound+ 'o1ever, Rasko/nikov hastens to add that not many e:traordinary 2eo2/e )et a1ay 1ith their a-tions+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE 4hi/e the merit o. Rasko/nikov!s ideas a(out e:traordinary 2eo2/e is not de(ated (y the )rou2, you shou/d try to -ome to terms 1ith his ideas yourse/.+ $re they insaneD "mmora/D Rea/isti-D --------------------------------------------------------------------Por.iry 2re.ers to taken an entire/y di..erent a22roa-h+ 4hen Rasko/nikov ends his e:2/anation (y sayin) that in his mind men have e>ua/ ri)hts @unti/ 1e have (ui/t the %e1 0erusa/em+++,@ Por.iry asks i. he (e/ieves in the %e1 0erusa/em, in 5od, in 3a=arus+ This introdu-tion o. re/i)ious themes seems out o. 2/a-e, (ut it is not+ *e/ie. in 3a=arus, in 2arti-u/ar, 1hi-h means (e/ie. in the mira-/e o. the dead returnin) to /i.e, in the Christian idea o. resurre-tion, is -ru-ia/ to the reso/ution o. Rasko/nikov!s -rime, and o. the nove/+ *ut havin) asked the >uestion, Por.iry makes another /ea2+ This time he asks, in a mo-kin) tone, ho1 you -an te// an e:traordinary 2erson .rom any(ody e/se+ Rasko/nikov -hooses to i)nore the mo-kery and ans1er the >uestion+ "t is no 2ro(/em, he insists, (e-ause anyone 1ho a-ts as i. he is e:traordinary and isn!t is no threat+ 'e 1i// 2unish himse/.+ Rasko/nikov 2i-ks u2 Por.iry!s mo-kin) tone, (ut the -hie. di..eren-e (et1een the de(aters is that he is dead/y serious, 1hi/e Por.iry is not+ To torment him a /itt/e more, Por.iry su))ests a 2ra-ti-a/ a22/i-ation o. the theory+ 4hat i. someone did -ommit a -rimeD *ut Rasko/nikov is not to (e outdone+ So-iety has methods, /ike e:i/e and 2rison, he says, to dea/ 1ith -rimina/s+ $nd i. they )et -au)ht, it serves them ri)ht+ Por.iry 2resses .urtherE 4hat a(out the -rimina/!s -ons-ien-eD Rasko/nikov res2onds that a man 1ho has a -ons-ien-e 1i// su..er i. he (e/ieves he!s done 1ron)+ ". he .ee/s 2ity .or his vi-tim, he 1i// su..er+ Further, he says that tru/y )reat men e:2erien-e )reat sorro1 as a -onse>uen-e o. their a-tions+ *ut it is the .ina/ >uestion that is the most 2ointed+ Por.iry asks i. Rasko/nikov -onsiders himse/. an e:traordinary man, and Rasko/nikov res2onds, @Very /ike/y+@ Their dia/o)ue is tense+ @Doesn!t that tem2t you to -rimeD@ the investi)ator asks+ @". " had done so,

then o. -ourse " shou/d not te// you,@ the murderer ans1ers+ Ra=umikhin, 1ho has /istened in dis(e/ie. to the entire intervie1, is de2ressed, sensin) that there is more to Rasko/nikov!s i//ness than he had ever ima)ined+ *ut Por.iry isn!t .inished+ Tryin) to tri-k the 1eary Rasko/nikov, he asks i. he had seen the 2ainters the ni)ht he 1as at the 2a1n(roker!s+ *ut o. -ourse they 1ere there on/y the ni)ht o. the murder+ Ra=umikhin -at-hes him in this tri-k, and 2oints it out in a sur/y tone+ 'e and Rasko/nikov /eave, )/oomy and de2ressed+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE This astoundin) intervie1 is im2ortant not on/y .or the 2rovo-ative ideas it 2resents and the insi)ht it )ives us into Rasko/nikov!s mind, (ut a/so as the (e)innin) o. Por.iry!s strate)y to tra2 Rasko/nikov into -on.essin)+ You may .ind yourse/. returnin) to this s-ene to 2re2are .or essay >uestions or to )ather ideas .or a 1ritin) assi)nment+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<"""JC'$P<6 C'$PTER 6 Ra=umikhin and Rasko/nikov dis-uss the meetin) 1ith Por.iry+ Ea-h is u2set, (ut .or di..erent reasons+ Ra=umikhin a--e2ts the .a-t that Rasko/nikov is a sus2e-tB he admits the 2o/i-e have (een sus2i-ious, (ut he is .urious a(out it+ Rasko/nikov, on the other hand, is -o-ky+ They don!t have any 2hysi-a/ eviden-e, he!s sure, so they -an!t 2in anythin) on him+ 4hen they )et to the hote/ 1here they are to meet the 1omen, Rasko/nikov -an!t (rin) himse/. to )o in and .a-e them+ %or -an he to/erate his .riend!s -om2anionshi2 any /on)er+ @Do you 1ant to torture me as 1e//D@ he demands in des2air+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Rasko/nikov!s a(i/ity to 2ut u2 a )ood .ront, to 2retend to (e in -ontro/, (reaks do1n in .ront o. those 2eo2/e 1ho kno1 him (est+ That may sho1 that he .ee/s )ui/ty .or /yin) to them+ O. -ourse, another 1ay to /ook at it is that he is a.raid that, (e-ause they kno1 him so 1e//, they 1i// (e a(/e to see ri)ht throu)h him and dis-over that he is a murderer+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov rushes home+ Pani- has stru-k a)ain+ Su22ose there is some shred o. eviden-e a.ter a// that -an /ink him to the -rimeL ". there is, he!s .inished+ *ut o. -ourse there isn!t anythin) /e.t (ehind the torn 1a//2a2er+ Re/ieved, he /eaves his room, (ut 1hat .o//o1s is so (i=arre that he soon -omes rushin) (a-k to the on/y 2/a-e he .ee/s se-ure, a room his mother has des-ri(ed ear/ier as a @-o..in+@ The stran)e e:2erien-e is an en-ounter in the street 1ith an unkno1n man+ The man has (een askin) .or him (y name+ 4hen Rasko/nikov demands 1hat he 1ants, the man says @#urdererL@ Rasko/nikov, 1eak-kneed and -hi//ed, asks 1ho is a murderer+ 4ith a smi/e o. @trium2hant hatred@ the man re2/ies, @You areL@ $nd then he sim2/y disa22ears+ The man!s identity is a mystery+ Some readers have even 1ondered i. he is rea/, or sim2/y a .i)ment o. Rasko/nikov!s ima)ination+ *ut his im2a-t is very rea/, and you!// run into him a)ain (e.ore too

/on)+ Se-ure in his room, Rasko/nikov a)ain tries to s/ee2, his -ustomary es-a2e+ Dis-onne-ted and in-oherent ima)es ./ash throu)h his mind+ Cons-ious o. his 2hysi-a/ 1eakness, he -urses himse/. as a .ai/ure+ 'e is no rea/ ru/er, to 1hom a// thin)s are 2ermitted+ %othin) 2roves that to him more than his dis)ustin), insi)ni.i-ant vi-tim+ 'o1 -ou/d he have thou)ht she 1as 1orthy o. ki//in)D 'is -on.usion is evident+ On the one hand, he asserts that he 1as ki//in) on 2rin-i2/e, and that he 1as ea)er to @overste2 a// restri-tions++++@ On the other, he says he a-ted (e-ause he didn!t 1ant his mother to )o hun)ry+ 'o1 -an those very di..erent motives (e reso/vedD One thin) he tries is se/.--riti-ism+ #ay(e he!s (een 2retendin) to a-t .or )ood reasonsB may(e on/y the se/.ish ones 1ere im2ortant+ 'e insists he tried .or an a22ro2riate vi-tim, and that he meant to take on/y 1hat he needed+ 'e de-ides, thou)h, that he!s the (i))est /ouse o. a//, (i))er than his re2u/sive vi-tim, (e-ause he kne1 (e.orehand he!d .ai/+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Rasko/nikov!s atta-k on himse/. raises an interestin) ideaE did he -ommit murder to 2rove to himse/. that he!s 1orth/ess, as a .orm o. se/.-destru-tionD That makes as mu-h sense as anythin) e/se to some readers+ They ar)ue that everythin) he does is to 2unish himse/. .or his .ai/ures+ --------------------------------------------------------------------*ut his )reatest an)er is reserved .or the dead 2a1n(roker+ %othin) 1i// make him .or)ive the o/d 1it-h .or 2uttin) him throu)h this an)uish+ 'e!s (/amin) her .or ho1 he .ee/s a.ter murderin) herL Rasko/nikov is so 1orked u2 that he (e-omes tota//y irrationa/+ 'e turns a)ainst his .ami/y+ 'o1 he hates themL 'e hates the o/d 1oman too+ ". he had a -han-e, he!d ki// her a)ainL *ut his ravin) sto2s 1hen he thinks o. 3i=aveta, the one he didn!t mean to ki//, the one 1ho reminds him o. Sonia+ 'e .a//s as/ee2 1ith the meek and )ent/e Sonia on his mind+ $)ain he dreams, a horri(/e dream that revea/s his e:treme vu/nera(i/ity+ 'e .o//o1s the mysterious a--user to the 2a1n(roker!s ./at, 1here everythin) is as it 1as the ni)ht o. the murder, e:-e2t a ./y- an u)/y, seemin)/y insi)ni.i-ant 2est- (u==es+ 'e senses that the o/d 1oman, hudd/ed under a -/o-k, is a.raid+ 'e has -ome to ki//+ 4hen he hits her over the head, she /au)hs, and doesn!t seem a..e-ted (y the (/o1 at a//+ 4his2erin) and /au)hin) -ome .rom the (edroom+ 'e hits her mad/y over the head, (ut the more he hits, the more she /au)hs+ 'e tries to run a1ay, (ut the entran-e is .u// o. 2eo2/e 1at-hin) him+ S-reamin), he 1akes u2+ 0ust then an unkno1n man 1a/ks into the room+ "s this a ni)htmare tooD Ten minutes 2ass+ Fina//y, Rasko/nikov -an!t stand it any more+ @4hat do you 1antD@ he demands+ @" am $rkady "vanovi-h Svidri)ai/ov,@ the man ans1ers+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE From here to the end o. Part V", the /ives o. Rasko/nikov and Svidri)ai/ov are intert1ined in many 1ays+ Dostoevsky makes the simi/arities (et1een them very -/ear 6somethin) Svidri)ai/ov /oves to 2oint out7B (ut the di..eren-es are even more im2ortant+ 4at-h the 2ara//e/s and interse-tions o. their /ives -/ose/y+

--------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<"VJC'$P<1 P$RT "V C'$PTER 1

The dramati- entran-e astounds Rasko/nikov+ *ut, .or the moment, Rasko/nikov!s 2ro(/ems are 2ut aside+ Svidri)ai/ov has -ome on very 2arti-u/ar (usiness+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The (e)innin) o. this -ha2ter demonstrates the nove/ist!s te-hni>ue o. (ui/din) u2 a moment o. tension and then de.usin) it so that more detai/s -an (e added to the 2/ot+ "n that 1ay, the nove/ is a kind o. emotiona/ ro//er -oaster .or the reader as 1e// as the 2arti-i2ants+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Svidri)ai/ov, Dunya!s .ormer em2/oyer, 1ants to en/ist Rasko/nikov!s aid in seein) Dunya a)ain, no1 that his 1i.e is dead+ 4hen he doesn!t )et mu-h res2onse, he demands, @$m " a monster or am " myse/. a vi-timD@ That is the -riti-a/ >uestion, not on/y a(out Svidri)ai/ov, (ut a(out Rasko/nikov as 1e//+ The 2ara//e/s have (e)un+ 4hen Rasko/nikov a--uses him o. (ein) res2onsi(/e .or his 1i.e, #ar.a Petrovna!s, death, Svidri)ai/ov insists his -ons-ien-e is -/ear+ That sounds .ami/iar too+ Part o. his e:2/anation makes him 2arti-u/ar/y o..ensive, thou)h+ 4omen, he -/aims, /ike to (e a..ronted and outra)ed, even (eaten a /itt/e no1 and then+ %oti-e, thou)h, that in some 1ays he is more to/era(/e than the se/.-ri)hteous 3u=hin+ 'e is -andid a(out himse/. and o(servant o. others+ 'e e:2/ains that he used to (e a )am(/er, and that #ar.a Petrovna 2aid o.. his )am(/in) de(tB in turn he married her+ 'is most strikin) -hara-teristi- is his tota/ (oredom+ 'e has tried many thin)s, and has no desire to do them a)ain+ The on/y ne1 idea he has is .or a @Courney,@ 1hi-h is not de.ined+ *ut sui-ide is sure/y im2/ied+ The )host o. #ar.a Petrovna haunts Svidri)ai/ov+ Rasko/nikov tries to te// himse/. that Svidri)ai/ov is -ra=y, (ut the /atter kee2s insistin) that the t1o o. them have a )reat dea/ in -ommon+ #ost readers a)ree- as Dostoevsky 1ants them to+ Rasko/nikov doesn!t 1ant to think a(out that 2ossi(i/ity+ "t!s too -/ose to 1hat he .ears is the truth+ The more Svidri)ai/ov ta/ks, the -/earer the simi/arities (e-omeE he too is re2u/sed (y 3u=hin and -onvin-ed that Dunya is se//in) herse/. .or the .ami/y!s )ood+ 'e 1ants to make her a 2resent o. 1A,AAA rou(/es so that she 1on!t have to )o throu)h 1ith the marria)e+ Rasko/nikov is astounded+ Svidri)ai/ov!s e:2/anation seems to make sense+ 'e did Dunya harmB no1 he 1ants to do )ood+ 'e has no u/terior motive, he insists, and may, in .a-t, soon marry someone e/se+ *ut he does 1ant to see Dunya one more time+ The reader is not sure ho1 to ans1er the >uestion Svidri)ai/ov asked in the (e)innin)+ "s he a s-oundre/ or a vi-timD *oth seem 2ossi(/e, at this 2oint+ P$RT<"VJC'$P<K C'$PTER K

Rasko/nikov is trou(/ed and -on.used (y Svidri)ai/ov!s visit+ 'e senses a threat to Dunya, (ut that is on/y 2art o. a )reater mystery+ 'e is .ri)htened that Svidri)ai/ov has (een another a22arition, a ha//u-ination+ Sin-e Ra=umikhin sa1 him on his 1ay in, that is un/ike/y, (ut, sti// Rasko/nikov is not sure+ @Perha2s " rea//y am mad+@ he 1orries+ Ra=umikhin tries to -heer him u2, (ut it doesn!t do mu-h )ood, es2e-ia//y as they en-ounter 3u=hin on the 1ay to the .ate.u/ ei)ht o!-/o-k meetin)+ 3u=hin has a ne1 enemy to atta-k, and he does so 1ith re/ishE Svidri)ai/ov is a de)enerate, de2raved man 1ho has -ome to St+ Peters(ur) 1ith evi/ intentions, 3u=hin says+ 'e te// t1o ta/es o. sui-ide that he (/ames on Svidri)ai/ov+ *ut you a/ready kno1 that 3u=hin is a /iar, es2e-ia//y 1hen he thinks it 1i// serve his o1n -ause+ 4hether he is te//in) the truth no1, you -an!t te//+ Dunya seems in-/ined to dou(t him+ Rasko/nikov te//s her 1hat 3u=hin has omitted .rom the Svidri)ai/ov storyE that #ar.a Petrovna /e.t her ;AAA rou(/es in her 1i//, and that Svidri)ai/ov 1ants to see her+ *ut Rasko/nikov does not say 1hat Svidri)ai/ov rea//y has in mind+ 3u=hin (ehaves in ty2i-a/ .ashion, and Dunya is very an)ry 1ith his 2om2osity and se/.-im2ortan-e+ 'e even rouses the timid Pu/-heria $/e:androvna to an)er+ She a--uses him o. havin) /ied a(out the money )iven to the #arme/adovs+ 'au)hti/y, he 2re2ares to /eave, (ut they aren!t .inished 1ith him yet+ Cha//en)ed, he -an!t -ontro/ his nastiness+ 4ith no re)ret, Dunya te//s him to )et out+ 4hen he threatens never to return, she assures him that she ho2es he doesn!t+ 4hat outra)es him most is that he has s2ent money on them, (ut, as Pu/-heria $/e:androvna 2oints out, it 1as 2re-ious /itt/e+ 3ike the s2ite.u/ 2erson he is, he -an!t resist tryin) to )et in the /ast 1ord, s/anderin) Dunya!s re2utation+ *ut as he is .or-ed to /eave, his an)er is -entered on/y on Rasko/nikov+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE "n thinkin) a(out the )ui/ty 2eo2/e in the nove/, noti-e that Dostoevsky makes it easy .or us to -om2are Rasko/nikov 1ith Svidri)ai/ov and 1ith 3u=hin (y 2/a-in) the -ha2ters des-ri(in) these men -/ose to)ether+ 4hi-h one o. them do you .ind the most re2u/sive, the most monstrousD 4hat are the thin)s that he says or does that make you .ee/ that 1ayD One note o. -aution thou)hE Dostoevsky a//o1s you a /ot o. inde2endent -on-/usions, (ut he does have a very de.inite o2inion a(out these men and 1hat ha22ens to them+ You have to ho/d your .ina/ Cud)ment unti/ a// the 2ie-es are in 2/a-e+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<"VJC'$P<; C'$PTER ; 3u=hin is a se/.-made man+ 'e /oves his money and his 2o1er+ $nd he /oves himse/.+ 4hat he 1ants most o. a// is to .ind a 1i.e to .u/.i// his se:ua/ .antasies, a 1oman 1ho, (e-ause she has (een 2oor, 1i// /ook u2on him as her /ord and savior+ 'o1 she 1i// hum(/e herse/. (e.ore himL 'e -an!t 1aitL $nd, i. he -hooses 1ise/y, she -an even he/2 him -/im( a /itt/e hi)her on the so-ia/ /adder+ *ut no1 a// o. his dreams are in shreds+ 'is o2timism te//s him that

