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Midsummer Night's Dream William Shakespeare --------------------------------------------------------1598 WILLIAM SHAK S!

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1riti-g, li3a&etha- -gla-d 1as a- e9.iti-g a-d .ha-gi-g pla.e5 %h(ugh 1e k-(1 little (/ Shakespeare's (1- li/e, 1e k-(1 mu.h a&(ut his 1(rld5 =(r -gla-d, the si9tee-th .e-tur' 1as a peri(d (/ gr(1th a-d e9pl(rati(-, .(-tri&uti-g t( a re-aissa-.e i- .ultural a-d e.(-(mi. li/e5 #-der the reig-s (/ li3a&eth I 71558-1?@:8 a-d 4ames I 71?@:-1?A58, L(-d(- &e.ame (-e (/ the artisti. a-d mer.a-tile .e-ters (/ ur(pe5 We .a- still see the &eaut' (/ its hal/-tim&ered h(uses, its &ridge-t(1ers a-d .hur.hes5 +ut a&(6e all, the literature (/ the peri(d .(-ti-ues t( e9.ite the mi-ds (/ readers, (//eri-g great ri.hes (/ imagi-ati(- a-d la-guage5 =(r Shakespeare a-d his .(-temp(raries, the -glish la-guage 1as .ha-gi-g a-d gr(1i-g5 Di.ti(-aries had -(t 'et s(lidi/ied spelli-g a-d mea-i-g, a-d s(metimes li3a&etha- p(etr' seems t( &e p(ssessed (/ a great u-re/i-ed p(1er5 !(ets a-d pla'1rights- am(-g them dmu-d Spe-ser, +e- 4(-s(-, )hrist(pher Marl(1e, as 1ell as Shakespearere6eled i- the ri.hes (/ this emergi-g la-guage a-d .reated a &rillia-t -e1 drama5 It is 1ell t( remem&er that i- Shakespeare's time theater 1as a p(pular pastime 7s(methi-g like m(6ies are t(da'8, atte-ded &' &(th .(mm(-/(lk a-d r('alt'5 It 1as -(t merel' the pr(6i-.e (/ ai-telle.tual /e15 =(lk traditi(-s (/ &allad a-d s(-g, as 1ell as the )hristia- mira.le a-d m'ster' pla's, had a..ust(med the pe(ple t( p(eti. drama, its spee.hes .ast i- rh'me a-d meter5 A-d the li3a&etha- theater highlighted the sp(ke- 1(rd5 It used /e1 stage pr(perties a-d alm(st -( s.e-er'5 Its (utd((r .ir.ular theaters surr(u-ded a &are apr(--shaped stage5 %he .hara.ters .ame a-d le/t at a /ast pa.e, a-d 1hat the' said i-di.ated 1h( a-d 1here the' 1ere5 %he li3a&etha- audie-.e 1as atte-ti6e t( the sp(ke- 1(rd5 A pla'1right might as easil' prese-t his ideas a-d a.ti(-s i- the /(rm (/ p(eti. images (r -arrati6e spee.hes, /(r the theater 1as a pla.e i1hi.h the ear, -(t merel' the e'e, 1as da33led5 A-d this 1as the ki-d (/ e-6ir(-me-t espe.iall' 1ell suited /(r William Shakespeare5 2(u 1ill see i- A Midsummer Night's Dream h(1 appr(priate this p(eti. meth(d is5 %he /air' 1(rld .(mes ali6e -(t /r(m stage tri.ks, ela&(rate .(stumes, a-d air' sets, &ut thr(ugh p(etr'5 Detailed /a-tasti. des.ripti(-s, .as.ades (/ -amed /l(1ers, images (/ a p(1er/ul a-d m'steri(us -atural 1(rld- these are 1hat make the /air' 1(rld 6i6id5 %he magi. li6es i- Shakespeare's la-guage5 %he 1(rld (/ his 1riti-g is /illed 1ith .ultural ri.hes, e9tra(rdi-ar' .hara.ters, a-d hist(ri.al e6e-ts5 +ut (/ Shakespeare's (1- li/e 1e k-(1 little5 He 1as &(r- i- the small t(1(/ Strat/(rd i- 15?B, ar(u-d the A:rd (/ April5 His &aptism .erti/i.ate tells us that5 His /ather 1as a s(me1hat 1ell-t(-d( mer.ha-t a-d .(u-.ilma- 1h(se /(rtu-es seemed t( slip as Shakespeare gre1 (lder5 I- all pr(&a&ilit' he sa1 t( it that William t((k ad6a-tage (/ the pu&li. edu.ati(- a6aila&le t( all the s(-s (/ Strat/(rd's .iti3e-s5 +ut m(st (/ 1hat 1e k-(1 a&(ut Shakespeare ithis earl' peri(d is .(-Ce.ture5 %he (-l' (ther .ertai- i-/(rmati(- 1e ha6e is his marriage, i- 158A, t( A-- Hatha1a', a 1(ma- eight 'ears (lder tha- he5 Si-.e a .hild Susa--a 1as &(r- si9 m(-ths later, the &ride 1as alread' preg-a-t at the time (/ the 1eddi-g5 I- 1585, the t1i-s Ham-et a-d 4udith 1ere &(r-5 =(r the rest- at least regardi-g Strat/(rd- there is (-l' lege-d5 S(me sa' Shakespeare 1as &((ted (ut (/ t(1- /(r p(a.hi-g at a -eigh&(ri-g estateD (thers sa' he taught s.h((l5 We d( k-(1 that ar(u-d 158E Shakespeare le/t Strat/(rd /(r the .reati6e (pp(rtu-it' t( &e /(u-d i- the &ig .it' (/ L(-d(-5 Its lure 1(uld &e the same as that

(/ a-' metr(p(lis t(da'F a ri.h a-d 6aried .ultural li/e, p(liti.al p(1er-&r(ki-g, hist(r' i- the maki-g, pagea-tr', a-d the g((d li/e5 !erhaps he appre-ti.ed himsel/ t( (-e (/ the l(.al theater .(mpa-ies right a1a'5 +ut i- truth 1e d(-'t k-(1 h(1 he &e.ame su.h aa..(mplished 1riter s( Gui.kl'5 +' 159A he 1as alread' &ei-g atta.ked &' a l(.al pla'1right, "(&ert $ree-e, /(r &ei-g a- Hupstart .r(1e,H a- a.t(r 1h( 1(uld &e &etter (// lea6i-g the 1riti-g (/ pla's t( real pla'1rights5 %he /ur(r that /(ll(1ed this /am(us a..usati(- sh(1s that Shakespeare had esta&lished a .(-sidera&le reputati(- &' the time it 1as 1ritte-5 N( (-e &(thers t( atta.k au-k-(1- 1riter5 A-d the a..usati(-, imp(rta-tl', als( remi-ds us that Shakespeare 1as a- a.t(r as 1ell as a 1riter5 All his li/e he .(m&i-ed these t1( 6(.ati(-s, gi6i-g him spe.ial e-tr' i-t( the 1(rld (/ theater, its -ua-.es, a-d the i-terpla' &et1ee- the a.ted a-d 1ritte- 1(rd5 +' 159: he'd als( pr(6ed himsel/ a .(mma-di-g p(et 1ith the pu&li.ati(- (/ the p(em <e-us a-d Ad(-is, /(ll(1ed the -e9t 'ear &' %he "ape (/ Lu.re.e5 =(r the -e9t eightee- (r t1e-t' 'ears Shakespeare pr(du.ed a su..essi(- (/ pla's that mark him as the premier p(et a-d pla'1right (/ his age- perhaps the /i-est the -glish la-guage has see-5 %hr(ugh .(medies, hist(ries, a-d tragedies he speaks (/ his time a-d 1(rld 1ith a- auth(rit' that makes them seem, ge-erati(- a/ter ge-erati(-, .(mpletel' .(-temp(rar'5 He 1as /(rtu-ate t( ha6e a .(mpa-' (/ a.t(rs thr(ugh(ut his 1riti-g li/e 1ith 1hi.h he .(uld 1(rk, gai-i-g /r(m the traded i-sights a-d /r(m the a&ilit' (/ seei-g his 1(rk pr(du.ed5 He 1as a&le t( &e-e/it /r(m the res(ur.es (/ the /i-est li3a&etha- (utd((r pla'h(use, the $l(&e, s( that his 1(rk had a state-(/-the-art theater i- 1hi.h t( &e per/(rmed5 He had -(&le patr(-age t( help him at the &egi--i-g 7the arl (/ S(uthampt(-8 a-d e6e- r('al /a6(r 1he- his patr(- &e.ame em&r(iled i- au-su..ess/ul .(up d'etat a-d 1as impris(-ed5 I-stead (/ tr(u&le, Shakespeare /(u-d gra.eF &' the time 4ames I assumed the thr(-e i1?@:, Shakespeare's pla'ers, /(rmerl' ass(.iated as the )ham&erlai-'s Me-, 1ere -(1 .alled the Ki-g's Me-, re.ei6i-g r('al patr(-age a-d /a6(r5 Ar(u-d 1?11 Shakespeare retired /r(m L(-d(- a-d the theater, t( retur- t( his /amil' at Strat/(rd5 He presuma&l' li6ed (ut his li/e pea.e/ull', d'i-g i- 1?1?5 +ut (-.e agai- lege-d (&s.ures /a.t5 A /am(us t(m&st(-e i-s.ripti(-, as.ri&ed t( him, seeks t( gai- him a pea.e/ul death as 1ellD it reads, H+lest &e the ma- that spares these st(-es, I A-d .urst &e he that m(6es m' &(-es5H N( (-e has m(6ed them5 Shakespeare 1as u-iGue am(-g the 1(rld's great dramatists i- his a&ilit' t( .reate the /i-est e9amples (/ &(th .(med' a-d traged'5 %hat the same 1riter .(uld pr(du.e &(th Ki-g Lear a-d A Midsummer Night's Dream, Hamlet a-d %he %empest, has &ee- a s(ur.e (/ 1(-derme-t t( milli(-s (/ readers5 Als(, his .(mple9 -glish-hist(r' pla's, 1ith their multiple pl(ts a-d p(i-ts (/ 6ie1, ha6e i-/lue-.ed the 1a' 1e thi-k (/ hist(r' itsel/5 %he 1ide ra-ge (/ Shakespeare's a.hie6eme-t 1as &(ldl' set /(rth i- the /irst editi(- (/ his .(mplete dramati. 1(rks i- 1?A: 1he- the pu&lishers di6ided 1hat has .(me t( &e k-(1- as the H=irst =(li(H i-t( )(medies, Hist(ries, a-d %ragedies5 Despite this 6ariet', there are 1a's i- 1hi.h Ki-g Lear .(uld (-l' ha6e &ee- 1ritte- &' the auth(r (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream5 *-e 1a' is that i- &(th pla's -( .hara.ter's perspe.ti6e is su//i.ie-t t( Cudge e6er'(-e else's5 Als(, merel' u-dersta-di-g a huma- pr(&lem

1ill -(t s(l6e it 1ith(ut a tra-s/(rmati(- (/ a-(ther s(rt, a ge-ui-e .ha-ge (/ heart5 A-d thr(ugh(ut his .(medies, this m(st 1itt' 1riter kept 6i6id the se-se that 1it al(-e is -(t a- adeGuate resp(-se t( pe(ple a-d situati(-s5 A- earl' .(med', alm(st (6er/l(1i-g 1ith 1itt' 1(rdpla', is L(6e's La&(ur's L(st5 %he less(- lear-ed &' its pri-.ipal .hara.ters is that 1(rds a-d 1it must &e tempered &' .(-.er- /(r (thers' /eeli-gs5 A-d as 1ith m(st (/ his .(medies, part (/ the pla' is set i- a spe.ial pla.e 1here tra-s/(rmati(-s .a- take pla.e m(re /reel', (utside the &us' 1(rld (/ .(urt (r .it'5 I- A Midsummer Night's Dream, the l(6ers e9pe-d great e-erg' speaki-g i- 1itt' r(ma-ti. repartee5 A-d the /airies' /(rest is the magi.al pla.e that surr(u-ds their tra-s/(rmati(-s5 I- %he Mer.ha-t (/ <e-i.e, a-(ther earl' .(med', +elm(-t, 1here !(rtia li6es, is the spe.ial pla.eD i- As 2(u Like It it is the /(rest (/ Arde-5 I- the s(-.alled HdarkH .(medies 7All's Well %hat -ds Well, %r(ilus a-d )ressida, Measure /(r Measure8 the magi. pla.e 1here pe(ple .a- &e re6ealed a-d healed alm(st disappears5 Le.her', spite/ul-ess, a-d sel/ish-ess are e9p(sed rather tha- tra-s/(rmed5 +ut i- the later .(medies, s(metimes .alled the Hr(ma-.es,H heali-g magi. retur-sF !eri.les, )'m&eli-e, %he Wi-ter's %ale, a-d %he %empest5 I- /a.t, the 1h(le (/ %he %empest takes pla.e (- a magi. isla-d ruled &' a s(r.erer 1h( has the k-(1ledge a-d p(1er t( tra-s/(rm the rati(-al /(r.es that had e9iled him 'ears &e/(re5 !r(sper( is a 1iser, m(re mature *&er(-, a-d his atte-da-t Ariel is a m(re spiritual !u.k5 A Midsummer Night's Dream 1as pr(&a&l' 1ritte- ar(u-d 159B5 S(me s.h(lars suggest it 1as 1ritte- t( &e per/(rmed at a -(&le 1eddi-g .erem(-', perhaps that (/ William Sta-le', arl (/ De-&', t( li3a&eth <ere i- 15955 %his is pure spe.ulati(-, h(1e6er, /ueled &' the imp(rta-.e (/ marriage t( the pla'5 Its similarit' i- la-guage a-d theme t( "(me( a-d 4uliet als( helps date the pla'5 %h(ugh (-e is a .(med' a-d the (ther a traged', &(th deal 1ith the -ature (/ l(6e, its impulsi6e Cudgme-ts a-d 6(1s5 "(me( a-d 4uliet are tri.ked &' their /ate, e-di-g i- death5 +ut /ate, i- the /(rm (/ *&er(-, i-ter/eres (- &ehal/ (/ the l(6ers i- A Midsummer Night's Dream, a-d their trials e-d i- marriage5 %h(ugh it .(mes earl' i- Shakespeare's .areer, A Midsummer Night's Dream sh(1s his .(mma-d (/ the di//ere-t stra-ds that .(m&i-ed t( make great li3a&etha- drama5 I- his .(urtl' su&pl(t (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta, Shakespeare dem(-strates his /amiliarit' 1ith .lassi.al su&Ce.ts5 He i-ter1ea6es m'thi. a-d hist(ri.al material t( gi6e his .hara.ters a- imp(si-g r('al stature5 With the l(6ers, Shakespeare sh(1s his .(mma-d (/ r(ma-ti. p(etr', the /(rmal la-guage (/ l(6e de6el(ped .e-turies earlier &' the tr(u&ad(rs (/ =ra-.e5 %h(ugh he is m(.ki-g i- t(-e 1ith the l(6ers, he gi6es r(ma-ti. p(etr' a /ree reig- 1ith *&er(- a-d %ita-ia, 1h( dra1 (- /(lk &allads a-d past(ral traditi(-s t( .reate the magi. (/ high p(etr'5 A-d 1ith +(tt(m a-d his rusti. .(mrades, Shakespeare de6el(ps a realism &ased (- )hristia/(lk pla's that e-a&les him t( &ri-g all ki-ds a-d .lasses (/ pe(ple i-t( his art5 A Midsummer Night's Dream (//ers a u-iGue &le-di-g (/ st'les, .hara.ters, a-d realms (/ e9perie-.e i-t( a u-i/ied 1(rk (/ art5 Shakespeare's li/e i- L(-d(- 1as /illed 1ith a similar mi9 (/ pe(ple a-d t'pes5 It 1as a thr(&&i-g metr(p(lis /(r its time, &ursti-g the &(u-ds (/ its medie6al 1alls5 +ut its m(der-it' 1as tempered &' the /(lk traditi(-s a-d &elie/s (/ the pe(ple 1h( streamed t( its streets5 I- the li/e (/ the -glish .(u-tr'side the m'thi., lege-dar' /airies

a-d el6es- k-(1- /r(m .e-turies (/ a-.ie-t )elti. traditi(-s- still had a pla.e5 Shakespeare 1as a&le t( .(m&i-e this magi. imagi-ar' 1(rld 1ith the .(-temp(rar' ur&a- la-ds.ape (/ L(-d(-5 Wat.h the 1a's i- 1hi.h he is a&le t( i-.lude all ki-ds (/ pe(ple, a-d di//ere-t dime-si(-s (/ e9perie-.e, t( pai-t a pi.ture that i- the largest p(ssi&le se-se parallels the 1(rld i- 1hi.h he li6ed5 !L*% %H %H !LA2 !L*% 7SMID!L*%8

I- the a-.ie-t .it' (/ Athe-s a 1eddi-g is a&(ut t( take pla.e &et1ee- %heseus, duke (/ Athe-s, a-d Hipp(l'ta, the Ama3(- 1arri(r Guee- 1h(m he has 1((ed a-d 1(-5 %he' meet i- the duke's pala.e t( dis.uss their marriage /esti6ities5 Sudde-l', geus st(rms i-, e9tremel' upset5 He 1a-ts his daughter, Hermia, t( marr' Demetrius, 1h( is duti/ull' i- l(6e 1ith her5 Hermia, h(1e6er, is i- l(6e 1ith L'sa-der a-d re/uses t( gi6e i- t( her /ather's dema-ds5 %he t1( suit(rs a-d the 1(ma- the' &(th l(6e state their .ase &e/(re the duke5 %heseus e9plai-s that Athe-ia- la1 is (- the side (/ the /atherF Hermia must heed his 1ishes, -(t /(ll(1 her (1- desire5 I- /a.t, Hermia must either (&e' the la1, remai- a 6irgi- a-d e-ter a -u--er', (r dieJ Hermia is gi6e- u-til the -e9t -e1 m((-- the 1eddi-g da' (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta- t( make her de.isi(-5 She a-d L'sa-der se.retl' pla-, i-stead, t( /lee Athe-s a-d li6e (utside (/ t(1- 1ith a- au-t (/ L'sa-der's5 A-(ther '(u-g 1(ma-, Hele-a, arri6es5 She is i- l(6e 1ith Demetrius, &ut he 1ill ha6e -(-e (/ her5 %he l(6ers tell her (/ their pla- t( el(pe5 I- the h(use (/ 0ui-.e, a .arpe-ter, se6eral Athe-ia- 1(rki-gmemeet t( dis.uss their pla-s t( prese-t a pla' as e-tertai-me-t /(r the 1eddi-g (/ the duke5 0ui-.e, S-ug, +(tt(m, =lute, S-(ut, a-d Star6eli-g ha6e de.ided (- a pla' e-titled H%he m(st lame-ta&le .(med', a-d m(st .ruel death (/ !'ramus a-d %his&'5H !arts are assig-ed t( ea.h pla'er, &ut (-l' a/ter +(tt(m, /ull (/ &(u-dless e-erg' a-d e-thusiasm, sh(1s h(1 he .(uld pla' all the parts himsel/5 %he' agree t( rehearse the /(ll(1i-g e6e-i-g i- a 1((d (utside (/ t(1-5 %he s.e-e shi/ts t( that Athe-ia- 1((d, &ut -(1 the pla'ers are (/ a- e-tirel' di//ere-t (rder5 %he' are *&er(-, the ki-g (/ the /airies, his Guee-, %ita-ia, a-d !u.k 7(r "(&i- $((d/ell(18, a spritel' atte-da-t (/ the ki-g5 *&er(- a-d %ita-ia ha6e &ee- Guarreli-g (6er the p(ssessi(- (/ a '(u-g I-dia- &(' that &(th 1a-t, &ut the 0uee1ill -(t ha-d him (6er5 *&er(-, 1ith the aid (/ !u.k, pla-s his re6e-ge (- %ita-ia5 He 1ill dr(p the Cui.e (/ a magi. /l(1er i-t( the e'es (/ his sleepi-g Guee-5 Whe- she a1akes, she 1ill /all i- l(6e 1ith 1h(me6er 7(r 1hate6er8 she sees /irst, pre/era&l' Hs(me 6ile thi-g5H %he- she 1ill /(rget a&(ut the &('J Mea-1hile, Demetrius a-d Hele-a e-ter the 1((d5 Seei-g Hele-a's l(6eless plight, *&er(- i-stru.ts !u.k t( .harm the e'es (/ Demetrius as 1ell, s( that he 1ill l(6e Hele-a5 N(1 L'sa-der a-d Hermia arri6e, e- r(ute t( their el(peme-t5 Mistaki-g L'sa-der /(r Demetrius, !u.k a-(i-ts the e'es (/ L'sa-der, 1h( a1akes a-d de.lares his l(6e /(r Hele-a5 Hermia a1akes i- the 1((ds al(-e, ha6i-g dreamt (/ a serpe-t eati-g her heart5 *- time /(r their rehearsal, the 1(rki-gme- als( arri6e i- the 1((d a-d &egi- t( s(rt (ut H!'ramus a-d %his&'5H Mis.hie6(us !u.k

Cumps at the .ha-.e t( .ause tr(u&le5 He .at.hes +(tt(m a-d pla.es a- ass's head (- him5 %he (ther rusti.s /lee i- terr(r5 +ut %ita-ia's rea.ti(- is di//ere-t5 )harmed &' the l(6e Cui.e, she immediatel' /alls i- l(6e 1ith +(tt(m, ass's head a-d all5 %he l(6ers regr(up i- .(-/usi(-5 N(1 &(th L'sa-der a-d Demetrius pr(/ess l(6e /(r Hele-a i-stead (/ /(r Hermia5 A-gers /lare up a-d s1(rds are dra1-, &ut !u.k leads e6er'(-e i- magi. .ir.les s( -( real harm .(mes5 *&er(-, seei-g the mistake that has take- pla.e, has !u.k rem(6e the .harm /r(m L'sa-der's e'es s( that his l(6e retur-s /(r Hermia5 Demetrius remai-s He-.ha-tedH 1ith his Hele-a5 %ita-ia is als( released /r(m her e-.ha-tme-t5 "eu-ited 1ith *&er(-, she surre-ders the I-dia- &(' t( the ki-g5 %he l(6ers, startled &' the arri6al (/ %heseus a-d his .(urt, a1ake- as i/ /r(m a m'steri(us dream, pr(perl' i- l(6e 1ith ea.h (ther, &ut startled as t( h(1 the''6e g(tte- there5 %heseus, /i-di-g that thi-gs ha6e 1(rked (ut rather -eatl', (6errides geus a-d a--(u-.es that the three 1eddi-gs 1ill take pla.e simulta-e(usl'5 +(tt(m is relie6ed (/ his ass's head a-d retur-s t( 0ui-.e's h(use t( .(-ti-ue rehearsi-g the pla'5 I- the pala.e (/ %heseus, preparati(-s .(mme-.e /(r the 1eddi-g /esti6ities5 +(tt(m a-d .(mpa-' per/(rm their Hlame-ta&le .(med'5H A .(med' it is, a-d th(ugh the duke a-d the (thers (//er mu.h Cesti-g .(mme-tar' a&(ut the pr(du.ti(-, the' are ultimatel' 1ell pleased 1ith the e-tertai-me-t5 %he three sets (/ -e1l'1eds adC(ur- t( their &eds5 !u.k arri6es t( s1eep a1a' the last grai-s (/ sleep' e-.ha-tme-t5 *&er(- a-d %ita-ia (//er &lessi-gs up(- the h(uses (/ the l(6ers5 !u.k, 1ith a gli-t i- his e'e, asks /(r applause5 A/ter all, he suggests, these pr(.eedi-gs ma' ha6e &ee- -(thi-g H&ut a dream5H )HA"A)% "S %H )HA"A)% "S 7SMID)HA"8

%H S #S As duke (/ Athe-s, %heseus (..upies a- imp(rta-t s(.ial a-d p(liti.al p(siti(- that is at the heart (/ his .hara.ter5 %h(ugh he had a li6el' past, /illed 1ith her(i. 1ar e9pl(its a-d r(ma-ti. .(-Guests, he -(1 is a /igure (/ the Athe-ia- esta&lishme-t, uph(ldi-g the s(.ial (rder5 As su.h, he represe-ts, i- .(-trast t( the 6(latile l(6ers, the sta&ili3i-g /(r.e (/ marriage5 %heseus is a traditi(-al $reek m'thi. her(5 He is me-ti(-ed ima-' a-.ie-t te9ts, i-.ludi-g H(mer, uripides, !lutar.h, a-d *6id5 He is pr(&a&l' m(st /am(us /(r ha6i-g killed the m(-str(us Mi-(taur, ithe la&'ri-th (/ Mi-(s (- )rete5 %h(ugh there is (..asi(-al me-ti(- (/ his /(rmer deeds, the pers(- (/ Shakespeare's %heseus is as mu.h the pla'1right's i-6e-ti(- as he is a lege-dar' /igure5 With his uph(ldi-g (/ the s(.ial (rder .(mes %heseus's praise (/ reas(- as a primar' p(1er5 He a-d Hipp(l'ta are u-t(u.hed &' the /air' realm5 %he' seem t( &e a&(6e the magi., &ut '(u might als( see them as &ei-g (utside (/ it5 %heseus's relia-.e (- reas(- &l(.ks him (// /r(m s(me (/ the m(re m'sti.al realms (/ huma- e9perie-.e5 I- A.t <, he dra1s a /am(us .(mparis(- &et1ee- the l(6er, the lu-ati., a-d the p(et5 He /eels the' are all u-der the s1a' (/ their imagi-ati(-s, 1hi.h &li-ds them t( realit'5 I- .(-seGue-.e, s(me realms (/ passi(a-d art are .l(sed t( him5 %heseus ma' &e trapped i- his p(siti(-, (r he ma' &e /illi-g it gra-dl'5 I- either .ase, he has a ki-dl' a1are-ess (/ his su&Ce.ts5 %h(ugh he ma' -(t &e appre.iati6e (/ art per se, he u-dersta-ds the g((d i-te-ti(-s (/ the a.t(rs5 He k-(1s that his p(siti(- al(-e has

a .ertai- p(1er a-d seeks t( use it 1ith a .lear a-d Cust mi-d5 HI!!*L2%A A 1arri(r i- her (1- right, Hipp(l'ta mai-tai-s a ki-d (/ al((/ dig-it'5 She t(( is a $reek lege-dar' /igure, a- Ama3(- Guee- (/ /ier.e pride a-d stre-gth5 I- the &egi--i-g (/ the pla' she .(u-ters %heseus's impatie-.e /(r the 1eddi-g da' 1ith a .((l, imperial rati(-alit' (/ her (1-5 2et she d(es-'t rel' s( .(mpletel' (reas(-F she is .harmed a-d a little distur&ed &' the l(6ers' st(ries5 She's -(t 1illi-g t( dis.(u-t their tales .(mpletel'5 While 6ie1i-g the per/(rma-.e (/ the rusti. 1(rki-gme-, she seems t( &e impatie-t 1ith the amateur -ature (/ the pr(du.ti(-, th(ugh she 1arms t( it &' the e-d5 !erhaps she t(( /eels the -e.essit' t( temper her -atural passi(-s 1ith a stateli-ess pr(per t( her (//i.e5 )(mpare her t( the em(ti(-all' st(rm' l(6ers5 H(1 might her reser6e &e see- as a m(re mature ki-d (/ relati-gK +(th she a-d %heseus &ra.ket the pla', &egi--i-g a-d e-d, like the pillars (/ s(.iet' &et1ee- 1hi.h the Midsummer Mad-ess (..urs5 H "MIA Hermia sh(1s her spu-ki-ess right /r(m the &egi--i-g5 %h(ugh the /(r.e (/ /amilial a-d s(.ial p(1er are &r(ught hea6il' t( &ear up(her, she sti.ks t( her gu-s5 Her /irst 1(rds are a de/e-se (/ L'sa-der agai-st the a..usati(-s (/ her /ather, geus, a-d %heseus5 She asks that her /ather l((k 1ith her e'es, t( tr' t( see her 6ie1p(i-t5 She sta-ds up /(r 1hat she &elie6es i- e6e- th(ugh it ma' mea- her death5 It's eas' t( side 1ith Hermia- &ut 1hat .(uld '(u sa' ide/e-se (/ her /ather's p(siti(-K Hermia is u-s1er6i-g i- her de6(ti(- t( L'sa-der thr(ugh all his .ha-ges a-d al1a's gi6es him the &e-e/it (/ the d(u&t5 She l(6es him 1ith a- authe-ti.it' that g(es &e'(-d Hd(ti-g,H a-d her pai- at &ei-g &etra'ed &' him seems eGuall' real5 She is des.ri&ed as ha6i-g a dark .(mple9i(- a-d &ei-g small, &ut '(u d(-'t get m(re ph'si.al detail tha- that5 Her temper is as /ier.e as her l(6eD 1he- it's ki-dled &' Ceal(us' t(1ard Hele-a, she tur-s i-t( a real spit/ire5 Alth(ugh, espe.iall' i- the &egi--i-g, Hermia speaks the pr(per .(urtl' r(ma-ti. p(etr' 1ith L'sa-der, she sh(1s that there is s(methi-g &e'(-d pr(priet' i- her .hara.ter5 +ut 1he- it .(mes t( de/e-di-g her 6irgi- m(dest' i- the 1((ds, she's Gui.k t( make L'sa-der keep his dista-.e5 Hermia's .(m&i-ati(- (/ passi(- a-d Cudgme-t is set (// /r(m the /eeli-gs (/ all the (ther l(6ers5 She k-(1s 1hat she 1a-ts, is 1illi-g t( make great sa.ri/i.es /(r it, 1ill /ight like a li(-ess ide/e-se (/ it, a-d ultimatel' trusts i- her p(1er5 She's -(t a&(6e l(6e-/((lish-ess, &ut she gi6es t( the r(ma-ti. .(med' a sturd' /(u-dati(-5 L2SAND " It's hard t( get a grip (- the .hara.ter (/ L'sa-der5 I-deed, &e.ause (/ the /rustrati-g i-ter/ere-.e (/ !u.k, it's hard /(r him t( keep a grip (- himsel/5 As '(u read the pla', '(u ma' ha6e di//i.ult' telli-g him a-d Demetrius apart5 %he' &(th seem t( &e de/i-ed m(re &' the (&Ce.t (/ their desires tha- &' a-' Gualities ia-d (/ themsel6es5 L'sa-der has the u-lu.k' disti-.ti(- (/ pr(/essi-g his u-d'i-g eter-al l(6e /(r t1( di//ere-t 1(me-, (-e a/ter the (ther5 It .ertai-l' makes us suspi.i(us (/ the stead/ast-ess (/ his .hara.ter5