tomorro1 everythin) 1i// (e a// ri)ht+ "n his e)otism he is una(/e to admit that his ho2es are destroyed+ 'e doesn!t understand ho1 that -ou/d 2ossi(/y have ha22ened+ "s it 2ossi(/e to .ee/ sorry .or himD Does Dostoevsky 2rovide any detai/s that seem to you to Custi.y 2ity or sym2athyD 4hen 3u=hin /eaves, everyone is e/ated+ They!re serious .or a moment, thou)h, as Rasko/nikov tries to e:2/ain Svidri)ai/ov!s o..er o. 1A,AAA rou(/es+ 'e rea/i=es the man is distur(ed, 2erha2s even a /itt/e -ra=y, (ut he!s not 2re2ared .or Dunya!s res2onse+ The idea o. seein) him a)ain 2ani-s herB his (/atant se:ua/ity terri.ies her+ *ut even the thou)ht o. Svidri)ai/ov -an!t de2ress them .or /on)+ Ra=umikhin enthusiasti-a//y 2ro2oses that they invest some o. their ne1-.ound -a2ita/ 1ith some that he 1i// (orro1 to start a 2u(/ishin) (usiness+ Dunya -at-hes his e:-itement, and even Rasko/nikov Coins the 2/annin)+ Then, 1ithout a 1ord o. e:2/anation, in the midd/e o. the -onversation, Rasko/nikov is sudden/y ready to /eave+ 'e te//s them a// that he /oves them and insists that they must /eave him a/one+ @Other1ise " .ee/ " sha// (e)in to hate you++++@ %othin) -an -han)e his mind, and he im2/ores Ra=umikhin to 2rote-t his mother and sister 4ith the mysterious 1ords @" 1i// -ome+++ i. " -an,@ Rasko/nikov 1a/ks a1ay+ $s the t1o men 2art, starin) at ea-h other, Ra=umikhin sudden/y re-o)ni=es 1ith a shudder the truth a(out Rasko/nikov!s )ui/t+ 'e 1i// ask no more >uestions+ Rasko/nikov /eaves+ This -ha2ter and the one (e.ore are a /itt/e re2rieveB .or a 1hi/e the murder has s/i22ed into the (a-k)round+ *ut it -an!t (e avoided .or /on)+ P$RT<"VJC'$P<9 C'$PTER 9 Rasko/nikov )oes strai)ht to Sonia+ 'er room, /ike his, sho1s the 2ro.ound 2overty in 1hi-h she /ives+ The ye//o1ish 1a//2a2er re-a//s the de-aden-e and disi//usion dis-ussed ear/ier+ Rasko/nikov!s 2reo--u2ation makes it hard .or him to .o-us, and he!s va)ue, even -on.used+ On-e more, his insta(i/ity is the most 2redi-ta(/e thin) a(out him+ *ut he does 2ay attention to Sonia, and his -om2assion .or her distra-ts him .rom his o1n misery+ 'er a(i/ity to .ee/ 2ity .or others, es2e-ia//y her 1ret-hed ste2mother, is (ound/ess+ The more Sonia e:2/ains ho1 des2erate and mudd/ed the o/der 1oman is, the more o(vious it (e-omes to Rasko/nikov 6and to us7 that she doesn!t 1ant to .a-e the inevita(/e+ 'e tries to .or-e her to .a-e rea/ity, thou)h, and admit that aterina "vanovna is in-a2a(/e o. -arin) .or herse/. or the -hi/dren, and that Sonia herse/. 1i// have to su22ort them- a ho2e/ess task+ 'is honesty seems -rue/ to Sonia, and into/era(/e+ @5od 1i// not a//o1 it,@ she insists+ That is her -hie. de.ense a)ainst a// o. the terri(/e 2ossi(i/ities that Rasko/nikov des-ri(es+ Rasko/nikov torments herE @Perha2s 5od does not e:ist+@ *ut his -yni-ism -an!t endure .or /on) in the .a-e o. her su..erin)+ Or may(e it!s Cust that he has an emotiona/ need .or her .u// attention+ 'e .a//s to the )round and kisses her .eet, the -/assiChristian )esture o. humi/ity and adoration+ Pain.u//y, he e:2/ains that he honors her (e-ause o. her )reat su..erin)+ "t is true, he says, that she is a sinner and her

)reatest sin has (een to su..er in vain+ $// o. his (itterness and dis(e/ie. 2our outE you are he/2in) no(ody, he insists+ $// you have su..ered is a tota/ 1aste+ 4hy don!t you -ommit sui-ideD Thou)h she doesn!t understand everythin) he says, she doesn!t seem sur2rised at that >uestion+ 'as she asked herse/. the same thin), Rasko/nikov 1onders+ 4hat!s sto22in) herD 'e seems to have .or)otten his o1n de-ision, not /on) (e.ore, to )o on /ivin)+ 'is thou)hts run 1i/d/y on+ 4hat -hoi-es does she haveD Sui-ideD "nsanityD Corru2tion and de(au-heryD 'o1 -an she )o on 1ith her /i.e the 1ay it isD 'e -/in)s to the idea that she is insane+ That e:2/ains everythin)+ You mi)ht .ind some ironi- humor in his -on-/usions+ "sn!t -a//in) him -ra=y the on/y 1ay other 2eo2/e -an e:2/ain Rasko/nikov!s (ehaviorD Out o. the (/ue, he asks, @Do you 2ray a )reat dea/ to 5odD@ 'is s-orn is o(vious+ This time he has )one too .ar, and Sonia indi)nant/y te//s him he is not 1orthy to >uestion 5od+ Sudden/y, 3i=aveta!s %e1 Testament is in his hand, and he asks Sonia to .ind him the story o. the raisin) o. 3a=arus and to read it a/oud+ 6The story, a(out 0esus! raisin) 3a=arus .rom the dead, is .ound in the 5os2e/ o. 0ohn, Cha2ter 11+7 $s she reads the story, 1ith its messa)e o. ho2e and sa/vation, she has a hard time (ut kee2s on readin)+ She is near/y e-stati- as she reads o. the mira-/e o. 3a=arus -omin) (a-k to /i.e+ Then she -an read no more+ Si/ent minutes 2ass+ Rasko/nikov .ina//y interru2ts, -han)in) the su(Ce-t on-e moreE he has -ome to te// her somethin) and he must do it+ 'e has deserted his .ami/y+ Sonia is a// he has /e.t+ Sonia is .ri)htened and -on.used+ 'e insists that they are (oth /ost sou/s and must su..er to)ether+ *ut he is ravin)B she -an!t .i)ure out 1hat he!s ta/kin) a(out+ 'is 2artin) 1ords distur( her even moreE tomorro1, i. he -omes, he 1i// te// her 1ho ki//ed 3i=aveta+ Sonia is u2set (ut a/so stran)e/y ha22y+ "t never o--urs to her 1ho the murderer is+ *ut unkno1n to (oth o. them, their -onversation has (een overheard (y her .as-inated ne1 nei)h(or, identi.ied .or the .irst time as Svidri)ai/ov+ This is the -oin-iden-e Dostoevsky .oreshado1ed in Part """, Cha2ter 9+ P$RT<"VJC'$P<H C'$PTER H

4e (e)in to understand Rasko/nikov!s -urious -omment- to (oth Ra=umikhin and Sonia- that he 1i// return i. he -an, 1hen 1e dis-over that the .irst thin) he does the ne:t mornin) is visit Por.iry Petrovi-h+ $s he 1aits .or the intervie1, he thinks he!s )oin) to (e arrested+ *ut as the minutes )o (y, he -onvin-es himse/. that the a--usin) stran)er must not have re2orted him to the 2o/i-e+ 'is .rustration and an)er )ro1+ 'e dreads another en-ounter 1ith Por.iry+ 'e .ears that he 1i// (etray himse/.+ 0ust then Por.iry sends .or him+ The investi)ator has 1on the .irst round in the 1ar o. nerves+ *ut he, too, is nervous and i// at ease+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE #ost o. this -ha2ter is dia/o)ue- the narrator doesn!t te// you mu-h+ So you!ve )ot to 2ay attention to the tone o. the -onversation as 1e// as the 1ords and make your o1n inter2retations+ ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Rasko/nikov -an!t resist the ur)e to (ait and taunt his adversary+ Por.iry in turn torments him+ $nd 1hi/e Por.iry kee2s the u22er hand, Rasko/nikov!s sense that somethin) stran)e is )oin) on 2ersists+ You -an .ee/ it too+ 3ook at a// Por.iry!s remarks+ 'e didn!t (ehave this 1ay (e.ore+ One o. Por.iry!s methods is ./attery, -om2/imentin) Rasko/nikov on the (ri//ian-e o. ideas he hasn!t e:2ressed, and de.errin) to his kno1/ed)e o. /a1+ $nd he shares his o1n 2hi/oso2hy o. -at-hin) -rimina/s 1ith his visitor+ Some -rimina/s, he says, shou/d not (e arrested ri)ht a1ay, or they 1on!t in-riminate themse/ves+ The 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ va/ue o. kee2in) the -rimina/ on ed)e he/2s the investi)ator enormous/y, Por.iry /au)hs as i. he 1ere sharin) some enormous Coke 1ith Rasko/nikov+ "n a 1ar o. nerves, the -rimina/ 1i// a/1ays /ose, a/1ays (etray himse/., Por.iry -/aims, (e-ause he is 2sy-ho/o)i-a//y una(/e to resist in in-riminatin) himse/.+ *ut Rasko/nikov is neither .oo/ed nor de.eated+ 'e reso/ves to resist, to (eat Por.iry at his o1n )ame+ *y kee2in) si/ent, ho/din) his an)er inside, he seems to en-oura)e Por.iry!s -hatter+ *ut the -hatter isn!t 2oint/essB near/y every -omment is a (ar(+ $t /ast Rasko/nikov -an stand it no /on)er+ 'e te//s Por.iry he kno1s he is sus2e-ted, and insists that i. there is any eviden-e he (e arrested immediate/y+ 'e re.uses to (e tormented+ 'e hard/y seems to rea/i=e that he has no -hoi-e in the matter+ 'e is a22a//ed, too, that the investi)ator seems to kno1 everythin) he!s done, in-/udin) the return visit to the o/d /ady!s house+ Por.iry says that i. Rasko/nikov doesn!t -a/m do1n, he 1i// )o )enuine/y -ra=y+ *ut he /ays yet another tra2, (y te//in) a story o. a man 1ho ima)ines himse/. )ui/ty 1hen he is not+ The tri-ky >uestions -ontinue, and Rasko/nikov, (eside himse/., -on.ronts the investi)atorE either Por.iry is /yin), or he is makin) .un, Rasko/nikov says+ Por.iry insists that he!s te//in) the truth, and that his -hie. sour-e is Rasko/nikov himse/.+ *ut Rasko/nikov is not a22eased+ 'e demands to kno1 i. he is sus2e-ted o. the murder+ 4hen no ans1er is )iven, he is (eside himse/. 1ith ra)e, 2oundin) the ta(/e 1ith his .ist+ @Don!t 2/ay 1ith meL Do not dare+++,@ he ra)es+ *ut Por.iry is on/y amused, and says that he has a /itt/e sur2rise in store, i. Rasko/nikov 1ou/d /ike to un/o-k the door+ Furious a)ain, Rasko/nikov demands that Por.iry revea/ his in.ormation+ *ut the rea/ sur2rise astounds them (oth+ P$RT<"VJC'$P<6 C'$PTER 6 Everythin) is in 1i/d -ommotion, 1ith Por.iry the most outra)ed o. a//+ $ 2a/e, stran)e man has 1a/ked uninvited into the o..i-e and .a//en to his knees des2ite Por.iry!s orders to take him a1ay+ @" am )ui/ty++++ " am the murdererL@ the 2ainter %i-ko/ay -on.esses+ Por.iry is in a stu2or+ 'e is so astounded (y this turn o. events that he near/y .or)ets that Rasko/nikov is standin) in the room+ Tryin) to usher Rasko/nikov out 1ith the e:2/anation that he shou/dn!t (e there, Por.iry has to admit his admiration .or the darin) that Rasko/nikov sho1s in askin) i. he isn!t )oin) to see Por.iry!s @/itt/e sur2rise+@ Por.iry insists that they 1i// see ea-h other a)ain, (ut

Rasko/nikov, made (o/d (y %i-ko/ay!s une:2e-ted -on.ession, .ee/s /ike a ne1 man+ For the moment his (att/e 1ith Por.iry is a tie+ Rasko/nikov is shaken, thou)h, .or he kno1s that Por.iry kno1s too mu-h .or him to (e -om2/ete/y sa.e+ *ut .or today he is .ree, and he 1i// )o to the .unera/ dinner and see Sonia+ *ut this in-redi(/e day has one more sur2riseE the man 1ho had a--osted him in the street 1a/ks into his room+ The stran)er is .u// o. -ontrition .or havin) a--used him, and .or havin) )one to Por.iry+ Even more, he is a22a//ed at the 1ay Por.iry (aited Rasko/nikov 1hi/e the stran)er 1aited (ehind the -/osed door as the @sur2rise+@ 'e (e)s .or)iveness .or his s/ander and his s2ite+ Rasko/nikov is e/ated, (ut (itter, too+ The (itterness is at his o1n -o1ardi-e, 1hi-h had a/most )iven him a1ay+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The mysterious, unnamed -hara-ter 1hose a--usation is su-h a 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ (/o1 to Rasko/nikov and su-h a (oost to Por.iry!s -ase is one o. the more 2er2/e:in) -hara-ters in the nove/+ $s 1e noted ear/ier, he doesn!t seem rea/isti-+ %or does his e:2/anation seem to Custi.y the a--usation he made+ Shou/d 1e -on-/ude that this -hara-ter is Cust a -/umsy 2/ot devi-e that Dostoevsky used to s2eed u2 the -on.rontationD Some readers think so+ Or does he demonstrate that irrationa/ a-tions, /ike Rasko/nikov!s return visit to the ./at, doom -rimina/sD --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<VJC'$P<1 P$RT V C'$PTER 1

The s-ene shi.ts in this 2art, (ut it!s sti// the same day, the day o. #arme/adov!s .unera/+ 3u=hin has not )iven u2 his ho2es o. a reunion 1ith Dunya, a/thou)h he has admitted to himse/. that he 1as a .oo/ .or (ein) so stin)y+ *ut rather than (/ame himse/., he (/ames Rasko/nikov .or a// o. his 2ro(/ems+ 4e /earned ear/ier that 3u=hin is stayin) 1ith 3e(e=yatnikov in the same (ui/din) 1here the #arme/adovs /ive+ The t1o don!t )et a/on) very 1e// the day o. the .unera/+ 3e(e=yatnikov is o..ended that 3u=hin is -ountin) /ar)e sums o. money in his 2resen-eB he thinks 3u=hin 1ants to make him .ee/ 2oor and insi)ni.i-ant+ One thin) 3e(e=yatnikov doesn!t /a-k is 1ords+ 'e uses more 1ords to say /ess than any(ody in the nove/+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE 3e(e=yatnikov!s -onversation is 2e22ered 1ith a//usions to 18th--entury 2o/iti-a/ thinkers, most o. 1hom advo-ated radi-a/ -han)es in so-iety that Dostoevsky reCe-ts and mo-ks+ There is 2o/iti-a/ satire in the nove/, (ut it is di..i-u/t .or readers 1ho aren!t .ami/iar 1ith 18th--entury Russian so-ia/ history+ "t!s 2ro(a(/y .air to say that in-/udes most readers today+ 4hat is im2ortant to 2i-k u2 here, and in the other 2/a-es 1here su-h issues are raised, is that Dostoevsky has no 2atien-e 1ith the revo/utionary ideas, or 1ith the -hara-ters 1ho advo-ate them+ So 1hen anyone raves on a(out re.orm, you -an (e 2retty sure Dostoevsky 2ortrays him as a .oo/+ ---------------------------------------------------------------------

Even 3e(e=yatnikov!s .oo/ish ideas seem to/era(/e in -ontrast to 3u=hin!s hate.u/ and su))estive remarks a(out Sonia, 1hom he 1ants to meet+ "n a de/i(erate .oreshado1in), the reader /earns that some o. 3u=hin!s money is /e.t out on the ta(/e, (ut it!s on/y mentioned in 2assin)+ ". you miss it, the .o//o1in) events, and 3u=hin!s su(se>uent a--usation o. Sonia in Cha2ter """, may (e -on.usin) to you+ $skin) 3e(e=yatnikov to stay in the room, 3u=hin )reets Sonia 1arm/y+ "n a de/i(erate/y 2/easant- and tota//y 2hony- 1ay, he in>uires a(out her .ami/y+ *ut he -a//s aterina "vanovna a .oo/ .or settin) her heart on a 2ension, and .or s2endin) 1hat /itt/e money she has on a .unera/ dinner+ 'e o..ers Sonia ten rou(/es, the most he says he -an s2are+ #urmurin) her thanks, Sonia ./ees+ For on-e 3e(e=yatnikov is im2ressed 1ith his )uardian!s (ehavior, and assures him that he has seen a//+ Soon he is o.. a)ain, on another o. his tirades o. so-ia/ re.orm, (ut 3u=hin is too e:-ited to /isten+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE 4hi/e the des-ri2tion o. 3u=hin doesn!t use 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ terms, Dostoevsky is 2ortrayin) him and his motives- Cust as he has Rasko/nikov- (y 1hat the -hara-ter himse/. says and does+ The author 1ants you to .orm your o1n -on-/usions as you 1at-h 3u=hin in a-tion+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<VJC'$P<K C'$PTER K

The 2atheti- ritua/ o. the .unera/ dinner, 1hi-h aterina "vanovna -an!t rea//y a..ord and yet .ee/s -om2e//ed to ho/d, ends in near/y tota/ disaster+ The distur(ed and irrationa/ 1ido1 has )ras2ed this o--asion as one to 2rove that she has not a/1ays (een 2oor and must (e res2e-ted+ 'er tenden-y to e:a))erate the s/i)htest detai/ makes her a22ear ridi-u/ous, (ut her advan-in) i//ness is 2atheti-+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The trauma o. i//ness and 2overty is a 2o1er.u/ messa)e o. the nove/, and one that Dostoevsky des-ri(es (ri//iant/y+ You -an!t es-a2e it+ --------------------------------------------------------------------'er most .oo/ish idiosyn-ra-y is her mo-kery o. the /and/ady $ma/ia "vanovna+ 3ike many other -hara-ters in the nove/, the /and/ady is -onsidered o..ensive (e-ause she is 5erman 6a 2reCudi-e o. Dostoevsky!s7, (ut that hard/y seems to e:2/ain aterina "vanovna!s -onstant tormentin) o. the 1oman+ The /and/ady has the u22er hand, thou)hB it is her house+ She s-reams that they must move out, and insu/ts Sonia in the (ar)ain+ $s aterina "vanovna /ea2s .or her, 3u=hin a22ears on the thresho/d+ P$RT<VJC'$P<; C'$PTER ; "n aterina "vanovna!s usua/ sty/e, she tota//y misCud)es the situation+ Ca//in) to 3u=hin .or 2rote-tion, she is rude/y re(u..ed+ 'e has -ome, he says, to ta/k to Sonia+ De/i(erate/y he addresses the )ir/ (y the 1ron) 2atronymi-, either to sho1 his disdain or to ratt/e herB 1orse, he a--uses her o.

havin) sto/en a hundred-rou(/e note+ ". she -on.esses immediate/y, he 2romises not to -arry the matter .urther+ Everyone is dum(.ounded+ Sonia, stunned, 1his2ers that she doesn!t kno1 1hat he is ta/kin) a(out+ 5iven the o2enin) he needs, 3u=hin /aun-hes into a tirade o. s/ander and a--usation+ Stri-ken, the terri.ied Sonia tries to return the ten rou(/es he had )iven her+ *ut the mo-kin) /ooks on the nei)h(ors! .a-es sho1 that the others (e/ieve him+ 3u=hin threatens to -a// the 2o/i-e+ aterina "vanovna, out o. -ontro/, shrieks at him and at the /and/ady 1ho has Coined the a--usation+ @" am not meekL@ she s-reams at them+ "t is a de/i(erate re2etition o. the 1ord Dostoevsky has used to des-ri(e Sonia and 3i=aveta, the saint/y su..erers+ 3u=hin (rushes her aside, ready to sear-h the )ir/, (ut aterina "vanovna herse/. em2ties Sonia!s 2o-kets+ The hundred-rou(/e note, .o/ded sma//, .a//s at her a--user!s .eet+ Fren=y .o//o1s+ The /and/ady ho1/sB Sonia so(s her inno-en-eB and aterina "vanovna has her .inest hour, .or she 2raises her ste2-dau)hter!s honesty and se/.-sa-ri.i-e+ She (e)s the -ro1d2arti-u/ar/y Rasko/nikov 1ho has stood si/ent/y (y- to de.end Sonia+ Even 3u=hin is moved to 2ity (y her 2atheti- a)ony, and o..ers to /et the matter rest+ $.ter a//, the 2oor destitute )ir/ had a )ood motive in her the.t, he says+ @4hat a .ou/ tri-kL@ @'o1 des2i-a(/eL@ 3e(e=yatnikov s2eaks .rom the door1ay, starin) at 3u=hin, (are/y a(/e to -ontro/ his .ury+ The start/ed 3u=hin tries to de.use the situation (y >uestionin) 3e(e=yatnikov!s sanity+ *ut the a--user is tota//y sane and -om2/ete/y in -ontro/+ 'e has 1at-hed the entire s-ene .rom the door1ay, dum(.ounded+ 'e -an!t .i)ure out 1hat 3u=hin is tryin) to do, .or he had seen 3u=hin himse/. se-ret/y s/i2 the .o/ded note into Sonia!s 2o-ket+ On-e more the room e:2/odes in .ren=y+ 3u=hin tries des2erate/y to sa/va)e his -ontro/, (ut 3e(e=yatnikov 1on!t (a-k o..+ 'is /a(ored e/o>uen-e 2ersuades his /isteners that he is te//in) the truth, and 3u=hin!s e..orts are 1asted+ On-e more he tries s/ander to -arry the -ro1d 1ith him+ $t /ast Rasko/nikov ste2s .or1ard+ 'e is -a/m and se/.-assured- a very di..erent 2erson .rom his usua/ se/.+ 'e 1i// e:2/ain it a//+ 'e re-ounts, in e:2/i-it detai/, the story o. the (roken en)a)ement and 3u=hin!s innuendoes a(out Sonia!s -hara-ter+ 'e -har)es that this attem2t to dis-redit Sonia is in rea/ity meant to destroy Rasko/nikov!s -redi(i/ity 1ith his mother and sister+ 3e(e=yatnikov -on.irms this inter2retation (y remem(erin) that (e.ore 3u=hin asked to see Sonia, he had 1anted to kno1 i. Rasko/nikov 1ere amon) the )uests+ Do1n (ut not out, 3u=hin 2ushes o.. the mena-in) -ro1d, sti-kin) to his story that he has (een ro((ed and ma/i)nedB 1ithin ha/. an hour he has /e.t the (ui/din)+ $nd he!s /e.t the story+ 4e never hear any more a(out him+ Sonia!s vindi-ation -an!t ease her a)ony+ She is too a1are ho1 vu/nera(/e she is, ho1 -/ose to disaster she has -ome+ *are/y in -ontro/ o. herse/., she ./ees+ $nd the /and/ady, outra)ed (y her o1n @su..erin),@ insists that the e:hausted aterina "vanovna move out at on-e+ Out o. -ontro/, the misera(/e 1ido1 rushes a1ay, /ookin) .or the @Custi-e and truth@ she des2erate/y (e/ieves she 1i// .ind+ The room (e-omes (ed/am+ Rasko/nikov sets o.. a.ter Sonia+ Sure/y she -an no /on)er (e/ieve that 5od is 2rote-tin) them a//L he thinks+

--------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE 3u=hin!s a--usation is one o. the most dramati- -on.rontations in the nove/+ *ut Dostoevsky )ives us more than e:-itement+ Think a(out 1hat 3u=hin has done- or tried to do+ For his o1n se/.ish 6and o..ensive7 ends- to )et Dunya to marry him- he has 2/anted eviden-e and ma/i)ned an inno-ent 2erson+ Yet he .ee/s no remorse+ 'e has no -ons-ien-e+ 'is on/y -on-ern is .or himse/.+ Com2are him to Rasko/nikov+ 4hi-h man is more o. a -rimina/D O. -ourse, 3u=hin hasn!t murdered anyone+ *ut he has tried to destroy an inno-ent 2erson+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<VJC'$P<9 C'$PTER 9 Preo--u2ied 1ith his need to te// Sonia 1ho ki//ed 3i=aveta, and 1ith his .ears .or the .uture, Rasko/nikov .o//o1s her home+ 'er )reetin) makes it -/ear that she has (een e:2e-tin) him+ 4hen she hears that aterina "vanovna has (een evi-ted, her .irst im2u/se is to )o to her+ *ut Rasko/nikov 2ersuades her to stay- in 2art (e-ause he needs her himse/., and in 2art (e-ause her 1i//in)ness to su..er .or others, des2ite her e:2erien-e 1ith 3u=hin, drives him -ra=y+ 'e 2oses a hy2otheti-a/ >uestion+ Su22ose she -ou/d de-ide i. a 2erson 1ere to /ive or die+ 4hat 1ou/d she doD *ut Sonia has no 2atien-e .or thin)s that are not rea/, and she is u2set that Rasko/nikov seems to (e tryin) to tra2 or torment her a)ain+ For on-e, he yie/ds to her o(Ce-tion and admits that 1hat he rea//y has -ome .or is her .or)iveness+ For a moment an irrationa/ ./ash o. hatred- /ike his hatred .or his .ami/y- .i//s him, (ut he sees the /ove in her .a-e and a// his an)er vanishes+ 'e kno1s that he must -on.ess+ The moment has a// the tension o. the moment o. the murderE the (eatin) heart, 2a/e .a-e, and s2ee-h/ess /i2s+ 'is torment is -/ear to her, and she tries to -om.ort him+ *ut he im2atient/y insists that he has -ome to te// her 1ho ki//ed 3i=aveta+ "nsistin) that ki//in) 3i=aveta 1as an a--ident, that the ki//er had not meant to harm her, Rasko/nikov makes Sonia /ook at him unti/ the dread.u/ truth da1ns on her+ Fi)htin) des2erate/y 1ithin herse/. to deny 1hat she no1 kno1s, Sonia .ina//y thro1s herse/. on her knees (e.ore the tortured Rasko/nikov+ @4hat have you done to yourse/.D@ she im2/ores, ho/din) him ti)ht+ 'e -an!t (e/ieve her rea-tion+ 'o1 -ou/d she kiss someone /ike himD *ut her 2ity is )enuine and honest+ Patheti-a//y, a/most -hi/dish/y, he asks i. she 1i// .orsake him+ *ut Sonia 1i// .o//o1 him any1here, even to 2rison+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE $ -riti-a/ di..eren-e (et1een Rasko/nikov and Sonia -omes out in this disCointed -onversation+ She is distressed that he did not -ome to her (e.ore the -rime+ C/ear/y she thinks she -ou/d have ke2t him .rom it+ *ut .or Rasko/nikov, this 1as the on/y 1ay+ 4ithout the -rime, he never 1ou/d have -ome to Sonia at a//+ --------------------------------------------------------------------The more Sonia thinks a(out the murder, the more 2er2/e:ed she is+

'o1 -ou/d he have done su-h a thin)D She 1onders i. he 1as ro((in) to he/2 his mother, (ut Rasko/nikov .inds it im2ossi(/e to e:2/ain his motives+ 'er -on.usion )ro1s+ 'o1 -ou/d a man 1ho )ave a1ay his o1n money to stran)ers (e a ro((erD 'e admits that he doesn!t kno1 ho1 mu-h money he sto/e+ That on/y makes her more (a../ed+ $nd it is no 1onder, .or as Rasko/nikov ta/ks he doesn!t make his 2oints very -/ear/y+ 'e asks a)ain i. she 1i// sti-k (y him, and admits that he has asked her to Coin him in his su..erin) (e-ause he is una(/e to (ear it a/one+ 'e -raves reassuran-e+ $t /ast he is a(/e to say that he ki//ed (e-ause he 1anted to (e a %a2o/eon+ *ut o. -ourse Sonia has no 1ay o. kno1in) 1hat he means+ Rasko/nikov e:2/ains his an)uish that the on/y test he -ou/d 2ut himse/. to 1as su-h a meanin)/ess one+ *ut it 1as his on/y -han-e, he e:2/ains+ 4hen Sonia .inds this e:2/anation di..i-u/t to understand, he o..ers a vast/y di..erent one+ 'e ki//ed .or the money so that he 1ou/d not have to take any more .rom his 2oor mother, he says+ $nd he admits that ki//in) the o/d 1oman 1as @1ron)+@ Yet a moment /ater he insists he ki//ed a /ouse, not a human (ein)+ 4hen Sonia dis2utes that, he says the most honest thin) o. a//E he doesn!t kno1 1hat the truth is anymore+ 'e had many reasons, (ut he has no 1ords to e:2ress them+ 4hen he tries a)ain, he su))ests that he is evi/, vi/e, vindi-tive+++ a 1ho/e -hain o. terri(/e >ua/ities+ $nd 2erha2s he is even a /itt/e -ra=y, he admits+ 'e -ou/d have stu-k it out at the university and .ound Co(s to su22ort himse/., he rea/i=es+ *ut he iso/ated himse/., and in his iso/ation reso/ved that the on/y 2eo2/e 1ho mattered 1ere those 1ho dared to (e master.u/+ Po1er e:ists on/y .or those 1ho 1i// take it+ 'e ki//ed (e-ause he 1anted to dare, to have the -oura)e to (e a )reat man, he -/aims+ Sonia is a22a//ed+ 'e has done the 1ork o. the devi/, she says+ *ut .or Rasko/nikov that is too easy an ans1er+ 'e insists that he murdered .or himse/., to test 1hether he had the ri)ht to (e a )reat man+ *ut he has .ai/ed+ 'e rea//y is on/y a /ouse+ $nd that is 1hy he has -ome to Sonia+ 'e 2/eads 1ith her to te// him 1hat to do, (ut 1hen she insists that he -on.ess to the 2o/i-e, he is thunderstru-k+ 'er (e/ie. is that he must su..er and atone, (ut he re.uses+ Sudden/y, he has a ne1 thou)ht+ Perha2s he rea//y is a man a.ter a//+ #ay(e he has Cust (een too hard on himse/.+ #ay(e there is sti// .i)ht /e.t in him+ 'e 1on!t )ive u2+ 'e kno1s they have no eviden-e+ Even i. they arrest him, he 1i// 2revai/+ *ut the )rie. Sonia .ee/s .or him is a 1ei)ht on his sou/, .or he senses the res2onsi(i/ity that her /ove im2oses on him+ "s he (etter or 1orse o.. than he 1as 1hen he -ameD She asks him to 1ear her -ross, (ut he is not ready yet+ Sonia is -on.ident that the time 1i// -ome 1hen he 1i// ask .or it and they 1i// 2ray to)ether+ There is )ood reason to think she is ri)ht, .or hasn!t Rasko/nikov -han)ed enormous/y (e-ause o. his -onta-t 1ith herD *ut on the other hand, havin) to e:2/ain himse/. seems to have )iven him ne1 -oura)e+ Somethin) must shi.t the (a/an-e+ 0ust then 3e(e=yatnikov -omes to the door+ P$RT<VJC'$P<H C'$PTER H aterina "vanovna has )one -om2/ete/y -ra=y, 3e(e=yatnikov te//s

them+ She has taken the -hi/dren into the streets to dan-e and sin) and (e) money .rom 2assin) stran)ers+ Sonia rushes out, intent on he/2in) her des2erate .ami/y+ Rasko/nikov returns to his o1n room, .ee/in) dread.u//y a/one and yet .u// o. 2ity .or Sonia+ 'e kno1s he!s added to her sorro1s, and he!s dis)usted 1ith himse/. .or havin) made her unha22y+ 4hi/e he (roods, his sister enters+ She too /oves him, Rasko/nikov re-o)ni=es+ She has -ome to say that she kno1s he is sus2e-ted, and that i. there is anythin) she -an do he need on/y ask .or it+ *ut his on/y res2onse is to 2raise Ra=umikhin, and Dunya is sudden/y very a.raid+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE #any readers .ee/ that one o. Rasko/nikov!s (i))est errors is not 2uttin) more -on.iden-e in his sister and in her a(i/ity to understand and .or)ive+ Perha2s he .ee/s ashamed in .ront o. her, as he doesn!t 1ith Sonia+ Dunya, a.ter a//, is not )ui/ty o. anythin), so Rasko/nikov may (e/ieve that she -an!t understand and .or)ive )ui/t in others+ --------------------------------------------------------------------$s Rasko/nikov mu//s over his 2/i)ht, 3e(e=yatnikov rushes in+ $)ain he is the messen)er o. doom+ Sonia has (een una(/e to )et her dyin) ste2mother o.. the street+ The situation is des2erate+ Rasko/nikov )oes to he/2+ The s-ene makes a// that has )one (e.ore 2a/e+ $ more 2atheti- destru-tion o. human di)nity is hard to ima)ine, as the dyin) mother and her starvin) -hi/dren dan-e in the streets+ Sonia -an!t make her sto2, nor -an Rasko/nikov+ 'er insane .antasies run on, inters2ersed 1ith the -hi/dren!s son)s+ 4hen a 2o/i-eman tries to intervene, aterina "vanovna /oses a// -ontro/ and .a//s, e:hausted and dyin), in the street+ They -arry her 1asted (ody to Sonia!s roomB her de/irium in-reases+ *ut she reCe-ts the idea o. -a//in) .or a 2riest+ She insists that she has no sins, and that 5od o1es her somethin) .or a// the su..erin) she has )one throu)h+ #any readers a)ree 1ith her+ 'er death /eaves her or2haned -hi/dren terri.ied, (ut Svidri)ai/ov- 1ho, 1e sudden/y re-a//, /ives in the room ne:t to Sonia!s- insists that he 1i// make a// the .unera/ arran)ements+ Even more, he 1i// 2/a-e the -hi/dren in a )ood or2hana)e and /eave an annuity .or ea-h o. them so that Sonia 1i// not have to 1orry a(out them+ 'e makes a 2arti-u/ar 2oint to te// Rasko/nikov that he is usin) the money he 1ished to )ive Dunya, (ut Rasko/nikov is immediate/y distrust.u/+ $nd 1e// he shou/d (e+ For Svidri)ai/ov makes -/ear that he has overheard Rasko/nikov!s -on.ession, and that kno1/ed)e must (e re-koned 1ith+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Part V is in many 1ays the most de2ressin) se-tion o. the nove/, (ut Dostoevsky a/so uses it to hint at the story!s ho2e.u/ reso/ution+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<V"JC'$P<1 P$RT V" C'$PTER 1 -