)(-seGue-tl', the &eauti/ul, /l(1er', r(ma-ti. p(etr' he speaks ri-gs h(ll(15 He's made the &utt (/ Shakespeare's ir(-i. .(med' (/ /i.kle l(6e5 He g(es thr(ugh all the right m(ti(-s, sa's all the right 1(rds, &ut d(es-'t sh(1 a-' depth (/ .hara.ter5 He de/e-ds his -e1 i-/atuati(- 1ith Hele-a &' s1eari-g it .(mes /r(m reas(-5 +ut si-.e '(u k-(1 it .(mes /r(m )upid's magi. /l(1er, &(th L'sa-der's l(6e a-d reas(- seem suspe.t5 His -(rmal.' is his mai- .hara.teristi.F he's Cust a l(6er, d(i-g the /((lish thi-gs that l(6ers d(5 %here/(re, d(-'t &e t(( hard (- him5 L((k at him thr(ugh Hermia's e'esD 1h' d( '(u thi-k she l(6es himK We see ma-' 1a's i- 1hi.h his l(6e seems /alse, &ut i- 1hat 1a's d( '(u 6ie1 his l(6e as trueK H L NA Hele-a is primaril' de/i-ed &' her relati(-ship t( l(6e, &ut u-/(rtu-atel' that l(6e is la.ki-g5 %he u-happ' e9perie-.e (/ u-reGuited l(6e seems t( ha6e pe-etrated t( her 6er' .(re5 Alth(ugh attra.ti6e, tall, a-d 1ill(1', she Guesti(-s her (1- 6irtues &e.ause &ei-g u-l(6ed makes her /eel u-1(rth' (/ l(6e5 It's true that Demetrius (rigi-all' l(6ed her, a-d she has .ause /(r &ei-g upset that he -(1 seems t( .are /(r Hermia5 +ut Hele-a is a prime e9ample (/ the ill e//e.ts (/ Hd(ti-gH t(( mu.hF she l(ses respe.t /(r hersel/ a-d, .(-seGue-tl', s(me (/ (urs /(r her5 Her ru--i-g a/ter Demetrius seems /((lish a-d shall(1 t( ma-' readers5 D( '(u thi-k she is a prime target /(r s(me /emi-ist .(-s.i(us-ess-raisi-gK She's thr(1i-g hersel/ a1a' /(r a ma- '(u ha6e reas(- t( &elie6e is-'t all that 1(rth'5 Hele-a is s( used t( &ei-g reCe.ted that she might -(t &e a&le t( re.(g-i3e real l(6e i/ it .ame her 1a'5 Whe- &(th L'sa-der a-d Demetrius tur- their l(6i-g ga3es (- her, she .a- (-l' suspe.t that the''re maki-g /u- (/ her5 %h(ugh '(u k-(1 she's right t( d(u&t their si-.erit', 1hat 1(uld ha6e happe-ed i/ (-e (/ them 1ere si-.ereK 6e- at the e-d, she /eels that Demetrius is hers, a-d 'et s(meh(1 is -(t5 Si-.e he's the (-e h(ld(6er 1ith .harmed e'es, she's m(re .(rre.t tha- she k-(1s5 Neither she -(r Hermia speaks i- the last a.t5 !erhaps the''re &(th 1(-deri-g a&(ut 1hat the''6e g(tte-, ha6i-g g(tte- 1hat the' supp(sedl' 1a-ted5 D M %"I#S Like L'sa-der, Demetrius is di//i.ult t( ide-ti/' e9.ept &' his relati(- t( the (-e he l(6es, (r, m(re parti.ularl', t( the (-e 1h( l(6es him5 Hele-a's .hasi-g a/ter him a-d his irritati(- 1ith her are the primar' marks (/ his .hara.ter5 Si-.e i- his u-.harmed state he e6e- threate-s Hele-a 1ith &(dil' harm, he .(mes (// as -(t Guite the gra.i(us .(urtl' l(6er he mea-s t( &e5 A-d '(u ma' 1(-der, t((, a&(ut h(1 easil' his e'e 1as distra.ted /r(m Hele-a &' Hermia i- the /irst pla.e5 His .(-sta-t remarks at the per/(rma-.e (/ H!'ramus a-d %his&'H sh(1 him t( &e .le6er, &ut ma'&e a little rude, t((5 I- a-' e6e-t, as the (-e pers(- still u-der the spell (/ /air' magi. a-d there/(re -(t seei-g 1ith true e'es, he seems a &it /((lish laughi-g at the a.ted Hl(6ersH i- the pla'5 He d(es-'t k-(1 it, &ut he's still i- a pla' (/ his (1-5 *+ "*N As ki-g (/ his magi.al realm, *&er(- is the m(st p(1er/ul /igure i- the pla'5 6er'thi-g a&(ut him is .(mma-di-g, /r(m his la-guage t( his magi. spells5 He is i- esse-.e a- artistF he k-(1s his .ra/t a-d h(1 it (perates, a-d he .a- use his skills t( their /ullest

e//e.t5 Si-.e he sets i- m(ti(- the .harmed e-.(u-ters that are at the heart (/ the pla', he is the auth(r (/ the pl(t5 %he .hara.ters pla' (ut their dramas t( /ul/ill his -eeds a-d 1ishes5 He al(-e has the (6er6ie1 that a- auth(r has5 At times *&er(- seems t( &e alm(st a- eleme-tal, -atural /(r.e5 +e.ause (/ his Guarrel 1ith %ita-ia, the 1(rld (/ -ature is .(mpletel' (ut (/ &ala-.e5 *-l' a primal p(1er .(uld 1reak that ki-d (/ ha6(. (- -ature5 %his d(es-'t mea- he is a per/e.t, all-p(1er/ul &ei-g5 His a-ger t(1ard %ita-ia has (6ert(-es (/ &(th Ceal(us' a-d re6e-ge5 2(u ma' /eel that she has &e.(me (&sessed 1ith the I-dia- &(' a-d is -egle.ti-g her r('al duties as .(-s(rt (/ the /air' ki-g, &ut d(es-'t *&er(-'s resp(-se seem petula-t, ma'&e a little mea-K He is, a/ter all, Guite 1illi-g t( humiliate her a-d seems t( take i-(rdi-ate C(' i- it5 2et /r(m the start he is t(u.hed &' the l(6ers' plight, a-d his aim is t( u-ite them, as it is t( u-ite himsel/ a-d %ita-ia5 He k-(1s the p(1er (/ .(-.(rd (6er dis.(rd5 He is-'t all-seei-g e-(ugh t( pre6e-t !u.k /r(m maki-g the mistake that &ri-gs a&(ut the .(-/usi(/(r the l(6ers, &ut he k-(1s h(1 t( right the 1r(-g that's &ee- d(-e5 *&er(-'s &rillia-t p(etr' is the ke' t( his imp(rta-.e i- the pla'5 His spee.hes .(-tai- s(me (/ the m(st e9tra6aga-t 1riti-g i- all (/ Shakespeare5 *&er(- raises p(etr' t( the le6el (/ magi., as i/ his 1(rds 1ere part (/ his /air' magi. l(re5 He has a .(mma-di-g k-(1ledge (/ /l(1ers, 1hi.h seem t( &e at the heart (/ the /air' realm5 %he da-ger(us l(6e Cui.e is .(-tai-ed i- a /l(1er, as is its a-tid(te5 His /am(us des.ripti(- (/ %ita-ia's /a6(rite resti-g pla.e .alls (ut the -ames (/ /l(1ers as i/ Cust t( speak them 1ere t( i-du.e a spell5 A-d, i-deed, he d(es i-du.e a spell (/ p(etr'5 I/ he des.ri&es s(methi-g, like the Arr(1 (/ )upid striki-g the /l(1er, (r the da1- risi-g, he d(es s( 1ith su.h .(mma-d (/ detail a-d se-sualit' that the s.e-e .(mes t( li/e &e/(re '(u5 Whe- *&er(- /i-all' rest(res harm(-' t( his relati(-ship 1ith %ita-ia, he seems t( d( s( /(r e6er'(-e else t((5 +(tt(m has his ass's head rem(6ed i- a t1i-kli-g, a-d the l(6ers are reu-ited5 %he 1eddi-g (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta .a- -(1 pr(.eed5 %he (uter edges (/ the pla' are held d(1- &' the (rderl' %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta, &ut its i--er .(re &ur-s 1ith the .(-/li.t, passi(-, a-d magi. (/ the /air' rulers5 %heseus me-ti(-s that all theater is made up (/ shad(1-pla's5 Whe- !u.k re/ers t( *&er(- as the Hki-g (/ shad(1s,H he's letti-g us see that as p(et a-d pla'1right, *&er(- is a master (/ the art5 %I%ANIA %ita-ia is a regal a-d .(mma-di-g pers(-5 She is -(t readil' 1illi-g t( gi6e i- t( the ki-g, a-d her i-siste-.e (- keepi-g the .ha-geli-g sh(1s &(th her str(-g pers(-al 1ill a-d the respe.t she has /(r her priestess5 %h(ugh she ma' la.k *&er(-'s k-(1ledge (/ magi., she is .ertai-l' a primar' p(1er like him a-d has her (1- .(urt (/ /air' atte-da-ts5 She's -(t a&(ut t( take a-' -(-se-se /r(m him, a-d she thr(1s his past r(ma-ti. e9pl(its right i- his /a.e5 %r' t( put '(ursel/ i- her p(siti(- as 1ell as i- *&er(-'s5 What d( '(u thi-k her rights are, espe.iall' as a part-er i- marriageK %h(ugh she ma' -(t k-(1 the spells, she has the /air' .harm5 %he 1(rld she m(6es i- seems t( ha6e a spe.ial magi.al gra.e5 She li6es am(-g /l(1ersD e6e- her /air' atte-da-ts ha6e /l(ral -ames5 S(-g a-d da-.e seem t( &e the -ature (/ her /air' &usi-ess5 She's -(t a mat.h /(r *&er(-'s magi.- he's a&le t( put the d(ti-g .harm (- her5 +ut her 1(rld, e6e- m(re tha- his, seems t( &e a- e-.ha-ted (-e, deli.ate,

stra-ge, (/ a-(ther dime-si(- a-d si3e5 %ita-ia, like *&er(-, has the p(1er (/ p(etr'5 Her des.ripti(- (/ the -atural 1(rld i- disarra' is (-e (/ the high p(i-ts (/ the pla'5 She seems t( i-6est the distur&ed -atural /(r.es 1ith her (1em(ti(-al distress, s( that the 1a6es, air, a-d mud seem t( &e li6i-g, &reathi-g, pers(-al thi-gs5 She k-(1s the ra-ge a-d imp(rta-.e (/ her a-d *&er(-'s p(1er5 She ma' -(t see that her (&sessi(- is as eGuall' t( &lame as *&er(-'s Ceal(us', &ut she u-dersta-ds the /ullest dime-si(-s (/ the resulti-g Guarrel5 Her des.ripti(- (/ the .ha-geli-g's m(ther is a mar6el (/ p(eti. imager'5 %he .(mparis(&et1ee- the preg-a-t 1(ma- a-d the sails /illed 1ith 1i-d makes the 1(rld seem /illed 1ith a /emale .reati6e /(r.e5 %ita-ia em&(dies that p(1er5 !#)K 4ester a-d C(kester, !u.k, (ther1ise k-(1- as "(&i- $((d/ell(1, is like a 1ild, u-tamed mem&er (/ the /air' .la-5 %h(ugh *&er(- tells him the' are Hspirits (/ a-(ther s(rt,H !u.k, 1ith his .(--e.ti(- t( -glish lege-d a-d /(lkl(re, seems related t( a slightl' m(re da-ger(us ki-d (/ sprite5 N(t that he is trul' male6(le-t5 Alth(ugh his tri.ks make pe(ple u-.(m/(rta&le, the' d(-'t seem t( d( a-' perma-e-t damage5 He .asts air(-i. e'e (- huma-it'5 %hi-ki-g pe(ple /((ls, he l(6es t( make /((ls (/ them5 +ut laughter, -(t tears, is his aim5 He delights imis.hie/-maki-g, like a &(' &e-t (- /u-5 He's the .hildlike a-tid(te t( *&er(-'s seri(us-essD that's 1h' he's Cester as 1ell as C(kester5 With his Gui.k-ess, 6e-tril(Guism, a-d shape-.ha-gi-g a&ilit', he .learl' has magi. /air' p(1ers (/ his (1-5 Meddli-g i- the a//airs (/ l(6ers a-d admi-isteri-g )upid's l(6e Cui.e, he's remi-is.e-t (/ !a-5 A-d like him he seems t( ha6e s(me a-imal -ature5 He e6e- tells us that he likes t( take the /(rm (/ a-imals a-d that he .(mmu-i.ates 1ith them5 He is als( remi-is.e-t (/ the $reek g(d Hermes, the messe-ger5 Like him, he's a g(-&et1ee- /(r higher p(1ers5 M(st (/ the magi. he d(es i- the pla' is at *&er(-'s reGuest5 He's m(re the i-strume-t (r admi-isterer (/ magi. tha- the .reat(r (/ it5 He is de/i-itel' ithe ser6i.e (/ *&er(-, regardi-g him 1ith respe.t a-d a little /ear5 As the liais(- &et1ee- the 6ari(us gr(ups (/ .hara.ters i- the pla', !u.k is als( the .hara.ter 1h( .(mmu-i.ates dire.tl' 1ith us, the audie-.e5 His s1i/t-ess 7he .a- /l' ar(u-d the earth i- /(rt' mi-utes8 ma' gi6e him the a&ilit' t( .ut thr(ugh dime-si(-s, t((5 He steps (ut (/ the pla' at the e-d t( suggest that all 1e'6e see- ma' &e Cust a dream- a-d '(u .a- &e sure he sa's it 1ith a 1i-kJ +*%%*M )l(1-, a.t(r, 1ea6er, e6e- r(ma-ti. her(- +(tt(m is a .(mple9 .hara.ter5 He's a&le t( attra.t s'mpath' i- the midst (/ his a&surd &u//((-er' a-d t( eli.it .(-.er- e6e- th(ugh he e9hi&its s(me (&-(9i(us Gualities5 %his mi9 (/ .hara.teristi.s has made readers /eel ma-' .(-tradi.t(r' thi-gs a&(ut him5 S(me sa' he is a &((r, that he treats his /ell(1 pla'ers 1ith a la.k (/ respe.tD (thers -(te his large eg( a-d -eed /(r &ei-g i- the sp(tlight5 Still (ther readers /i-d him a per/e.t .l(1- a-d take his p(sturi-g as harmless C(ki-g5 He ma', (/ .(urse, re/le.t all these thi-gs5 What is '(ur a-al'sis (/ +(tt(mK He is .ertai-l' /illed 1ith e-erg'D it seems t( stream (ut (/ him s(metimes i- 1a's that he .a-'t st(p5 He -e6er uses (-e 1(rd 1he-

t1( 1ill d(D i- the same 1a', he'd rather -(t pla' Cust (-e part 1he- he .(uld pla' them all5 +(tt(m is a ham5 He's als( a &ad a.t(r5 %he t1( Gualities t(gether make him i-e6ita&l' /u--' t( us5 His e-thusiasm trips him up agai- a-d agai-5 He is e-am(red (/ 1(rds5 I/ he misuses (r mispr(-(u-.es them he d(es-'t -(ti.e- th(ugh 1e d(5 He thi-ks he k-(1s m(re tha- he d(es k-(1, a-d it .a- make him seem arr(ga-t, Cust as his (6era&u-da-t e-erg' .a- make him seem like a &ull'5 +ut the testim(-' (/ his /ell(1 1(rkers makes it .lear that the' take it all i- strideD i- /a.t, the' ad(re him5 %he' seem t( appre.iate his e-erg' a-d his a.ti-g a&ilit'5 %he''re e6e- a little &it i- a1e (/ him5 A-d his /(-d-ess /(r them is eGuall' appare-t5 Whehe retur-s t( them at last, the' are his Hlads,H his Hhearts5H %he a//e.ti(- these me- share is real a-d t(u.hi-g, espe.iall' amid all the .(-/used /eeli-gs (/ l(6e i- the rest (/ the pla'5 %h(ugh he's a &um&ler, +(tt(m als( seems t( &e p(ssessed (/ a spe.ial gra.e5 As a 1(rki-g-.lass tradesma- u-a..ust(med t( /i-er' a-d deli.ate ma--ers, his treatme-t (/ his /air' ser6a-ts is a m(del (/ .(urtl' &eha6i(r5 He's -(t Cust ki-dD he's i-terested i- them5 He ma' l((k like a- ass at /irst gla-.e, &ut a-(ther l((k re6eals s(methi-g deeper5 !art (/ his spe.ial Gualit' is i-di.ated &' the /a.t that he al(-e (/ the m(rtals a.tuall' &e.(mes i-6(l6ed 1ith the /air' 1(rld5 %hat +(tt(m d(es-'t thi-k %ita-ia's l(6e (r dallia-.e 1ith him is prep(ster(us mea-s he is (pe- t( the /air' p(1er i- a 1a' -( (-e else is5 He ma' .ut a ridi.ul(us /igure, 1eari-g a- ass's head, &ut 1hat's i-teresti-g is that these stra-ge little .reatures d(-'t l((k ridi.ul(us t( him a-d he's at ease 1ith them as 1ith (ther pers(-s5 Whe- he 1akes /r(m his dream, he's u-1illi-g t( .(mpletel' let g( (/ his e9perie-.e5 He /eels s(meh(1 a C(ke has &ee- pla'ed (- him, &ut he als( se-ses s(methi-g deeper at the heart (/ the C(ke5 He tests it (- his t(-gue, sa6(rs it, releases it, a-d .alls it &a.k5 He's -(t atta.hed t( reas(- like %heseus, a-d he d(es ha6e s(methi-g (/ the artist i- him5 He's 1illi-g t( a&s(r& his magi.al e9perie-.e like a 6isi(- a-d let it /i-d its (1- mea-i-g5 He a.ts like a /((l, &ut Shakespeare sh(1s us he's -(t a /((l5 +(tt(m is larger tha- li/e5 He has a huge appetite5 He'd rather e-gage s(methi-g tha- let it g( &'5 He's u-sel/-.(-s.i(us a&(ut &(th his real a&ilities a-d his /(i&les5 %hat gi6es him, i- the truest se-se, a se-se (/ humilit'5 A-d it's a pe.uliarit' (/ huma- -ature that humilit' is e--(&li-g5 +(tt(m's -(t su.h a C(ke, a/ter all5 0#IN) , SN#$, =L#% , SN*#%, AND S%A"< LIN$ %hese simple /(lk .ar6e (ut their (1- realm i- the pla', 1ith +(tt(m at the /r(-t5 Shakespeare has them speak pr(se, ser6i-g as a sharp .(-trast t( the p(etr' (/ the l(6ers a-d /airies5 %he' sta-d as represe-tati6es (/ a- i--(.e-t real 1(rld, plai-, g((d--atured, a-d 1ell-mea-i-g5 %heir prep(ster(us &ad a.ti-g a-d terri&le attempts at p(etr' are made /u- (/, &ut their g((d i-te-ti(-s a-d shared /ell(1ship are al1a's appare-t5 Shakespeare ma' use them t( satiri3e eleme-ts (/ his theater, &ut he d(es s( i- a 1a' that makes their theatri.s, -(t them, the (&Ce.ts (/ his .(med'5 %heir &urlesGue ma' make them l((k ridi.ul(us, &ut as .hara.ters the' /are &etter tha- the m(re arti.ulate l(6ers d(5 %he' are a -e.essar' adCu-.t t( the (ther 1(rlds (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream5 %he' .(u-tera.t the duke's sti// relia-.e (- reas(-, the l(6ers' high m(ral /lights (/ /a-.', a-d the /airies' elega-t a-d primal p(etr'5 All (/ these realms t(gether make a re.(g-i3a&l' huma- 1(rld5

S %%IN$ *%H " L M N%S 7SMIDS %%8 S %%IN$

%h(ugh A Midsummer Night's Dream takes pla.e i- a-d ar(u-d Athe-s ia-.ie-t $ree.e, '(u 1ill &e hard-pressed t( /i-d ma-' details (/ $reek li/e5 I-stead, '(u 1ill lear- mu.h a&(ut li3a&etha- .(urtl' a-d .(u-tr' li/e5 While it pr(/esses t( dra1 a pi.ture (/ Athe-s, the pla' reall' seems t( take pla.e i- -gla-d5 !u.k's des.ripti(-s (/ the tri.ks he pla's (- pe(ple are /illed 1ith details (/ -glish 6illage li/e5 A-d 1he- %ita-ia des.ri&es the pestile-.e a-d /l((ds that ha6e &e/alle- the .(u-tr'side si-.e her Guarrel 1ith *&er(-, she is .learl' talki-g a&(ut -gla-d, 1ith its ma-i.ured garde-s a-d .(u-tr' games5 %he real e9pl(rati(- (/ setti-g i- this pla' has -(t s( mu.h t( d( 1ith pla.e as 1ith realms (r dime-si(-s (/ e9perie-.e5 %he &egi--i-g a-d the e-d (/ the pla' take pla.e i- the .it', i- the .(urtl' ur&a-e atm(sphere (/ the pala.e (/ %heseus, the duke (/ Athe-s5 It is da'light, a-d the m((d is (-e (/ s(.ial (rder a-d reas(-5 %he 1h(le middle (/ the pla', h(1e6er, takes pla.e i- the 1((ds, duri-g a m((-lit -ight5 %he atm(sphere here is (-e (/ dis(rder, (/ em(ti(-al i-dulge-.e a-d magi.5 7HW((dH 1as a- li3a&etha- 1(rd /(r Hmad,H as Demetrius (&ser6es i- a pu-58 Whe- the .hara.ters e-ter the 1((ds, their em(ti(-al li6es are put i- uphea6al5 Despite their pr(testati(-s (/ rati(-alit' 7L'sa-der, /(r e9ample, pleads this .(-ti-uall'8, it is the irrati(-al, r(ma-ti. side (/ their -atures that is re6ealed5 S( the t1( mai- setti-gs are -(t Cust &a.kdr(ps /(r the a.ti(-5 %he' s'm&(li3e t1( di//ere-t em(ti(-al a-d ps'.hi. spheres (/ e9perie-.e5 %H M S %H M S 7SMID%H M8

Here are s(me maC(r themes e9pl(red &' Shakespeare i- this pla'5 2(u 1ill /i-d them e9plai-ed i- greater detail i- the s.e-e-&'-s.e-e dis.ussi(- (/ the -(6el5 15 %"# AND =ALS L*< %he (6erridi-g theme (/ the pla' deals 1ith the -ature (/ l(6e5 %h(ugh true l(6e seems t( &e held up as a- ideal, /alse l(6e is m(stl' 1hat 1e are sh(1-5 #-der-eath his /ra-ti. .(med', Shakespeare seems t( &e aski-g the Guesti(-s all l(6ers ask i- the thr(es (/ their .(-/usi(-F H(1 d( 1e k-(1 1he- l(6e is realK H(1 .a- 1e trust (ursel6es 1he- 1e are s( easil' s1a'ed &' passi(- a-d &' r(ma-ti. .(-6e-ti(-sK S(me readers se-se a &itter-ess &ehi-d the .(med'5 +ut '(u 1ill pr(&a&l' als( re.(g-i3e the truth &ehi-d Shakespeare's satire5 */te-, l(6e leads us d(1- &li-d alle's a-d makes us d( thi-gs 1e regret later5 %he l(6ers i- the pla'- espe.iall' the me-are made t( seem rather shall(15 %he' .ha-ge the (&Ce.ts (/ their a//e.ti(-s, all the time s1eari-g eter-al l(6e t( (-e (r the (ther5 %h(ugh marriage is held up at the e-d as a ki-d (/ u-i/'i-g sa.rame-t, a-d s( gi6es a pi.ture (/ a true, se-si&le, a-d s(.iall' sa-.ti(-ed l(6e, s(me .riti.s ha6e /(u-d its (rder a little h(ll(15 %he .(-/usi(that pre.edes the 1eddi-gs seems, s(meh(1, mu.h m(re t( the p(i-t5 A5 S IN$ AND + IN$ +LIND =r(m the (pe-i-g s.e-e, He'esH a-d Hseei-gH are sh(1- t( &e at the

.(re (/ h(1 1e per.ei6e thi-gs i- l(6e5 Hele-a sa's that Hl(6e l((ks -(t 1ith the e'es &ut 1ith the mi-d5H I- Shakespeare's terms, 1hel(6ers are led astra' &' their /eeli-gs the' are-'t seei-g .(rre.tl'D their e'es are H&li-d,H i- the same 1a' 1e -(1 sa' that l(6e is &li-d5 L(6ers /reGue-tl' see 1hat the' 1a-t t(, -(t 1hat is reall' there5 Whe- l(6ers l((k 1ith su.h sel/-.harmed e'es, the' are said t( &e Hd(ti-g,H a ke' term i- the pla'5 D( '(u k-(1 a-' su.h d(ti-g l(6ersK :5 WAKIN$ AND D" AMIN$ All /(ur l(6ers, plus +(tt(m a-d %ita-ia, /all asleep i- the .(urse (/ the pla', a-d all 1ake up t( ha6e themsel6es (r their situati(-s .ha-ged5 A- (pp(siti(- &et1ee- 1aki-g a-d dreami-g is .(-ti-uall' e-/(r.ed, starti-g, (/ .(urse, 1ith the 6er' title (/ the pla'5 A/ter 1aki-g /r(m their /i-al sleep, the l(6ers /eel that their e9perie-.es 1ere Cust dreams5 !u.k als( (//ers us this e9pla-ati(- i- his /i-al m(-(l(gueF that the pla' itsel/ 1as a dream, a-d that 1e, the audie-.e, 1ere its slum&eri-g dreamers5 M((-light is ass(.iated 1ith dreami-g, a-d da'light 1ith 1aki-g5 S( all the /air' e9perie-.es that take pla.e duri-g the m((-lit -ight ma' &e Cust dreamlike hallu.i-ati(-s5 Shakespeare lea6es it /(r '(u t( de.ide5 Whi.h (/ the e9perie-.es d( '(u 1a-t t( .all HrealHK B5 " ALI%2 AND ILL#SI*N All (/ the (pp(siti(-s p(i-t t(1ard (ur per.epti(- (/ realit'5 A-d -(1here .a- that per.epti(- &e m(re i-teresti-gl' tri.ked tha- ithe theater, 1hi.h is e-tirel' &uilt (- the te-si(- &et1ee- illusi(a-d realit', shad(1 a-d light5 Shakespeare teases the audie-.e a&(ut its gulli&ilit' at the same time he tests it5 He makes /u- (/ th(se 1h( d(-'t thi-k 1e'd &e a&le t( tell the di//ere-.e &et1ee- a real (r /ake li(-5 He simulta-e(usl' .harms the audie-.e 1ith a /air' 1(rld &reathtaki-g i- its magi.al &eaut', maki-g them 1a-t t( &elie6e i- the prep(ster(us5 %he theater is .alled a pla.e (/ shad(1s, &ut 1ith the right lighti-g it .a- .(me i-t( a li/e (/ its (1-, .halle-gi-g all (ur -(ti(-s a&(ut 1hat is real a-d 1hat illusi(-ar'5 55 " AS*N AND IMA$INA%I*N %heseus is .(-ti-uall' alig-ed 1ith reas(-5 S(metimes he seems t( &e held up as a m(del /(r s(.ial ma-, .lear-sighted 7-(t d(ti-g8 a-d resp(-si&le5 He i-te-ti(-all' sets himsel/ i- (pp(siti(- t( the imagi-ati(- 1he- he .(mpares the l(6er, the lu-ati., a-d the p(et t( ea.h (ther5 %heir similarit', he sa's, .(mes /r(m the /a.t that the' are all s1a'ed &' their imagi-ati(-s5 L((ki-g at the sad plight (/ the l(6ers, 1e might agree 1ith %heseus's .(-.lusi(-s5 +ut 1e .a- als( see that a relia-.e (- reas(- makes %heseus &li-d i- a di//ere-t 1a'5 %he 1(rld (/ the /airies, (/ magi., m'ster', a-d .reati6e p(1er, is .l(sed t( him5 Shakespeare sa's, thr(ugh %heseus, that the p(et Hgi6es t( air' -(thi-g I A l(.al ha&itati(- a-d -ame5H %h(ugh %heseus seems t( sa' it 1ith s.(r-, this is e9a.tl' 1hat Shakespeare d(es /(r us &' prese-ti-g the air', spe.tral /air' 1(rld i- detailed /(rm5 I- that .ase, the 1(rki-gs (/ the imagi-ati(- .a- &e see- as s(methi-g 6alua&le, i-deed5 +(tt(m, 1aki-g /r(m his dream, seems s(meh(1 a&le t( h(ld the t1( 1(rlds t(gether5 His immediate pla- is t( make his dream i-t( a s(-g5 !erhaps, the-, art is the &ridge &et1ee- the 1(rld (/ reas(- a-d the 1(rld (/ the imagi-ati(-5 +(tt(m sa's this is the p(1er (/ H6isi(-5H -