Rasko/nikov seems, even to himse/., to (e /ivin) in an unrea/ 1or/d+ *ut even in that ha=e he rea/i=es t1o thin)sE One is that Svidri)ai/ov 2oses a threat to his sa.ety+ $nother is that Sonia /oves him+ 'e must -ome to terms 1ith these t1o .a-ts+ 'e a/most 1ishes there 1ere another -risis .or him to dea/ 1ith, somethin) to sna2 him out o. his -on.usion+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE $sk yourse/. i. you .ee/ sym2athy .or Rasko/nikov in this -ha2ter+ The nove/ seems to shi.t you (a-k and .orth .rom sym2athy to dis)ust 1ith him, and you have to de-ide 1hi-h .ee/in) is .ina//y stron)er in your o1n mind+ $sk yourse/., too, ho1 you think Dostoevsky 1ants you to .ee/+ *e-ause the narrator never says, dire-t/y, ho1 you ou)ht to rea-t, you!ve )ot to re-o)ni=e the -/ues he )ives you+ --------------------------------------------------------------------4hen Ra=umikhin -omes to ta/k, he says he has to kno1 i. Rasko/nikov is sane or not+ O. -ourse, it doesn!t seem the smartest thin) to ask Rasko/nikov, (ut Ra=umikhin is des2erate+ 'e -an!t understand 1hy Rasko/nikov is a-tin) the 1ay he is+ ". he!s insane, at /east that!s one 1ay to e:2/ain it+ Ra=umikhin is es2e-ia//y u2set (e-ause he kno1s 1hat Rasko/nikov!s (ehavior is doin) to his mother and sister+ This has (een a 2ro(/em a// a/on), (e-ause Rasko/nikov has resented havin) to 1orry a(out them+ The other 2ro(/em .or Ra=umikhin is tryin) to .i)ure out 1hat kind o. trou(/e Rasko/nikov is invo/ved in+ 'e!s re/ieved that %iko/ay -on.essed to the murders and ashamed that he sus2e-ted Rasko/nikov o. the -rime+ ". it!s hard .or you to ima)ine yourse/. as a ki//er, think a(out ho1 you!d .ee/ i. you sus2e-ted a .riend o. yours 1as )ui/ty o. some a1.u/ -rime+ Ra=umikhin sti// sus2e-ts that Rasko/nikov is invo/ved in some sort o. des2erate a-tion, (ut he is easi/y distra-ted at this 2oint (y Rasko/nikov!s mention o. Dunya!s .ee/in)s .or him+ $s he /eaves, he!s a ha22y man, 1ith thou)hts o. /ove on his mind+ $.ter his .riend /eaves, Rasko/nikov tries a)ain to .i)ure out 1hat to do+ 'e is astounded 1hen Por.iry sho1s u2 une:2e-ted/y+ $.ter days o. (ein) terri.ied o. Cust su-h a visit, sudden/y he .ee/s a(so/ute/y -a/m+ P$RT<V"JC'$P<K C'$PTER K

The visit (e)ins in an unusua/ 1ay, -onsiderin) that a 2o/i-e investi)ator is ta/kin) to a man he kno1s is a ki//er+ Por.iry (e)ins (y sayin) he o1es Rasko/nikov an a2o/o)y .or tryin) to tri-k him+ 'e ho2es they -an (e honest 1ith ea-h other+ 'e -/aims that he admires Rasko/nikov enormous/y and that he thinks they!re very mu-h a/ike+ 'e .ee/s sorry .or Rasko/nikov, he insists, and then he e:2/ains ho1 he (e-ame sus2i-ious o. him+ *ut Por.iry!s a -ra.ty .e//o1, and he doesn!t te// any more than he a(so/ute/y intends to+ 'e does say, thou)h, that Rasko/nikov!s arti-/e 1as 2arti-u/ar/y im2ortant in dire-tin) his sus2i-ions at its author+ 'e a/so makes a 2oint o. te//in) Rasko/nikov that his room 1as sear-hed, that his -onversation 1ith Fametov in the tavern 1as in-riminatin), and that his /au)hter on the .irst visit to the 2o/i-e station 2rovoked sus2i-ion+ Por.iry hasn!t missed a thin)+ ". this 1ere a dete-tive

nove/, he 1ou/d (e the hero+ 'e!s a/so )ot an e:2/anation .or the 2ainter!s -on.essionB the youn) man is a re/i)ious .anati-, and his sense o. (ein) a sinner is so 2ro.ound that he .ee/s he shou/d su..er+ *ut there 1ere too many errors in the man!s -on.ession, Por.iry te//s Rasko/nikov, and it!s 2er.e-t/y -/ear that the 2ainter isn!t )ui/ty at a//+ 4hat rea//y ratt/es Rasko/nikov is that Por.iry seems to kno1 e:a-t/y 1hat ha22ened, and doesn!t hesitate to say that Rasko/nikov is the ki//er+ $nd even 1hen Rasko/nikov denies it, Por.iry insists he!s )ui/ty+ *ut Por.iry a/so admits he has a(so/ute/y no eviden-e+ ". Rasko/nikov doesn!t -on.ess, there isn!t a -ase+ So (e.ore any eviden-e is .ound, (e.ore he is .or-ed to arrest him, Por.iry 1ants Rasko/nikov to admit the -rime+ "t 1i// (e easier on them (oth, he -/aims+ $s you mi)ht e:2e-t, Rasko/nikov is s-orn.u/ o. that idea+ *ut Por.iry is determined+ 'e o..ers a dea/- 2/ea-(ar)ainin) 1e!d -a// it today+ ". Rasko/nikov -on.esses, Por.iry 2romises the senten-e 1i// (e redu-ed+ 4hen Custi-e is served, Por.iry maintains, Rasko/nikov 1i// (e a(/e to re)ain his se/.-esteem- and .ind 5od!s .or)iveness too+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Des2ite his s-orn.u/ re.usa/ to -on.ess, Rasko/nikov is very u2set+ The more Por.iry e:2/ains Rasko/nikov!s o1n (ehavior to him, the more de2ressed Rasko/nikov )ets+ $t /ast someone does rea//y understand the -om2/e: ideas in his mindL $nd 1hat )ood does it doD --------------------------------------------------------------------*ut 1e -an see a -ra-k in Por.iry!s 2ose o. a(so/ute assuran-e that Rasko/nikov 1i// -on.ess+ 'e -an!t resist- a/thou)h he does it very a1k1ard/y- askin) him, i. he does de-ide to -ommit sui-ide, to 2/ease /eave a note sayin) 1here the /oot is+ P$RT<V"JC'$P<; C'$PTER ; From the -onversation 1ith Por.iry, Rasko/nikov heads strai)ht .or Svidri)ai/ov+ $.ter a//, he -ou/d (e a dama)in) 1itness in any tria/+ *ut as Rasko/nikov hurries to1ard the meetin), he is -ons-ious o. a ne1 .ee/in), one o. (ein) -om2/ete/y tired o. the 1ho/e (usiness+ 4orn do1n (y tension is another 1ay to e:2ress the 1ay he .ee/s+ For some reason he doesn!t rea//y understand, he .ee/s dra1n to Svidri)ai/ov+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Remem(er a// the ear/ier hints .rom the narrator and .rom Svidri)ai/ov himse/. that Rasko/nikov and Svidri)ai/ov had a /ot in -ommonD Dostoevsky -/ear/y 1ants the reader to think a(out the 1ays in 1hi-h the t1o men are a/ike and the 1ays in 1hi-h they!re di..erent+ --------------------------------------------------------------------$s he hurries a/on), a dread.u/ thou)ht o--urs to himE 1hat i. Svidri)ai/ov tries to use 1hat he kno1s in order to )et 1hat he 1ants .rom DunyaD The o/d ur)en-y to 2rote-t her 1e//s u2 in him+ ". he has to -on.ess in order to save Dunya .rom that a1.u/ man, he!// do itL $nd 1hi/e it never o--urs to Rasko/nikov 1hat a revea/in) de-ision this is, you may (e 2/easant/y sur2rised (y it+ "s it 2ossi(/e that he

rea//y /oves his .ami/y more than he /oves himse/.D @" sha// ki// him,@ he de-ides+ Shou/d 1e -on-/ude .rom his 1ords that Rasko/nikov is rea//y more dan)erous to so-iety than Por.iry thinksD There isn!t rea//y any eviden-e to think the threat is serious+ The desire to ki// o--urs to many 2eo2/e, (ut most don!t do it+ Rasko/nikov ki//ed (e.ore to test his theory, not in ra)e or se/.-de.ense+ ". anythin), this threat makes him seem more norma/+ Iuite (y a--ident Rasko/nikov s2ots Svidri)ai/ov in a tavern and Coins him+ $s they ta/k, it is -/ear that one enormous di..eren-e (et1een them is in their attitudes to1ard se:+ Rasko/nikov is 2uritani-a/, and dis)usted 1ith the idea o. Svidri)ai/ov!s @de(au-hery+@ Svidri)ai/ov!s e:-use is that 1ithout 1omen, he!d (e so (ored he!d have to ki// himse/.+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE "t is interestin) that se:ua/ity is asso-iated on/y 1ith Svidri)ai/ov and 1ith 3u=hin+ %either Dunya and Ra=umikhin!s nor Sonia and Rasko/nikov!s re/ationshi2 has an e:2/i-it se:ua/ -om2onent+ #any readers think this is the resu/t o. Dostoevsky!s o1n 2uritani-a/ attitudes to1ard se:+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Se: doesn!t interest Rasko/nikov, (ut sui-ide .as-inates him+ @Cou/d you shoot yourse/.D@ he asks Svidri)ai/ov+ The su(Ce-t tortures Svidri)ai/ov, and he doesn!t 1ant to ta/k a(out it+ 'e doesn!t 1ant to (e a/one, either, so he im2/ores Rasko/nikov to stay+ C/ear/y he!s a man in dee2 emotiona/ trou(/e+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Rasko/nikov and Svidri)ai/ov do a /ot o. ta/kin), (ut they don!t rea//y -ommuni-ate+ Ea-h is in his o1n 1or/d o. 2rivate torture+ 4e kno1 more a(out 1hat Rasko/nikov is thinkin) than 1e do a(out Svidri)ai/ov!s thou)hts+ *ut at this 2oint it is sti// di..i-u/t to see 1hat the t1o men have in -ommon, sin-e they seem so di..erent in tastes, attitudes, and (ehavior+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<V"JC'$P<9 C'$PTER 9 Svidri)ai/ov tries to e:2/ain the stan-es o. his /ove .or Dunya, and as he does it he ironi-a//y -om2ares it 1ith Rasko/nikov!s re/ationshi2 1ith Sonia+ "t 1as Dunya!s 2ity .or him, and her desire to @save@ him .rom his sins that made him /ove her, he says+ That, o. -ourse, is simi/ar to Rasko/nikov!s situation 1ith Sonia+ *ut the (asis o. Svidri)ai/ov!s /ove is se:ua/ 2assion, an e/ement that does not 2/ay a 2art in Rasko/nikov!s .ee/in)s+ Dunya 1as .ri)htened- even re2e//ed- (y his 2assion, Svidri)ai/ov says+ *ut he 1as -onsumed 1ith desire .or her+ Fina//y, he o..ered to (uy her /oveE he 1ou/d )ive her everythin) he had i. she 1ou/d run a1ay 1ith him+ The -onversation -onvin-es Rasko/nikov that Svidri)ai/ov sti// desires Dunya, (ut the mysterious man has a sho-kin) announ-ement to makeE he!s .ound a ne1 (ride, and he!s )ettin) married+ 'is (ride is 16 years o/d, and he!s >uite taken 1ith the res2onse she has sho1n to his attentions+ Rasko/nikov is re2e//ed (y the sensua/ity that e:-ites Svidri)ai/ov+ $nd Svidri)ai/ov, .or his 2art, seems to take

)reat de/i)ht in te//in) stories that he kno1s 1i// )et Rasko/nikov ri/ed+ 4hen they 2art, Rasko/nikov!s sus2i-ions that Svidri)ai/ov is sti// in 2ursuit o. Dunya remain stron)+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Perha2s the key to the -ha2ter is Svidri)ai/ov!s dis-/aimerE @" am on/y a sin.u/ manL@ Rasko/nikov, on the other hand, is a -rimina/, and yet he does not -onsider himse/. sin.u/+ 'as he any ri)ht to Cud)e the (ehavior o. any(ody e/seD --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<V"JC'$P<H C'$PTER H Rasko/nikov -on.ronts Svidri)ai/ov 1ith his sus2i-ions, (ut Svidri)ai/ov is not intimidated+ "ndeed, he uses the o22ortunity to remind Rasko/nikov that he kno1s a(out the murder+ $nd he ur)es him to run a1ay to $meri-a+ Svidri)ai/ov is more -unnin) than Rasko/nikovB he mana)es to thro1 the youn) man o.. his trai/+ 'e is a/one in time to meet Dunya .or the .ina/ time+ She is sus2i-ious o. him sti//, and insists they -ondu-t their -onversation in the street+ 'e a-ts strai)ht-.or1ard, (ut the reader /earns immediate/y that he is /yin)+ 'e says that Sonia is at home 1hen he kno1s she is not, and so 2ersuades Dunya to -ome to his roomB .urther, he /eads her to (e/ieve that his /and/ady, is in the ne:t room, 1hi-h is a/so a /ie+ Dostoevsky is makin) it -/ear that this is a man 1ho -an!t (e trusted, es2e-ia//y 1hen his se:ua/ desires are invo/ved+ Thou)h she is .ri)htened, Dunya is a/so determined to understand 1hat Svidri)ai/ov has su))ested in his /etter to herE that her (rother is )ui/ty o. -rime+ She insists that it is a /ie, (ut Svidri)ai/ov doesn!t 2u// any 2un-hes+ 'e says he heard Rasko/nikov!s -on.ession to Sonia+ O(vious/y he 2aid detai/ed attention, .or he!s a(/e to re2eat not on/y her (rother!s 2ra-ti-a/ reasons- his need .or money- (ut a/so Rasko/nikov!s theory a(out e:traordinary 2eo2/e+ Curious/y, /ike Por.iry Petrovi-h, Svidri)ai/ov seems to understand Rasko/nikov, and even to o(serve that 1hat is (otherin) him most is humi/iation+ "t!s (een a (/o1 .or Rasko/nikov to have to admit that he is not a man o. )enius, Svidri)ai/ov e:2/ains+ Dunya, on the other hand, is horri.iedB sure/y her (rother must have a -ons-ien-eL 4hy hasn!t he -on.essedD #any readers share Dunya!s rea-tion+ Svidri)ai/ov, takin) advanta)e o. her distress, o..ers to make everythin) ri)ht+ 'e 1i// )et ti-kets, 2rovide the money, take -are o. )ettin) Rasko/nikov out o. the -ountry+ On-e a)ain he!s tryin) to make himse/. indis2ensa(/e+ *ut Dunya 1i// have none o. it+ Des2erate/y she tries to /eave, (ut the doors are /o-ked+ %oti-e ho1 -are.u//y Svidri)ai/ov, in -ontrast to Rasko/nikov, e:e-utes his 2/an+ %o o2en doors .or himL On-e more Svidri)ai/ov tries to assure her that everythin) 1i// (e a// ri)ht- (ut at 1hat -ostL The 2ri-e he asks is Dunya!s /ove and su(mission+ $(Ce-t in his (e))in), he s1ears that i. she 1i// have him, he 1i// do anythin) she 1ants+ 'e near/y /oses -ontro/ o. himse/. in his ea)erness .or her+ Tra22ed, Dunya -a//s .or he/2, (ut, as 1e a/ready kno1, there is no one to hear+ Dunya is revo/ted (y the idea o. Svidri)ai/ov tou-hin) her+ $s