?5 )HAN$ AND %"ANS=*"MA%I*N !e(ple are .ha-gi-g their mi-ds, their hearts, a-d their images thr(ugh(ut the pla'5 %he 1((ds &e.(me a spe.ial are-a i- 1hi.h these .ha-ges take pla.e5 Demetrius a-d L'sa-der &(th .ha-ge the (&Ce.ts (/ their a//e.ti(-, triggered &' that e9.elle-t age-t (/ .ha-ge, the l(6e Cui.e (/ )upid5 S( l(6e itsel/ is see- as a- age-t (/ tra-s/(rmati(-5 It tur-s pe(ple ar(u-d, a-d s(metimes makes asses (/ them5 %hat is, (/ .(urse, e9a.tl' 1hat happe-s t( +(tt(m, th(ugh it ma' seem at times that %ita-ia is the (-e 1h( has made a- ass (/ hersel/5 As da' .ha-ges t( -ight a-d &a.k agai-, the /airies prese-t a 1(rld tra-s/(rmed &' magi., 1here -(thi-g is 1hat it seems, a-d e6er'thi-g ma' e6(l6e i-t( s(methi-g else5 S%2L S%2L 7SMIDS%2L8

Shakespeare's u-dersta-di-g (/ a 1ide ra-ge (/ huma- e9perie-.e as 1ell as di//ere-t le6els (/ .(-s.i(us-ess e-a&les him t( adapt his st'le t( his .hara.ters a-d their 1(rlds5 A Midsummer Night's Dream is u-iGue i- that its di//ere-t sets (/ .hara.ters speak i- di//ere-t 1a's5 A-d their st'les (/ spee.h tell us thi-gs a&(ut them5 %he du.al .(urt a-d the r(ma-ti. l(6ers speak a .(-6e-ti(-al .(urtl' p(etr', /illed 1ith m'thi.al allusi(-s a-d 1itt' rhet(ri.al gamesma-ship5 Its .(-6e-ti(-alit' tells us as mu.h a&(ut the .hara.ters as a-'thi-g else5 %he l(6ers' 1ell-/itted rh'mes speak (/ a .(mpla.e-.', -(t a .reati6e /ire, at the .(re (/ their /eeli-gs5 N(te L'sa-der's /irst 1(rds t( HermiaF HH(1 -(1, m' l(6eJ Wh' is '(ur .heek s( paleK H(1 .ha-.e the r(ses there d( /ade s( /astKH 7I, i, 1A8-1A98 )(-sideri-g Hermia has Cust &ee- threate-ed 1ith death, the r(se metaph(r seems a little /lip5 %he deeper, threate-i-g em(ti(-s (/ the situati(- are masked &' the p(eti. rhet(ri.5 +ut &e.ause Shakespeare prese-ts the l(6ers as .(mi., -(t tragi., /igures, 1e .a- e-C(' the i-tri.a.' (/ their metaph(rs a-d rh'mes 1hile 1e laugh at their shall(1-ess5 9.ept /(r their a.ted parts i- the pla' at the 1eddi-g, the 1(rki-gme- speak i- pr(se5 Shakespeare gi6es them a se-se (/ &ei-g d(1--t(-earth, appr(priate t( their (..upati(-s a-d simple hearts5 Whe- the' tr' t( speak p(eti.all', the results are laugha&le5 %he' .(-ti-uall' misuse a-d mispr(-(u-.e 1(rds, &ut Shakespeare treats them ge-tl' a-d their simpli.it' triumphs (6er their prete-si(-s5 Similarl', the sill' 6erse the' sp(ut i- H!'ramus a-d %his&'H satiri3es &ad a.ti-g &ut 1ill pr(&a&l' lea6e '(u agreei-g 1ith %heseus that the a.t(rs' i-te-ti(-s are 1hat matters5 %he m(st el(Gue-t a-d &eauti/ul p(etr' i- the pla' &el(-gs t( *&er(a-d %ita-ia5 Sudde-l' '(u /eel the /(r.e (/ real p(etr', -(t its /alse represe-tati6es5 Shakespeare .learl' alig-s his p(etr' 1ith magi., a-d *&er(-'s use (/ la-guage seems t( 1(rk like a magi. spell5 He -ames /l(1ers 1ith /ull re.(g-iti(- (/ their magi.al p(te-tialitiesi-.ludi-g the p(1er (/ the s(u-d (/ their -ames5 HI k-(1 a &a-k 1here the 1ild th'me &l(1s, Where (9lips a-d the -(ddi-g 6i(let gr(1s,

0uite (6er.a-(pied 1ith lus.i(us 1((d&i-e, With s1eet musk r(ses, a-d 1ith egla-ti-e5H 7II, ii, AB9-5A8

%his /am(us passage is reall' Cust a list (/ /l(1ers, &ut Shakespeare is a&le t( i-/use the -ami-g 1ith p(eti. magi., highlighti-g the rh'thmi. a-d se-sual Gualities (/ the la-guage5 LI;> N$LISH LI;A+ %HAN N$LISH 7SMID LI;8

All la-guages .ha-ge5 Di//ere-.es i- pr(-u-.iati(- a-d 1(rd .h(i.e are appare-t e6e- &et1ee- pare-ts a-d their .hildre-5 I/ la-guage di//ere-.es .a- appear i- (-e ge-erati(-, it is (-l' t( &e e9pe.ted that the -glish used &' Shakespeare /(ur hu-dred 'ears ag( 1ill di//er markedl' /r(m the -glish used t(da'5 %he /(ll(1i-g i-/(rmati((- Shakespeare's la-guage 1ill help a m(der- reader t( a /uller u-dersta-di-g (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream5 M*+ILI%2 *= W*"D )LASS S AdCe.ti6es, -(u-s, a-d 6er&s 1ere less rigidl' .(-/i-ed t( parti.ular .lasses i- Shakespeare's da'5 AdCe.ti6es .(uld &e used as ad6er&sF A-d the- the m((-, like t( a sil6er &(1 Ne1 &e-t i- hea6e7I, i, 9-1@8 HNe1H is used /(r H-e1l'5H AdCe.ti6es .(uld als( &e used as -(u-sF Demetrius l(6es '(ur /air5 * happ' /airJ 7I, i, 18A8 Here, H/airH is the eGui6ale-t (/ H/air-essH (r H&eaut'5H AdCe.ti6es .(uld als( &e used as 6er&s5 H)('H mea-s Ht( .aressH iWhile I th' amia&le .heeks d( .(', 7I<, i, A8 N(u-s .(uld &e used as 6er&s5 HSGuareH mea-s Ht( /ight, GuarrelH i+ut the' d( sGuare, 7II, i, :@8 N(u-s .(uld als( &e used as 6er&als, like H/le1sH 7d(g's C(1ls8 a-d Hsa-dH 7the .(l(r (/ sa-d8 iM' h(u-ds are &red (ut (/ the Sparta- ki-dD S( /le1ed, s( sa-dedD 7I<, i, 118-198 )HAN$ S IN W*"D M ANIN$ %he mea-i-gs (/ 1(rds u-derg( .ha-ges, a pr(.ess that .a- &e illustrated &' the /a.t that Hsill'H used t( mea- Hh(l'H a-d HGui.kH mea-t Hali6e5H M(st (/ the 1(rds i- Shakespeare's pla's still e9ist t(da' &ut s(me mea-i-gs ha6e .ha-ged5 %he .ha-ge ma' &e small, as ithe .ase (/ Hpert,H 1hi.h mea-t HGui.k t( a.t,H as i-

A1ake the pert a-d -im&le spirit (/ mirth 7I, i, 1:8

(r m(re /u-dame-tal, s( that Hg(ssipH 7II, i, BE8 mea-t H(ld 1(ma-H 7p(ssi&l' a relati6e8, HsaddestH 7II, i, 518 mea-t Hm(st seri(us,H H1a9e-H 7II, i, 5?8 mea-t Hi-.rease,H H1eedH 7II, i, A5?8 mea-t Hgarme-t, .l(thes,H a-d H/a6(ursH 7I<, i, B88 mea-t H/l(1ers gi6e- as a t(ke- (/ l(6e5H <*)A+#LA"2 L*SS W(rds -(t (-l' .ha-ge their mea-i-gs &ut are /reGue-tl' dis.arded /r(m the la-guage5 I- the past, Hlema-H mea-t Hs1eetheart,H Hs((thH mea-t Htruth,H a-d Hme1edH mea-t H.(-/i-ed, .((ped up5H %he /(ll(1i-g 1(rds used i- A Midsummer Night's Dream are -( l(-ger .urre-t i- -glish, &ut their mea-i-gs .a- usuall' &e gauged /r(m the .(-te9ts i- 1hi.h the' (..ur5 $A#DS 7I, i, ::8F sh(1' t('s !" <AILM N% 7I, i, E18F p(1er + LIK 7I, i, 1:@8F perhaps + % M 7I, i, 1:18F all(1 MIS$"A== D 7I, i, 1:E8F &adl' mat.hed )*LLI D 7I, i, 1B58F darke-ed 2N 7I, i, ABA8F e'es AN 7I, ii, BE8F i/ *"+S 7II, i, 98F /air' ri-gs L*+ 7II, i, 1?8F /((l, .l(1= LL 7II, i, A@8F /ier.e +**%L SS 7II, i, :E8F useless +#SKIN D 7II, i, E18F 1eari-g hu-ti-g .l(thes MA"$ N% 7II, i, 858F sh(re M#""I*N 7II, i, 9E8F murrai-, disease (/ a-imals HI MS 7II, i, 1@98F 1i-ter " " MI) 7II, ii, B8F &ats !A"D 7II, ii, :E8F le(pard *W 7II, ii, 858F (1+2'" LAKIN 7III, i, 1A8F &' (ur lad' *#S L (r W**S L 7III, i, 1188F &la.k&ird %H"*S%L 7III, i, 1A@8F thrush !A%)H S 7III, ii, 98F .l(1-s A+2 7III, ii, 1E58F at(-e, pa' /(r W LKIN 7III, ii, :5?8F hea6e-s, sk' W*% 7III, ii, BAA8F k-(1 N A= 7I<, i, 198F /ist )"2 7I<, i, 1A:8F pa.k (/ h(u-ds D*L 7<, i, AE@8F s(ur.e (/ s(rr(1 < "+S Shakespearea- 6er& /(rms di//er /r(m m(der- usage i- three mai1a'sF 15 0uesti(-s a-d -egati6es .(uld &e /(rmed 1ith(ut usi-g Hd(Idid,H as 1he- *&er(- asks %ita-iaF H(1 l(-g 1ithi- this 1((d i-te-d '(u sta'K 7II, i, 1:88

1here t(da' 1e 1(uld sa', HH(1 l(-g d( '(u i-te-d t( sta'KH (r as 1he- Demetrius tells Hele-F I l(6e thee -(t, there/(re pursue me -(t5 7II, i, 1898 1here m(der- usage dema-ds, HI d( -(t l(6e '(u, s( d(-'t /(ll(1 me5H Shakespeare had the (pti(- (/ usi-g /(rms 7a8 (r 7&8, 1hereas .(-temp(rar' usage permits (-l' the 7a8 /(rmsF a & What are '(u sa'i-gK What sa' '(uK What did '(u sa'K What said '(uK I d( -(t l(6e '(u5 I l(6e '(u -(t5 I did -(t l(6e '(u5 I l(6ed '(u -(t5 A5 A -um&er (/ past parti.iples a-d past te-se /(rms are used that 1(uld &e u-grammati.al t(da'5 Am(-g these are H&r(keH /(r H&r(ke-HF +' all the 6(1s that e6er me- ha6e &r(ke, 7I, i, 1E58 H/(rg(tH /(r H/(rg(tte-HF A-d- t( speak truth- I ha6e /(rg(t (ur 1a'5 7II, ii, BA8 Ha/eardH /(r Ha/raidHF Will -(t the ladies &e a/eard (/ the li(-K 7III, i, A58 Hmist((kH /(r Hmistake-HF A-d the '(uth mist((k &' me, 7III, ii, 11A8 a-d H1ritH /(r H1r(teHF Marr', i/ he that 1rit it had pla'ed !'ramus555 7<, i, :B88 :5 Ar.hai. 6er& /(rms s(metimes (..ur 1ith Hth(uH a-d 1ith third pers(- su&Ce.tsF %h(u shalt remai- here, 1hether th(u 1ilt (r -(5 7III, i, 1BB8 Musi., h(J Musi. su.h as .harmeth sleepJ 7I<, 1, 8A8 A-d all their mi-ds tra-s/igured s( t(gether, M(re 1it-esseth tha- /a-.''s images, 7<, i, AB-A58

!"*N*#NS Shakespeare a-d his .(-temp(raries had (-e e9tra pr(-(u-, Hth(u,H 1hi.h .(uld &e used i- addressi-g a pers(- 1h( 1as (-e's eGual (r s(.ial i-/eri(r5 H2(uH 1as (&ligat(r' i/ m(re tha- (-e pers(- 1as addressed, s( H'(uH is used 1he- !u.k addresses the audie-.eF %hi-k &ut this, a-d all is me-dedF %hat '(u ha6e &ut slum&ered here, 7<, i, B1B-158 &ut it .(uld als( &e used t( i-di.ate respe.t5 L'sa-der a-d Hermia sh(1 their respe.t /(r ea.h (ther &' usi-g H'(uHF L2S5 =air l(6e, '(u /ai-t 1ith 1a-deri-g i- the 1((dD 5555555 H "5 +e it s(, L'sa-derD /i-d '(u (ut a &ed, =(r I up(- this &a-k 1ill rest m' head5 7II, ii, B1//8 =reGue-tl', a pers(- i- p(1er used Hth(uH t( a .hild (r a su&(rdi-ate &ut 1as addressed H'(uH i- retur-, as 1he- *&er(- speaks t( !u.kF *+ 5 A-d l((k th(u meet me ere the /irst .(.k .r(15 !#)K =ear -(t, m' l(rd, '(ur ser6a-t shall d( s(5 7II, i, A?E-?88 &ut i/ Hth(uH 1as used i-appr(priatel' it .(uld .ause gra6e (//e-se5 *&er(- i-te-ded t( (//e-d %ita-ia 1he- he addressed her as Hth(uHF H(1 .a-st th(u thus, /(r shame, %ita-ia, 7II, i, EB8 !" !*SI%I*NS !rep(siti(-s 1ere less sta-dardi3ed i- li3a&etha- -glish tha- the' are t(da' a-d s( 1e /i-d se6eral uses i- A Midsummer Night's Dream that 1(uld ha6e t( &e m(di/ied i- .(-temp(rar' spee.h5 Am(-g these are Hi-H /(r H(-HF *r i- the &ea.hed marge-t (/ the sea, 7II, i, 858 Hup(-H /(r H&'HF %( die up(- the ha-d I l(6e s( 1ell5 7II, i, ABB8 H(-H /(r H(/HF M(re /(-d (- her tha- she up(- her l(6eF 7II, i, A??8 Hagai-stH /(r Hi- a-ti.ipati(- (/HF A-d -(1 ha6e t(iled their u-&reathed mem(ries

With this same pla' agai-st '(ur -uptial5 a-d Ht(H /(r Hi-HF I- least speak m(st, t( m' .apa.it'5

7<, i, EB-E58

7<, i, 1@58

M#L%I!L N $A%I*N )(-temp(rar' -glish reGuires (-l' (-e -egati6e per stateme-t a-d regards su.h uttera-.es as HI ha6e-'t -(-eH as -(-sta-dard5 H(1e6er, Shakespeare (/te- used t1( (r m(re -egati6es /(r emphasis, as 1heHele-a .hides L'sa-derF Is't -(t e-(ugh, is't -(t e-(ugh, '(u-g ma-, %hat I did -e6er- -(, -(r -e6er .a-Deser6e a s1eet l((k /r(m Demetrius' e'e, 7II, ii, 1:1//8 a-d +(tt(m agrees 1ith %ita-iaF N(t s( -eitherD 7III, i, 1B18 <I W !*IN% *= <I W 7SMID<I W8

%h(ugh a pla'1right d(es -(t ge-erall' ha6e a- all-seei-g (r su&Ce.ti6e 6(i.e t( speak /r(m, he d(es ha6e .hara.ters t( represe-t 6ari(us p(i-ts (/ 6ie15 +ut .a- '(u al1a's tell 1hat Shakespeare himsel/ /eels a&(ut thi-gs i- A Midsummer Night's DreamK D( his .hara.ters speak /(r himK *r d( '(u /eel that he s(metimes disappears &ehi-d his .hara.ters, maki-g the reader de.ide 1hat t( /eel a&(ut the issuesK %heseus is the 6(i.e /(r reas(-, /(r .i6il (rder a-d the mature su&Cugati(- (/ r(ma-ti. passi(- i- marriage5 %he /(ur l(6ers, (- the (ther ha-d, speak (ut /(r r(ma-.e5 Si-.e their i-tera.ti(-s are the &asis (/ the .(med', a-d si-.e the' are all married i- the e-d, the' t(( make us /eel the /ri6(lit' (/ r(ma-.e5 +ut *&er(-, %ita-ia, a-d !u.k keep thi-gs /r(m getti-g t(( stru.tured (r d(mesti.5 I- them 1e /eel authe-ti. 1ild p(1ers, a /(r.e (/ -ature 71e might .all it magi.8 that -eed -(t &e tamed5 %his -atural /(r.e is als( alig-ed 1ith art5 %hese di//ere-t /(r.es keep us /r(m settli-g t(( easil' i-t( Cudgme-ts a&(ut l(6e a-d reas(-5 +' prese-ti-g us 1ith t1( disti-.t 1(rlds- the .(urtl' d(mai- (/ (rder a-d the 1ild 1((ds- Shakespeare als( sh(1s us the -e.essit' /(r a &ala-.e &et1ee- the t1(5 Neither (-e 1ill su//i.e al(-e5 %heseus seems t(( .(-stri.ted &' reas(-, the l(6ers t(( dri6e- a-d distra.ted &' em(ti(-5 2(u ma' /eel s'mpatheti. 1ith all the di//ere-t .hara.ters a-d le6els (/ e9perie-.e (/ the pla'5 Shakespeare's ar.hite.ture seems t( i-sist that all t(gether are -e.essar' /(r a r(u-ded 6ie1 (/ (ur 1(rld5 =*"M =*"M AND S%"#)%#" 7SMID=*"M8 %h(ugh Shakespeare's pla's are -(1 di6ided /(r us i-t( a.ts a-d

s.e-es, these are 6er' likel' the 1(rk (/ later edit(rs5 We d( -(t reall' k-(1 1here Shakespeare's pla'ers made their pauses5 %he li3a&etha- stage 1as s( &are a-d /luid that it 1as-'t -e.essar' t( st(p /reGue-tl' /(r s.e-e (r .(stume .ha-ges, as it is t(da'5 It's m(re i-teresti-g t( l((k at the pla' itsel/ t( get a se-se (/ /(rm a-d stru.ture5 %H =I< -A)% S%"#)%#" 7See illustrati(-F =i6e-A.t Stru.ture8 A)% IF L!*SI%I*N5 %he pr(&lem 1ith the /(ur l(6ers is re6ealed5 %he' ea.h seem t( &e i- l(6e 1ith the 1r(-g pers(-5 A)% IIF "ISIN$ A)%I*N5 %he Guarrel &et1ee- *&er(- a-d %ita-ia i-te-si/ies5 L'sa-der is gi6e- the l(6e Cui.e5 A)% IIIF )LIMAL5 *&er(-'s pla- 1(rksF +(tt(m is tra-s/(rmed a-d %ita-ia humiliated5 %he l(6ers are i- .(mplete disarra'5 A)% I<F =ALLIN$ A)%I*N5 %he l(6ers, %ita-ia, a-d +(tt(m 1ake up /r(m their Hdreams5H *&er(- a-d %ita-ia are re.(-.iled5 A)% <F " S*L#%I*N5 %he three .(uples prepare /(r marriage, a-d the pla' 1ithi- the pla' is per/(rmed, e9(r.isi-g the tragi. eleme-t i/a6(r (/ the .(mi.5 %he pla' has a 6er' simple time ar.hite.ture5 M(st (/ the a.ti(takes pla.e duri-g (-e l(-g /ra-ti. -ight, /ramed at either e-d &' a &rie/ spate (/ da'5 A-d time parallels pla.e5 %he pla' (pe-s at .(urt, i- the su--', rati(-al, s(.ial 1(rld (/ %heseus the duke5 %he mai.(urse (/ the pla' takes pla.e i- the Athe-ia- 1((ds (utside (/ t(1-5 %here it is -ight- a m'steri(us 1(rld /illed 1ith spirits a-d huma- passi(-s5 At the e-d 1e are i- .(urt agai-5 Da' has retur-ed, the (rder (/ marriage is triumpha-t, a-d the &(-ds (/ the s(.ial 1(rld are re-stre-gthe-ed5 2(u might als( /i-d stru.tural &eaut' i- the 1a' Shakespeare Cuggles the /(ur realms his .hara.ters i-ha&it5 +' the 1a' the' speak a-d the ki-ds (/ .hara.ters the' re6eal, the pe(ple i- the pla' seem t( (..up' disti-.t realms (r 3(-es (/ e9iste-.e, 1hi.h Shakespeare i-ter1ea6es thr(ugh(ut the pla'5 %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta, as mem&ers (/ the r('al .(urt, li6e i- a- e9tremel' s(.ial 1(rld a-d sta-d /(r the (rderl' 1(rki-gs (/ s(.iet'5 %he /(ur l(6ers, i- their tra6els /r(m .(urt t( 1((d a-d &a.k t( .(urt agai-, e9ist i- a realm g(6er-ed &' the passi(-s, a-d s( .(me t( sta-d /(r ma-'s 6(latile em(ti(-al li/e5 %he rusti. 1(rki-gme-, 1ith their simple trades, ph'si.al .(med', a-d earth' se-si&ilities, represe-t the material 1(rld5 A-d the /airies- deli.ate, m'steri(us, eleme-tal, 1ith .reati6e p(1er a-d p(eti. art- represe-t the 1(rld (/ the spirit5 All these 1(rlds e9ist simulta-e(usl'5 Shakespeare mea-s us t( see that the stru.ture the' .(m&i-e t( .reate is the huma- u-i6erse5 S*#") S S*#") S 7SMIDS*#"8

As 1ith m(st (/ his pla's, Shakespeare dre1 (- ma-' di//ere-t s(ur.es t( help shape A Midsummer Night's Dream5 %here d(es -(t seem t( &e a- earlier pl(t that he i-.(rp(rated- rather, a series (/ m'ths a-d tales that he dre1 /r(m t( .reate his (1- 1(rk5 +ut m(st (/ (ur u-dersta-di-g (/ Shakespearea- s(ur.es is like dete.ti6e 1(rkF 1e pie.e t(gether similarities &ut 1e ha6e -( dire.t testim(-'5

Sir %h(mas N(rth's tra-slati(- (/ !lutar.h's Li/e (/ %heseus seems t( ha6e gi6e- Shakespeare s(me (/ the m'thi.al &a.kgr(u-d /(r the pla', parti.ularl' relati-g t( %heseus's past e9pl(its, r(ma-ti. a-d (ther1ise5 %he -ame geus 7Hermia's /ather8 pr(&a&l' als( .ame /r(m !lutar.h5 Shakespeare seems alm(st .ertai- t( ha6e &(rr(1ed s(me i-/(rmati(/r(m the /(urtee-th-.e-tur' p(et $e(//re' )hau.er, 1h(se HK-ight's %ale,H i- the )a-ter&ur' %ales, (pe-s 1ith li-es a&(ut %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta5 It als( me-ti(-s (&ser6a-.es (/ Ma' Da'5 Similarl', *6id's Metam(rph(sis, tra-slated &' Arthur $(ldi-g, ga6e Shakespeare a 6er' .lear 1(rki-g (/ the st(r' (/ !'ramus a-d %his&'5 %his is pr(&a&l' 1here Shakespeare pi.ked up his 1(rd H.ra--',H thr(ugh 1hi.h the u-/(rtu-ate l(6ers are /(r.ed t( speak5 A-d it is als( likel' that Shakespeare k-e1 (/ the "(ma- 1riter Apuleius's st(r' %he $(lde- Ass5 I- it a p((r ma- is tra-s/(rmed &' e-.ha-tme-t i-t( a- ass5 I- the des.ripti(- (/ the tra-s/(rmati(-, there are ma-' similar phrases that tie the t1( t(gether5 =(r his /airies, Shakespeare had a 6ast st(re (/ /(lkl(re t( dra1 (-5 "(&i- $((d/ell(1 1as parti.ularl' 1ell-k-(1- i- .(u-tr' l(re, th(ugh Shakespeare ma' ha6e &ee- the /irst t( gi6e him the -ame (/ !u.k5 Ma' Da' 7Ma' 18 a-d Midsummer's Night 74u-e A:Isummer s(lsti.e8 1ere t1( /esti6als imp(rta-t as &a.kgr(u-d /(r the pla'5 Ma' Da' 71he- A Midsummer Night's Dream a.tuall' takes pla.e8 1as a /a6(rite /esti6al /(r rural -gla-d, a time i- 1hi.h the pe(ple le/t the .it' a-d headed /(r the 1((ds, 1here the' da-.ed a-d .ele&rated5 A ki-g a-d Guee- (/ Ma' 1ere ele.ted, a-d this Hr('alH .(uple 1e-t t( the -(&les' h(uses t( gi6e their &lessi-gs, mu.h the 1a' *&er(- a-d %ita-ia d( at the e-d (/ the pla'5 Ma' Da' 1as, a&(6e all, a time (/ l(6ers' mad-essF the', t((, 1e-t t( the 1((ds a-d /reGue-tl' spe-t the -ight there5 Midsummer 1as a ge-eral .ele&rati(- (/ mad-ess a-d merrime-t, a time 1he- magi. 1as a/((t a-d the /airies 1ere parti.ularl' e6ide-t5 )(stumes a-d da-.i-g pla'ed a large part ithe /esti6ities5 HMidsummer mad-ess,H &r(ught a&(ut &' the heat, a//e.ted e6er'(-e, (pe-i-g the 1a' /(r illusi(- 7a-d delusi(-8 t( tra-s/(rm realit'5 Shakespeare e6e- dre1 (- s(me (/ his (1- 1(rk5 %he situati(- (/ the 1(rkme- a1k1ardl' per/(rmi-g their amateur theatri.als is similar t( the sh(1 (/ the Ni-e W(rthies i- L(6e's La&(ur's L(st5 I%1( $e-tleme- (/ <er(-a, the 1a' that .(uples mi9 up a-d tra-s/er their a//e.ti(-s is remi-is.e-t (/ the Midsummer l(6ers5 A-d i/ "(me( a-d 4uliet 1as, as is (/te- suggested, 1ritte- dire.tl' &e/(re A Midsummer Night's Dream, it (//ers a- e-tra-.e i-t( the /air' 1(rld 1ith Mer.uti('s /am(us des.ripti(- (/ 0uee- Ma&5 $L*+ >%H A%" %H $L*+ %H A%" 7SMID$L*+8

*-e (/ the m(st /am(us theaters (/ all time is the $l(&e %heatre5 It 1as (-e (/ se6eral Shakespeare 1(rked i- duri-g his .areer, a-d ma-' (/ the greatest pla's (/ -glish literature 1ere per/(rmed there5 +uilt i- 1599 /(r L?@@ Cust a.r(ss the "i6er %hames /r(m L(-d(-, it &ur-ed d(1- i- 1?1: 1he- a spark /r(m (-e (/ the .a--(-s i- a &attle s.e-e i- Shakespeare's He-r' <III set /ire t( the that.hed r((/5 %he theater 1as Gui.kl' re&uilt a-d sur6i6ed u-til 1?BB5 N( (-e k-(1s e9a.tl' 1hat the $l(&e l((ked like &ut s(me s.h(larl' dete.ti6e 1(rk has gi6e- us a /airl' g((d idea5 %he =(lger Shakespeare Li&rar' iWashi-gt(-, D5)5, has a /ull s.ale re-.reati(- (/ the $l(&e5

7See illustrati(-F %he $l(&e %heatre8

Whe- it 1as &uilt, the $l(&e 1as the latest thi-g i- theater desig-5 It 1as a three-st(r' (.tag(-, 1ith .(6ered galleries surr(u-di-g a(pe- 'ard s(me 5@ /eet a.r(ss5 %hree sides (/ the (.tag(- 1ere de6(ted t( the stage a-d &a.kstage areas5 %he mai- stage 1as a raised plat/(rm that Cutted i-t( the .e-ter (/ the 'ard, (r pit5 +ehi-d the stage 1as the tiri-g h(use- the &a.kstage area 1here the a.t(rs dressed a-d 1aited /(r their .ues5 %his area 1as /la-ked &' t1( d((rs a-d .(-tai-ed a- i--er stage, 1ith a .urtai- that 1as used 1he- the s.ript .alled /(r a s.e-e t( &e dis.(6ered5 7S(me s.h(lars thi-k the i--er stage 1as a.tuall' a te-t (r pa6ili(- that .(uld &e m(6ed a&(ut the stage58 A&(6e the i--er stage 1as the upper stage, a .urtai-ed &al.(-' that .(uld ser6e as the &attleme-ts i- Hamlet (r /(r the &al.(-' s.e-e i- "(me( a-d 4uliet5 M(st (/ the a.ti(- (/ the pla' t((k pla.e (the mai- a-d upper stages5 %he third st(r' held the musi.ia-s' galler' a-d ma.hi-er' /(r s(u-d e//e.ts a-d p'r(te.h-i.s5 A&(6e all 1as a turret /r(m 1hi.h a /lag 1as /l(1- t( a--(u-.e, H!er/(rma-.e t(da'5H A r((/ 7the shad(18 .(6ered mu.h (/ the stage a-d -(t (-l' pr(te.ted the pla'ers /r(m sudde- sh(1ers &ut als( .(-tai-ed ma.hi-er' -eeded /(r spe.ial e//e.ts5 M(re ma.hi-er' 1as u-der the stage, 1here se6eral trapd((rs permitted the sudde- appeara-.e i- a pla' (/ gh(sts a-d all(1ed a.t(rs t( leap i-t( ri6ers (r gra6es, as the s.ript reGuired5 =(r a pe--' 7a da''s 1ages /(r a- appre-ti.e8, '(u .(uld sta-d 1ith the Hgr(u-dli-gsH i- the 'ard t( 1at.h the pla'D a-(ther pe--' 1(uld &u' '(u a seat i- the upper galleries, a-d a third 1(uld get '(u a .ushi(-ed seat i- the l(1er galler'- the &est seats i- the h(use5 %he audie-.e 1(uld &e a mi9ed .r(1d- sedate s.h(lars, galla-t .(urtiers, a-d respe.ta&le mer.ha-ts a-d their /amilies i- the galleriesD r(1d' appre-ti.es a-d '(u-g me- l((ki-g /(r e9.iteme-t ithe 'ardD a-d pi.kp(.kets a-d pr(stitutes taki-g ad6a-tage (/ the .r(1ds t( pl' their trades5 A-d .r(1ds there 1(uld &e- the $l(&e .(uld pr(&a&l' h(ld A@@@ t( :@@@ pe(ple, a-d e6e- a- (rdi-ar' per/(rma-.e 1(uld attra.t a .r(1d (/ 1A@@5 %he pla' 1(uld &e per/(rmed i- &r(ad da'light duri-g the 1armer m(-ths5 I- .(lder 1eather, Shakespeare's tr(upe appeared i-d((rs at )(urt (r i- (-e (/ L(-d(-'s pri6ate theaters5 %here 1as -( s.e-er' as 1e k-(1 it, &ut there are i-di.ati(-s that the li3a&etha-s used simple set pie.es su.h as trees, &(1ers, (r &attle te-ts t( i-di.ate l(.ati(-5 A-' pr(ps -eeded 1ere readied i- the tiri-g h(use &' the &((k keeper 71e'd .all him the stage ma-ager8 a-d .arried (- a-d (// &' a.t(rs5 I/ time (r l(.ati(- 1ere imp(rta-t, the .hara.ters usuall' said s(methi-g a&(ut it5 %rumpet /l(urishes t(ld the audie-.e a- imp(rta-t .hara.ter 1as a&(ut t( e-ter, rather like a m(der- sp(tlight, a-d a s.e-e e-ded 1he- all the .hara.ters le/t the stage5 7+(dies (/ dead .hara.ters 1ere .arried (// stage58 Little atte-ti(- 1as paid t( hist(ri.al a..ura.' i- pla's su.h as 4ulius )aesar (r Ma.&eth, a-d a.t(rs 1(re .(-temp(rar' .l(thi-g5 *-e maC(r di//ere-.e /r(m the m(der- theater 1as that all /emale parts 1ere pla'ed &' '(u-g &('s, li3a&etha- .ust(m did -(t permit 1(me- t( a.t5 I/ the s.e-er' 1as mi-imal, the per/(rma-.e made up /(r it i.(stumes a-d spe.ta.le5 -glish a.t(rs 1ere /am(us thr(ugh(ut ur(pe /(r their skill as da-.ers, a-d s(me per/(rma-.es e-ded 1ith a da-.e 7(r Cig85 +l((d, i- the /(rm (/ a-imal &l((d (r red pai-t, 1as la6ished a&(ut i- the tragediesD gh(sts made sudde- appeara-.es amidst

s1irli-g /(gD thu-der 1as simulated &' r(lli-g a .a--(- &all al(-g the 1((de- /l((r (/ the turret (r &' rattli-g a metal sheet5 %he .(stumes 1ere g(rge(us- a-d e9pe-si6eJ *-e Hr(&e (/ estateH al(-e .(st L19, a 'ear's 1ages /(r a skilled 1(rkma- (/ the time5 +ut the .(stumes 1ere a large part (/ the spe.ta.le that the audie-.e .ame t( see, a-d the' had t( l((k impressi6e i- &r(ad da'light, 1ith the audie-.e right up .l(se5 2(u'6e lear-ed s(me (/ the .(-6e-ti(-s (/ the $l(&e %heatre, a theater mu.h simpler tha- ma-' (/ (urs &ut -e6ertheless (//eri-g Shakespeare a 1ide ra-ge (/ p(ssi&ilities /(r stagi-g his pla's5 N(1 let's see h(1 spe.i/i. parts (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream might ha6e &ee- prese-ted at the $l(&e5 A Midsummer Night's Dream is u-usual i- that it takes alm(st -( ad6a-tage (/ the multiple stages a6aila&le t( Shakespeare at the $l(&e5 %his ma' 1ell &e &e.ause the pla' 1as (rigi-all' 1ritte- t( &e per/(rmed pri6atel' as part (/ the .ele&rati(-s (/ a parti.ular 1eddi-g, a-d m(6ed t( the pu&li. theater later5 Alm(st all the a.ti(- takes pla.e i- the 1((ds -ear Athe-s, a-d all (/ it .(uld &e per/(rmed (- the mai- stage5 %he setti-g is, h(1e6er, (-e (/ the m(st p(pular /(r li3a&etha- pla's- a 1((ds5 %here ma' ha6e &ees(me sta-dard pr(ps &r(ught i- t( suggest a /(rest s.e-e, (r the a.t(rs ma' Cust ha6e treated the pillars as i/ the' 1ere trees5 2(u .a- see h(1 the a&se-.e (/ s.e-er' a-d lighti-g a//e.ts the pla', th(ugh5 %he .hara.ters are .(-sta-tl' me-ti(-i-g that -(1 it is -ighttime a-d that the' are i- the 1((ds5 I/ the' did-'t sa' s(, h(1 .(uld the audie-.e k-(1K 7I- this pla', -ighttime is parti.ularl' imp(rta-t /(r ma-' (/ the s.e-es, &e.ause that is 1hethe /airies are i- .harge58 %he e-di-g (/ the pla' is als( t'pi.all' li3a&etha-5 Si-.e there 1as -( .urtai- t( /all, there 1ere di//ere-t .(-6e-ti(-sF tragedies /reGue-tl' e-ded 1ith a /u-eral mar.h a-d &(dies &ei-g .arried (// the stage, 1hile .(medies e-ded the 1a' A Midsummer Night's Dream d(es, 1ith musi. a-d a da-.e5 A)%>IMS) N >I %H !LA2 I 7SMID!LA28 A)% I, S) N

LIN S 1-1AE %he s.e-e is the pala.e (/ %heseus, duke (/ Athe-s5 He is prepari-g t( 1ed Hipp(l'ta, Guee- (/ the Ama3(-s, a /am(us tri&e (/ 1(me- 1arri(rs5 She had earlier &ee- take- .apti6e &' %heseus5 %he' are &(th lege-dar' /igures, a-d their spee.hes a-d a.ti(-s ha6e a ki-d (/ /(rmalit'5 +ut like a-' hus&a-d-t(-&e, %heseus is a-9i(us /(r the 1eddi-g da', 1hi.h 1ill &e marked &' a -e1 m((-5 It is still /i6e da's a1a', a-d %heseus .(mplai-s a&(ut h(1 sl(1l' the (ld m((- 1a-es5 Hipp(l'ta remi-ds him that the /(ur -ights 1ill &e /illed 1ith dreams that 1ill Gui.kl' pass the time5 %heseus se-ds !hil(strate, his master (/ the re6els 7a ki-d (/ e-tertai-me-t .((rdi-at(r8, t( prepare the /esti6ities /(r the 1eddi-g .ele&rati(-5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %H M**N =r(m the 6er' &egi--i-g, the m((- shi-es /(rth as the mai- image (/ the pla'5 Its m((d a-d its m'sti.al .(--e.ti(-s tie the 6ari(us su&pl(ts t(gether5 %he 1(rd m((- appears

t1e-t'-eight times i- the pla', passi-g thr(ugh its phases a-d 1(rki-g its magi.5 =(r %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta the m((- is the mea-s (/ measuri-g the time till their 1eddi-g da', a-d s(, i- a 1a', it is the light that illumi-es their marriage5 It als( lights the 1((ds /(r the el(pi-g l(6ers, Hermia a-d L'sa-der, a-d &e.ause (/ its -ighttime appeara-.e is ass(.iated 1ith r(ma-.e5 M((-light is the /airies' pr(per illumi-ati(-D the' are .reatures (/ the -ight 1(rld a-d re6el u-der the m((-'s magi., spe.tral &eams5 6e- /(r the rusti.s, the 1(rki-gme-, the m((- is imp(rta-t5 It is, i- /a.t, (-e (/ the H.hara.tersH i- their pla', as it shi-es (6er the garde- i1hi.h !'ramus a-d %his&' se.retl' meet5 A-d, espe.iall', the m((s'm&(li3es the -ight, i- 1hi.h dreams take pla.e, as 1ell as the mad, &e1it.hi-g Midsummer's 6e, i- 1hi.h dreams a-d realit' i-termi-gle5 --------------------------------------------------------------------geus, a- Athe-ia- elder, e-ters, /(ll(1ed &' his daughter Hermia a-d her t1( suit(rs, L'sa-der a-d Demetrius5 geus is e9tremel' upset5 He tells %heseus that he has gi6e- .(-se-t t( Demetrius t( marr' his daughter5 H(1e6er, Hermia is (/ a di//ere-t mi-d5 geus e9plai-s that L'sa-der has H&e1it.hedH Hermia 1ith p(etr', s(-g, a-d l(6ers' tri-kets s( that she 1a-ts t( marr' him a-d -(t Demetrius5 Athe-iala1 sa's the /ather has the right t( marr' (// his daughter as he sees /it- (r ha6e her put t( death /(r her dis(&edie-.e5 geus asks %heseus t( uph(ld that la15 N(ti.e h(1 the s1eet (rder (/ marriage esta&lished i- the (pe-i-g li-es &et1ee- %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta has immediatel' &ee- disrupted5 N(1 there is r(ma-ti. dis.(rd i-stead (/ harm(-', a-d the .(-trast &et1ee- the t1( 1ill ru- thr(ugh(ut the pla'5 %he .(-/li.t has &ee- set up &et1ee- l(6e a-d la1 7(r reas(-, as it is later .alled85 %heseus Guesti(-s Hermia, e9plai-i-g that a daughter must (&e' her /ather5 Hermia, adama-t i- her re/usal, sa's she 1ishes her /ather 1(uld l((k 1ith her e'es, &ut %heseus .hides her, sa'i-g that she must lear- t( see 1ith her /ather's e'es5 She asks t( k-(1 the 1(rst that .a- happe- t( her i/ she de/ies geus5 %heseus e9plai-s that she must either gi6e up me- a-d e-ter a -u--er', (r else &e put t( death5 As '(u .a- see, the stakes i- this r(ma-ti. dis.(rd are 6er' high5 !ut '(ursel/ i- Hermia's p(siti(-5 )a- '(u s'mpathi3e 1ith her pr(&lemK %he pr(per &eha6i(r i- l(6e is s(metimes hard t( de.ideD ha6i-g t( .h((se &et1ee- a /ather a-d t1( di//ere-t suit(rs makes the de.isi(- e6e- harder5 I/ Hermia 1ere t( ask '(ur ad6i.e, 1hat 1(uld '(u sa' t( herK --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F Shakespeare is a p(et as 1ell as a pla'1right, a-d that mea-s mu.h (/ his i-/(rmati(- is .(-6e'ed thr(ugh imager' as 1ell as a.ti(-5 Wat.h .are/ull' the 1a's i- 1hi.h He'esH a-d Hseei-gH /u-.ti(thr(ugh(ut the pla'5 2(u ma' &e remi-ded (/ the (ld sa'i-g, H+eaut' is i- the e'e (/ the &eh(lder5H *ur e'es are (-l' (-e 1a' (/ Cudgi-g realit', a-d the' .a- &e easil' /((led5 spe.iall' i- r(ma-ti. l(6e, 1here appeara-.es are s( imp(rta-t, h(1 .a- 1e &e sure (/ 1hat 1e're /eeli-g 7seei-g8K A Midsummer Night's Dream is .(-.er-ed 1ith multiple la'ers (/ realit'5 N(te the 1a's i- 1hi.h pe(ples' e'es /((l them5 --------------------------------------------------------------------Hermia a&s(lutel' re/uses t( marr' Demetrius5 %heseus gi6es her u-til the -e9t -e1 m((-- his 1eddi-g da'- t( de.ide her (1- /ate5

L'sa-der pr(tests that he is as 1(rth' as Demetrius a-d is, i- a-' e6e-t, l(6ed &' Hermia5 He .a-'t resist thr(1i-g i- that Demetrius had pre6i(usl' s(ught a-d 1(- the l(6e (/ Hele-a5 %here/(re, 1h' d(es-'t he marr' herK +ut the la1 is the la15 %heseus gi6es Hermia (-e m(re 1ar-i-g, a-d the rest e9it, lea6i-g her a-d L'sa-der al(-e5 LIN S 1A8-A51 %he t1( /rustrated l(6ers tr' t( .(m/(rt ea.h (ther5 %he' speak i- a p(eti., alm(st .(urtl' ma--er, tradi-g .le6er li-es a-d p(eti. imager' &a.k a-d /(rth5 %he st'le re/le.ts the .(-te-t here5 %he' speak the 1a' .(-6e-ti(-al r(ma-ti. .hara.ters d(5 +ut h(1 appr(priate is that t( their .urre-t situati(-, da-ger(us a-d distressi-g as it isK D(es their relia-.e (- st(.k r(ma-ti. spee.h get i- the 1a' (/ their real /eeli-gs, i-stead (/ e9press themK What's real (r true is hard t( see a-d, as L'sa-der e9plai-s, Hthe .(urse (/ true l(6e -e6er did ru- sm((th5H H* hellJH resp(-ds Hermia, sti.ki-g 1ith her theme, H%( .h((se l(6e &' a-(ther's e'esJH +(th /eel that happi-ess i- l(6e is /leeti-g, &ut agree t( take the .halle-ge (/ maki-g it e-dure5 L'sa-der tells Hermia (/ a se.ret pla-5 He has a- au-t 1h( li6es (utside Athe-s a-d 1h( l((ks (- him as a s(-5 L'sa-der pr(p(ses that he a-d Hermia /lee the .it' a-d li6e t(gether i- marriage at his au-t's h(use, /ree /r(m the .ruel Athe-ia- la15 +(th agree t( meet the /(ll(1i-g -ight i- the 1((ds (utside (/ t(1- a-d t( put their pla(/ el(peme-t i-t( a.ti(-5 Hermia s1ears repeatedl' that she 1ill meet L'sa-der there5 She gets .arried a1a' i- her r(ma-ti. p(eti. /light, s1eari-g &' se6eral H&r(ke-H 6(1s as 1ell as true (-es5 We u-dersta-d 1hat she's sa'i-g, &ut her e9amples d(-'t reall' i-spire mu.h .(-/ide-.e i- the su..ess (/ r(ma-ti. e-ta-gleme-t5 I- spite (/ the p(ssi&le deadl' .(-seGue-.es (/ the .(uple's a.ti(-s, Shakespeare is remi-di-g us 1e are i- a .(mi. situati(-5 Sudde-l' Hermia e-ters, the pi.ture (/ /rustrati(-5 Where Hermia a-d L'sa-der are .aught up i- their mutual l(6e, Hele-a &ears testim(-' /(r l(6e's (ther side, its /alse side5 She is misera&le that Demetrius l(6es Hermia rather tha- her, a-d e9plai-s h(1 she 1(uld 1illi-gl' .ha-ge pla.es 1ith Hermia, 1ishi-g her 6(i.e .(uld &e Hermia's a-d Hm' e'e '(ur e'e5H +ut Hele-a a-d Hermia d( -(t trade pla.es5 I-stead, the' trade rh'med li-es &a.k a-d /(rth, .(mpari-g their situati(-s5 Hermia /r(1-s (- Demetrius, 1h( -e6ertheless still l(6es herD Hele-a 1ishes her smiles .(uld eli.it su.h a g((d rea.ti(-5 Hermia .urses him a-d still he l(6es herD Hele-a 1ishes her pra'ers .(uld &ri-g the same results5 %heir r(ma-ti. plight, sig-aled &' the high p(eti. st'le, is u-der.ut &' the per/e.t /it (/ their .(mi.all' mismat.hed desires5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %H =*#" L*< "S Ma-' readers ha6e .(mplai-ed that the /(ur Athe-ia- l(6ers are di//i.ult t( tell apart a-d are -(t 6er' ri.hl' .hara.teri3ed5 It ma' &e that the 1a's i- 1hi.h the' are alike are m(re imp(rta-t tha- the 1a's i- 1hi.h the' are di//ere-t5 Wat.h h(1 the' &e.(me e6e- m(re i-ter.ha-gea&le thr(ugh the .(urse (/ the pla'5 D( '(u thi-k the' are mea-t t( represe-t l(6ers i- ge-eral, rather tha- /(ur parti.ular pe(pleK %h(ugh Hermia a-d Hele-a are dra1- as (pp(sites, 1e d( -(t get 6er' mu.h ph'si.al (r em(ti(-al detail a&(ut them5 +ut their situati(highlights their (pp(siti(-, their di//ere-.es5 %he' are .(--e.ted &', 'et als( pla.ed i- (pp(siti(- &', their mutuall' /rustrated desires5 I- the passage a&(ut Demetrius, the e-d rh'mes make us /eel the

'(u-g 1(me- are .(--e.ted, 'et the /a.t that (-e has 1hat she d(es-'t 1a-t &ut the (ther d(es sh(1s us h(1 the' are (pp(sed5 %hat the' are l(6ers alig-s them5 L(6e's i-.(-sta-.' sets them apart5 %he pl(t gi6es them their de/i-iti(-F the' are alter-atel' /rustrated a-d mated5 --------------------------------------------------------------------%( gi6e Hele-a a little .(m/(rt- a-d a little h(pe- Hermia tells her (/ their pla- t( el(pe5 L'sa-der e9plai-s that 1he- the m((- rises the -e9t -ight 7the m((- is t( light their 1a', &ut its e-.ha-ted &eams .a- mislead as 1ell as lead, as the' 1ill dis.(6er8, he a-d Hermia 1ill lea6e the .it'5 Hele-a k-(1s the meeti-g pla.e5 She a-d Hermia used t( pla' a-d em&r(ider there as .hildre- a-d (pe-ed their hearts t( ea.h (ther5 Shakespeare remi-ds '(u, 1ith these details (/ their past, that there are se6eral ki-ds (/ l(6e5 %he l(6e the t1( 1(meshared as .hildre- 1ill &e tested &' the -e1 l(6e the' &(th -(1 seek5 L'sa-der a-d Hermia e9it5 Hele-a is le/t al(-e 1ith her u-happi-ess a-d is Gui.k t( spell it (ut /(r '(u5 Imagi-e '(ursel/ i- Hele-a's p(siti(-5 H(1 1(uld '(ur /rustrati(- .(l(r '(ur th(ughtsK Her s(lil(Gu' is 1(rth e9ami-i-g .l(sel' &e.ause i- it she t(u.hes (- se6eral (/ the pla''s themes5 =irst Hele-a .(mplai-s that thr(ugh(ut Athe-s she is th(ught t( &e as prett' as Hermia5 Wh' d(es-'t Demetrius agreeK He, i-stead, d(tes (- HHermia's e'es5H Here the pr(&lem 1ith seei-g is d(u&ledF e'es .a- &e1it.h e'es5 Demetrius .a- -( l(-ger see 1hat e6er'(-e else iAthe-s .a-5 +ut Hele-a is i- a similar predi.ame-t5 %h(ugh she rese-ts Demetrius, she als( l(6es him5 Wh'K %hi-gs &ase a-d 6ile, h(ldi-g -( Gua-tit', L(6e .a- tra-sp(se t( /(rm a-d dig-it'5 7I, i, A:A-::8 %he e'es (/ l(6e are sele.ti6e a-d tra-s/(rmi-g5 %he' .a- see &eaut' 1here &eaut' is, &ut the' .a- als( mistake ugli-ess /(r &eaut'5 Keep this p(1er (/ l(6e i- mi-dD %ita-ia 1ill &e seri(usl' u-der its i-/lue-.e 1he- she .(-/r(-ts +(tt(m 1eari-g his ass's head5 +ut l(6e is e6e- m(re .(mple9 tha- that5 I- /a.t, sa's Hele-a, l(6e d(es-'t see H1ith the e'es, &ut 1ith the mi-d5H A-d that is 1h' )upid is said t( &e &li-d, sh((ti-g his arr(1s aimlessl'5 %he e'es (/ l(6ers d( -(t merel' tra-s/(rm the (&Ce.t (/ their desireD s(metimes the' d(-'t reall' see it at allJ 7%hat is Demetrius' pr(&lem 1ith Hele-a5 He .a- -( l(-ger see her58 A-d, adds Hele-a, l(6e is a .hild &e.ause it .a- &e s( easil' H&eguiled5H All the (aths that Demetrius (-.e s1(re t( Hele-a are 1(rth -(thi-g -(15 %he 1a' Hele-a des.ri&es it, l(6e is s(methi-g like l((ki-g i- a hall (/ mirr(rs5 %here are re/le.ti(-s &ehi-d re/le.ti(-s &ehi-d re/le.ti(-s, a-d it's -(t eas' t( tell the real /r(m the /alse5 %he l(6er's e'es .asee 1hat is-'t there, 'et -(t see 1hat is there5 %he mi-d .a- pla' tri.ks (- the e'es, a-d the e'es, (- the mi-d5 M(st imp(rta-tl', l(6e has the p(1er t( tra-s/(rm5 #-der its rule, appeara-.e a-d realit' &e.(me (-e5 %his idea re.urs thr(ugh(ut the e-tire pla' 7i/ '(u .a- (-l' see itJ85 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F A-(ther thi-g that .halle-ges (ur per.epti(-s a&(ut appeara-.e a-d realit' is the theater itsel/5 I/ '(u keep i- mi-d that, ideall', '(u 1(uld &e 1at.hi-g a pla' i-stead (/ readi-g it, '(u