Svidri)ai/ov rea/i=es that, a .ri)htenin) -han)e -omes over him+ 'e threatens her+ 'e has her Cust 1here he 1ants her+ 'o1 -an she resist 1hen she kno1s that her (rother!s /i.e is at stakeD $nd a.ter a//, he says, she did -ome to his room, didn!t sheD 4hat did she think 1ou/d ha22enD 'er indi)nation doesn!t a..e-t him+ ". anythin), it 2ushes him .urther+ You -an (uy your (rother!s .reedom, he 2/eads+ 4ho -ou/d (/ame you .or thatD *ut Dunya has -ome 2re2ared+ She 2u//s a revo/ver .rom her 2urse, and 2oints it dire-t/y at her tormentor+ Svidri)ai/ov is astonished+ $nd he!s even more astonished 1hen she shoots, )ra=in) his .orehead 1ith the (u//et+ ". the s-ene (et1een them 1ere not so 2otentia//y tra)i-, it 1ou/d (e .unny+ C/ear/y he is -a2a(/e o. sei=in) the )un, o. over2o1erin) her in an instant+ *ut .or some reason he doesn!t do it+ 'e 1aits+ She .ires a)ain, (ut the )un mis.ires+ She has a horri(/e rea/i=ation, a dee2 insi)ht into this stran)e manE he 1ou/d rather die than /et her )o+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The intensity o. the s-ene (et1een Dunya and Svidri)ai/ov is hei)htened (y the .a-t that the narrator is te//in) us a(out (oth their thou)hts at on-e+ &sua//y, in Crime and Punishment, one -hara-ter or the other is stressed, (ut in this s-ene Dostoevsky 1ants us to see (oth Dunya!s 2otentia/ .or vio/en-e and Svidri)ai/ov!s des2erate e..orts at se/.--ontro/+ --------------------------------------------------------------------For a moment, Svidri)ai/ov seems to have 1on+ Dunya thro1s do1n the )un, and he )ent/y em(ra-es her shakin) (ody+ *ut on-e more Dunya reCe-ts his advan-es, (e))in) him to /eave her a/one+ 4hen she insists she -an never /ove him, he is a stri-ken man+ Sudden/y he hands her the key, sayin), @Take itB /eave >ui-k/yL Iui-k/yL Iui-k/yL@ The terri(/e tone o. his voi-e .ri)htens her, and it shou/d+ 'e is (are/y a(/e to -ontro/ himse/.+ Think a)ain o. a -om2arison 1ith Rasko/nikov+ Rasko/nikov at /east has Sonia to /ove him+ Dunya des2ises Svidri)ai/ov and he!s .or-ed to a-kno1/ed)e that .a-t+ $// she /eaves (ehind is her revo/ver, and Svidri)ai/ov /eaves the room 1ith it in his 2o-ket+ P$RT<V"JC'$P<6 C'$PTER 6

"n another o. the astoundin) reversa/s o. (ehavior that -hara-teri=e Svidri)ai/ov, he sto2s to see Sonia and )ives her ;AAA rou(/es (e-ause he doesn!t 1ant her to /ive as a 2rostitute anymore+ $nd, he says, (e-ause he is )oin) a1ay, no one 1i// ever kno1 1here the money -ame .rom, .or she must never te//+ Further, he 1arns her that Rasko/nikov has on/y t1o -hoi-esE to -on.ess and (e 2unished, or to ki// himse/.+ Des2ite his )enerosity, it is -/ear that somethin) is very 1ron) 1ith Svidri)ai/ov, and his (ehavior .i//s Sonia 1ith @va)ue and distressin) .ore(odin)s+@ C/ear/y, Dostoevsky is 1arnin) us o. a22roa-hin) disaster+ Svidri)ai/ov 2ays another visit and )ives his .ian-ee and her im2overished .ami/y 1H,AAA rou(/es, 1ith the rather thin e:2/anation that he 1i// (e a1ay .or a1hi/e and he 1ants her to have her 1eddin)

)i.t (e.ore he )oes+ 'avin) .inished his errands, Svidri)ai/ov )oes, a/one, to a seedy hote/ and a tiny, disma/ room+ "n this environment, so reminis-ent o. the )arret 1here Rasko/nikov /ives, he!s -ut o.. .rom humanity+ $nd, /ike Rasko/nikov, Svidri)ai/ov is /ost in daydreams and ni)htmares+ Thou)hts o. Dunya .i// his mindB he remem(ers her 2ointin) the )un at his head+ The memory .i// him 1ith 2ity .or her and 2ro.ound unha22iness .or himse/.+ $s he .a// as/ee2, he dreams that the mi-e 1ith 1hom he shares the room are runnin) over his (ody, and he 1akes in horri.ied dis)ust+ 'e .a//s as/ee2 a)ain and dreams he is in a (eauti.u/ )arden .u// o. ./o1ers+ $mon) the ./o1ers is a (eauti.u/ youn) )ir/, 1ith .air, 1et hair and a (itter e:2ression on her .a-e+ Svidri)ai/ov re-o)ni=es herE the )ir/ 1ho -ommitted sui-ide a.ter he se:ua//y a(used her+ 'o1 horri(/eL 'o1 re2u/siveL "n yet another dream, he 2u//s on his -oat and )oes out into the -o/d, rainy ni)ht+ Then on an end/ess 1a/k do1n a /on) ha// he .inds a -hi/d- no more than .ive- 1et, shiverin), and -ryin)+ So((in), the -hi/d is una(/e to ans1er his >uestions, and so Svidri)ai/ov -arries her to his room, undresses her, and 2uts her into the (ed+ $s he -he-ks the -hi/d to make sure she is okay, she seems stran)e/y ./ushed+ *ut it is not .ever as he sus2e-ts+ $s he 1at-hes her, sudden/y she /au)hs, and tries to sedu-e him+ 'er .a-e is no /on)er the .a-e o. a -hi/d, (ut the .a-e o. a 1hore+ $s the horri.ied Svidri)ai/ov rea-hes out to strike her, he 1akes+ 'e has seen, at /ast, his o1n de-aden-e, and he is dis)usted+ There -an (e no sa/vation+ So -/ut-hin) Dunya!s revo/ver, Svidri)ai/ov )oes out into the ear/y mornin) and 2uts a (u//et throu)h his head+ P$RT<V"JC'$P<? C'$PTER ? On-e more Dostoevsky su))ests, (y the 2attern o. the nove/, -onne-tions (et1een events that in some 1ays seem unre/ated+ This -ha2ter, immediate/y .o//o1in) Svidri)ai/ov!s sui-ide, (e)ins 1ith Rasko/nikov on his 1ay to visit his mother+ This visit too is a .are1e//+ $nd (e-ause he too has s2ent the ni)ht 1anderin) in the rain, he /ooks es2e-ia//y disre2uta(/e+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Dostoevsky su))ests that the .ury o. the evenin)!s storm has (een in sym2athy 1ith the .ren=y o. Rasko/nikov!s mood, the @in1ard stri.e@ that has 2/a)ued him+ This /iterary devi-e o. havin) nature (e res2onsive to human .ee/in)s is -a//ed the 2atheti- .a//a-y+ "n rea/ity o. -ourse, nature doesn!t res2ond to our moods, (ut 2eo2/e are -om.orted (y the thou)ht that it does+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov!s mother tries des2erate/y not to ask too many >uestions or to u2set him+ *ut the terror she .ee/s 1e//s u2 to the sur.a-e+ 'er trans2arent .ee/in)s don!t an)er him, thou)h, as they have done (e.ore+ 'e has -ome on a missionE to ask i. she 1i// a/1ays /ove him, no matter 1hat ha22ens+ 'e a/so 1ants to te// her that he /oves her very mu-h and a/1ays has+ This is a ne1 side o. Rasko/nikov+ There is no arro)an-e, no -yni-ism, no (itterness in his tone+ $nd 1hen he asks her to 2ray .or him, there is no mo-kery+ #oved (y his mother!s a)ony at his

situation, he is a(/e to a-t /ike a son a)ain+ 4hen he returns to his room, he .inds Dunya 1aitin) .or him+ 'e is a(/e to (e honest and /ovin) 1ith her too+ To >uiet her .ears, he admits that he s2ent the ni)ht 1anderin) a/on) the river thinkin) o. sui-ide, (ut that he -ou/d not ki// himse/.+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE Cha2ter ? 2resents another s-ene in 1hi-h you, the reader, kno1 somethin) that the -hara-ters don!t rea/i=e yetE that Rasko/nikov and Svidri)ai/ov s2ent the same ni)ht reso/ved to ki// themse/ves+ $nd as 1e kno1, Svidri)ai/ov did and Rasko/nikov didn!t+ Dostoevsky 1ants us to .i)ure out 1hy, to understand ho1 im2ortant /ove is in res-uin) 2eo2/e .rom des2air+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov te//s us 1hy he de-ided to )o on /ivin)E he kne1 that i. he ki//ed himse/. it 1ou/d (e to save himse/. .rom shame+ *ut his 2ride to/d him that he -ou/d survive shame+ 'e has de-ided to )ive himse/. u2+ "t isn!t (e-ause he thinks he!s )ui/ty o. -rime, he e:2/ains+ 'e sti// ra)es a)ainst the idea that ki//in) the o/d 1oman 1as a -rime+ She 1as su-h a /ouse, he e:-/aims, su-h an e:tortionist, that ki//in) her 1as a .avor to mankind+ That!s 1hat his theory said a// a/on)+ 'e!s )ivin) u2 (e-ause he hates himse/., he says, (e-ause he has to .a-e the idea that he isn!t e:traordinary+ 'is in-om2eten-e as a (o/d man demands that he admit the ki//in)+ #ay(e this 1ay he 1i// (e a(/e to sa/va)e his 2ride+ Dunya tries, (ut .ai/s, to -onvin-e him that his ideas a(out -rime are 1ron)+ 'e insists that he (e/ieves, more stron)/y than ever, that his theory is ri)ht+ *ut he res2e-ts, may(e even admires, his sister!s o(Ce-tions and tries to -om.ort her+ $t the same time, he re(e/s at the idea o. 2unishment and 1onders i. he shou/dn!t have ki//ed himse/. a.ter a//+ 'e asks a >uestion that trou(/es our Cudi-ia/ system even todayE 1hat )ood 1i// t1enty years in 2rison doD --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE "n one /ast moment o. re(e//ion, Rasko/nikov /ooks .or others to (/ame .or his 2redi-ament, (ut he is )ras2in) at stra1s+ 'e -an!t, 1ith any Custi.i-ation, (/ame 1hat has ha22ened on the 2eo2/e 1ho /ove him+ *ut 1hy did it ha22enD 'o1 did Rasko/nikov rea-h the 2oint o. -ommittin) su-h a des2erate a-tD "n the nove/, as in rea/ /i.e, the tan)/ed 1e( o. -auses and motivations remains, to some e:tent, a mystery+ --------------------------------------------------------------------P$RT<V"JC'$P<8 C'$PTER 8

Rasko/nikov!s Courney to -on.ession takes him .irst to Sonia+ *e-ause she has (een so a.raid that he mi)ht -ommit sui-ide, she )reets him .irst 1ith Coy+ *ut the -han)e in his mood astounds her+ 'e has -ome .or her -rosses, he says+ Dostoevsky has -hosen this ima)e .or a very s2e-i.i- reason+ The -ross, in Christian sym(o/ism, is the u/timate si)n o. human su..erin)+ *ut (e-ause it is Christ!s sa-ri.i-e .or mankind that the -ross reminds us o., it a/so has divine meanin)s+ 4hen Rasko/nikov

asks .or the -rosses- in-/udin) the one that had (een 3i=aveta!s- he is sayin) that he is askin) .or 5od!s .or)iveness and a--e2tin) the idea that he must (e hum(/e (e.ore that u/timate sa-ri.i-e, Christ!s death+ *ut -an he 2ossi(/y (e sin-ereD This is the man 1ho has Cust insisted that he is not )ui/ty o. any -rime+ $nd Sonia rea/i=es that there is somethin) unnatura/, even arti.i-ia/, in his re>uest+ 'e e:2/ains that he des2ises the -ro1ds 1ho 1i// 2oint their .in)ers at him, so he 1ants to humi/iate himse/.+ ". he is no (etter than a -rimina/, he must 2unish himse/. .or his .ai/ure to (e an e:traordinary man+ The humi/ity o. the -ross is a 1ay to demean himse/. 2u(/i-/y+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE 4hatever .ee/in)s Rasko/nikov has .or Sonia don!t -ome to the sur.a-e in this s-ene+ 'e doesn!t te// her that he /oves her, or even 1hy he has -hosen to use her method o. -on.ession+ Some readers ar)ue that he hasn!t rea/i=ed yet ho1 im2ortant she is to him emotiona//y+ 'e is sti// too -on-erned 1ith himse/. and his o1n misery+ Other, /ess sym2atheti-, readers think this is another e:am2/e o. Rasko/nikov!s se/.ish and re2u/sive 2ersona/ity+ The on/y 1ay he kno1s ho1 to dea/ 1ith 2eo2/e is to use them .or his o1n 2ur2oses, they ar)ue+ --------------------------------------------------------------------"nsistin) that he 1i// )o throu)h 1ith his -on.ession a/one, Rasko/nikov /eaves Sonia+ *rie./y, he 1onders 1hy he has )one to see her at a//+ 'is on/y ans1er is that he needed her tearsB he needed to kno1 that there 1as sti// some(ody 1ho -ared a(out him+ 4hat a -omedo1n, he sneers at himse/., .or some(ody 1ho had su-h a hi)h o2inion o. himse/.L $s he moves throu)h the -ro1d o. drunks and (e))ars in the 'aymarket, he is dis)usted (y them, (ut he .o//o1s Sonia!s instru-tions+ "n the -enter o. the -rossroads 6noti-e the re2etition o. the Christian ima)e o. the -ross7, he knee/s do1n and kisses the )round+ $ -ro1d )athers around, sure he is drunk+ 'e tries to say the 1ords @" am a murderer,@ (ut -an!t >uite )et them out+ $s he moves a1ay, he sees Sonia 1at-hin) him+ "n a ./ash, he re-o)ni=es that they 1i// (e to)ether a/1ays, (ut it is hard/y a moment o. Coy+ 'e doesn!t even a-kno1/ed)e her 2resen-e+ "nstead, he )oes dire-t/y to the 2o/i-e station, to the 2/a-e 1here he had .ainted t1o 1eeks (e.ore+ "t!s ironi-a//y .unny that he meets the /oud /ieutenant, "/ya Petrovi-h, 1ho te//s him he has -ome too ear/y i. he 1ants to do any (usiness+ The o..i-er ratt/es on, a2o/o)i=in) .or havin) thou)ht (ad/y o. the youn) man, o(/ivious to the reason .or Rasko/nikov!s 2resen-e+ The one start/in) 2ie-e o. ne1s in a// o. his -hatter is that Svidri)ai/ov has shot himse/.+ Rasko/nikov is sho-kedB he sudden/y rea/i=es 1hat 1e have kno1n .or a /on) timeE that the on/y 2erson- (esides Sonia and Dunya- 1ho kno1s the truth a(out him is dead+ 3i)htheaded, he makes his 1ay out o. the 2o/i-e station+ 'e has (een savedL he thinks+ *ut there, Cust outside the entran-e, Sonia is 1aitin)+ 3ooks, (ut no 1ords, 2ass (et1een them+ Rasko/nikov turns (a-k to the o..i-e+ @"t 1as " 1ho ki//ed the o/d 1oman and her sister, 3i=aveta, 1ith an a:e++++@

EP"3O5&EJC'$P<1 -

EP"3O5&E C'$PTER 1

4hen Rasko/nikov -on.essed, he did a thorou)h Co( o. it+ 'e des-ri(ed the murder in su-h 2re-ise detai/ that the Cud)es -ou/dn!t .i)ure out 1hy he 1as /yin) a(out not havin) -ounted the money+ They -ou/dn!t (e/ieve he hadn!t+ *ut 1hen they .ina//y (e/ieved him, they -on-/uded, ironi-a//y, that it 2roved the ki//er 1as tem2orari/y menta//y deran)ed+ "t seems that, Cust /ike today, tem2orary insanity 1as the @/atest .ashiona(/e theory@ a(out -rime (a-k then+ This reminds us that some issues re/atin) to -rime haven!t -han)ed mu-h in the /ast hundred years+ Rasko/nikov does te// one (i) /ieE he insists that he is sin-ere/y remorse.u/, and that he -ommitted the murder (e-ause he 1as des2erate/y 2oor and needed the money to )et on 1ith his -areer+ 'e a/so -a//s himse/. a -o1ard and says that he has an unsta(/e nature+ Dostoevsky doesn!t e:2/ain this (ehavior, (ut /eaves it to you to .i)ure out+ One thin) you shou/d remem(er is that he has mi:ed reasons .or de-idin) to -on.ess+ $// a/on), too, the idea that he is 2unishin) himse/. has (een a stron) 2ossi(i/ity+ Perha2s 2u(/i-/y -a//in) himse/. a -o1ard satis.ies a 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ need+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE The third-2erson narrator te//s this 2art o. the story very strai)ht-.or1ard/y+ 'e o..ers no insi)ht into 1hat Rasko/nikov is thinkin)B he sim2/y re2orts the .a-ts+ 4hi/e in one 1ay the tria/ is a -ru-ia//y im2ortant 2art o. the nove/, it is a/so the /east 2rovo-ative+ "n Dostoevsky!s vie1 an im2ersona/ system is makin) 2artia//y kno1/ed)ea(/e de-isions+ 'ere, at /east, he is more -riti-a/ o. the system than o. the ki//er+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov )ets o.. 1ith a re/ative/y /i)ht senten-e- ei)ht years in Si(eria+ #any .a-tors in./uen-e the -ourt!s de-isionE Rasko/nikov!s 2overty, his menta/ insta(i/ity, his -on.ession+ Por.iry!s si/en-e is im2ortant, too, .or the -ourt never kno1s that there 1as any sus2i-ion a)ainst Rasko/nikov+ $nd his 2ast is .u// o. those stran)e, -ontradi-tory a-ts o. )oodness you sa1, .or e:am2/e, in his treatment o. the #arme/adovs+ 'is mother (e-omes i// a/most immediate/y and dies, una(/e to -o2e 1ith the un-ertainty o. her son!s .ateB Dunya and Ra=umikhin marry, and Sonia .o//o1s Rasko/nikov to Si(eria+ Dostoevsky ties o.. a// the /oose ends+ ". you ima)ined that any )reat -han)e had taken 2/a-e in Rasko/nikov, you!re in .or a disa22ointment+ 'e rea-ts to 2rison as you mi)ht have e:2e-ted the @o/d@ Rasko/nikov to- he!s su//en, indi..erent, not interested in anythin), not even Sonia!s visitsB in .a-t, he!s rude to her+ Fina//y, havin) a/ienated 2ra-ti-a//y every(ody e:-e2t the /on)-su..erin) Sonia, he (e-omes serious/y i//+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE There are many -riti-s 1ho think the (ook shou/d end at this 2oint+ Rasko/nikov is a-tin) /ike himse/., and so is Sonia, 1hothanks to Svidri)ai/ov- isn!t a 2rostitute anymore+ Rea/isti-a//y, they say, this is the /o)i-a/ -on-/usion to Rasko/nikov!s -rime and 2unishment+ *ut Dostoevsky has somethin) very di..erent in mind+

--------------------------------------------------------------------C'$P<K C'$PTER K

Rasko/nikov!s i//ness, you soon dis-over, is on-e more 2sy-ho/o)i-a//y (ased, Cust the 1ay his rea-tion to the murder had (een+ 'e!s sti// stru))/in) 1ith his humi/iationB his i//ness is the resu/t o. his 1ounded 2ride- his /oss o. se/.-res2e-t+ $.ter a// he!s (een throu)h, he sti// (e/ieves he!s not )ui/ty o. -rime+ 'e made a hu)e mistake, he does admit- (ut any(ody -ou/d have done that+ The thin) he -an!t /ive 1ith is that he -aved in+ You mi)ht even say the on/y thin) he!s sorry a(out is that he )ot -au)ht+ $nd it drives him -ra=y that the on/y 2erson he -an (/ame .or that is himse/.+ 4orse yet, he .ee/s he!s )ot nothin) /e.t to /ive .or+ 'e!s -onvin-ed that i. he!d (een a(/e to )et a1ay 1ith his -rime, he 1ou/d have 2roved he 1as e:traordinary+ "t!s su--ess, he (e/ieves, that determines 1hat!s ri)ht+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE "n some 1ays it is tem2tin) to a--e2t Rasko/nikov!s ar)ument a(out e:traordinary 2eo2/e+ 'istory -ertain/y sho1s that the vi-tor makes the ru/es+ $nd i. you a22rove o. the 1inner, you a22rove o. the ne1 1ay thin)s are done+ *ut Dostoevsky!s 2oint in this -ha2ter is that Rasko/nikov is 1ron), and that the moment he de-ided a)ainst sui-ide his su(-ons-ious a/ready kne1 it, even i. his -ons-ious mind didn!t+ --------------------------------------------------------------------Rasko/nikov does rea/i=e that he is hated and that Sonia is /oved+ *ut he -an!t understand 1hat it is a(out her that makes 2eo2/e .ee/ that 1ay+ Dostoevsky /ets us see that the .ai/in) is on Rasko/nikov!s 2art, that his o1n ina(i/ity to /ove and to -are a(out 2eo2/e /imits him as a human (ein)+ Rasko/nikov!s i//ness -omes at Easter, the Christian sym(o/ o. resurre-tion and re(irth+ 3ike the si-kness that stru-k him at the time o. the murder, this one si)na/s an im2ortant -han)e in his /i.e+ $)ain, he has a .ri)htenin) dream+ *ut this time the dream has a very di..erent e..e-t+ 'is ni)htmare invo/ves the entire 1or/dB everyone is in.e-ted 1ith a stran)e disease+ Those 1ith the disease )o mad, and -onsider their o1n ideas and -onvi-tions su2erior to everyone e/se!s+ $nar-hy ru/es the 1or/d+ Order disso/ves+ $nd those 1ho are destined to /ead the 1or/d into a ne1 era -an!t (e .ound+ Rasko/nikov -an!t rid himse/. o. this ima)e+ Then he .inds out Sonia is si-k, and he dis-overs a ne1 .ee/in)E he is 1orried a(out her+ 4hen Sonia re-overs enou)h to -ome to see him, a mira-/e has ha22ened+ Rasko/nikov (reaks into tears, and knee/s (e.ore her+ "nstant/y, she kno1s that he /oves her and that they 1i// have a .uture to)ether+ Dostoevsky!s 1ords are /oaded 1ith meanin)E in their .a-es )/o1ed @the da1n o. a ne1 .uture, a 2er.e-t resurre-tion into a ne1 /i.e+@ The 3a=arus ima)e re-urs+ 3ove has raised them .rom the dead+ *ut this /ove is )reater than human, se:ua/ /ove+ "t is the /ove o. 5od that has sho1n throu)h Sonia and her su..erin)+ 3ovin) her,

Rasko/nikov is a/so ready to /ove 5od+ The seven years that remain on his senten-e have a re/i)ious si)ni.i-an-e too, .or seven is the num(er o. -reation, and the num(er o. mysti-a/ union o. man and 5od+ Dostoevsky ends the nove/ on a note o. ho2e and Coy+ The 2ast must sti// (e e:2iated, (ut the .uture ho/ds in.inite 2romise+ --------------------------------------------------------------------%OTEE %ot a// readers -an a--e2t the endin) o. Crime and Punishment+ #any, in .a-t, think that this -ha2ter o. the E2i/o)ue is arti.i-ia/ and un-onvin-in)- es2e-ia//y (e-ause o. the mira-u/ous trans.ormation o. the main -hara-ter+ They ar)ue that, des2ite Dostoevsky!s -/ear intention to 1rite a nove/ 1ith the messa)e o. sa/vation, he has not (een -onvin-in)+ 'is .ai/ure, they say, is the resu/t o. his e:traordinary su--ess in -reatin) the -hara-ter o. Rasko/nikov to (e)in 1ith+ Your -on-/usion is u2 to you+ Either you -an a--e2t Dostoevsky!s vie1 that sa/vation is 2ossi(/e- even .or Rasko/nikov- or you -an de-ide that the rea/ so/ution to the nove/ is in Cha2ter One o. the E2i/o)ue+ That sho1s a (itter and hardened 2rota)onist 1hose .uture is un-ertain and not very 2romisin)+ 4hi-hever -on-/usion seems more (e/ieva(/e to you is the one you -an de.end- usin) eviden-e o. Rasko/nikov!s -hara-ter (ased on your readin) o. the nove/, and -om(inin) that eviden-e 1ith 1hat you kno1 a(out /i.e+ Ea-h side has (een (ri//iant/y de.ended (y s-ho/ar!s and (y other readers too+ Remem(er, thou)h, that Dostoevsky intended us to a--e2t Rasko/nikov!s sa/vation+ --------------------------------------------------------------------TESTS<$%D<$%S4ERS TEST 1 <<<<< 1+ The most o(vious thin) a(out Rasko/nikov is that he $+ .ears neither 5od nor man *+ is a dua/ 2ersona/ity C+ is 1orthy o. redem2tion <<<<< K+ The t1o -ontrastin) as2e-ts o. Rasko/nikov!s nature are 2resented (y $+ Dunya and Por.iry *+ $vdotya and 3u=hin C+ Sonia and Svidri)ai/ov <<<<< ;+ Rasko/nikov is des-ri(ed as e:-e2tiona//y handsome in order to $+ evoke the reader!s sym2athy *+ esta(/ish a -ontrast 1ith the u)/iness o. his -rime C+ va/idate Dostoevsky!s theory <<<<< 9+ 4hen Rasko/nikov sees the des2erate situation o. the $ STEP *EYO%D TESTS $%D $%S4ERS TESTS

6DCR"TEST7

#arme/adov .ami/y, he $+ >uiet/y /eaves them some money *+ -ounse/s them on the need to -han)e their 1ays C+ vo1s to he/2 them )et (a-k on their .eet <<<<< H+ Rasko/nikov sees (oth Dunya an Sonia as $+ 2rostitutes o. a sort *+ mode/s o. -ontem2orary Russian 1omanhood C+ vi-tims o. )overnmenta/ indi..eren-e <<<<< 6+ @Do you understand 1hat it means 1hen you have a(so/ute/y no 1here to turnD@ asks $+ Sonia *+ Ra=umikhin C+ #arme/adov <<<<< ?+ "n Rasko/nikov!s dream a(out the drunken 2easant, he $+ kisses the dead horse *+ s/ashes the (rute a-ross the .a-e C+ thro1s the man under the horse!s hooves <<<<< 8+ The a-tua/ murder o. the 2a1n(roker is .a-i/itated (y the "+ movin) /etter .rom Rasko/nikov!s mother+ ""+ -rushin) 2overty 1hi-h surrounds Rasko/nikov """+ .ortuitous a(sen-e o. the o/d 1oman!s sister $+ " and "" on/y *+ "" and """ on/y C+ ", "", and """ <<<<< 8+ The rationa/i=ation .or the ki//in) o. o/d $/yona "vanovna is that "+ she 1as an evi/ 2erson ""+ she had treated Rasko/nikov!s mother 2oor/y """+ her money -ou/d (e used to he/2 needy 2eo2/e $+ " and "" on/y *+ " and """ on/y C+ "" and """ on/y <<<<< 1A+ Rasko/nikov!s (e/ie. in the -rimina/!s .a//i(i/ity is seen 1hen he

$+ a//o1s 2ainters to vie1 his .a-e *+ /eaves $/yona "vanovna!s door 1ide o2en C+ .or)ets to remove his .in)er2rints .rom the )/ass

11+ Crime and Punishment is o.ten des-ri(ed as a nove/ that uses sus2ense e..e-tive/y+ 4hat te-hni>ues does Dostoevsky use to -reate sus2enseD Does his use o. sus2ense make the story more e:-itin)D 5ive e:am2/es .rom the nove/ to su22ort your ans1ers+

1K+ E:2/ain ho1 Dostoevsky deve/o2s Rasko/nikov as a -hara-ter 1ith a dua/, or s2/it, 2ersona/ity+ 'o1 does Rasko/nikov -han)e in this res2e-t over the -ourse o. the nove/D &se e:am2/es .rom the nove/+ TEST K <<<<< 1+ Sym(o/s o. the )ui/t 1hi-h 1ei)hs heavi/y u2on Rasko/nikov are the $+ 1ooden and -o22er -rosses 1hi-h the 2a1n(roker 1ore *+ (/oody so-ks he is .or-ed to 1ear C+ keys 1hi-h he sto/e .rom the o/d 1oman!s 2o-ket <<<<< K+ Rasko/nikov!s .aintin) s2e// at the 2o/i-e station 1as (rou)ht on (y the $+ 2ersistent need to -on.ess *+ .ear o. the inte//e-t o. the 2o/i-e -hie. C+ sme// o. .resh 2aint <<<<< ;+ Rasko/nikov -ontinua//y asso-iates -rime 1ith $+ 2unishment *+ disease C+ 2assion <<<<< 9+ Rasko/nikov!s em2athy 1ith the do1ntrodden and reCe-ted is unders-ored (y his $+ 2rior en)a)ement to a si-k and u)/y )ir/ *+ e..orts to raise .unds .or #arme/adov!s .unera/ C+ /etter to the ne1s2a2er editor <<<<< H+ Rasko/nikov!s -rime is ironi- in that "+ it has -hained him rather than .reed him ""+ he makes no use o. the money he sto/e """+ it 1as inevita(/e that he 1ou/d (e -au)ht $+ " and "" on/y *+ " and """ on/y C+ "" and """ on/y <<<<< 6+ $--ordin) to Rasko/nikov!s theory, the e:traordinary man is a//o1ed to -ommit a -rime (e-ause he $+ is .ree .rom -ons-ien-e *+ has no .ear o. the /a1 C+ is e:traordinary <<<<< ?+ $t /east ten times in the nove/, Rasko/nikov is 2re2ared to $+ -ommit vio/en-e *+ -on.ess

<<<<<

C+ inte//e-tua/i=e the va/idity o. his theory 8+ Rasko/nikov asked Sonia to read to him the *i(/e story o. $+ 0esus and the .a//en 1oman *+ the raisin) o. 3a=arus C+ 0udas! (etraya/ o. 0esus <<<<< 8+ Rasko/nikov identi.ies 1ith Sonia (e-ause $+ they have (oth trans)ressed a)ainst /i.e *+ her -rime is as serious as his C+ sa/vation is denied to (oth o. them <<<<< 1A+ Svidri)ai/ov -ommits sui-ide a.ter $+ his sho1do1n 1ith Rasko/nikov *+ his dream a(out a /itt/e )ir/ C+ he /earns o. Rasko/nikov!s -on.ession

11+ The 2ro(/em o. -rime and 2unishment has trou(/ed 2eo2/e throu)hout history+ $/thou)h Dostoevsky!s Crime and Punishment takes 2/a-e in 18th--entury Russia, do his ideas have universa/ si)ni.i-an-eD 5ive e:am2/es that su22ort your o2inion+ 1K+ Crime and Punishment is a nove/ o. ni)htmares+ Some are rea/ and some are dreamed+ Sho1 ho1 the dreams revea/ the truth to their dreamers+ &se e:am2/es .rom the nove/+ $%S4ERS TEST 1 1+ * K+ C ;+ * 9+ $ H+ $ 6+ C ?+ $ 8+ C 8+ * 1A+ * 11+ To ans1er a >uestion /ike this, think a(out the 1ho/e nove/+ First, .ind e:am2/es o. sus2ense.u/ s-enes in the nove/+ T1o o. the most .amous o--ur 1hen Rasko/nikov is in the 2a1n(roker!s room at the time o. the ki//in) 6Part ", Cha2ter V""7, and 1hen Dunya -on.ronts Svidri)ai/ov 1ith the )un 6Part V", Cha2ter V"7+ Others o--ur throu)hout the nove/, some in ea-h 2art e:-e2t the e2i/o)ue+ You don!t have to in-/ude a// o. them, (ut you shou/d -hoose e:am2/es .rom di..erent 2arts o. the nove/+ The e:am2/es shou/d (e varied in su(Ce-t too+ For instan-e, the times 1hen Rasko/nikov thinks he!s a(out to )et -au)ht are a// a/ike in su(Ce-t+ So use on/y one o. those+ 4hen you!ve identi.ied three di..erent ty2es o. sus2ense.u/ s-enes, des-ri(e ea-h one+ #ention 1hen they o--ur, 1hat they -ontri(ute to the story, 1hat the /an)ua)e is /ike, and ho1 the narrator!s sty/e or the dia/o)ue re./e-ts the tension+ For e:am2/e, 1hen 3u=hin tries to tra2 Sonia, 3e(e=yatnikov dro2s his /on), -om2/i-ated senten-es and a--uses him dire-t/y+ "n your -on-/usion, e:2/ain ho1 you, as a reader, rea-ted to the s-enes, sayin) 1hether you think they added to your 2/easure and understandin)+ 1K+ There are t1o di..erent 1ays to ans1er this >uestion+