1ill &e a&le t( appre.iate a-(ther la'er (/ mea-i-g i- A Midsummer Night's Dream5 %he theater, like r(ma-ti. l(6e, has the p(1er t( e-.ha-t (ur e'es a-d tra-s/(rm 1hat 1e see5 --------------------------------------------------------------------A)%>IMS) N >II A)% I, S) N II We are -(1 i- a-(ther part (/ Athe-s, i- the h(use (/ 0ui-.e, a .arpe-ter5 He a-d his .(mrades- S-ug, a C(i-erD +(tt(m, a 1ea6erD =lute, a &ell(1s me-derD S-(ut, a ti-kerD a-d Star6eli-g, a tail(rha6e gathered t(gether t( .h((se the parts i- a pla' the''ll &e per/(rmi-g /(r the duke's 1eddi-g5 %he''re a gr(up (/ simple 1(rki-g pe(ple, -(t pr(/essi(-al a.t(rs, a-d the''re als( a /ar .r' /r(m a-' traditi(-al image (/ -(&le Athe-ia- '(uth5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F #-like the l(6ers, the rusti.s speak i- pr(se, 1hi.h is appr(priate t( their m(re mu-da-e stati(- i- li/e5 +ut like the l(6ers, the 1a' the' speak tells us a l(t a&(ut 1h( the' are5 %he''re -(t parti.ularl' literate pe(ple, s( dramati. dial(gue is-'t 6er' .(m/(rta&le /(r them5 Wat.h the 1a' the' tr' t( impress (r (utd( ea.h (ther, parti.ularl' +(tt(m, 1h( /eels he .a- u-dertake a-' part5 --------------------------------------------------------------------0ui-.e asks i/ all the .(mpa-' is assem&led t( rehearse5 +(tt(m sa's it 1(uld &e &etter t( .all all the -ames i-di6iduall', &ut he uses the 1(rd Hge-erall'H i-stead5 %his is (-e (/ +(tt(m's .hara.teristi. traits5 He has m(re e-thusiasm tha- k-(1ledge a-d is a true ham5 He l(6es t( use &ig 1(rds e6e- i/ he d(es-'t reall' u-dersta-d them5 He is i-/atuated 1ith the s(u-d a-d the /l(urish (/ them5 +ut he appr(a.hes la-guage 1ith su.h relish a-d gust( that it's hard t( /ault him5 He ma' -(t al1a's &e .(rre.t, &ut his heart is i- the right pla.e5 Shakespeare k-(1s e-(ugh a&(ut la-guage t( sh(1 us that a 1(rd's s(u-d .a- (/te- (6erride its se-se5 6e- 1he- +(tt(m's 1r(-g, he (/te- s(u-ds right t( us 7as he d(es t( himsel/8, s( Shakespeare's C(ke is (- us as 1ell as (- +(tt(m5 Did '(u e6er tr' t( impress a-'(-e &' tr'i-g t( use a larger 1(rd tha- '(u .(uld ha-dleK I/ '(u g(t a1a' 1ith it, 1ere '(u (r '(ur liste-er the greater /((lK +(tt(m als( re.(mme-ds that 0ui-.e tell the -ame (/ the pla' /irst, a-d s( 1e dis.(6er the pie.e t( &e prese-ted is H%he m(st lame-ta&le .(med', a-d m(st .ruel death (/ !'ramus a-d %his&'5H Its 6er' title gi6es '(u a g((d i-di.ati(- (/ its .(-tradi.t(r' -atureF Hlame-ta&leH &ut a H.(med'5H It might als( i-di.ate t( '(u h(1 little these a.t(rs reall' k-(1 a&(ut the theater5 *&6i(usl', this is g(i-g t( &e a .ha-.e /(r Shakespeare- a trai-ed a.t(r as 1ell as pla'1right- t( gi6e us s(me i-side C(kes5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %he st(r' (/ !'ramus a-d %his&' is -(t Shakespeare's i-6e-ti(-D it 1as a st(.k li3a&etha- pl(t5 +ut -(ti.e h(1 .le6erl' it /its i-t( A Midsummer Night's Dream5 %he pla' 1ithi- the pla' .(-.er-s t1( l(6ers /rustrated &' their pare-ts' i-ter/ere-.e5 We ha6e Cust see- a similar situati(- 1ith Hermia, L'sa-der, a-d geus5 Shakespeare 1ill make great .(mi. use (/ this traditi(-al st(r' li-e t( .(mme-t (-

the a.ti(-s (/ his (1- .hara.ters5 --------------------------------------------------------------------+(tt(m is the /irst up5 Whe- t(ld that his part is t( &e !'ramus, +(tt(m 1a-ts t( k-(1 i/ !'ramus is a l(6er (r a t'ra-t5 His appetite is large, a-d he is read' t( &ite i-t( a &ig part a-d gi6e it his /ull dramati. p(1ers5 %he part, e9plai-s 0ui-.e, is that (/ a Hl(6er that kills himsel/, m(st galla-t, /(r l(6e5H 0ui-.e re.(g-i3es +(tt(m's -eed /(r the large gesture5 He adds the 1(rds Hm(st galla-tH like /((d /(r +(tt(m's appetite5 +(tt(m u-dersta-ds the depths (/ the dramati. task at ha-d a-d immediatel' &egi-s pumpi-g himsel/ up /(r it5 He sees that su.h a tragi. /igure 1ill reGuire great p(ig-a-.' i- (rder &(th t( shed tears 7as !'ramus8 a-d t( &ri-g the audie-.e t( .(mpassi(-ate tears (/ their (1-5 HI 1ill m(6e st(rms,H he assures his /ell(1s5 H(1e6er, he adds, he .(uld 1ell pla' a t'ra-t i/ asked t( d( s(- a-d the- t( pr(6e it, he d(es s(5 +(tt(m is a (-e-ma- &a-d5 %h(ugh s(me readers ha6e /elt he is at times eg(tisti.al (r (6er&eari-g, (thers -(te his eager-ess t( gra& (-t( li/e a-d pla' it t( the hilt5 )ertai-l', +(tt(m d(es-'t let mu.h pass him &'5 I/ he 1(-'t &e a&le t( pla' a t'ra-t i- H!'ramus a-d %his&',H he'll pla' it right -(1 /(r us5 He digs i-t( his spee.h 1ith t(tal e-erg'5 %he t((-(&6i(us alliterati(- 7Hragi-g r(.ks,H Hshi6eri-g sh(.ksH8 a-d high-&l(1- p(eti. rhet(ri. d(-'t matter5 %heir (6erl' .(-s.i(us st'le ma' &e appr(priate /(r a t'ra-t a-'1a'5 What d(es matter is +(tt(m's e-thusiasm5 He puts (- these parts a-d takes them (/ 1ith utter relish5 He reall' e-C('s &ei-g the .e-ter (/ atte-ti(-5 A-d he is th(r(ughl' pleased 1ith his (1- p(1ers5 A/ter his spee.h- alm(st like .(mi-g (ut (/ a tra-.e- he admits, H%his 1as l(/t'JH Ne9t up is =ra-.is =lute5 His part is t( &e %his&'5 =lute 1(-ders -ai6el'- h(pe/ull'- i/ that's the part (/ a 1a-deri-g k-ight5 N( su.h lu.kD %his&' is !'ramus's lad' l(6e5 =lute pr(testsF )a-'t he pla' s(me(-e elseK He has a &eard .(mi-g5 7Mi-d '(u it's -(t here, &ut it's .(mi-g58 +ut that's his assig-ed part, a-d 0ui-.e assures him he .a- pla' it &ehi-d a mask, speaki-g HsmallH 7s(/tl'85 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F Did '(u k-(1 that all /emale r(les i- li3a&etha- theater 1ere pla'ed &' &('s (r '(u-g me-K W(me- 1ere -(t all(1ed (- the stage5 %he pr(/essi(- (/ a.ti-g 1as still see- as a s(.iall' i-/eri(r- i/ -(t imm(ral- (..upati(-5 Si-.e that 1as the la1, me- per/(rmi-g as 1(me1as s(.iall' a..epted at the time5 H(1e6er, =lute is distur&ed at &ei-g assig-ed %his&''s r(le &e.ause he 1a-ts t( imagi-e himsel/ a marather tha- a &(' 7-(t &e.ause he's 1(rried a&(ut pla'i-g a 1(ma-8, th(ugh 1e .a- .ertai-l' guess a g((d deal (/ Cesti-g t((k pla.e iShakespeare's time ar(u-d the issue5 --------------------------------------------------------------------I/ =lute is relu.ta-t t( pla' the part, s(me(-e else is al1a's read'5 %hat s(me(-e, (/ .(urse, is +(tt(m, al1a's 1ithi- dramati. arm's rea.h5 He (//ers t( pla' the r(le, speaki-g i- a Hm(-str(us little 6(i.e5H As is (/te- the .ase, +(tt(m .(m&i-es i-appr(priate 1(rds 7Hm(-str(usH a-d HlittleH8 t( .(-6e' his mea-i-g, &ut the i-ge-uit' a-d 6er6e (/ this ma-, 1h( .a- Gui.kl' s1((p /r(m ragi-g t'ra-t t( s1eet %his&' is ama3i-g5 0ui-.e, a res(ur.e/ul a-d .(mma-di-g /ell(1, has thi-gs 1ell iha-d5 +(tt(m must pla' !'ramusD =lute, %his&'D Star6eli-g, %his&''s

m(therD S-(ut, !'ramus's /atherD a-d 0ui-.e himsel/, %his&''s /ather5 7%hese parts m'steri(usl' disappear i- the /i-al 6ersi(- (/ the pla' as it is per/(rmed5 %he pla'ers ma' ha6e dis.(6ered that their tale-ts (r e-erg' 1ere m(re limited tha- at /irst surmised58 I- additi(-, S-ug 1ill pla' the li(-'s part5 S-ug is a little 1(rried5 He asks 0ui-.e i/ the li(-'s part is alread' 1ritte- s( that he ma' stud' it -(1- he's a &it sl(1 at lear-i-g5 0ui-.e e9plai-s ha-dil' that S-ug .a- d( the part e9temp(ra-e(usl', /(r it is H-(thi-g &ut r(ari-g5H Se-si-g a- (pe-i-g i- S-ug's relu.ta-.e, +(tt(m makes his m(6e5 He's read' t( pla' the li(-, a-d i/ gi6e- the (pp(rtu-it' he 1ill reall' r(ar5 0ui-.e 1ar-s that t(( realisti. r(ari-g 1(uld /righte- the .(urt ladies, a-d the- the''d all &e i- tr(u&le5 +(tt(m a..(mm(datesD ithat .ase he 1ill r(ar as ge-tl' as a d(6e (r a -ighti-gale5 D(es that make se-seK It d(es-'t matter5 His u-Gue-.ha&le 3est is 1hat matters t( +(tt(m5 0ui-.e h(lds t( his p(siti(-5 +(tt(m must pla' (-l' !'ramus5 +ut 0ui-.e, as dire.t(r, is -( /((l5 He k-(1s h(1 t( &utter up his temperame-tal .re15 He /latters +(tt(m &' e9plai-i-g h(1 appr(priate the part is /(r him- Hs1eet-/a.ed,H Hpr(per,H a-d Hge-tlema-like5H +(tt(m is .aught &ut -(t st(pped5 He 1a-ts t( k-(1 1hat ki-d (/ &eard he sh(uld 1ear a-d sh(1s (// his masterl' 1ea6er's k-(1ledge (/ .(l(r &' (//eri-g a- i-6e-t(r' (/ p(ssi&le &eards5 0ui-.e gi6es his /i-al (rdersF the' 1ill meet the -e9t -ight ithe pala.e 1((d a&(ut a mile (utside (/ t(1- &'- (/ .(urseHm((-light5H 0ui-.e 1ill dra1 up a list (/ the stage pr(perties -eeded5 +(tt(m gets i- a last li.k5 He repeats the pledge t( meet, addi-g the .(mme-t that the' 1ill &e a&le t( rehearse Hm(st (&s.e-el' a-d .(urage(usl'5H He's used the 1r(-g 1(rds agai-, l(6i-g the pure s(u-d (/ his spee.h5 As he departs, he adds the li-e Hh(ld (r .ut &(1stri-gs5H %his (dd phrase has .(-/used ma-' readers5 It's -(t e-tirel' .lear 1hat the e9pressi(- mea-s, th(ugh it seems t( &e aki- t( (ur Ameri.a- H/ish (r .ut &ait5H 6e- m(re likel', he has Cust gar&led s(me li3a&etha.(ll(Guial phrase5 A)%>IIMS) N >I A)% II, S) N I

LIN S 1-59 I- a 1((d -ear Athe-s, the 6er' same (-e me-ti(-ed i- the pre6i(us a.t, t1( /airies appear5 !u.k, als( k-(1- as "(&i- $((d/ell(1, asks the (ther sprite 1hat she's up t(5 %he /air' e9plai-s her a.ti6ities5 She 1a-ders thr(ugh(ut the .(u-tr'side, s1i/ter tha- the m((-, as a- atte-da-t (/ the /air' Guee-, %ita-ia5 Her missi(- at the m(me-t is t( pla.e de1 (- the /l(1ers5 %he .(1slips 7a 'ell(1 1ild/l(1er8 are the Guee-'s pers(-al &(d'guards, a-d the /air' is g(i-g t( pla.e a dr(p (/ de1 i- the HearH (/ ea.h, like a pearl5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %H =AI"I S %he /airies i-tr(du.e a-(ther realm i- this pla' (/ tra-s/(rmati(-s a-d i-terl(.ki-g 3(-es (/ realit'5 Shakespeare immediatel' gi6es us a .lue t( their (ther-1(rldl' -ature &' ass(.iati-g them 1ith /l(1ers5 Shakespeare dre1 (- ma-' traditi(-s i- the .reati(- (/ his /air' /(lk5 Midsummer's 6e 1as a .ust(mar' time /(r stra-ge happe-i-gs 7midsummer mad-ess it 1as .alled8 a-d 1as ass(.iated i- /(lkl(re 1ith /air' pe(ple, as 1ell as 1ith

ge-eral da-.i-g a-d .a6(rti-g thr(ugh the 1((ds5 S(me .riti.s /eel that the ti-' /l(1er-si3ed /airies are Shakespeare's i-6e-ti(-5 It is als( likel', th(ugh, that there 1ere (ral traditi(-s (/ su.h .reatures that he dre1 (-5 What is .ertai- is that e6er si-.e Shakespeare 1r(te (/ them, his ti-' spirits ha6e .reated their (1traditi(-, s( that is h(1 1e te-d t( thi-k (/ them e6e- t(da'5 N(te, h(1e6er, that *&er(- a-d %ita-ia seem t( &e (/ huma- s.ale, s( '(u might read Shakespeare's pla'i-g 1ith the si3e (/ the /airies as a 1a' (/ pla.i-g them i- a stra-ge (ther-1(rldl' .(-te9t5 --------------------------------------------------------------------%he /air' must get (- 1ith her 1(rk, as the Guee- a-d her el6es 1ill &e arri6i-g sh(rtl'5 %his 1(rries !u.k5 %he ki-g, *&er(-, is als( .(mi-g that e6e-i-g, a-d it's imp(rta-t the ki-g a-d Guee- d(-'t meet5 %he' ha6e had a /alli-g-(ut that is setti-g the -atural 1(rld (- edge5 %ita-ia has a little I-dia- &(' as a- atte-da-t5 He is the s(- (/ (-e (/ her m(rtal 1(rshipers (r H6(taries,H a-d the Guee- has gi6ehim spe.ial atte-ti(-, .r(1-i-g him 1ith /l(1ers a-d taki-g him e6er'1here 1ith her5 7%he &(' is des.ri&ed as a H.ha-geli-g,H traditi(-all' a .hild le/t &' the /airies i- e9.ha-ge /(r (-e the' ha6e st(le-58 *&er(- is /uri(usl' Ceal(us5 He'd like this .hild t( &e i- his trai-5 %he situati(- &et1ee- the t1( has &e.(me s( i-te-se that a-'time the' meet (/ late the' .lash s( 6i(le-tl' that the el6es .ra1l i-t( a.(r- .ups /(r /ear5 Sudde-l' the /air' thi-ks she re.(g-i3es !u.k5 Is-'t he the sprite als( .alled "(&i- $((d/ell(1, 1h( pla's pra-ks (- the 6illagersK %his "(&i- has &ee- k-(1- t( mis.hie6(usl' i-ter/ere 1ith the milli-g pr(.ess, t( make the h(use1i/e .hur- her &utter i- 6ai-, t( see that dri-k d(es-'t /erme-t pr(perl', a-d ge-erall' t( mislead pe(ple5 2es, a-s1ers !u.k, he is that 6er' same H(&g(&li-, Cester a-d .(mpa-i(- t( *&er(-5 He's a tri.kster all right5 He d(es-'t reall' hurt pe(ple, &ut he l(6es t( ha6e /u- at their e9pe-se5 D( '(u k-(1 (/ s(me(-e like thisK He .a- /((l h(rses &' -eighi-g like a mareD he .a- p(se as a .ra&apple &(&&i-g i- a dri-k a-d make it spill (6er the (ld 1(ma- dri-ki-g it5 S(metimes he'll e6e- prete-d t( &e a st((lsit (- him a-d d(1- '(u g(J --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F !u.k (r "(&i- $((d/ell(1 als( had a ri.h traditi(- i/(lkl(re5 He .(uld &e help/ul as 1ell as mis.hie6(us, th(ugh he seemed t( pre/er the latter5 !u.k is a.tuall' a ge-eral term /(r a spirit, (/te- .alled Hthe p((k5H N(ti.e h(1 th(r(ughl' -glish his 1(rld is, a true .(u-tr' 6illage5 %here's -(thi-g mu.h Athe-ia- i- it5 Shakespeare seems .(-te-t t( .all the pla.e Athe-s, &ut t( let the details speak (/ -gla-d5 *-e .(-temp(rar' (/ Shakespeare's, h(1e6er, %h(mas Nashe, suggested that the -glish el6es a-d p((ks 1ere the .(u-terpart t( the $reek sat'rs a-d -'mphs, s( that th(ugh the spe.i/i. /igures 1ere di//ere-t, the magi.al, m'thi.al 1(rld 1as similar5 --------------------------------------------------------------------LIN S ?@-18E %he .hatter &et1ee- !u.k a-d the /air' is e-ded &' the suddeappeara-.e (/ *&er(- at (-e e-d (/ the stage a-d %ita-ia at the (ther5 %he m((d, as suggested &' !u.k, is dark a-d a-gr'5 HIll met &' m((-light, pr(ud %ita-iaH is *&er(-'s 1el.(me5 %he m((-'s light, 1hi.h is ge-erall' their -atural a..ust(med light, has tur-ed s(ur5 %his ki-g a-d Guee- are i- a mutual rage- his, a Ceal(us (-e, as %ita-ia

p(i-ts (ut5 She is read' t( lea6e immediatel'5 *&er(- up&raids herD is he -(t her l(rdK +ut %ita-ia is -(t the ki-d (/ 1(ma- 1h( .a- &e easil' pushed ar(u-d5 I/ he is her l(rd, she asks, 1h' has he g(-e ru--i-g ar(u-d 1ith !hillida 7a /amiliar /igure i- r(ma-ti. p(etr'8K A-d -(t (-l' that- is-'t the real reas(- he's .(me t( Athe-s s( that he .a- &less the u-i(- (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta, his H/(rmer mistressH a-d H1arri(r l(6eHK *&6i(usl', the Ceal(us' 1(rks &(th 1a's5 %r' t( u-dersta-d &(th (/ their sides5 Is *&er(- &ei-g t(( d(mi-eeri-gK Is %ita-ia -egle.ti-g her dutiesK *&er(- a-d %ita-ia are -(t -i.e Hair' spritesH (r ti-', /u--' el6es5 %he' are &(th might' magi.al p(1ers5 %he' rule (6er a- e-.ha-ted a-d m'steri(us realm, a-d the' are /illed 1ith i-tellige-.e, passi(-, a-d .u--i-g5 %he' ha6e the /ull ra-ge (/ huma- em(ti(-s, &ut their p(1er is m(re tha- huma-5 *&er(thr(1s &a.k his a..usati(-sF %ita-ia is hersel/ i- l(6e 1ith %heseus a-d has pre6i(usl' .aused the duke t( &reak (// 1ith (ther (/ his a//airs5 %ita-ia, e9asperated, replies that all (/ that has &ee- .(-.(.ted &' *&er(-'s Ceal(us imagi-ati(-5 6er si-.e the &egi--i-g (/ midsummer, *&er(- has sp(iled all their meeti-gs 1ith his Ceal(us rages5 M(re tha- thatF this distur&a-.e &et1ee- them has set the 1h(le -atural 1(rld (ut (/ (rder5 %he primal /(r.es themsel6es seem t( &e taki-g re6e-ge (- the ki-g a-d Guee- 1h( are s( /uri(usl' at (dds5 %he 1i-ds ha6e su.ked up /(gs /r(m the sea a-d (6ers1(lle- the ri6ers 1ith their .(-te-ts5 %he (9 a-d the /armer ha6e la&(red i- 6ai-D the grai- is r(tti-g i- the dr(1-ed /ield5 %he .attle are dead a-d the .r(1s /at /r(m /eedi-g (// them5 %he l(6el' -glish ma3es a-d la1games are /ull (/ mud5 6e- the m((- is s( a-gr' that she spreads diseases thr(ugh the air5 %he pi.ture is a&s(lutel' /righte-i-g5 It's alm(st as i/ &i&li.al plagues ha6e des.e-ded (- -gla-d, .(rrupti-g its &eaut'5 %he 6er' seas(-s are (ut (/ 1ha.k5 N(&(d' .atell 1hether it's summer (r 1i-ter5 =r(st /alls (- the -e1 r(se a-d spri-g &uds &urst thr(ugh the s-(1 a-d i.e5 A-d all (/ this, e9plai-s %ita-ia, has (..urred &e.ause she a-d *&er(- ha6e l(st their harm(-'5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %his .(-/usi(- i- the -atural 1(rld i-di.ates h(1 p(1er/ul *&er(- a-d %ita-ia are5 2(u all k-(1 h(1 di//i.ult a /amil' distur&a-.e .a- &eD s(metimes it /eels as i/ the 1h(le 1(rld is &reaki-g apart5 +ut 1ith *&er(- a-d %ita-ia it seems t( &e literall' true5 %hat their Guarrel a//e.ts -ature als( displa's the 1a's i1hi.h the di//ere-t realms (/ the pla' a//e.t ea.h (ther5 a.h set (/ .hara.ters 7the .(urt, the l(6ers, the /airies, a-d the rusti.s8 re/le.ts a-d .(mme-ts up(- the (thers5 --------------------------------------------------------------------%ita-ia's spee.h .(-tai-s s(me (/ the m(st &eauti/ul la-guage i- the pla'5 !art (/ the e9.iteme-t i- e9perie-.i-g Shakespeare is i-(ti.i-g h(1 ri.h his 1riti-g is, h(1 /ull' he e9pl(res a-d e9pa-ds his images a-d &ri-gs them t( li/e5 %( reall' make the -atural disasters 6i6id, he uses pers(-i/i.ati(-5 All the /(r.es (/ the 1(rld seem t( a.t 1ith 1ill a-d em(ti(-, Cust as pe(ple d(5 %he 1i-d su.ks up 1ater /r(m the sea Has i- re6e-geHD the ri6ers (6er/l(1 &e.ause the' are Hpr(udHD the m((- is Hpale i- her a-ger5H %he 1h(le s.e-e, the-, is ali6e 1ith /eeli-g5 A-d 1he- thi-gs ha6e /eeli-g, d(-'t '(u ha6e str(-ger /eeli-gs /(r themK *&er(- tells %ita-ia it's 1ithi- her p(1er t( rest(re (rder t( the

1(rldF all she has t( d( is gi6e the .ha-geli-g &(' t( him5 %ita-ia is -(t i-terested5 She e9plai-s h(1 .l(se she 1as t( the &(''s m(ther, h(1 the' g(ssiped a-d pla'ed t(gether5 %he 1(ma- u-/(rtu-atel' died i.hild&irth, a-d /(r her sake %ita-ia pla-s t( rear the &('5 H(1 l(-g d(es she pla- t( sta' i- the 1((dsK *&er(- 1a-ts t( k-(15 !erhaps till a/ter %heseus's 1eddi-g da', she replies5 I/ the ki-g 1a-ts t( da-.e i- the m((-light 1ith her, /i-eD i/ -(t, let them &e5 *&er(- 1a-ts (-l' the &(', HN(t /(r th' /air' ki-gd(m,H .ries %ita-ia, a-d (// she g(es5 *&er(-, a haught' a-d rele-tless prese-.e, immediatel' pl(ts his re6e-ge5 He .alls !u.k t( his side, remi-is.i-g a&(ut a time he heard a mermaid (- a d(lphi-'s &a.k si-gi-g s( &eauti/ull' that Hstars sh(t madl' /r(m their spheresH t( hear her musi.5 7S.h(lars ha6e p(i-ted (ut the similarit' &et1ee- this image a-d s(me spe.ta.ular .(urt e-tertai-me-ts /(r 0uee- li3a&eth i- the late si9tee-th .e-tur'5 %his is s(metimes used t( help date the 1riti-g (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream58 %hat same time, adds *&er(-, he sa1 )upid /l'i-g, armed 1ith arr(1s (/ l(6e5 He aimed a- arr(1 at a 6irgi-, &ut missed5 7It has als( &ee- suggested that the 6irgi- 1as a re/ere-.e t( 0uee- li3a&eth, k-(1- as the <irgi- 0uee-58 *&er(-, &ei-g sharp (/ e'e as 1ell as mi-d, marked e9a.tl' 1here the misdire.ted arr(1 /ell5 D( '(u get the /eeli-g this Ceal(us ki-g d(es-'t miss a thi-gK He seems t( ha6e st(red up p(te-tial magi. .harms the 1a' a d(g might st(re s(me &(-es5 He k-(1s the' 1ill .(me i- ha-d' s(me da'5 %he arr(1 /ell (- a /l(1er, tur-i-g it /r(m milk-1hite t( purple5 %his startli-g se9ual imager' makes us /eel the da-ger(us a-d eerie p(1er (/ )upid's arr(15 %he 1(u-d it makes is Hl(6e's 1(u-d5H %he /l(1er is .alled l(6e-i--idle-essD 1e k-(1 it t(da' as a pa-s'5 =illed 1ith )upid's magi., this tra-s/(rmed /l(1er has the p(1er t( tra-s/(rm (thers5 Its Cui.e, sGuee3ed (- a sleeper's e'elids, 1ill make that pers(- /all i- l(6e 1ith the -e9t li6e .reature he (r she sees5 N(te Shakespeare's use (/ the 1(rd H.reatureH t( i-di.ate that the l(6e (&Ce.t might -(t -e.essaril' &e huma-5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F SHAK S! A" AND =L*W "SF I- tr'i-g t( gi6e '(u a pi.ture (/ the p(1er (/ the /air' 1(rld, Shakespeare relies hea6il' (- the use (/ /l(1ers5 %he' seem t( sta-d as spe.ial sig-p(sts (/ magi.al tra-s/(rmati(-5 =l(1ers a-d pla-ts ha6e traditi(-all' &eeass(.iated 1ith magi., a-d i- the .ase (/ .ertai- her&s their .urati6e medi.i-al p(1ers are 1ell-k-(1-5 I- Shakespeare's time, mu.h s.ie-ti/i., phil(s(phi.al, a-d magi.al i-6estigati(- 1as de6(ted t( the p(1ers a-d pr(perties (/ pla-ts a-d /l(1ers5 +ut -( matter h(1 mu.h s.ie-ti/i. u-dersta-di-g 1e ha6e (/ them, their .(l(rs a-d i-tri.ate /(rms still i-still i- us a se-se (/ 1(-der5 S(metimes Shakespeare .(mpares the /airies t( /l(1ers i- terms (/ their height5 %his makes them seem as i/ the''re part (/ a-(ther dime-si(-, e6e- i/ 1e .a- see that (- the stage the''re the si3e (/ pe(ple5 S(me (/ the /airies e6e- ha6e /l(ral -ames, .(--e.ti-g them t( s(me eleme-tal m'ster'5 Later, *&er(- 1ill repeat the -ames (/ /l(1ers as i/ the' 1ere magi.al i-.a-tati(-s5 Here the l(6e-i--idle-ess pla-t is s'm&(li. (/ the p(1er i- l(6e t( .ha-ge pe(ple, alteri-g their i--er a-d (uter -atures5 S1(lle- as it is 1ith the Hp(is(-H (/ )upid's arr(1, the /l(1er is the esse-.e (/ the -ature (/ l(6e5 A-d the -ature (/ l(6e is at the heart (/ this pla'5

--------------------------------------------------------------------N(ti.e als( the re.urre-t theme (/ e'esight5 I- this i-sta-.e, the e'es (/ the sleepi-g l(6er-t(-&e are altered &' the Cui.e (/ the pla-t5 What H.reatureH this pers(- sees (- a1ake-i-g- 1(rth' (r -(t1ill &e.(me the (&Ce.t (/ l(6e5 *&er(- .(mma-ds !u.k t( get that /l(1er5 %he sprite/ul "(&i- (&e's Gui.kl'F He'll Hput a girdle r(u-d a&(ut the earth I I- /(rt' mi-utes5H Al(-e, *&er(- tells us his se.ret pla-5 %ita-ia is t( &e the 6i.tim up(- 1h(se e'es the .harmed Cui.e 1ill 1(rk its magi.5 A-d d(-'t e9pe.t ki-dli-ess /r(m the ki-gD he's -(t a/ter a pri-.e /(r his Guee-5 "ather he h(pes /(r s(methi-g m(re gr(tesGueF a li(-, a &ear, a 1(l/, a &ull, (r e6e- a m(-ke'5 A-d she 1(-'t ha6e her HrealH e'es retur-ed u-til she deli6ers up the .ha-geli-g &(' t( *&er(-J H(1 d(es this -asti-ess make '(u /eel a&(ut *&er(- a-d his p(te-tial p(1erK Wat.h h(1 this edge (/ da-ger u-der.uts the .(med' (/ tra-s/(rmati(-, keepi-g dramati. te-si(- ali6e5 With *&er(- lurki-g ithe u-see- air, h(1 sa/e 1(uld '(u /eelK LIN S 188-A?8 Appr(a.hi-g 6(i.es are heard5 *&er(- makes himsel/ i-6isi&le as Demetrius a-d Hele-a e-ter5 %he' are i- the midst (/ a Guarrel5 "emem&er, Hele-a had t(ld Demetrius (/ L'sa-der a-d Hermia's el(peme-t pla-5 +ut he's i-terested i- /i-di-g them, -(t i- deali-g 1ith Hele-a5 He'll kill the ma-D the 1(ma- is killi-g him5 He .(mma-ds Hele-a t( g( a1a'D he is H1((dH 7mad8 i- the 1((d5 +ut h(1 .a- Hele-a g(K She is dra1- t( him as th(ugh he 1ere a mag-et5 I/ he .(uld st(p dra1i-g her, she .(uld st(p &ei-g dra1-5 It's a d(u&le &i-d, appr(priate t( the t(ps'-tur6', &li-d -ature (/ l(6e5 Demetrius tells her i- the plai-est p(ssi&le terms that he d(es -(t a-d .a--(t l(6e her5 +ut Hele-a e6e- l(6es his h(-est' itelli-g her thatJ She's m(re tha- hum&le at this p(i-t- she's humiliated5 She'll &e his spa-iel5 He .a- d( 1hate6er he 1a-ts 1ith her as l(-g as he d(es s(methi-g 1ith her5 We're &a.k t( (pp(sites i- l(6e5 Demetrius &e.(mes ill /r(m l((ki-g at Hele-aD Hele-a &e.(mes ill /r(m -(t l((ki-g at Demetrius5 He tries a -e1 ta.kF she is seri(usl' e-da-geri-g her pre.i(us 6irgi-it' &' /(ll(1i-g him i- the /(rest5 Hele-a t1ists his 1(rds5 She is 6er' g((d at that- her literar' .le6er-ess rarel' misses a(pp(rtu-it' t( tur- a phrase ar(u-d5 She e9plai-s that si-.e he is all the 1(rld t( her, she is -(t reall' al(-e 1ith him i- the 1((ds5 Demetrius gi6es up5 All he .a- thi-k (/ -(1 is t( ru- a1a' a-d lea6e her at the mer.' (/ 1ild &easts5 %he 1ildest (/ th(se, Hele-a p(i-ts (ut, is -(t as heartless as he5 %he ta&les 1ill tur-, she 1ar-s pr(pheti.all'5 Demetrius tells her (-.e agai- t( lea6e him al(-e, a-d e9its5 Hele-a de.lares she's -(t a/raid (/ a-' harm t( .(me at his ha-dsD she's alread' &ee- hurt5 !((r Hele-a5 Her situati(- is at (-.e .(mi. a-d tragi.5 Her desperate gr(pi-gs /(r l(6e are ridi.ul(us, &ut pai-/ul5 %he 1h(le realit' (/ r(ma-.e a-d the pr(per relati(-s t( it are &ei-g Guesti(-ed &' Shakespeare5 Me- are supp(sed t( 1(( 1(me-, sa's Hele-a, &ut she /i-ds hersel/ i- the (pp(site p(siti(-5 %he 1a' thi-gs sh(uld &e a-d the 1a' the' sh(uld-'t .ha-ge pla.es ithis pla'5 $((d a-d &ad, l(6e, li/e a-d death are all mi9ed up /(r Hele-a5 HI'll /(ll(1 thee,H she sa's, Ha-d make a hea6e- (/ hell, I %( die up(- the ha-d I l(6e s( 1ell5H *6erseei-g her predi.ame-t, *&er(- de.ides t( i-ter.ede5 !u.k arri6es 1ith the magi. /l(1er a-d gi6es it t( his master5 *&er(-

g(es i-t( a dream' s(lil(Gu', (-e (/ the m(st &eauti/ul passages iall (/ Shakespeare's 1(rks, /illed 1ith gl(ri(us la-guage a-d aalm(st se-time-tal rem(rse5 He des.ri&es a /a6(rite pla.e (/ %ita-ia's5 It is a &a-k .(6ered i- /l(1ers, a-d the 0uee- likes t( sleep there, Hlulled i- these /l(1ers 1ith da-.es a-d delight5H %he s-ake sheds its ski- there, a-d that ski- is H1ide e-(ugh t( 1rap a /air' i-5H Su.h deli.ate details gi6e us m(re tha- a- idea (/ the si3e (/ the /air' /(lkD the' gi6e us a /eeli-g /(r the s1eet e-.ha-tme-t (/ their 1(rld5 +ut *&er(- is -(t Cust ha6i-g a s1eet dream5 He has a 6e-ge/ul purp(se5 I/ that's 1here %ita-ia is likel' t( &e, that's 1here she 1ill &e gi6e- the magi. l(6e Cui.e (- her e'es5 *&er(als( .(mma-ds !u.k t( put s(me Cui.e (- the e'es (/ the Athe-ia- '(uth he has Cust see-5 He .auti(-s !u.k t( d( it at Cust the right m(me-t, s( that the /irst thi-g the '(u-g ma- sees 1ill &e the lad' 1h( is i- l(6e 1ith him5 %he ki-g 1(uld see s(me thi-gs tur- (ut right- (r is he Cust as eager as !u.k t( tur- the 1(rld upside d(1-K --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %I%ANIA'S " S%IN$ !LA) D(es the 1a' Shakespeare des.ri&e the /a6(rite pla.e (/ %ita-ia make '(u 1a-t t( sleep there '(ursel/, surr(u-ded &' its &eaut'K Shakespeare e-ti.es '(u 1ith great e.(-(m' (/ la-guage5 %he 6er' -ames (/ the /l(1ers seem t( emit s(me spe.ial p(1er5 %he th'me &l(1s i- the 1i-d, se-di-g its pu-ge-t s.e-t ar(u-d the &a-k5 %he 6i(let -(ds its deli.ate head5 %he 1((d&i-e 7Hlus.i(usH makes it seem g((d t( eat as 1ell as t( see a-d smell8 /(rms a .a-(p' (6er it all, a-d the musk r(ses are s1eet5 %( help /eel the magi. (/ this passage '(u might sa' these 1(rds al(ud5 HWild th'me,H H(9lips,H H-(ddi-g 6i(let,H Hlus.i(us 1((d&i-e,H Hs1eet musk r(ses,H a-d Hegla-ti-eH r(ll a.r(ss the t(-gue 1ith 1hat seems t( &e a magi. p(1er5 --------------------------------------------------------------------With a leap !u.k is (// (- his missi(-5 He'll &e &a.k &e/(re the /irst r((ster .a- .r(15 +' the-, midsummer mad-ess 1ill &e i- /ull s1a'5 A)%>IIMS) N >II A)% II, S) N II

LIN S 1-8: %ita-ia a-d her l('al gr(up (/ /airies are i- a-(ther part (/ the 1((d5 %he Guee- asks /(r a ri-g da-.e a-d a s(-g, a-d the- suggests the' set a&(ut s(me (/ their regular /air' &usi-ess5 %his i-.ludes killi-g .a-kers i- the musk-r(se &uds 7remem&er the Hs1eet musk r(sesH *&er(- sp(ke (/- this must &e %ita-ia's /a6(rite resti-g pla.eJ8, (&tai-i-g &at 1i-gs t( make .(ats /(r her el6es, a-d keepi-g the h((t (1l Guiet s( it d(es-'t distur& them5 2(u .a- see agai- h(1 these -ature-related details used &' Shakespeare gi6e us a spe.ial a1are-ess (/ the dime-si(-s (/ the /airies' 1(rld5 %he /airies si-g a lulla&' /(r their Guee-5 It is a .harm that seeks t( 1ard (// .reep' a-d .ra1l' thi-gs /r(m %ita-iaF s-akes, hedgeh(gs, -e1ts, a-d 1(rms5 %he' ask /(r a little musi.al assista-.e /r(m !hil(mele, the -ighti-gale, t( lull their lad' t( sleep5 %r' t( imagi-e h(1 this .h(rus (/ /airies might a.tuall' s(u-d5 As the' repeat their magi. s'lla&les- HLulla, lulla, lulla&', lulla, lulla, lulla&'H- /eel the s1eet dr(1si-ess their &irdlike 6(i.es i-du.e5 Agai- the' 1ar- (// s(me distur&i-g thi-gsF spiders,

&eetles, 1(rms, a-d s-ails5 A-d agai- the -ighti-gale's s1eet s(-g is .alled /(r5 Shakespeare makes his /airies' -atures appare-t &' the ki-d 7a-d si3e8 (/ a-imals he ass(.iates 1ith them5 %ita-ia sleeps5 A-d -(1 it's *&er(-'s m(me-t5 He sGuee3es the Cui.e /r(m the .harmed /l(1er (-t( %ita-ia's e'elids a-d reGuests a di//ere-t ki-d (/ spell5 He asks that %ita-ia l(6e 1hate6er she /irst sees (- a1ake-i-g, a-d he h(pes that 1ill &e s(me H6ile thi-gH like a l'-9, .at, &ear, le(pard, (r &(ar5 Agai-, he rei-/(r.es the e'esight themeF HI- th' e'e that shall appear, I Whe- th(u 1ak'st, it is th' dear5H )a- '(u hear *&er(-'s mali.i(us .hu.kle as he lea6esK --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %he /airies' magi. is ass(.iated 1ith -atural imager', a-d like the -atural 1(rld it .a- &e g((d (r &ad, s1eet (r s.ar'5 %ita-ia a-d her /airies .all up the images (/ small a-imals a-d i-se.ts5 %he' seem /rail 7as their p(te-tial e-emies are small8, a-d their magi. spell seeks pr(te.ti(- /r(m harm5 *&er(-, (- the (ther ha-d, is 1(rki-g a -astier magi.5 He is .ausi-g tr(u&le, -(t seeki-g pr(te.ti(- /r(m it5 A..(rdi-gl', the a-imals he 1ishes /(r are m(re /righte-i-g, i-di.ati-g his m(re da-ger(us spell5 --------------------------------------------------------------------L'sa-der a-d Hermia e-ter, e9hausted /r(m 1a-deri-g thr(ugh the 1((d5 It seems L'sa-der has l(st his 1a'5 2(u .a- guess that these l(6ers 1ill &e l(si-g m(re tha- this parti.ular 1a'5 Hermia .h((ses a s(/t &a-k /(r her &ed a-d suggests L'sa-der /i-d (-e /(r himsel/5 N(te that all the 1hile the t1( are speaki-g the rh'med p(etr' (/ r(ma-ti. l(6ers, a .(urtl' a-d .i6ili3ed ki-d (/ dial(gue5 +ut L'sa-der is suggesti-g s(methi-g a little less ge-teel5 He pr(p(ses that (-e Htur/H is g((d e-(ugh /(r &(th (/ them5 He tries a- ela&(rate s(rt (/ p(eti. sedu.ti(-5 He sa's that his heart is k-it t( hers s( that the' ha6e &ut (-e heart a-d that their li6es are pledged t(gether 1ith &ut (-e l(6e, s( 1h' -(t share (-e &edK Hermia agrees his HriddlesH are .le6er, &ut e6ades their a-s1er5 M(dest' de.rees the' must sleep apart5 Hermia here, as usual, retai-s her /eist' i-depe-de-t spirit5 %he t1( sleep apart, L'sa-der pledgi-g eter-al l('alt' t( Hermia a-d 1ishi-g that sleep gi6e her rest5 =(r her part, Hermia 1ishes L'sa-der's e'es get hal/ that 1ish /(r rest5 We 1ill see i- a m(me-t Cust 1hat ki-d (/ .halle-ge his l(6er's e'es re.ei6e5 N(te h(1 Shakespeare has utili3ed his pl(t de6i.es5 L'sa-der -eeds t( &e al(-e s( he .a- &e mistake- &' !u.k, a-d Shakespeare .reates this .(mi. s.e-e t( supp(rt it5 !u.k arri6es, ha6i-g s.(ured the /(rest /(r the pr(per Athe-ia- (1h(m t( la' the l(6e .harm5 He -(ti.es L'sa-der a-d Hermia, assumes i-.(rre.tl' the' are Demetrius a-d Hele-a, a-d a-(i-ts L'sa-der's e'es 1ith the magi. Cui.e5 Whe- he 1akes, sa's !u.k, there 1ill &e -( m(re simple sleep /(r the e'es (/ L'sa-derJ LIN S 8B-15? As !u.k e9its, Demetrius a-d Hele-a arri6e, ru--i-g5 %he pa.e (/ the pl(t has pi.ked up -(1D it's i- /ull /ar.i.al s1i-g5 Like the Mar9 &r(thers (r Laurel a-d Hard', 1h( g( i- a-d (ut (/ tri.k re6(l6i-g d((rs i- sear.h (/ ea.h (ther, these l(6ers are h(t (- (-e a-(ther's heels, &ut al1a's missi-g ea.h (ther5 A true .(med' (/ err(rs has &egu-5 Demetrius a-d Hele-a are still argui-g- (-e is /leei-g, the (ther pursui-g5 =i-all' Demetrius makes his geta1a', a-d Hele-a is

le/t (ut (/ &reath5 Hele-a m(a-s h(1 mu.h &etter (// Hermia isD the latter's e'es are H&lessed a-d attra.ti6e,H &ut the' did-'t get s( &right /r(m &ei-g 1ashed 1ith tears5 I/ s(, Hele-a's 1(uld &e &righter5 Hele-a /eels s(rr' /(r hersel/5 6er'(-e 7i- (ther 1(rds, Demetrius8 ru-s a1a' /r(m her5 She must &e reall' ugl'5 H(1 .(uld she presume t( mat.h her e'es 1ith Hermia'sK %his is Hele-a's l(1est p(i-t i- the pla'5 She k-(1s the p(1er (/ the e'es (/ l(6e a-d /eels she Cust d(es-'t ha6e it5 I- this pla' (/ tra-s/(rmati(-s 7a-d split-se.(-d timi-g8 1hat d( '(u thi-k is -eeded at a .hara.ter's l(1 p(i-tK */ .(urse, a magi. .harm5 A1aki-g, a-d rh'mi-g Hele-a's lame-t 7HL'sa-der, i/ '(u li6e, g((d sir, a1akeH8, L'sa-der leaps up a-d tells Hele-a he 1(uld Hru- thr(ugh /ireH /(r her Hs1eet sake5H =(r Hele-a'sK 2es5 %he l(6e Cui.e is 1(rki-g its magi.5 L'sa-der is read' simulta-e(usl' t( l(6e Hele-a a-d t( kill the 6ile Demetrius /(r her sake5 Hele-a thi-ks L'sa-der is a-gr' &e.ause Demetrius l(6es Hermia5 She tells him t( &e .(-te-tD Hermia still l(6es him5 +ut that's -(t the 1a' thi-gs are g(i-g5 It's H-(t Hermia &ut Hele-a I l(6e,H 6(1s L'sa-der5 Duped L'sa-der makes .laims /(r reas(-5 While speaki-g the m(st /l(1er' p(etr', he sa's (-l' -(1 reas(- has led him t( Hele-a's e'es t( read the true st(r' (/ l(6e5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F Shakespeare reall' dri6es h(me his message5 L'sa-der is .(mpletel' &e1it.hed &' magi., 'et .laims t( &e speaki-g 1ith t(tal reas(-5 H(1 d( 1e k-(1 1hat 1e k-(1K Ha6e '(u e6er &ee- i-, the- (ut (/ l(6e, a-d see- 1ith di//ere-t e'es 1hat '(u sa1 &e/(reK Shakespeare is telli-g us there is -( reas(- i- l(6e5 %here ma' &e magi. i- a l(6er's e'es, &ut reas(-K L((k agai-5 --------------------------------------------------------------------Hele-a /eels she is &ei-g .ruell' m(.ked a-d has d(-e -(thi-g t( deser6e su.h treatme-t5 It's &ad e-(ugh t( &e u-l(6edD d(es L'sa-der ha6e t( ru& it i-K She lea6es, e9asperated5 L'sa-der tur-s his 1a-deri-g atte-ti(-s t( the sleepi-g Hermia5 He is si.k (/ her s1eet-ess a-d ashamed (/ ha6i-g &ee- duped &' her5 =r(m -(1 (-, all the l(6e a-d h(-(r (/ this -(&le k-ight 1ill &e dire.ted t(1ard Hele-a5 He lea6es t( pursue her5 Shakespeare's m(.ker' (/ her(i. illusi(- ru&s L'sa-der's e'es a-d t(-gue i- the mud5 %his is a l(6er trul' l(st i- l(6e5 Hermia a1akes /r(m a &ad dream, s.reami-g /(r L'sa-der t( help her5 She has dreamed a serpe-t 1as eati-g her heart 1hile L'sa-der smiled5 She g(es i- sear.h (/ either death (r her /alse l(6er5 A)%>IIIMS) N >I A)% III, S) N I

LIN S 1-11B As %ita-ia lies asleep -ear&' (- her &a-k (/ /l(1ers, the 1(rki-gmearri6e i- the 1((d t( rehearse H!'ramus a-d %his&'5H 0ui-.e /i-ds the sp(t suita&le e-(ugh, a-d the' pla- t( e-a.t the pla' Cust as the' 1ill per/(rm it later &e/(re the duke5 +ut /irst +(tt(m has a Guesti(-F I/ i- this .(med' !'ramus must dra1 a s1(rd a-d kill himsel/, 1(uld-'t that u--e.essaril' s.are the 1(me-K S-(ut a-d Star6eli-g agreeD ma'&e it 1(uld &e &etter t( lea6e the killi-g (ut5 +ut +(tt(m has a &etter pla-5 Wh' -(t 1rite a pr(l(gue that e9plai-s that the s1(rd is -(t real, that !'ramus is -(t reall'

dead, a-d, 1hat's m(re, that !'ramus is a.tuall' +(tt(m the 1ea6erJ +(tt(m's pla-s al1a's e-large the r(le /(r himsel/5 %h(ugh he seems t( ha6e the 1el/are (/ the 1h(le .(mpa-' i- mi-d, he's al1a's l((ki-g (ut /(r s(me spe.ial e//e.t /(r himsel/5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %H A%"I)AL )*N< N%I*NS "emem&er h(1 the theater itsel/ is .(--e.ted t( the te-si(- &et1ee- illusi(- a-d realit'K It's /u--' t( thi-k +(tt(m might &e 1(rried a&(ut pe(ple's &elie6i-g that he 7as !'ramus8 is reall' dead5 %he .(-6e-ti(-s (/ theater make it eas' /(r us t( &elie6e i- s(me thi-gs a-d -(t i- (thers5 +ut the i-terpla' is 6er' su&tle5 I- s(me 1a' 1e H&elie6eH i- +(tt(m, that these 1(rds a-d th(ughts are his5 A-d 'et, keepi-g i- mi-d that, ideall', 1e'd &e 1at.hi-g the pla' per/(rmed, 1e k-(1 the 1(rds 1(uld a.tuall' &e sp(ke- &' a- a.t(r 1h( .ertai-l' is -(t +(tt(m5 A-d e6e- &e'(-d that, the 1(rds are a.tuall' Shakespeare's5 While 1e ma' laugh at +(tt(m /(r thi-ki-g the audie-.e takes his killi-g as real, Shakespeare sl'l' laughs at us /(r taki-g his .hara.ter +(tt(m as real5 A great artist makes us &elie6e i- his .hara.ters a-d e6e-ts5 Ae6e- greater artist .a- sh(1 us his .(-6e-ti(-s- the stri-gs that h(ld up the puppet- a-d still make us &elie6e, laughi-g at the p(1er (/ (ur imagi-ati(-s5 Wat.h h(1 this te-si(- is heighte-ed &' .halle-gi-g (ther .(-6e-ti(-s5 What eleme-t (/ theater, /(r i-sta-.e, might the dis.ussi(- (/ the ma- i- the m((- a-d his la-ter- &e p(i-ti-g t(K --------------------------------------------------------------------0ui-.e agrees t( the pr(l(gue5 %he- S-(ut &ri-gs up the pr(&lem (/ the li(-F might-'t it &e t(( /righte-i-g as 1ellK +(tt(m agrees, .hara.teristi.all' sh(1i-g (// his ig-(ra-.e 1ith a 6er&al /l(urish, .alli-g the li(- a H/ear/ul 1ild /(1l5H =(ul he ma' &e, &ut /(1l, -(5 7S.h(lars (/te- use the s(me1hat similar appeara-.e (/ a li(&e/(re a- li3a&etha- .(urt per/(rma-.e t( help date this pla'58 +(tt(m reall' gets i-t( it -(1, maki-g sure -( spe.tat(r 1ill miss the di//ere-.e &et1ee- theatri.al illusi(- a-d realit'5 He suggests that the li(- 1ear (-l' a partial mask a-d gi6e a sh(rt e9pla-ati(- t( the audie-.e 7+(tt(m (//ers /(ur di//ere-t 1a's t( &egi- this sh(rt ap(l(g', res(ur.e/ul as al1a's8 that re6eals the li(- t( &e -(-e (ther tha- a- a.t(r- S-ug, t( &e pre.ise5 )a- '(u /eel Shakespeare's teaseK He's reall' stret.hi-g the limit (/ 1hat 1e might &elie6e H&e/(re (ur e'es5H 0ui-.e -i.el' agrees t( that suggesti(- t(( a-d adds a pr(&lem (/ his (1-5 What 1ill the' d( a&(ut m((-light, 1hi.h shi-es 1he- !'ramus a-d %his&' meetK )(-sulti-g a .ale-dar, the rusti.s /i-d that the real m((- 1ill &e shi-i-g the -ight (/ the per/(rma-.e5 I/ the' lea6e a .aseme-t 1i-d(1 (pe-, it 1ill shi-e /(r their pla'5 %he- the real m((- 1ill als( &e the theatri.al m((-5 +(tt(m suggests a pers(- might pla' the ma- i- the m((-, 1ith his lege-dar' li3a&etha- pr(perties 7/ire1((d a-d a la-ter-85 A-d si-.e !'ramus a-d %his&' .(-6erse thr(ugh a .hi-k i- a 1all, the''ll -eed s(me(-e t( represe-t a 1all, t((5 2(u .a- see h(1 /ar this a&surd pla' &et1ee- illusi(- a-d realit' .(uld g(5 All that take- .are (/, the' &egi- t( rehearse5 Sudde-l' !u.k appears5 He .a-'t resist pla'i-g 1ith the pla'ers5 +(tt(m &egi-s his /l(1er' spee.h, usi-g the 1(rd H(di(usH i-stead (/ H(d(rs,H the- e9its5 %his&' 7=lute8 hesitati-gl' &egi-s his p(eti. .all t( !'ramus, a ridi.ul(us, .(-/used &it (/ p(eti. la-guage5 Like the .(-tradi.t(r' Hlame-ta&le .(med',H !'ramus is des.ri&ed as &(th Hlil'-1hite (/ hueH a-d .(l(red Hlike the red r(se5H Like +(tt(m,

=lute als( mispr(-(u-.es a 1(rd5 7Ni-us's t(m&- Ni-us 1as a lege-dar' her(, /(u-der (/ the +i&li.al .it' Ni-e6eh- &e.(mes Ni--''s t(m&58 I- additi(-, he's Cumped his .ueF he's added the 1r(-g li-e at the 1r(-g time5 Whe- he repeats the .(rre.t .ue li-e, +(tt(m appears, sp(rti-g a- ass's head the mis.hie6(us !u.k has pla.ed (- him5 %he .(mpa-' /lees i- terr(r5 !u.k s1ears t( /(ll(1 them ar(u-d the /(rest, appeari-g i- the /(rms (/ 6ari(us a-imals5 He k-(1s he has them s.ared at -ight i- the 1((ds a-d is g(i-g t( ha6e s(me /u-5 +(tt(m's repl' is t(u.hi-gF HWh' d( the' ru- a1a'KH He's le/t al(-e, tra-s/igured &ut u-a1are (/ it5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F N(1 all the i-terpla' &et1ee- illusi(- a-d realit', a-d the metam(rph(sis /r(m (-e t( the (ther, &egi-s t( .(mp(u-d5 %he /air' magi. m(6es /r(m realm t( realm5 %he themes (/ illusi(- i- l(6e a-d illusi(- i- the theater &egi- t( i-ter1ea6e5 A-d i- .ase 1e 1ere taki-g .(m/(rt that the .hara.ter +(tt(m at least 1as real, he t(( is .ha-ged5 Is he reall' a- ass, (r d(es he Cust appear that 1a' i(-e lightK I- a-(ther light, espe.iall' t( %ita-ia, he 1ill appear di//ere-tl', i-deed5 +(tt(m seems t( a.t like a- ass at times5 2et his simple, 1ell-mea-i-g ig-(ra-.e i- a 1a' makes him l(6a&leD he's reall' -(t su.h a- ass5 I/ '(u /eel that 1a'- a-d Shakespeare surel' leads us t(1ard that s'mpatheti. /eeli-g- h(1 /ar are '(ur e'es /r(m %ita-ia'sK Shakespeare's .(med' mer.ilessl' atta.ks all the .(-6e-ti(-s &' 1hi.h 1e measure a-d esta&lish s(me(-e's &eaut' a-d l(6a&ilit'5 --------------------------------------------------------------------LIN S 115-A@1 S-(ut reappears5 H* +(tt(m,H he sa's, Hth(u art .ha-gedJ What d( I see (- theeKH +(tt(m replies that it's a- ass head (/ S-(ut's (1-, agai- p(i-ti-g t( the resp(-si&ilit' i- the seer /(r 1hat he's seei-g5 +(tt(m, (/ .(urse, d(es-'t k-(1 1hat his (1- head l((ks like5 0ui-.e takes a-(ther l((k a-d /lees agai-5 +(tt(m thi-ks he sees their CestD the' are maki-g /u- (/ him5 7Hele-a has this same /eeli-g 1hel(6e is tur-ed her 1a'58 +ut he 1(-'t /all /(r their tri.k a-d get s.ared5 He'll h(ld his gr(u-d a-d si-g t( pass the time5 He si-gs a little -ature tu-e a&(ut &irds, a-d '(u .a- imagi-e 1hat +(tt(m might s(u-d like si-gi-g a s1eet little /(lk mel(d', a-d h(1 he'd l((k 1ith his -e1 head5 +ut t( %ita-ia, a1aki-g /r(m sleep, there is -(thi-g sill' a&(ut it5 HWhat a-gel 1akes me /r(m m' /l(1'r' &edKH is her .lassi. Guesti(-5 A-gelK L((ki-g at +(tt(m a-d heari-g that 1(rd, sudde-l' 1e k-(1 the terri&le a-d ridi.ul(us p(1er (/ )upid's dart5 H(1 easil' (ur e'es .a- &e /((ledJ +(tt(m &reaks (// his s(-g, Guesti(-i-g the mea-i-g (/ a li-e5 %ita-ia, e-tra-.ed 1ith the musi., &egs him t( .(-ti-ue5 She's i- a dream', s1((-' delight5 See h(1 (ur 6er' la-guage /((ls us- she's a1ake, &ut her mi-d's e'e is still dreami-g5 A-d that same He'eH is He-thralledH &' the sight (/ +(tt(m, e-(ugh s( that- (- /irst sightshe must sa' t( him, HI l(6e thee5H It's the ki-d (/ remark that sh(uld make a-'(-e 1h('s e6er &ee- i- l(6e 1i-.e5 I/ '(u .(uld see '(ursel/ as (thers see '(u, h(1 1(uld '(u l((k 1ith '(ur arms e-t1i-ed ar(u-d a- assK +(tt(m takes her de.larati(- i- stride, Guesti(-i-g the apt-ess (/ that stateme-t5 HA-d 'et,H he adds, Ht( sa' the truth, reas(- a-d l(6e keep little .(mpa-' t(gether -(1ada's5H "emem&er, L'sa-der .laimed t( &e speaki-g (ut (/ reas(- 1he- he pr(.laimed his .harmed l(6e /(r Hele-a5 +(tt(m's stateme-t .(uld-'t &e

m(re &asi. t( the pla'5 +ut su.h reas(-i-g d(es-'t u-h((k %ita-iaD it dri6es her i-t( deeper tr(u&le5 I- /a.t, it makes +(tt(m seem HdeepH t( her5 N(1 she thi-ks he is 1ise, -(t Cust &eauti/ul5 She 1a-ts him t( sta' 1ith her5 0uee-like, she .(mma-ds him, th(ugh it's als( the .(mma-d (/ sedu.ti(-5 She 1ill gi6e him /airies t( atte-d t( his -eeds5 %he''ll &ri-g him Ce1els a-d si-g t( him 1hile he sleeps (- a &ed (/ /l(1ers, a-d she 1ill gi6e his m(rtal &(d' the light-ess (/ a spirit5 She .alls /(ur /airies a-d i-stru.ts them i- their /air' duties 1ith .hara.teristi. Shakespearea- detail, the ki-d (/ mi-ute a-d magi.al des.ripti(-s that make us &elie6e- (r 1a-t t( &elie6ethat a /air' 1(rld might &e real5 %he''ll /eed him little /ruits a-d &erries, steal h(-e' &ags /r(m the &ees, a-d Hplu.k the 1i-gs /r(m pai-ted &utter/lies I %( /a- the m((-&eams /r(m his sleepi-g e'es5H N(ti.i-g these ti-' thi-gs (pe-s up a -e1 perspe.ti6e (- the 1(rld /(r us, a-d thr(ugh that (pe-i-g Shakespeare lets his /airies /lit thr(ugh5 !ease&l(ss(m, )(&1e&, M(th, a-d Mustardseed salute +(tt(m5 He rather galla-tl' speaks t( ea.h i- tur-, C(ki-g 1ith them a-d e-C('i-g his pampered part5 %he g((d-ess (/ +(tt(m's heart sh(1s thr(ugh his respe.t/ul treatme-t (/ the /airies5 Alth(ugh pr(&a&l' large a-d .ertai-l' gr(ss 1ith his ass's head, he is ge-tle- e6e- ge-teel1ith the deli.ate /airies5 +(tt(m, 1h( as his -ame implies is as d(1--t(-earth as .(uld &e, als( p(ssesses the a&ilit' t( rea.h a.r(ss i-t( this (ther realm5 His is the (-e huma- 6('age that e9pl(res all the le6els (/ Shakespeare's mea-i-g i- the pla'F l(6e, theater, a-d magi.5 *ther .hara.ters are a//e.ted &' the /airies' .harms, &ut +(tt(m is a.tuall' i-6(l6ed i- their ethereal 1(rld5 Is he gr(ss, is he ugl', is he a &(reK Ma'&e s(5 +ut see h(1 +(tt(m's rea.ti(-s 1ith the /airies make '(ur /eeli-gs a&(ut him m(re .(mple95 %ita-ia is impatie-t 1ith l(6e5 %he m((- 7at e6er' tur- 1e are remi-ded (/ the m((-8 seems t( &e 1eepi-g /(r s(me 6i(lati(- (/ .hastit'5 Is this gr(tesGue r(ma-.e a&(ut t( &e .(-summatedK %ita-ia has her .(-Guest5 She's -(t t(( mu.h &e1it.hed &' l(6e, th(ugh, t( -(ti.e that +(tt(m .a- get a1/ull' l(-g-1i-ded5 H%ie up m' l(6er's t(-gue,H she .(mma-dsD H&ri-g him sile-tl'5H A)%>IIIMS) N >II A)% III, S) N II LIN S 1-1A1 *&er(- e-.(u-ters !u.k i- a-(ther part (/ the 1((ds5 %he ki-g 1(-ders i/ his pla-s (/ 6e-gea-.e /(r %ita-ia ha6e take- pla.e5 !u.k's e.stati. a-s1er meets all (/ *&er(-'s H6ilestH 1ishesF HM' mistress 1ith a m(-ster is i- l(6e5H !u.k glee/ull' re.(u-ts his mis.hie/ 1ith the tr(upe (/ a.t(rs5 2(u .a- alm(st see him a.ti-g (ut the e-tire s.e-e as he tells it t( *&er(-, laughi-g all the 1hile5 He e9plai-s h(1 +(tt(m's appeara-.e 1ith the ass's head e9pl(ded their .alm rehearsal, as the a.t(rs /le1 a1a' like &irds heari-g a gu-sh(t5 I- their .(-/usi(- a-d /ear the' ra- thr(ugh the 1((ds, 1ith &(th !u.k a-d the &riars plu.ki-g at their .l(thi-g5 We k-(1 the pu-.hli-eF H%ita-ia 1aked, a-d straight1a' l(6ed a- ass5H *&er(- agrees this tur-ed (ut &etter tha- e9pe.ted5 +ut h(1 a&(ut the Athe-ia-K he 1a-ts t( k-(15 !u.k tells him that has als( &eetake- .are (/5 As i/ t( pr(6e the p(i-t, Hermia a-d Demetrius e-ter5 %his pl(t, s( ripe 1ith per/e.t timi-g a-d .(i-.ide-.es, s(metimes seems magi.al itsel/5 *&er(- a-d !u.k dis.(6er the mistake5