The .irst, and 2erha2s easier, 1ay is to e:2/ain, (y usin) detai/s .rom the nove/, that Rasko/nikov (ehaves in t1o distin-t/y di..erent 1ays at di..erent times+ Sometimes he is hate.u/ and -rue/, as he is 1hen he ki//s the 1omen 6Part ", Cha2ter V""7, or 1hen he te//s Sonia her .aith in 5od is use/ess 6Part "V, Cha2ter "V7+ Other times he is )enerous and .u// o. -om2assion, as he is 1hen he )ives the #arme/adovs money 6Part ", Cha2ter ""B Part "", Cha2ter V""7, and 1hen he te//s his mother that he /oves her 6Part V", Cha2ter V""7+ To 1rite a stron) essay, you shou/d de-ide 1hi-h 2art o. his 2ersona/ity seems more in -ontro/ at di..erent times- and 1hy+ Su22ort your -on-/usions (y des-ri(in) 1hat Rasko/nikov says and does at di..erent 2oints in the nove/+ Remem(er to in-/ude e2isodes .rom the entire nove/, in-/udin) the E2i/o)ue, in 1hi-h Dostoevsky a//o1s Rasko/nikov!s )ood side to trium2h+ Your -on-/usion mi)ht -omment on 1hether you .ind that -han)e (e/ieva(/e+ The other 1ay to ans1er the >uestion is to -om2are Rasko/nikov to some o. his @dou(/es@ or @.oi/s+@ You -an sho1 ho1, on the evi/ side, he is /ike Svidri)ai/ov, 1hi/e, in his )ood moments, he -an (e /ike Dunya and Ra=umikhin+ %ote s-enes in 1hi-h Rasko/nikov!s simi/arity to an evi/ -hara-ter is 2ointed out- and s-enes in 1hi-h an evi/ -hara-ter is used as a -ontrast to Rasko/nikov+ Your -on-/usion shou/d e:2/ain 1hy it!s si)ni.i-ant that Rasko/nikov /ives 6/ike the )ood -hara-ters7, rather than dies 6/ike the evi/ or 1eak ones7+ TEST K 1+ * K+ C ;+ * 9+ $ H+ $ 6+ C ?+ * 8+ * 8+ $ 1A+ * 11+ "n ar)uin) that the nove/!s theme is universa/, you -ou/d 2oint out that Dostoevsky tou-hes on three -riti-a/ issuesE the nature o. -rime, the 2sy-ho/o)y o. the -rimina/, and the 1ay -rimina/s -an (e 2unished+ a+ Dostoevsky asserts the need .or an o(Ce-tive mora/ standard, in 1hi-h va/ues are .i:ed+ E:2/ain 1hat he says ha22ens 1hen an individua/ (e/ieves he -an de.ine his o1n mora/ standard+ You mi)ht dis-uss ho1 the stru))/e (et1een individua/ ethi-s and so-iety!s va/ues have .re>uent/y (een a 2ro(/em in many -ountries+ Does Dostoevsky!s -on-e2t o. mora/ standards have any re/evan-e todayD (+ The nove/ -on-entrates on the 2sy-ho/o)y o. the -rimina/+ Dostoevsky des-ri(es various motives and reasons .or Rasko/nikov!s -rime, (ut none o. them are ever rea//y enou)h to e:2/ain 1hy a -ertain individua/ -hooses to -ommit -rime and others don!t+ You -ou/d sho1, usin) -ontem2orary e:am2/es, that the 2sy-ho/o)y o. the -rimina/ is sti// a mystery, and that the issue o. ho1 mu-h in./uen-e so-iety has on -reatin) -rimina/s is sti// a/ive+ -+ Dostoevsky ana/y=es 2unishment that 1orks+ You -an ar)ue that -rimina/s 1ho -an!t (e reha(i/itated are a maCor 2ro(/em in any -ountry+ *ut you must de-ide 1hether the so/ution Dostoevsky 2ro2oses is 1orka(/e or not, (y s2e-u/atin) on ho1 1e// Por.iry!s methods o. )ettin) Rasko/nikov to -on.ess and ask .or he/2 1ou/d 1ork on the ty2i-a/ ki//er+ Remem(er to 2oint out that Rasko/nikov is the on/y -rimina/ in the nove/ 1ho is reha(i/itated+ You -an ar)ue that Svidri)ai/ov!s sui-ide and 3u=hin!s arro)an-e 2rove that Rasko/nikov is not a ty2i-a/ -rimina/+ 1K+ Sin-e (oth Rasko/nikov and Svidri)ai/ov are 2/a)ued (y dreams,

your ans1er ou)ht to dis-uss (oth o. them+ For (oth men, Dostoevsky uses dreams to revea/ the state o. their minds and sou/s+ $nd sin-e Svidri)ai/ov -ommits sui-ide 1hi/e Rasko/nikov is re.ormed, you shou/d sho1 1hat is di..erent as 1e// as 1hat is simi/ar in their dreams+ *e-ause Rasko/nikov is the 2rota)onist and (e-ause his dreams are usua//y des-ri(ed in more detai/, it!s a22ro2riate to start 1ith him+ 'e has three strikin)/y di..erent dreamsE the .irst is the one a(out the horse 6Part ", Cha2ter V7B the se-ond is a mo-kin) re2/ay o. the murder 6Part """, Cha2ter V"7B and the third is a(out a 2/a)ue 6Part V"", Cha2ter ""7+ You -an e:2/ain ho1 ea-h o. them is re/ated to the (ehavior that .o//o1s it, and des-ri(e 1hat you think the dream means to the dreamer+ Think a(out 1hether Rasko/nikov sees himse/. -/ear/y in ea-h dream+ You mi)ht ar)ue that the dreams .or-e him to a-t, or that rather they 2redi-t ho1 he 1i// a-t+ Svidri)ai/ov!s ni)htmare, Cust (e.ore he -ommits sui-ide 62art V", Cha2ter V"7, shou/d (e re/ated to Rasko/nikov!s dreams+ E:2/ain ho1 it is /ike them, and ho1 it is di..erent+ Consider 1hether it revea/s the truth a(out his (ehavior to his -ons-ious mind so that he!s .or-ed to see himse/. as he rea//y is+ "n your -on-/usion, s2e-u/ate on 1hy you think Dostoevsky -hose to use this devi-e o. dreams as a 1ay to make the -hara-ters more -om2/e:+ ". you /ike, it 1ou/d (e a22ro2riate to dis-uss modern ideas a(out the si)ni.i-an-e o. dreams+ TER#<P$PER<"DE$S TER# P$PER "DE$S 6DCR"TER#7

1+ Com2are Rasko/nikov!s vi-tims, the 2a1n(roker and her sister+ 4hy is it im2ortant that he ki//s them (othD 4hy doesn!t Dostoevsky deve/o2 either 1oman very -/ear/y as a -hara-terD K+ 4hy is the nove/ so .u// o. s-enes o. drunkenness, 2rostitution, and other seedy or de-adent as2e-ts o. /i.eD E:2/ain ho1 this environment is re/ated to the -rime Rasko/nikov -ommits+ ;+ Com2are the -hara-ters o. Sonia and Dunya, the t1o most im2ortant 1omen in the nove/+ Do they seem as rea/isti- and 2o1er.u//y dra1n as the menD 9+ $na/y=e the 2hysi-a/ i//nesses that 2/a)ue the -hara-ters in the nove/E aterina "vanovna, Rasko/nikov himse/., his mother, and other -hara-ters 1ho are serious/y i//+ $re a// the i//nesses the sameD 4hat di..erent thin)s does (ein) si-k meanD H+ 3ook u2 some modern 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ e:2/anations .or deviant (ehavior+ Do Rasko/nikov and other @deviant@ -hara-ters -orres2ond to so-ia/ s-ientists! attem2ts to e:2/ain -rimina/ (ehaviorD 6+ Des-ri(e Por.iry Petrovi-h as a dete-tive+ 4hat has he in -ommon 1ith other dete-tives in .i-tion and ho1 is he di..erentD You mi)ht -om2are him to Sher/o-k 'o/mes, .or instan-e+ ?+ "denti.y and dis-uss the various Christian ima)ery and sym(o/ism in the nove/+ 8+ 4hy, in a nove/ 1ith so many re/i)ious ideas, are there no -hur-hes and .e1 -/er)ymenD Resear-h Dostoevsky!s /i.e to .ind out

a(out his re/i)ious (e/ie.s and a(out the or)ani=ation o. the Russian -hur-h durin) the years 1hen he 1as 1ritin) Crime and Punishment+ 8+ Com2are Rasko/nikov to Shakes2eare!s 'am/et+ They (oth have (een des-ri(ed as men 1ho e:2erien-e the an)uish o. modern /i.e+ 1A+ 4hat does Dostoevsky mean (y a/ienation+ Sho1 the various 1ays that (ein) a/ienated a..e-t Rasko/nikov+ 11+ E:2/ain the -ontradi-tions in Rasko/nikov!s e:2/anations .or his -rime+ Does he rea//y kno1 1hy he has murdered the 2a1n(rokerD 53OSS$RY $3"E%$T"O% 53OSS$RY 6DCR"53OS7 3ivin) as an @outsider,@ or in a state o. iso/ation+

C"V"3 SERV"CE 6R&SS"$%7 $n e/a(orate system o. )overnment Co(s, divided into 19 ranks+ Ea-h rank had a distin-tive uni.orm and so-ia/ status+ CO%S&#PT"O% $n o/d term .or tu(er-u/osis, a disease o. the /un)s that 1as a .re>uent and dead/y ki//er unti/ re-ent times+ DO&*3E, DO&*3"%5 $ 2sy-ho/o)i-a/ term des-ri(in) a -hara-ter 1ith t1o 2ersona/ities, or t1o -hara-ters 1ho re2resent di..erent 2arts o. the same 2erson+ "n Crime and Punishment, Rasko/nikov!s di..erent (ehavior 2atterns -an (e des-ri(ed as dou(/in)+ '$Y#$R ET $ -entra/ -rossroads, or s>uare, o. the s/um distri-t o. St+ Peters(ur)+ "CO% $n ima)e, 2i-ture, or re2resentation o. a saint or other Christian .i)ure+ 3$F$R&S $ %e1 Testament .i)ure, the (rother o. #ary and #artha, 1ho 1ere .riends o. 0esus+ 4hen 3a=arus died, his sisters mourned .or him, (ut Christ raised him .rom the dead a.ter .our days+ This mira-/e is usua//y inter2reted as a .oreshado1in) o. Christ!s o1n resurre-tion+ "n the nove/, it su))ests ho2e .or Rasko/nikov+ #O%O#$%"$ Dr+ Fosimov des-ri(es Rasko/nikov!s o(session 1ith the murder as monomania+ $s a te-hni-a/ term .or a 2atho/o)i-a/ -ondition, it is no /on)er in use, (ut it is sti// used to mean a sin)/e-minded interest in one su(Ce-t+ %E4 0ER&S$3E# $ term used (y devout Christians to des-ri(e the 1ay the 1or/d 1i// (e at the se-ond -omin) o. Christ+ 4hen Rasko/nikov says he (e/ieves in the %e1 0erusa/em, it means that he (e/ieves in 5od and in re/i)ious ho2e+ %$PO3EO% *ri//iant )enera/ 1ho (e-ame Em2eror o. Fran-e and )reat/y a..e-ted Euro2ean history+ "n 181K, he 1as de.eated in his des2erate attem2t to -on>uer Russia, (ut he remained .or Russians in )enera/ and Rasko/nikov in 2arti-u/ar a )reat hero+ -

O#%"SC"E%T %$RR$TOR $ storyte//er 1ho kno1s everythin) a(out the -hara-ters and shares that kno1/ed)e 1ith the reader+ P$4%*RO ER Someone 1ho /ends money in e:-han)e .or 2ersona/ 2ro2erty )iven as -o//atera/+ PSYC'O%Y# $ name 1hose root indi-ates the 2ersona/ity or -hara-ter o. its (earer+ For e:am2/e, Ra=umikhin is a man o. reason 6ra=um M reason7+ RO&*3E The Russian monetary unit+ ST+ PETERS*&R5 no1n today as 3enin)rad, it 1as the Russian -a2ita/ unti/ 1818, and a -u/tura/ and /iterary -enter, too+ S'$43 D$%CE $ dan-e -hara-teristi- o. the edu-ation 2rovided in u22er--/ass .inishin) s-hoo/s+ S"*ER"$ $ vast area o. Eastern Russia, used sin-e the 1?th -entury as a 2ena/ -o/ony and 2/a-e o. e:i/e .or -rimina/s+ SOC"$3"S# $ 2o/iti-a/ 2hi/oso2hy 2o2u/ar in the 18th -entury as a 1ay to eradi-ate some o. the evi/s o. so-iety+ The so-ia/ists! e:2/anation o. so-ia/ inCusti-e as a -ause o. -rime 1as a theory Dostoevsky reCe-ted+ &S&RY 3endin) money at e:or(itant/y hi)h interest rates+ CR"T"CS T'E CR"T"CS 6DCR"CR"T7

The theme o. a/ienation as the sour-e o. -rime is the su(Ce-t o. this -ommentE Crime and Punishment 1as Dostoevsky!s .irst )reat reve/ation to the 1or/d, and the main 2i//ar o. his su(se>uent 2hi/oso2hy o. /i.e+ "t 1as a reve/ation o. the mysti- )ui/t in-urred (y the 2ersona/ity that shuts itse/. u2 in so/itude, and .or this reason dro2s 2ut o. the -om2rehensive unity o. mankind, and thus a/so out o. the s2here o. in./uen-e o. mora/ /a1+ $ .ormu/a has (een .ound .or ne)ative se/.-determination (y the individua/E the name .or it 1asiso/ation+ Rasko/nikov!s in-ar-eration 1ithin himse/., 1hi-h 1as the resu/t o. the su2reme de-ision o. his .ree 1i// 6a 1i// -ut o.. .rom the universa/ 1ho/e7, .inds its .ina/ e:2ression in the -rime he -ommits+ The se>uen-e is not .rom -rime to se/.-in-ar-eration, (ut the -onverse .or .rom the /atter arises the attem2t to ensure the stren)th and autarky o. the so/itary 2ersona/ity- an attem2t 1hi-h, on the 2/ane o. e:terna/ events, e:2resses itse/. as a -rime+ -Vya-hes/av "vanov, Freedom and the Tra)i- 3i.e 'ere!s another 2ers2e-tive on the same su(Ce-tE Rasko/nikov never re2ented o. his -rime (e-ause he did not ho/d himse/. res2onsi(/e .or the murder+ 'e had .an-ied that he -ou/d 2/an and -arry out the deed, (ut 1hen the time -ame to a-t, it 1as as i. he 1ere im2e//ed (y .or-es over 1hi-h he had no -ontro/, (y @some de-ree o. (/ind .ate+@ #an must su..er, he de-ides, (e-ause man,

his inte//e-t a de/usion and its 2o1er demoni-, tra22ed (y his instin-tive (ruta/ity and the -ons2ira-y o. his vi-tims, does not 1i// his destiny+ @%ot on earth, (ut u2 yonder,@ #arme/adov has -ried out, @they )rieve over men, they 1ee2, (ut they don!t (/ame themL@ NPart ", Cha2ter KO The a/oneness o. man is o..ended (y the )ods! re.usa/ to (/ame 1hat they -annot (/ame, (ut on-e su..erin), man!s (onda)e, is a--e2ted man .ee/s a 2art o. somethin) (eyond a/oneness, .ee/s no /on)er that he -an (e a )od (ut that he is 2art o. the 5od that is @everythin)+@ The reve/ation that -omes to Rasko/nikov throu)h /ove and humi/ity @in 2rison, in .reedom,@ is inevita(/e (e-ause it is the o(verse side, the 2ro, o. the 1i//-to-su..erin), the -ontra, that has (een throu)hout the entire nove/ his 2rimary motivation+ -#auri-e *ee(e, @The Three #otives o. Rasko/nikov,@ in Co//e)e En)/ish GV"" 6De-em(er, 18HH7, 2+ 1H8+ Rasko/nikov is a @dou(/e@ -hara-ter+ Severa/ -riti-s have -ommented on that as2e-t o. Crime and Punishment+ 'ere!s oneE Crime and Punishment is not on/y the .irst o. Dostoevsky!s stories in 1hi-h re/i)ion 2/ays any 2art, it is the .irst in 1hi-h the dou(/e!s di/emma is 1orked out in terms o. in1ardness+ "t is a/so the on/y nove/ in 1hi-h a dou(/e is 2ur)ed+ "s Rasko/nikov rea//y a dou(/e, and does he e:hi(it a..e-tive and mora/ am(iva/en-eD+++ Rasko/nikov does indeed 1o((/e (a-k and .orth (et1een the -/aims o. 2ride and 2ity++++ he understands that the interior (att/e is essentia//y (et1een reason as an instrument o. the e)o!s desire .or 2o1er and )/ory, and the heart!s sorro1 .or others++++ 'e re2resses 2ity as /on) as it )ets in the 1ay o. the e)oism that his rationa/ -rime is .ed (y+ *ut he never denies the ne-essity o. 2ity+ @Pain and su..erin) are a/1ays inevita(/e .or a /ar)e inte//i)en-e and a dee2 heart+ The rea//y )reat men must, " think, have )reat sadness on earth+@ %ot on/y does he never deny 2ity, he is -onstant/y tortured (y his Titani- 2ride+ 'e has an instin-t 1ithin him that so/emn/y -ondemns him even 1hi/e he re.uses to /isten+ "n Rasko/nikov too the -ontradi-tions e:ist side (y side+ Re2ression on/y a-ts to e/evate one side, it does not make the other any /ess a-tive+ Time a.ter time Rasko/nikov!s 2ity 2rodu-es 1orks o. -om2assion, -harity, and se/.-sa-ri.i-e+ 4hat makes his simu/taneity or dou(/eness /ook di..erent is that his reason remains a-tive on one /eve/, and 2ity on another++++ Crime and Punishment is the story o. the ha/.--ons-ious de(ate o. in1ardness risin) s/o1/y and sure/y to a .u//y -ons-ious 2/ane+ Rasko/nikov -on.esses to the 2o/i-e, not (e-ause he has .ai/ed or (een -au)ht, (ut (e-ause he kno1s he -annot reso/ve the torment o. his >uestiona(/eness or su22ress the in1ard de(ate+ -Ra/2h 'ar2er, The Seventh So/itude 22+ HA-H1+ 'ere is another -omment on Rasko/nikov and the -on-e2t o. the @dou(/e@E Rasko/nikov may a-t irrationa//y at times, (ut he is not mad nor even ha/.-mad, and his -reator never intended him to (e mad++++ Rasko/nikov is a ty2i-a/ Dou(/e+ Dostoevsky makes this 2er.e-t/y -/ear in Ra=umikhin!s des-ri2tion o. his .riend in the nove/+ @'e is morose, )/oomy, 2roud, and hau)htyB o. /ate 6and 2erha2s .or a /on) time (e.ore7, he has (een mistrust.u/ and de2ressed+ 'e has a no(/e nature and a kind heart+ 'e does not /ike to sho1 his .ee/in)s, and 1ou/d rather do a -rue/ thin) than o2en his heart .ree/y++++@