--------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F 4ust as '(u lear- /r(m '(ur (1- mistakes, see 1hat '(u .alear- /r(m the HmistakesH i- the pla'5 Imagi-e 1hat the pla' 1(uld ha6e &ee- like i/ Hermia a-d L'sa-der l(6ed ea.h (ther a-d i/ Hele-a a-d Demetrius l(6ed ea.h (ther, i- simple (rder5 %he- l((k 1hat happe-s &e.ause (/ the mi9-ups5 See h(1 the t1ists (/ /ate re6eal Shakespeare's mea-i-g a&(ut the -ature (/ l(6e5 --------------------------------------------------------------------Demetrius, as usual, is d(ti-g (- Hermia5 She, as usual, is /ed up 1ith him5 +ut this time she has the added suspi.i(- that he has killed L'sa-der 1hile she slept5 Hermia is still sure (/ L'sa-der's de6(ti(-5 She .(uld-'t p(ssi&l' imagi-e the tri.k that's a&(ut t( &e re6ealed t( her5 %( her, L'sa-der's l(6e is truer tha- the su- is t( the da'5 Si-.e '(u ha6e alread' heard h(1 *&er(- a-d %ita-ia's Guarrel has upset the (rder (/ the -atural 1(rld, '(u ma' reali3e Hermia's .(mparis(- is -(t as sta&le as it might /irst seem5 +ut Hermia .a-'t &elie6e L'sa-der 1(uld ha6e st(le- a1a' /r(m her, a-d she piles up m(re images (/ -atural harm(-' t( pr(6e her .ase t( Demetrius5 Demetrius 1(uld rather speak l(6e p(etr' tha- a-s1er the a..usati(-5 He /eels murdered &' Hermia's .ruelt'5 Hermia has -( patie-.e /(r his e9tra6aga-t phrases5 Where, she 1a-ts t( k-(1, is her L'sa-derK Will he gi6e him t( herK Demetrius resp(-ds .(ldl' that he'd rather gi6e the .ar.ass t( his h(u-ds5 %his reall' 1(rks up Hermia t( a p(i-t (/ agitati(-5 2(u .a- /eel the threat (/ ph'si.al 6i(le-.e i- her m((d5 He, she sa's, is the d(g5 She i-sists (- the truthF Has he killed L'sa-der 1hile he sleptK Demetrius replies he has -either see- -(r killed L'sa-der5 His t(-e tells us he'd rather &e talki-g a&(ut (ther thi-gs 1ith Hermia5 Si-.e he .a-'t gi6e her the i-/(rmati(- she seeks, Hermia lea6es i- a hu//, h(pi-g t( see Demetrius -( m(re5 He, /(r his part, is th(r(ughl' 1(r- (ut5 S(rr(1, he sa's, is made hea6ier i- him &' his la.k (/ sleep5 %( ease it, he lies d(1- a-d sleeps5 *&er(- adm(-ishes !u.k /(r his mistake5 +e.ause (/ it, a true l(6e has &ee- tur-ed, Ha-d -(t a /alse tur-ed true5H !u.k replies that th(se are the rules (/ /ate5 =(r e6er' ma- h(ldi-g true i- l(6e, a milli(- /ail, &reaki-g their (aths agai- a-d agai-5 %his t1ist is -(t e9a.tl' 1hat *&er(- had i- mi-d5 He 1as h(pi-g t( remed' a situati(-, -(t make it 1(rse5 %h(ugh he is a-gr' at %ita-ia, he d(es ha6e s(me s'mpath' /(r l(6e5 He i-stru.ts !u.k t( /i-d Hele-a a-d &ri-g her t( him5 !u.k /lies (// like a- arr(15 *&er(-, h(ldi-g the purple /l(1er s1(lle- 1ith the 1(u-d /r(m )upid's dart, dr(ps the magi. Cui.e (- the e'elids (/ sleepi-g Demetrius5 Whe- he sees Hele-a, she 1ill shi-e like <e-us, the e6e-i-g star5 I- a t1i-kle !u.k retur-s5 He has 1ith him -(t Cust Hele-a &ut L'sa-der, t((5 !u.k -e6er .h((ses the simple r(ute5 He'll al1a's tr' t( thr(1 s(methi-g e9tra i-t( the &argai-5 He likes these .(mpli.ati(-s5 %he''re e-tertai-me-t t( him5 HL(rd,H he e9.laims, H1hat /((ls these m(rtals &eJH He k-(1s 1hat 1ill happe- 1he- Demetrius 1akes up5 %1( 1ill 1(( (-e, a-d that 1ill &e sp(rt /(r !u.k5 He admits itF he is &est pleased &' th(se thi-gs that tur- prep(ster(us5 Is that u-/airK Is !u.k Cust a tr(u&lemaker, (r d( his ma-ipulati(-s re6eal us t( (ursel6esK --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %ruth a-d /alse-ess -(1 are spelled (ut as themes i- the pla'5 Did '(u thi-k l(6e 1as al1a's H%rue L(6eHK !u.k makes it .lear the

(dds are 6er' di//ere-t5 %he (dds (- true l(6e 6ersus /alse l(6e are a milli(- t( (-e5 It &e.(mes .lear that huma-s are g(i-g t( -eed 6er' spe.ial, a..urate e'es t( &e a&le t( see l(6e .learl'5 !u.k's mis.hie/ tur-s a supp(sedl' true l(6e i-side (ut5 Ma'&e L'sa-der's l(6e 1as that (-e-i--a-milli(-5 +ut a/ter seei-g the ease 1ith 1hi.h the p(ti(.ha-ges l(6ers' /eeli-gs, d(-'t '(u &egi- t( 1(-der i/ the' might &e a little .ha-gea&le a-'1a'- e6e- 1ith(ut the Cui.eK I- 1hat 1a's are huma- l(6ers /((ls, (r i- 1hat 1a's is !u.k Cust maki-g /((ls (/ themK --------------------------------------------------------------------LIN S 1AA-AEE L'sa-der is de/e-di-g himsel/ agai-st Hele-a's a..usati(-s5 He sh(1s (// his tears as &adges (/ his true /eeli-g5 %1i.e he me-ti(-s truth, 1hi.h must ri-g as h(ll(1l' i- (ur ears at this p(i-t as it d(es i- Hele-a's5 She sa's his truths kill ea.h (ther5 %he 6(1s 1eigh -(thi-gD the''re empt' i/ he deals them eGuall' t( Hermia a-d hersel/5 L'sa-der sa's his 6(1s t( Hermia la.ked Cudgme-t- a .lear pi.ture (/ the 6alue (/ a l(6er's Cudgi-g a&ilit'J Hele-a replies he's reall' la.ki-g Cudgme-t i/ he gi6es Hermia up5 L'sa-der tries a-(ther ta.k5 Demetrius, he i-sists, l(6es Hermia, -(t Hele-a5 )(uld there &e a &etter .ueK Demetrius, a1ake-i-g, leaps t( his /eet, .alls Hele-a a g(ddess, a-d sp(uts a- (utla-dish set (/ s1((-', e.stati., r(ma-ti. li-es5 %his la-guage &egi-s t( m(.k -(t Cust l(6e &ut li3a&etha- l(6e p(etr', t((5 I- /a.t, it s(u-ds like a take(// ((-e (/ Shakespeare's (1- s(--etsF HShall I .(mpare thee t( a summer's da',H /(r i-sta-.e5 Demetrius is /ull tilt i-t( his r(ma-ti. rhet(ri., g(i-g /irst /(r the e'es 7-(t surprisi-gl', gi6e1hat 1e'6e see- a&(ut the imp(rta-.e (/ e'es i- the pla'8, the- the .herr' lips, the- Hele-a's 1hite ha-d5 L(6e p(etr' has rarel' s(u-ded s( h(ll(15 Wh( .(uld trust s(me(-e sp(uti-g phrases like thatK La.k (/ trust, (/ .(urse, g(es ha-d i- ha-d 1ith la.k (/ truth5 Hele-a sees the m(.ker', &ut thi-ks &(th me- are part (/ a pl(t t( make /u- (/ her5 )(uld-'t the' Cust hate her, she asks, i-stead (/ m(.ki-g herK She's 1eep' a-d p(ut' a-d 6er' pertur&ed, k-(1i-g the' &(th l(6e Hermia5 N(t liki-g t( see their Htrue l(6eH s( upset, the t1( me- let /l' 1ith a..usati(-s5 L'sa-der (//ers a prett' little spee.h, 'ieldi-g up Hermia t( Demetrius a-d a..epti-g Hele-a i- e9.ha-ge5 Demetrius is -(t i-terested5 I/ he e6er did l(6e Hermia, it 1as Cust temp(rar'5 N(1 his heart has retur-ed h(me t( Hele-a5 +ut here, he adds, as Hermia e-ters, is L'sa-der's dear l(6e5 %h(ugh the -ight has .l(uded her sight, Hermia's HearH has helped her /i-d L'sa-der5 Wh', she 1a-ts t( k-(1, did he lea6e herK --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F Hermia remai-s .(-sta-t i- her l(6e /(r L'sa-der 7as d(es Hele-a i- her l(6e /(r Demetrius85 Her e'es see trul', -(t /alsel'5 +ut i- this magi., .ha-gea&le m((-light, her e'esight is-'t a&le t( pe-etrate the dark5 Her HtrueH L'sa-der is-'t reall' there t( &e see-5 --------------------------------------------------------------------L'sa-der i-sta-tl' sh(1s his .ha-ged m((d5 L(6e made him g(- l(6e /(r /air Hele-a5 I- /a.t, a/ter s(me /l(1er' &uildi-g up (/ Hele-a's &eaut', he de.lares he hates Hermia5 She, (/ .(urse, is ast(-ished5 S( is Hele-a5 She -(1 thi-ks all three are (ut t( make /u- (/ her5 She .hides Hermia, Is this 1hat .(mes /r(m all their da's (/ /rie-dship, 1he- the' em&r(idered a-d sa-g as i/ the' 1ere (-e pers(-K Like a

d(u&le .herr' (r &err', the' gre1 t(gether5 Will Hermia .ut apart their /rie-dship -(1 1ith her m(.ker'K Hermia, (/ .(urse, d(es-'t k-(1 1hat Hele-a's talki-g a&(ut5 She /eels s.(r-ed hersel/5 Hele-a asks i/ Hermia did-'t put L'sa-der a-d Demetrius up t( all that pu//' p(etr'5 It has t( &e thr(ugh Hermia's g(adi-g5 %h(ugh Hermia .(-ti-ues t( pr(test, Hele-a is t(( 1(u-d up t( st(p5 She's s( used t( &ei-g u-l(6ed she k-(1s there has t( &e s(me tri.ker' &ehi-d this -e1 situati(-5 7#-/(rtu-atel', she d(es-'t k-(1 the right mis.hie/ maker t( suspe.t58 !ara-(id, she pr(Ce.ts her i-se.urit' (-t( all (/ them, imagi-i-g 1i-ks a-d laughs &ehi-d her &a.k5 She'll lea6e rather tha- e-dure this m(.ker'5 I/ '(u'6e e6er &ee- i- a situati(- 1here '(u imagi-e there is a .(-spira.' agai-st '(u, '(u ma' reali3e 1hat pai- Hele-a is i-5 L'sa-der tries p(etr' agai-5 Hermia, still l(6i-gl' /aith/ul t( L'sa-der, hersel/ &egi-s t( thi-k he's maki-g /u- (/ Hele-a5 %hethe t1( me- ha6e a .(-test (/ 6(1s, ea.h pr(testi-g his l(6e /(r Hele-a5 W(rds /l' &a.k a-d /(rth5 %he me- are read' t( /ight it (ut5 Hermia tries t( h(ld L'sa-der &a.k, a-d he lets l((se a startli-g ru- (/ rude remarks t( her5 She is a- H thi(pe,H a H.at,H a H&urr,H a H6ile thi-g,H a Hta1-' %artar5H %hese remarks are hitti-g &el(1 the &elt5 Her dark &eaut' is -(1 .ruell' de6alued, a-d Hermia &egi-s t( see that L'sa-der is -(t C(ki-g5 %h(ugh L'sa-der 1a-ts t( /ight Demetrius, he .a-'t hurt Hermia t( make her let him g(- e6e- th(ugh he hates her5 %hat's the /i-al &l(1 t( Hermia5 What harm, she asks, .(uld &e 1(rse tha- his hateK She d(es-'t u-dersta-d 1hat's happe-ed5 HAm -(t I HermiaK Are -(t '(u L'sa-derKH She's the same 1(ma- she 1as, &ut Hsi-.e -ight '(u l(6ed meD 'et si-.e -ight '(u le/t me5H I/ she's the same, the- L'sa-der must i-deed &e di//ere-t5 Hermia's Guesti(- is right t( the p(i-t5 Is he (r is he -(t L'sa-derK Is-'t the .hara.ter (/ a l(6er measured &' his l(6eK H(1 d( L'sa-der's a.ti(-s make '(u /eel a&(ut him a-d HermiaK )a- '(u h(ld s(me(-e a..(u-ta&le 1h( has &ee- .harmed &' )upid's dartK N(ti.e, t((, h(1 the implied da-ger keeps a dark .urre-t (/ satire ru--i-g thr(ugh the .(mi. /ar.e5 LIN S AE8-B@@ L'sa-der puts it plai-l'5 He's -(t Cesti-g5 He hates Hermia a-d l(6es Hele-a5 N(1 Hermia tur-s t( her ri6al5 Her temper is up a-d she thi-ks -(1 that she's the (-e &ei-g made a /((l (/5 Hele-a, she sa's, is a Hthie/ (/ l(6e5H %he .(-/usi(- 1(rks &(th 1(me- up t( a /e6er5 Hele-a still thi-ks she's &ei-g m(.ked5 Hermia, she sa's, is a puppet, a .(u-ter/eit5 Hermia takes this as a-(ther slur (- her ph'si.al -ature- she's small5 She thi-ks Hele-a must ha6e used her height t( gai- the atte-ti(- (/ L'sa-der5 2(u .a- see the argume-t's &e.(mi-g laugha&le as ea.h 1(ma- pr(Ce.ts her .(-/usi(- a-d i-se.urit' (-t( the (ther5 Hermia, /(rmerl' s( s1eet a-d stead/ast i- her l(6e, &e.(mes s(methi-g (/ a terr(r5 It seems i- a-ger these 1(me- re6eal m(re (/ their .hara.ter tha- 1he- the''re h(ldi-g t( l(6e5 While the me- pr(Ce.t the same sapp' r(ma-ti. l'ri.ism, the 1(me- &attle it (ut5 Hermia thr(1s &a.k the slurs at Hele-a, the Hpai-ted ma'p(le5H She's read' t( s.rat.h (ut her e'es5 Hele-a, take- a&a.k, appeals t( the me/(r pr(te.ti(-5 Ne6ertheless, she sl'l' lets l((se a-(ther arr(1, agai- me-ti(-i-g Hermia's Hl(1erH stature5 +ut reall' Hele-a Cust 1a-ts (ut (/ the situati(-5 She .a-'t Guite u-dersta-d 1hat's g(-e (-5 She re/ers t( her /(-d a-d simple -ature5 She Cust l(6es Demetrius as al1a's5 She's &ee- true t( Hermia, she e9plai-s, a-d merel'

/(ll(1ed Demetrius i-t( the 1((ds5 It's /((lish-ess, -(t .u--i-g, that g(t her there5 A-d e6e- th(ugh she 1a-ts t( g(, her l(6i-g heart keeps her there 1ith Demetrius5 %he me- take Hele-a's part, (//eri-g t( pr(te.t her5 Agai- the slurs /l', 1ith L'sa-der's .(mme-ts t( Hermia rudest (/ all5 I/ he is /l(1er' i- l(6e, he is d(1-right dirt' i- disa//e.ti(-5 6e- Demetrius is sh(.ked5 With Hermia temp(raril' k-(.ked (ut &' rude-ess, the meare /ree t( /ight5 %he' e9it 1ith /ists raised5 N(1 the 1(me- are le/t al(-e5 Hermia tur-s i- a-ger t(1ard Hele-a, &ut Hele-a takes ad6a-tage (/ her l(-ger legs a-d ru-s a1a'5 Hermia, da3ed &' it all, lea6es as 1ell5 *&er(- a-d !u.k ha6e &ee- 1at.hi-g the .(-/usi(-5 *&er(- puts the &lame (- !u.k5 He either made a mistake (r a.ted 1ill/ull'5 !u.k pr(tests his i--(.e-.e5 He 1as merel' t(ld (/ Hthe Athe-ia-HD it reall' 1as-'t his /ault5 He's -(t s(rr' th(ugh, si-.e he's g(tte- s(me e-tertai-me-t /r(m his mistake5 We k-(1 that's 1hat he likes &est5 +ut *&er(- has m(re .(mpassi(-5 He's a ki-g, remem&er, a-d a p(1er/ul spirit5 He d(es-'t 1a-t the me- t( hurt ea.h (ther5 He e9plai-s idetail a /urther missi(- /(r !u.kF he's t( spread a thi.k /(g (6er the t1( l(6ers5 %he- !u.k is t( lead them ar(u-d, /aki-g his 6(i.e /irst as L'sa-der, the- as Demetrius, th(r(ughl' .(-/usi-g them, a-d tiri-g them (ut5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F *&er(-'s spee.h &e/its his r('al p(1er5 I- .(-trast t( that (/ the l(6ers, his p(etr' ri-gs 1ith gra-deur a-d truth5 It le-ds his th(ughts a k-(1ledge that seems m(re tha- m(rtal5 He d(es ha6e e'es that .a- see &e'(-d the &li-d-ess (/ l(6e, a-d he 1ill 1(rk the l(6ers t(1ard a true l(6e's e-d5 --------------------------------------------------------------------*&er(- i-stru.ts !u.k t( (-.e agai- appl' a magi. Cui.e t( L'sa-der's e'es, this time /r(m the /l(1er that has the a&ilit' t( release the )upid .harm, retur-i-g L'sa-der t( his (rigi-al de6(ti(-5 HWhe- the' -e9t 1ake,H he sa's, Hall this derisi(- I Shall seem a dream a-d /ruitless 6isi(-5H 2(u &egi- t( see h(1 the p(1er (/ l(6e is like-ed t( the p(1er (/ dream5 Midsummer mad-ess .l(uds sight5 %rue l(6e's e'es are -eeded t( see thr(ugh its Hdream5H %his &usi-ess take- .are (/, *&er(- 1ill te-d t( his Guee-5 He'll (-.e agai- ask %ita-ia /(r the .ha-geli-g, the- release her /r(m her spell5 !u.k 1ar-s that this must &e d(-e /ast5 %he .harmed -ight is e-di-g, a-d the gh(sts a-d Hdam-ed spiritsH 1ill &e retur-i-g t( their pr(per hau-ts, ashamed t( &e see- i- da'light5 *&er(- agrees, &ut e9plai-s H1e are spirits (/ a-(ther s(rt5H He has /reGue-tl' made l(6e t( the M(r-i-g spirit5 He's -(t a/raid (/ da'light5 He (/te- .(-/r(-ts the da1-, gl(r'i-g i- the H&lessed &eamsH (/ the su- as it tur-s the (.ea- g(ld5 6e- s(, he agrees the' must a.t /ast5 +(u-.i-g up a-d d(1-, !u.k takes (// t( remed' the situati(-5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F *&er(- makes .lear that he a-d his /air' /(lk are esse-tiall' g((d spirits5 %he''re -(t dem(-s like (ther -ight .reatures5 We ha6e see- the' are p(1er/ulD -(1 Shakespeare sh(1s us that their p(1er 1(rks ultimatel' /(r the res(luti(- (/ l(6e5 Agai'(u .a- measure *&er(- &' the p(1er (/ his p(etr'5 His des.ripti((/ the su-rise is itsel/ &eauti/ul magi.5 %here's -( &etter 1a' t( /eel the spirit (/ the /airies tha- t( let '(ursel/ e9perie-.e

*&er(-'s .harmed la-guage5 --------------------------------------------------------------------LIN S B@1-B?: L'sa-der stum&les &a.k (-t( the s.e-e, .hasi-g his pha-t(m Demetrius5 As he e9its, Demetrius e-ters, lured &' !u.k's imitati(-s5 !u.k pla's 1ith him mer.ilessl', g(adi-g him (-1ard5 Whe- Demetrius lea6es, L'sa-der retur-s5 He .a-'t /igure (ut 1hat's g(i-g (-5 6er' time Demetrius .alls, L'sa-der /(ll(1s- (-l' t( /i-d -( (-e there5 %ired a-d .(-/used, he lies d(1- t( sleep5 *-.e m(re Demetrius is lured &a.k, 1ith !u.k ru--i-g .ir.les ar(u-d him5 Demetrius is 1(r- (ut /r(m the m(.ker'5 He's Cust a- a-gr' l(6er 1h( 1a-ts t( /ight &ut .a-'t seem t( /i-d the e-em'5 =ai-t a-d 1ear', he t(( lies d(1- t( sleep5 I/ there is t( &e reu-i(- /r(m this .(-/usi(-, e6er'&(d' must &e assem&led5 Sure e-(ugh, Hele-a 1a-ders i-t( sight5 It's &ee- a l(-g -ight5 She appeals t( the da1- t( .(me s( that she .a- retur- t( Athe-s, a-d l((ks t(1ard sleep t( deli6er her /r(m her hea6' s(rr(1s5 Did she Cust happe- t( appearK N(, !u.k is &ehi-d it all, .(u-ti-g &(dies5 *-l' threeK %1( .(uples -eed /(ur l(6ersF here's the last5 Hermia drags hersel/ i-, H+eda&&led 1ith the de1 a-d t(r1ith &riars5H Her legs .a-'t m(6e a-'m(re5 With the true s1eet-ess a-d de6(ti(- (/ her .hara.ter, she pra's that L'sa-der &e pr(te.ted i/ he a-d Demetrius reall' d( /ight5 As the l(6ers sleep, !u.k speaks his magi. rh'mes5 He a-(i-ts L'sa-der's e'es 1ith the redeemi-g Cui.eF H%rue delightH i- Hermia 1ill retur- t( him5 !u.k pr(mises (rder 1ill &e rest(red5 H4a.k shall ha6e 4ill,H Cust as the st(r' sa's, H555a-d all shall &e 1ell5H --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %he /ra-ti. .(med' (/ the l(6ers dra1s t( a .l(se5 %he /ar.e is 1(rked up t( a /e6er pit.h, 1ith e-tra-.es a-d e9its made s( /ast '(u .a- hardl' keep tra.k (/ them5 +ut as '(u laugh at the mi9-ups (/ these p((r &edraggled l(6ers, -(ti.e h(1 Shakespeare is a&le t( raise real Guesti(-s a&(ut truth a-d l(6e, right i- the midst (/ '(ur laughter5 --------------------------------------------------------------------A)%>I<MS) N >I A)% I<, S) N I