This @a/ternatin) (et1een t1o o22osin) -hara-ters@ is the most sustained .eature o. Rasko/nikov!s nature+ To the very end o. the nove/, and even in 2rison, the dua/ism o. Rasko/nikov 2ursues its re/ent/ess -ourse+ "t is im2ossi(/e .or him to a--e2t either 2ath as the so/utionE the 2ath o. (/ood and -rime to 2o1er or the 2ath o. su(mission and su..erin) to a Christ-/ike sa/vation+ 'e /oves and hates (oth, the meekness and su(mission o. Sonya and the se/.-1i// and desire .or 2o1er o. Svidri)ai/ov+ "ndeed, (oth these -hara-ters re2resent the e:treme 2o/es o. his dua/ism and it is 2sy-ho/o)i-a//y inevita(/e that he shou/d (e dra1n to ea-h o. them+ -Ernest 0+ Simmons, Dostoevsky, The makin) o. a %ove/ist 22+ 19K, 19?, 1H1+ $DV"SORY<*O$RD $DV"SORY *O$RD 6DCR"$DV*7

4e 1ish to thank the .o//o1in) edu-ators 1ho he/2ed us .o-us our *ook %otes series to meet student needs and -riti>ued our manus-ri2ts to 2rovide >ua/ity materia/s+ #urray *rom(er), Prin-i2a/ 4an) 'i)h S-hoo/ o. Iueens, 'o//is1ood, %e1 York Sandra Dunn, En)/ish Tea-her 'em2stead 'i)h S-hoo/, 'em2stead, %e1 York 3a1ren-e 0+ E2stein, $sso-iate Pro.essor o. En)/ish Su..o/k County Community Co//e)e, Se/den, %e1 York 3eonard 5ardner, 3e-turer, En)/ish De2artment State &niversity o. %e1 York at Stony *rook *ever/y $+ 'a/ey, #em(er, $dvisory Committee %ationa/ Coun-i/ o. Tea-hers o. En)/ish Student 5uide Series Fort #or)an, Co/orado E/aine C+ 0ohnson, En)/ish Tea-her Tama/2ais &nion 'i)h S-hoo/ Distri-t #i// Va//ey, Ca/i.ornia #arvin 0+ 3a'ood, Pro.essor o. En)/ish State &niversity o. %e1 York Co//e)e at *u..a/o Ro(ert 3e-ker, $sso-iate Pro.essor o. En)/ish #-5i// &niversity, #ontrea/, Iue(e-, Canada David E+ #an/y, Pro.essor o. Edu-ationa/ Studies State &niversity o. %e1 York Co//e)e at 5eneseo *ru-e #i//er, $sso-iate Pro.essor o. Edu-ation State &niversity o. %e1 York at *u..a/o Frank O!'are, Pro.essor o. En)/ish Ohio State &niversity, Co/um(us, Ohio Faith F+ S-hu//strom, #em(er, E:e-utive Committee

%ationa/ Coun-i/ o. Tea-hers o. En)/ish Dire-tor o. Curri-u/um and "nstru-tion 5ui/der/and Centra/ S-hoo/ Distri-t, %e1 York #attie C+ 4i//iams, Dire-tor, *ureau o. 3an)ua)e $rts Chi-a)o Pu(/i- S-hoo/s, Chi-a)o, "//inois T'E E%D OF *$RRO%!S *OO %OTES FYODOR DOSTOEVS Y!S CR"#E $%D P&%"S'#E%T *"*3"O5R$P'Y 6DCR"*"*37

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F&RT'ER RE$D"%5 CR"T"C$3 4OR S

*erdyaev, %i-ho/as+ Dostoevsky+ %e1 YorkE The 4or/d Pu(/ishin) Com2any, 18H?+ $ series o. essays on Dostoevsky and his 1or/d+ Frank, 0ose2h+ The Seeds o. Revo/t+ Prin-etonE Prin-eton &niversity Press, 18?6+ <<<<<+ The Years o. Ordea/+ Prin-etonE Prin-eton &niversity Press, 188;+ The .irst t1o vo/umes o. a /i.e o. Dostoevsky, )enera//y re-o)ni=ed as a de.initive study+ 5ide, $ndre+ Dostoevsky+ %e1 YorkE 18K6+ The Fren-h 1riter!s inter2retation o. Dostoevsky!s /i.e and 1ork+ 5uerard, $/(ert 0+ The Trium2h o. the %ove/+ %e1 YorkE O:.ord &niversity Press, 18?6+ $ 1ork o. hi)h/y a--/aimed s-ho/arshi2 (y a 1e//-kno1n -riti-+ "vanov, Vya-hes/av+ Freedom and the Tra)i- 3i.eE $ Study in Dostoevsky+ %e1 YorkE Farrar Straus P Co+, "n-+, 18HK+ $ hi)h/y res2e-ted and very reada(/e -/assi-+ 0a-kson, Ro(ert 3+ Crime and PunishmentE $ Co//e-tion o. Criti-a/ Essays+ En)/e1ood C/i..s, 188;+ $ re-ent 1ork, 1ith severa/ essays o. interest+ 0a-kson, Ro(ert 3+, ed+ T1entieth Century "nter2retations o. Crime and Punishment+ En)/e1ood C/i..sE Prenti-e-'a//, 18?;+ $ va/ua(/e sour-e o. 1e// kno1n essays on the nove/B 2art o. a res2e-ted series o. -riti-a/ 1orks .or the )enera/ reader+ #ar)arsha-k, David+ Dostoevsky+ %e1 YorkE 'ar-ourt, *ra-e, 186;+ $ )ood introdu-tion to the nove/ist+ #odern Fi-tion Studies+ "VE iii 6$utumn, 18H87+ $n entire issue devoted to Dostoevsky, in-/udin) a .u// (i(/io)ra2hy u2 to 18H8+ #o/-hu/sky, onstantin+ DostoevskyE 'is 3i.e and 4ork, trans/ated (y #i-hae/ $+ #inihan+ Prin-etonE Prin-eton &niversity Press, 189?+

#any s-ho/ars -onsider this one o. the (est 1orks on the nove/ist+ Simmons, Ernest 0+ Dostoevsky, the #akin) o. a %ove/ist+ %e1 YorkE Vinta)e *ooks, 189A+ $ 1ide/y read and o.ten >uoted standard 1ork+ 4asio/ek, Ed1ard, ed+ Crime and Punishment and the Criti-s+ San Fran-is-oE 4ads1orth, 1861+ <<<<<, ed+ The %ote(ooks .or Crime and Punishment+ Chi-a)oE &niversity o. Chi-a)o Press, 18?9+ The note(ooks in 1hi-h Dostoevsky re-orded his 2/ans .or the nove/+ <<<<<+ DostoevskyE The #aCor Fi-tion+ Cam(rid)eE #"T Press, 1869+ One o. the most im2ortant -riti-a/ 1orks on the nove/ist+ "m2ortant to any serious study o. his 1ork+ <<<<<+ @On the Stru-ture o. Crime and Punishment+@ P#3$ 3GG"V 6#ar-h, 18H87+ 4e//ek, Rene, ed+ DostoevskyE $ Co//e-tion o. Criti-a/ Essays+ %e1 YorkE Prenti-e 'a//, 186K+ 4ide-ran)in) -o//e-tion that in-/udes Phi/i2 Rahv!s arti-/e on Crime and Punishment+ Yarmo/insky, $vrahm+ DostoevskyE 'is 3i.e and $rt+ %e1 YorkE 18H?+ $ )enera/ introdu-tion re/atin) his 1ork and his /i.e+ $&T'OR!S OT'ER 4OR S 1896 Poor Fo/k, The Dou(/e 186A The 'ouse o. the Dead 1861 The "nsu/ted and the "nCuredB %otes .rom &nder)round 1866 Crime and Punishment 1868 The "diot 18?A The Eterna/ 'us(and 18?1 The Possessed 18?H $ Ra1 Youth 188A The *rothers arama=ov T'E E%D OF T'E *"*3"O5R$P'Y FOR *$RRO%!S *OO %OTES FYODOR DOSTOEVS Y!S CR"#E $%D P&%"S'#E%T 18HA C'$R3ES D"C E%S!S D$V"D COPPERF"E3D (y 'o//y 'u)hes SER"ES COORD"%$TOR #urray *rom(er), Prin-i2a/, 4an) 'i)h S-hoo/ o. Iueens, 'o//is1ood, %e1 York $C %O43ED5#E%TS at= and 0u/ius 3ie(( .or their -ontri(ution to

Our thanks to #i/ton

the *ook %otes series+ 6C7 Co2yri)ht 188H (y *arron!s Edu-ationa/ Series, "n-+ E/e-troni-a//y Enhan-ed Te:t 6C7 Co2yri)ht 188;, 4or/d 3i(rary, "n-+ CO%TE%TS CO%TE%TS SECT"O%++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ SE$RC' O% T'E $&T'OR $%D '"S T"#ES+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DD$V$&T' T'E %OVE3 The P/ot+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Chara-ters+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Other E/ements Settin)+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Themes++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Sty/e+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Point o. Vie1+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Form and Stru-ture++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ T'E STORY++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ $ STEP *EYO%D Tests and $ns1ers++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Term Pa2er "deas and other To2i-s .or 4ritin)++++++++ 5/ossary+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Criti-s++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DD$VP3OT DD$VC'$R DD$VSETT DD$VT'E# DD$VSTY3 DD$VV"E4 DD$VFOR# DD$VSTOR DD$VTEST DD$VTER# DD$V53OS DD$VCR"T

$dvisory *oard+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DD$V$DV* *i(/io)ra2hy+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DD$V*"*3 $&T'OR<$%D<'"S<T"#ES T'E $&T'OR $%D '"S T"#ES 6DD$V$&T'7

@" seem to (e sendin) some 2art o. myse/. into the Shado1y 4or/d,@ Char/es Di-kens 1rote in a /etter Cust (e.ore he .inished the .ina/ -ha2ter o. David Co22er.ie/d+ Di-kens, as a matter o. -ourse, (e-ame intense/y invo/ved 1ith a// his (ooks 1hi/e he 1as 1ritin) them+ 'is dau)hter on-e re-a//ed ho1 her .ather 1ou/d sit in his study, s2eakin) the -hara-ters! s2ee-hes as he 1rote them, makin) .a-es, )i))/in), or si)hin) 1ith emotion+ *ut in 1868, the year (e.ore he died, Di-kens 1rote that Co22er.ie/d 1as sti// his @.avourite -hi/d+@ 4hy 1as he so atta-hed to this nove/, o. a// the master2ie-es he had -reatedD Readers o. his o1n time assumed, o. -ourse, that David Co22er.ie/d 1as thin/y dis)uised auto(io)ra2hy+ $.ter a//, it 1as the .irst nove/ Di-kens had 1ritten in the .irst 2erson+ 3ike Di-kens, David is a nove/ist 1ho started out as a 2o/iti-a/ re2orter+ David!s initia/s are even Di-kens! in reverse 6thou)h Di-kens himse/. 1as sur2rised 1hen that -oin-iden-e 1as 2ointed out to him7+ *ut no1 that more is kno1n a(out Di-kens! /i.e, it is -/ear that he -han)ed the .a-ts a )reat dea/ to 1rite David Co22er.ie/d, 3et!s -om2are the t1o stories+ 4hereas David is a naive vi//a)e (oy and an or2han, Char/es Di-kens s2ent his -hi/dhood in the (ust/in) seaside to1ns o.

Portsmouth and Chatham, on the southern -oast o. En)/and, and 1as the se-ond o. ei)ht -hi/dren+ 'is 2arents, 0ohn and E/i=a(eth Di-kens, 1ere -harmin) and utter/y irres2onsi(/e 2eo2/e, 1ho /ived .ar (eyond #r+ Di-kens! sa/ary as a -ivi/ servant+ 4hen their .inan-ia/ situation )re1 des2erate, they 2a-ked u2 and moved to 3ondon, to a -ram2ed, )ru((y house, 1here (i//--o//e-tors 1ere -ontinua//y hammerin) at the door+ Fina//y 0ohn Di-kens 1as arrested .or de(t and sent to #arsha/sea Prison+ #ost o. the .ami/y moved in 1ith him 6a ty2i-a/ arran)ement in de(tors! 2rison, 1hi-h 1as a .air/y o2en 2/a-e7, (ut t1e/ve-year-o/d Char/es /ived outside in rented rooms so he -ou/d 1ork in a .a-tory, 2astin) /a(e/s on (ott/es o. (oot(/a-kin) 6a kind o. shoe 2o/ish7+ $/thou)h this e:2erien-e /asted on/y .our months, it s-arred Char/es so 2ro.ound/y that he never s2oke o. it to anyone+ 4e on/y kno1 a(out it .rom a .ra)ment o. 1ritin) he on-e si/ent/y sho1ed to his -/osest .riend- and .rom his .i-tiona/ treatment o. it, 1hen he sends David Co22er.ie/d to 1ork in a simi/ar s1eatsho2+ Di-kens never rea//y .or)ave his 2arents- es2e-ia//y his mother, 1ho!d 2ushed the idea hardest- .or sendin) him to the .a-tory+ Perha2s that is 1hy he /ater identi.ied so readi/y 1ith the or2hans in his nove/s, and 1rote )/o1in) des-ri2tions o. the @2er.e-t@ .ami/y he .e/t he!d never had+ "t!s interestin), ho1ever, that 0ohn and E/i=a(eth Di-kens! de/i)ht.u/ 2ersona/ities seem to have (een the mode/s .or David!s .riends, the #i-a1(ers, 1hi/e Di-kens -reated .or David a 1i-ked ste2.ather, #r+ #urdstone- a 1orthy tar)et .or the an)er that sti// (oi/ed dee2 in Di-kens! heart+ $ sur2rise inheritan-e .rom a distant re/ative .reed the Di-kens .ami/y .rom 2rison+ Yet it took a (it o. ar)uin) .or Char/es to 2ersuade his mother to /et him >uit 1orkin) and )o (a-k to s-hoo/+ &n.ortunate/y, the s-hoo/ he 1as .ina//y sent to, 4e//in)ton 'ouse, 1as run (y a -rue/ headmaster 1ho /iked to (eat (oys- mu-h /ike #r+ Creak/e at Sa/em 'ouse, 1here David (e)ins s-hoo/+ 4hereas David /ater )ets a )ood edu-ation .rom Dr+ Stron), Char/es had to make do 1ith the /itt/e he /earned at 4e//in)ton 'ouse+ $)ain Char/es 1as resent.u/, sensin) that he had ta/ent and .ee/in) th1arted (y his in.erior edu-ation+ 'e 1ent to 1ork .irst as a -/erk in a /a1yer!s o..i-e and then, dissatis.ied 1ith /a1, /earned shorthand so that he -ou/d )et a Co( takin) do1n the de(ates in Par/iament .or a ne1s2a2er that 2u(/ished trans-ri2ts o. them+ David Co22er.ie/d does this, too+ 4hen he 1as seventeen, Di-kens .e// in /ove 1ith #aria *eadne//, 1ho (y a// a--ounts 1as as 1insome and ./irtatious as David Co22er.ie/d!s s1eetheart, Dora+ #aria!s .ather, a (anker, a22arent/y disa22roved o. Di-kens, and a.ter a -ou2/e o. years, he sent his dau)hter a(road to se2arate them, Cust as Dora!s .ather threatens to do in David Co22er.ie/d+ #aria sho1ed no interest in Char/es a.ter her return, and he .e/t -rushed+ "n des-ri(in) David Co22er.ie/d!s -ourtshi2 o. Dora, Di-kens may have (een re/ivin) his in.atuation 1ith #aria- and, in David!s marria)e to Dora, Di-kens may have (een s2e-u/atin) on 1hat -ou/d have ha22ened i. he had married #aria+ 6Soon a.ter 2u(/ishin) David Co22er.ie/d, Di-kens 1ou/d run into #aria *eadne// a)ain and dis-over, 1ith -ha)rin, that the /ivin) mode/ .or Dora had (e-ome a .at and e:treme/y si//y midd/e-a)ed matron+7 'urt (y #aria!s reCe-tion, Di-kens thre1 himse/. into hard 1ork+ --------------------------------------------------------E/e-troni-a//y Enhan-ed Te:t 6C7 Co2yri)ht 1881 - 188; 4or/d 3i(rary, "n-+