LIN S 1-1@B %ita-ia -(1 e-ters the s.e-e 1ith her /airies a-d +(tt(m i- t(15 *&er(- /(ll(1s, u-see- &' them5 %ita-ia asks +(tt(m t( sit &eside her s( she ma' str(ke his .heeks, pla.e musk r(ses (- his head, a-d kiss his H/air large ears5H Her e'es are still .harmed, a-d +(tt(m's ass's ears are &eauti/ul thi-gs t( her5 +(tt(m is e-C('i-g all the atte-ti(-5 His tra-s/(rmed -ature seems t( ha6e made him a &it lethargi.- ma'&e the -e1 head is t(( hea6' /(r him5 He asks !ease&l(ss(m t( s.rat.h it5 )(&1e&'s ser6i.es are als( reGuiredD he is t( &ri-g +(tt(m a h(-e' &ag /r(m the t(p (/ a thistle, &ei-g .are/ul that it d(es-'t &reak5 %rue t( his .urre-t ki-gl' p(siti(-, +(tt(m .ares a&(ut his -e1 su&Ce.tsD he d(es-'t 1a-t the h(-e' t( spill all (6er )(&1e&5 S(me ge-ui-e ki-d-ess al1a's seems t( .(me thr(ugh him, e6e- i- his m(st prep(ster(us situati(-s5 Ne9t +(tt(m .alls t( Mustardseed t( help 1ith the s.rat.hi-g5 %he hum(r .(mes /r(m +(tt(m's i--(.e-.e a&(ut h(1 he l((ks5 He mar6els

at his it.h' hairi-ess as i/ it 1ere Cust a- (6ergr(1- &eard5 A-d i/ he it.hes, he must s.rat.h5 %ita-ia, still d(ti-g i- l(6e, asks i/ +(tt(m 1(uld like t( hear s(me musi.5 She pr(&a&l' has i- mi-d s(me ethereal /air' musi.5 +(tt(m, true t( his 1(rki-gma-'s -ature, .alls /(r the Ht(-gs a-d the &(-esH- metal a-d &(-e .lappers used &' the p((rer .lasses5 2(u .a- see h(1 Shakespeare al1a's tries t( heightethe ridi.ul(us-ess (/ the situati(- &' p(i-ti-g (ut 1ith details the di//ere-.es &et1ee- +(tt(m's a-d %ita-ia's -atural 1(rlds5 It makes their relati(-ship e6e- m(re a&surd5 %he' remai- &liss/ull' ig-(ra-t (/ a situati(- that is per/e.tl' (&6i(us t( us5 Ha6e '(u e6er 1(-dered h(1 s(me(-e i- l(6e .a- HseeH 1hat he (r she d(es i- a-(ther pers(-K %ita-ia s1((-i-g (6er ass-headed +(tt(m highlights Cust that predi.ame-t5 What 1(uld her s1eet like t( eatK *h, s(me Hg((d dr' (atsH (r a &u-dle (/ Hs1eet ha'H 1(uld suit him Cust /i-e5 %ita-ia sa's her /air' shall seek him (ut s(me -uts5 +(tt(m resp(-ds that s(me dried peas s(u-d m(re like it5 +ut i- truth he -eeds t( sleep5 %hat's /i-e /(r %ita-ia5 She'll 1i-d her arms ar(u-d him Cust as the i6' t1ists ar(u-d the elm5 7!la-t li/e, agai-, is the appr(priate image /(r /air' magi.58 She l(6es +(tt(m- she Hd(tesH (- him5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F HD(ti-gH is Shakespeare's .(de 1(rd /(r l(6e u-der the spell (/ r(ma-ti. illusi(-, l(6e that is, i- /a.t, &li-d5 I- A.t I, S.e-e I, L'sa-der, des.ri&i-g Demetrius's u-1(rthi-ess, me-ti(-s h(1 Hele-a .a--(t see this5 I-stead, she Hd(tes, I De6(utl' d(tes, d(tes iid(latr'H (- him5 She d(es-'t see his .hara.ter5 She (-l' sees 1hat her e'es 1a-t her t( see5 %he same is true /(r %ita-ia5 %his time the illus(r' me.ha-ism (/ l(6e is highlighted &' the use (/ the l(6e Cui.e t( tur- %ita-ia's e'es /r(m true t( /alse sight5 --------------------------------------------------------------------!u.k e-ters a-d *&er(- 1el.(mes him5 *&er(- sa's he is &egi--i-g t( pit' %ita-ia's d(ti-g (- +(tt(m5 He ma' als( &e a little Ceal(us5 He re.e-tl' ra- i-t( her 1i-di-g /l(1ers i- +(tt(m's hair, a-d the sight 1as t(( mu.h /(r him5 N(ti.e h(1 *&er(- al1a's has a .(mma-d (/ p(etr', e6e- 1he- he is merel' des.ri&i-g a- e6e-t5 =irst he des.ri&es the de1 that -(rmall' lies (- /l(1er &uds as r(u-d a-d lustr(us pearls5 +ut si-.e that image is -(t appr(priate t( the .urre-t situati(-, he .ha-ges HpearlsH t( Htears,H thus re/le.ti-g his sad-ess a&(ut his a-d %ita-ia's Guarrel a-d separati(-5 While *&er(- 1as tau-ti-g %ita-ia, a-d 1hile she 1as th(r(ughl' distra.ted 1ith her -e1 l(6e, he asked agai- /(r the .ha-geli-g &(', a-d this time %ita-ia ga6e him t( *&er(-5 N(1 that the ki-g has g(tte1hat he 1a-ted he is read' t( u-d( the .harm /r(m his Guee-'s e'es5 He als( i-stru.ts !u.k t( rem(6e the ass's head /r(m +(tt(m5 Whe+(tt(m a1ake-s, he 1ill Hthi-k -( m(re (/ this -ight's a..ide-ts I +ut as the /ier.e 6e9ati(- (/ a dream5H +ut /irst, 1ith a-(ther rh'mi-g spell, he rem(6es the .harm (/ )upid's /l(1er 1ith the remed' (/ HDia-'s &ud5H --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F Dia-a, m((- g(ddess, 1as the pr(te.t(r (/ 6irgi-s5 %hus it is m'thi.all' appr(priate t( ha6e her /l(1er .(u-tera.t the magi. (/ )upid's all-t((-read' passi(-5 N(ti.e, als(, h(1 *&er(- &ri-gs the theme (/ Hdreami-gH i-t( the pla'5 Sleepi-gIdreami-g -(1 takes (- the same ki-d (/ (pp(siti(- as

realit'Iillusi(- a-d truthI/alseh((d ha6e had5 %he .hara.ters 1ill all &egi- t( a1ake- /r(m their HMidsummer Night's DreamH i-t( their true, -atural Hseei-g5H %hi-k a&(ut h(1 dreami-g relates t( the maC(r themes (/ the pla'5 H(1 is l(6e like a dreamK H(1 is the spe.ta.le (/ theater like dream imagesK --------------------------------------------------------------------%ita-ia a1akes as i/ /r(m a 6isi(-5 I- her dream she th(ught she 1as i- l(6e 1ith a- ass5 *&er(- p(i-ts t( the 6er' ass i- Guesti(-5 N(1 %ita-ia's e'es l(athe the sight (/ him5 *&er(- i-stru.ts !u.k t( rem(6e the .harmed head /r(m +(tt(m a-d .alls /(r musi.5 !u.k sa's -(1 +(tt(m 1ill see 1ith his H(1- /((l's e'es5H *&er(- a-d %ita-ia da-.e a-d *&er(- .ele&rates the retur- (/ l(6e &' pledgi-g that the' 1ill da-.e agai- the -e9t -ight t( h(-(r the 1eddi-g (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta5 %he-, t((, the (ther l(6ers 1ill &e &lessed i- marriage5 As !u.k remarks the lark's a--(u-.eme-t (/ m(r-i-g, %ita-ia a-d *&er(lea6e t(gether5 She asks that he e9plai- the -ight's stra-ge pr(.eedi-gs5 H(1 mu.h (/ the st(r' d( '(u thi-k *&er(- 1ill tell herK LIN S 1@5-AAA %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta e-ter, 1ith geus a-d their trai- (/ atte-da-ts5 %he' ha6e &ee- (&ser6i-g the rites (/ Ma' 7su.h as L'sa-der me-ti(-ed i- A.t I, S.e-e I, li-e 1?E8, a-d -(1, si-.e it's still earl', %heseus 1a-ts Hipp(l'ta t( hear the musi. his hu-ti-g h(u-ds make as the' &ark5 %he a&rupt di//ere-.e &et1ee- %heseus's hu-ti-g musi. a-d the musi. 1e Cust heard i- /air'la-d is telli-g5 N(1 it is m(r-i-gD the magi.al m((-lit -ight (/ the pla''s title is (6er5 %heseus's h(u-ds trumpet a retur- t( realit', t( s(.ial (rder as (pp(sed t( mad-ess, a-d t( marriage as (pp(sed t( passi(-ate d(ti-g5 Hipp(l'ta me-ti(-s that (-.e 1he- she 1as i- )rete 1ith Her.ules a-d )admus she heard Sparta- h(u-ds as the' .(r-ered a &ear5 %he e-tire surr(u-di-gs seemed t( res(u-d 1ith the &arki-g, like thu-der5 %heseus -(tes his h(u-ds are &red /r(m the Sparta- ki-dD the' ha6e the same sa-d' .(l(r, ha-gi-g .heeks, a-d l(-g ears5 %h(ugh the' are sl(1, their 6(i.es are mat.hed like &ells5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F LI;A+ %HAN H*#NDS %h(ugh it s(u-ds stra-ge t( us, ili3a&etha- times the musi. (/ hu-ti-g h(u-ds 1as 1ell pri3ed5 */te-, di//ere-t ki-ds a-d si3es (/ d(gs 1ere .h(se- /(r a pa.k i(rder t( .reate a ki-d (/ &arki-g harm(-'5 --------------------------------------------------------------------+ut &e/(re %heseus .a- s(u-d (// the d(gs /(r Hipp(l'ta, he sees s(methi-g5 %his sp(t, (/ .(urse, is still the same pla.e 1here the l(6ers a-d +(tt(m all /ell asleep- a-d the' are still there sleepi-g5 geus, Hermia's /ather, at (-.e re.(g-i3es his daughter, her t1( suit(rs, a-d Hele-a5 %h(ugh geus 1(-ders 1hat the' might &e d(i-g there, %heseus .harita&l' supp(ses the' had g(tte- up earl' t( per/(rm the rites (/ Ma' a-d pa' h(mage t( the duke a-d his &ride-t(-&e5 %he- he remem&ersF Is-'t this the da' Hermia 1as t( ha6e gi6e- her a-s1er a&(ut her .h(i.e, t( li6e 1ith Demetrius, die, (r C(i- a -u--er'K geus -(dsD %heseus .(mma-ds the hu-tsme- t( s(u-d their h(r-s5 *-.e agai- pe(ple are 1aki-g up5 +ut -(1 the e-.ha-ted -ight is (6erD the s(lem-ities (/ appr(a.hi-g marriage are e-/(r.i-g realit'5 %heseus greets the l(6ers 1ith a &a1d' remark a&(ut &irds mati-g

(- St5 <ale-ti-e's da'5 %he- he si3es up the situati(-5 He k-(1s Demetrius a-d L'sa-der are &itter ri6als5 %he- 1h' are the' sleepi-g -ear ea.h (ther 1ith(ut th(ught (/ their sa/et'K L'sa-der, ama3ed, hal/ asleep a-d hal/ a1ake, tries t( pie.e the pu33le t(gether /(r %heseus5 All that 1e ha6e see- tra-spire is &ut a /(gg' dream t( L'sa-der -(15 He .a-'t e6e- remem&er it, th(ugh he seems t( k-(1 he's &ee- thr(ugh s(methi-g5 $(i-g &a.k t( the &egi--i-g, he e9plai-s his a-d Hermia's pla-s /(r es.ape5 geus is (utraged a-d .alls /(r the la1 t( &e e-/(r.ed5 He e9plai-s t( Demetrius that L'sa-der 1(uld ha6e st(le- Hermia /r(m him5 %his Demetrius k-(1s thr(ugh Hele-a, th(ugh he t(( is dis(rie-ted /r(m the midsummer dream5 "emem&eri-g, he des.ri&es h(1 he trailed Hermia a-d L'sa-der i-t( the 1((ds, 1ith Hele-a /(ll(1i-g him5 He d(es-'t k-(1 h(1, &ut s(meh(1 his l(6e /(r Hermia has melted like s-(1 a-d seems like a mem(r' (/ s(me .hildh((d /as.i-ati(- 1ith a tri-ket that he used t( Hd(teH up(-5 N(1, his heart is /(.used (- Hele-a, 1h(m he 1as e-gaged t( &e/(re he /irst sa1 Hermia5 His l(6e /(r Hermia 1as like a si.k-essD -(1 he has .(me &a.k t( his H-atural taste5H Demetrius has &ee- d(u&l' .harmed5 =irst he l(6ed Hele-aD theHermia .harmed his e'esD the- *&er(- .harmed his e'es &a.k t( Hele-a5 What's H-aturalH i- this a//e.ti(- is hard, i-deed, t( tellJ %heseus /i-ds that thi-gs ha6e tur-ed (ut rather -eatl'5 He (6errules geus a-d de.lares the t1( .(uples 1ill &e married at the same time as he a-d Hipp(l'ta5 %heseus, as the represe-tati6e (/ s(.ial a-d p(liti.al (rder, legislates the /i-al harm(-' (/ l(6e a-d matrim(-' /(r Hermia a-d L'sa-der, Hele-a a-d Demetrius5 %his d(-e, the duke a-d his .(urtiers retur- t( Athe-s5 %he l(6ers are still i- a &it (/ a stup(r5 Demetrius .a-'t Guite make (ut 1hat's g(-e (-5 %he happe-i-gs are like a /ar-(// 6ista 1here m(u-tai-s melt i-t( .l(uds5 %( Hermia e6er'thi-g is slightl' (ut (/ /(.us, as i/ he has d(u&le 6isi(-5 Demetrius puts it su..i-.tl'F HAre '(u sure I %hat 1e are a1akeKH he asks5 HIt seems t( me I %hat 'et 1e sleep, 1e dream5H Shakespeare d(es-'t let us .(mpletel' (// the h((k5 %h(ugh /(r -(1 thi-gs are res(l6ed i- marriage, the -ature (/ l(6e 1ill remai- as perple9i-g as e6er5 H(1 did these re6elati(-s make '(u /eel a&(ut the l(6ersK What le6el (/ trust d( '(u ha6e i- them -(1K %he' all agree, at least, that the duke 1as there5 %here/(re, the' must &e a1ake5 %he' t(( res(l6e t( retur- t( Athe-s, re.(u-ti-g their dreams al(-g the 1a'5 +(tt(m is le/t t( r(use himsel/5 He a1ake-s as i/ he 1ere still ithe middle (/ rehearsi-g H!'ramus a-d %his&'H- the 6er' p(i-t at 1hi.h he 1as Htra-s/(rmedH &' !u.k5 He .alls t( his /ell(1 a.t(rs, thi-ki-g the' must ha6e st(le- a1a' 1hile he slept5 %he- he remem&ers555 1ell, he hal/ remem&ers5 +ut +(tt(m did-'t ha6e Cust a dreamD he had a H6isi(-5H A-d it seems t( him &e'(-d the a&ilit' (/ ma- t( sa' 1hat his dream 1as5 Ma- 1(uld &e a- HassH t( tr' t( re.(u-t it5 He tries- &ut -(, he .a-'t rea.h it5 It's &e'(-d his m(rtal grasp5 He's &a.k t( .hara.teristi. /(rm, his se-ses a-d 1(rds all Cum&led5 His e'es .a-'t hear a-d his ears .a-'t see 1ell e-(ugh t( re.(u-t the dream5 His ha-d .a-'t taste it, his t(-gue .a-'t .(-.ei6e it, a-d his heart .a-'t speak a&(ut it5 He res(l6es t( ha6e 0ui-.e 1rite a H&alletH 7he mea-s H&alladH8 a&(ut it5 It 1ill &e .alled H+(tt(m's DreamH &e.ause it has -( &(tt(m5 %he a.t(r i- him re6i6esF he'll si-g the &allad at the e-d (/ the pla' t( e-tertai- the dukeJ --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F +*%%*M'S D" AM #-like the l(6ers, +(tt(m had a.tual

.(--e.ti(-s t( the /air' 1(rld a-d seems als( t( &e m(re deepl' .(--e.ted t( his dream tha- a-'(-e else5 He, al(-e, re.(g-i3es its 6isi(-ar' -ature5 He 1as, a/ter all, literall' tra-s/(rmed &' his e9perie-.e, a-d s(me (/ that tra-s/(rmati(- remai-s5 =(r all his /((lish-ess a-d arr(ga-.e, +(tt(m is a&le t( h(ld (-t( s(me (/ the magi. that tra-spired5 %h(ugh he is-'t smart e-(ugh t( /ath(m it all, he is-'t stupid e-(ugh t( dis.(u-t it as a mere dream5 Ma-, he seems t( sa', must &e 1illi-g t( rest i- s(me ki-d (/ m'ster'5 I- a 1a' this is like the )hristia- d(.tri-e (/ /aithF pe(ple .a--(t k-(1 $(d's mi-d a-d 1ill, a-d s( must rel' (- /aith5 +(tt(m has a ki-d (/ purit' (/ /aith5 %he hum(r is still thereF his mi9-up (/ the se-ses is a take-(// (- a passage /r(m I )(ri-thia-s a&(ut ma-'s i-a&ilit' t( u-dersta-d $(d's 1ill5 +ut s(methi-g i--(.e-t a-d re6ere-t shi-es thr(ugh the hum(r5 His ama3ed state keeps thi-gs ali6e, keeps them i- Guesti(-5 He 1(-'t let there &e a /i-al res(luti(- &et1ee- dreami-g a-d &ei-g a1ake5 %here is still s(me /air' dust (- his head5 --------------------------------------------------------------------A)%>I<MS) N >II A)% I<, S) N II

+a.k i- 0ui-.e's h(use i- Athe-s the 1(uld-&e a.t(rs are idistress5 Where is their star, +(tt(mK Star6eli-g suggests he must ha6e &ee- Htra-sp(rtedH- .arried (// &' the /airies5 %his C(ke, 1e k-(1, is all t(( true5 I/ he d(es-'t .(me, =lute 1a-ts t( k-(1, .athe pla' still &e per/(rmedK 0ui-.e sa's there's -(t a-(ther ma- iAthe-s a&le t( pla' !'ramus5 =lute gluml' agreesF +(tt(m is the 1ittiest (/ the 1(rki-gme- i- t(1-5 0ui-.e -(tes +(tt(m is als( the ha-ds(mest a-d a H6er' param(ur /(r a s1eet 6(i.e5H He mea-t t( sa' Hparag(-,H as =lute p(i-ts (ut5 A Hparam(urH is a 1(rthless ma-5 7A/ter 1hat 1e'6e see- (/ param(urs i- the pre.edi-g a.ts, =lute .learl' has a p(i-t58 S-ug e-ters 1ith e6e- m(re upsetti-g -e1s5 It tur-s (ut there 1ill &e se6eral 1eddi-gs, -(t Cust the duke's5 I/ the''d &ee- a&le t( per/(rm, adds =lute, the''d ha6e &ee- gi6e- si9pe-.e a da' /(r li/e &' the duke5 +e/(re thi-gs get t(( gl((m', +(tt(m strides i-, .alli-g /(r his Hlads,H his Hhearts5H It's .lear /r(m &(th their pre6i(us distress a-d his a//e.ti(-ate termi-(l(g' that these me- ha6e great /eeli-g /(r ea.h (ther5 %heir .(mradel' ma--er, eas' a-d sp(-ta-e(us, is igreat .(-trast t( the .(urtl' a-d .(mple9 relati(-s (/ the l(6ers5 0ui-.e e9presses his delight i- seei-g +(tt(m5 +(tt(m, still s(me1hat tra-s/i9ed /r(m his 6isi(-, pr(mises t( gi6e a dis.(urse (the 1(-ders that ha6e &e/alle- him5 %he- he .ha-ges his mi-dD theagai- s1ears t( tell all5 Wh' d( '(u thi-k he has tr(u&le des.ri&i-g his dreamK !ut '(ursel/ i- +(tt(m's sh(es5 H(1 mu.h 1(uld '(u 1a-t t( tell (/ '(ur tra-s/(rmati(-K A-d i/ '(u tried, 1(uld '(u &e a&le t( /i-d the 1(rds t( des.ri&e itK N(1 +(tt(m takes .harge (/ the tr(upe5 %heir pla' has &ee- .h(se-5 He has his .re1 gather their m(tle' pr(perties5 With g((d stri-gs (their &eards, -e1 ri&&(-s (- their sh(es, .lea- li-e- /(r %his&', a-d u-.lipped -ails /(r the li(-, the' sh(uld &e a&le t( 1(rk s(me g((d e//e.ts5 *-e m(re thi-g, sa's +(tt(mF d(-'t eat (-i(-s (r garli.F s1eet &reath 1ill pr(du.e s1eet .(med'5 2(u'6e heard +(tt(m d( a &(m&asti. spee.h &e/(re, 1ith its hard-pressed alliterati(-s5 2(u .a- see 1h' he makes this /i-al adm(-iti(-5 %he tr(upe lea6es t( prepare the per/(rma-.e (/ their Hlame-ta&le .(med'5H

A)%><MS) N >I A)% <, S) N I LIN S 1-1@E I- the pala.e (/ the duke, %heseus, Hipp(l'ta, !hil(strate, a-d the r('al .(urt assem&le t( &egi- the 1eddi-g /esti6ities5 Ha6i-g heard the l(6ers speak (/ their ad6e-tures, Hipp(l'ta admits their tales s(u-d a little stra-ge, &ut she hal/ &elie6es them5 %heseus, e6er the rati(-al ma-, thi-ks their st(ries m(re stra-ge tha- true5 %he''re Cust /air' tales t( him, a-d '(u .a- see h(1 his rati(-al mi-d &l(.ks (ut e6e- the p(ssi&ilit' that /airies are real5 %heseus sa's that l(6ers a-d madme- .reate /a-tasies i- their (6erheated mi-ds that are 1a' &e'(-d 1hat reas(-a&le mi-ds .a- .(mprehe-d5 I- /a.t, he adds, the lu-ati., the l(6er, a-d the p(et are similar5 %he /irst sees m(re de6ils tha- there are i- hell5 %he se.(-d l((ks at the /a.e (/ a g'ps' a-d sees there the great m'thi. &eaut' Hele-5 A-d the p(et l((ks all ar(u-d him, a-d as his imagi-ati(- &usies itsel/ 1ith pha-t(m /(rms, his pe- gi6es them shape a-d su&sta-.e5 He sa's that imagi-ati(- is a&le t( per/(rm these tri.ksF i/ it 1a-ts s(me C(', it .reates a &ri-ger (/ that C('D i/ it per.ei6es s(me /ear, the- it .a- tur- a &ush i-t( a &ear5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %his spee.h (/ %heseus is (-e (/ the m(st /am(us passages ithe pla'5 I- it Shakespeare sh(1s the p(1er (/ the mi-d t( de.ei6e itsel/, &ut als( t( e-gage i- true .reati(-5 %here are t1( sides t( the mi-d's dial(gue 1ith illusi(- a-d realit'5 2(u ha6e see- h(1 the l(6ers' /alse sight .a- lead them astra' i-t( Hd(ti-g5H +ut .learl' Shakespeare's (1- art, that (/ the Hp(et,H is a&le, &' its shape-.reati-g, t( &ri-g '(u t( deeper 6alues a-d u-dersta-di-gs (/ huma- -ature5 "eaders ha6e als( see- %heseus i- t1( 1a's5 S(me /eel his spee.h i-di.ates a- i-a&ilit' t( see thi-gs (utside the realm (/ reas(-, like true passi(- (r art5 *thers /eel that %heseus is a ruler e9er.isi-g the .auti(- pr(per t( his (//i.e, &ut that his spee.h a&(ut the p(et i-di.ates a real s'mpath' /(r the magi.al 1(rki-gs (/ art5 Whi.h side are '(u (-K Wat.h the 1a' %heseus resp(-ds t( the a--(u-.eme-t (/ the 1(rki-gme-'s e-tertai-me-t /(r a .lue t( his /eeli-gs t(1ard art5 --------------------------------------------------------------------%he l(6ers e-ter a-d salute the duke5 %heseus i-Guires 1hat e-tertai-me-ts ha6e &ee- s.heduled t( 1hile a1a' the time &e/(re the -e1l'1eds .a- g( t( &ed5 He is, Cust as at the &egi--i-g, the impatie-t l(6er- three h(urs are a t(rtur(us Hl(-g ageH t( him5 !hil(strate, the master (/ the re6els, prese-ts him 1ith a .h(i.e (/ pla's5 %heseus reads thr(ugh the list5 It's reall' a ridi.ul(us arra' (/ the st(.k, .(r-', a-d i-appr(priate theatri.als .(mm(- t( li3a&etha- e-tertai-me-ts, th(ugh Shakespeare seems t( &e pushi-g it /ar t(1ard the impr(&a&le i- his satire5 A &attle (/ the .e-taurs t( &e su-g &' a eu-u.h d(es-'t s(u-d Guite right /(r a pre-1eddi-g--ight .erem(-'5 N(r d(es a prese-tati(- (/ the +a..ha-als, de6(tees (/ the g(d Di(-'sus, 1h( i- their dru-ke- /re-3' ripped pe(ple t( pie.es5 %he Muses m(ur-i-g H/(r the death I */ Lear-i-gH is .ertai-l' i-appr(priate a-d tedi(us s(u-di-g5 I- this .(mpa-', H!'ramus a-d %his&'H sta-ds (ut as a p(ssi&le g((/, i/ -(thi-g else5 %heseus immediatel' gets the ir(-' 7th(ugh u-i-te-ded8 (/ the

.(m&i-ati(- Htragi.al mirth5H %h(ugh !hil(strate tries t( dissuade him 7ha6i-g see- the rehearsal8, %heseus .h((ses the Hlame-ta&le .(med'5H 6e- i/, as !hil(strate sa's, the .(mpa-' has -( skill ia.ti-g, %heseus is 1illi-g t( hear them (ut5 He &elie6es that their simple ear-est-ess 1ill &e e-(ugh t( Custi/' their art5 Hipp(l'ta, th(ugh, is a-9i(us5 She d(es-'t like t( see pe(ple em&arrass themsel6es &' attempti-g m(re tha- the' are .apa&le (/5 Agai- '(u .a- see the dual -ature (/ %heseus5 He ma' -(t ha6e mu.h u-dersta-di-g (/ the artisti. pr(.ess, &ut he has respe.t /(r pe(ple- his su&Ce.ts- a-d their attempts at /ul/illi-g their duties t( him5 He's used t( seei-g pe(ple stum&le a-d stutter i- his prese-.e5 He's e-(ugh (/ a statesma- t( u-dersta-d that i-te-ti(-s are 1hat matter5 He's e6e- had s.h(lars greet him, getti-g their pu-.tuati(all .(-/used a-d putti-g peri(ds i- the middle (/ se-te-.es5 Whi.h is right t( the p(i-t, &e.ause here .(mes -er6(us 0ui-.e d(i-g Cust that i- his &um&li-g pr(l(gue t( the pla'5 LIN S 1@8-A18 0ui-.e sets /(rth a pu33le, a-d '(u .a- pla' 1ith it t( u-ra6el it a-d make se-se5 He is s( dis.(m&(&ulated that he st(ps a-d starts iall the 1r(-g pla.es5 It's Cust a simple pr(l(gue a&(ut .(mi-g t( e-tertai- 1ith g((d 1ill, &ut '(u'6e g(t t( l((k 6er' .are/ull' t( /i-d it5 %heseus reali3es immediatel' that 0ui-.e is-'t Hsta-di-gH (- the right pu-.tuati(- marks5 L'sa-der sees he d(es-'t k-(1 1het( st(p5 Hipp(l'ta like-s him t( a .hild pla'i-g (- a re.(rder5 +ut a/ter all, sa's %heseus, the spee.h 1as like a ta-gled .hai-F (ut (/ (rder &ut -(t &r(ke-5 As the .hara.ters (/ the pla' e-ter, 0ui-.e .(-ti-ues his pr(l(gue5 He i-tr(du.es !'ramus, the &eaute(us %his&', the 6ile 1all a.r(ss 1hi.h the l(6ers had t( speak, a-d the ma- i- the m((-5 I-tr(du.i-g the li(-, he e9plai-s the slight pl(t5 Steali-g /(rth t( se.retl' meet !'ramus &' -ight at Ni-us's t(m&, %his&' 1as surprised a-d s.ared (// &' a li(-5 Her ma-tle /ell as she /led, a-d the li(&l((died it 1ith his m(uth5 Whe- !'ramus sees it he thi-ks %his&' has &ee- killed, a-d he dra1s his dagger a-d kills himsel/5 %he rest 1ill &e re6ealed &' the pla'5 N(ti.e that 0ui-.e 1(rks himsel/ up t( a l'ri. pit.h &' the e-d5 2(u ma' /eel he has &ee- re.ei6i-g s(me .(a.hi-g /r(m +(tt(m, 1h(se (6er1r(ught, alliterati6e st'le is -(ti.ea&le i- the .lima.ti. li-esF HWhereat, 1ith &lade, 1ith &l((d' &lame/ul &lade, I He &ra6el' &r(a.hed his &(ili-g &l((d' &reast5H --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F %he H!'ramus a-d %his&'H pl(t is 6er' similar, i- s(me respe.ts, t( that (/ Shakespeare's (1- "(me( a-d 4uliet, i- 1hi.h "(me( kills himsel/ a/ter mistake-l' thi-ki-g that 4uliet hersel/ is dead5 Shakespeare ma' ha6e &ee- p(ki-g /u- at his (1- 1(rk i- this parallel, a-d his audie-.e ma' e6e- ha6e re.(g-i3ed it5 %he t1( pla's 1ere pr(&a&l' 1ritte- ar(u-d the same time5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N(1 it is the 1all's 7S-(ut's8 tur- t( speak5 %r' t( 6isuali3e all (/ this pla' 1ithi- a pla' as it happe-s, a-d '(u'll &e a&le t( appre.iate m(re /ull' its &urlesGue .(med'5 As i- a .hildre-'s pla', seei-g s(me(-e dressed up as a 1all is a l(t m(re ridi.ul(us tha- Cust thi-ki-g a&(ut it5 %he 1all e9plai-s that thr(ugh a h(le (r H.hi-kH iit the l(6ers 1hispered5 %heseus a-d Demetrius e9.ha-ge sar.asti. .(mme-ts, th(ugh the duke gra.i(usl' admits that (-e .(uld-'t e9pe.t a

1all t( speak &etter5 A-d here .(mes the -(&le !'ramus, 1ith all (/ +(tt(m's pe-t-up theatri.al e-erg'5 He immediatel' e9pl(des 1ith a series (/ e9.lamati(-s a-d H*'sHD 1h' sa' s(methi-g (-.e 1he- '(u .a- sa' it three times, Hala.k, ala.k, ala.kHK !'ramus de.ries the -ight a-d praises the 1all, a-d takes eight li-es t( sa' 1hat might ha6e &eesaid i- (-e5 %he 1all h(lds up his /i-gers as the .hi-k, &ut !'ramus peers thr(ugh t( -( a6ail a-d .urses the 1all5 Imagi-e +(tt(m a.tuall' l((ki-g thr(ugh S-(ut's /i-gers, a-d '(u .a- see s(me (/ the pr(&lem these a.t(rs are g(i-g t( ha6e i- getti-g their tragi.(med' takeseri(usl'5 %heseus sa's, as a- aside, that si-.e the 1all is a pers(-, it (ught t( .urse &a.k at !'ramus5 He mea-t it as a C(ke t( his /ell(1 mem&ers (/ the audie-.e, &ut +(tt(m has -( se-se (/ 1here the pr(per parameters (/ the stage are5 He steps (ut (/ .hara.ter a-d addresses %heseus dire.tl', e9plai-i-g that the 1all sh(uld-'t speak, &e.ause the li-e is a.tuall' %his&''s .ue t( .(me (- stage5 %he Hl(6el'H %his&' 7=lute8 the- e-ters5 She speaks t( the 1all, lame-ti-g h(1 /reGue-tl' it has kept her a-d !'ramus apart5 H(1 (/te- her .herr' lips ha6e kissed its st(-es, its st(-es all mi9ed up 1ith lime a-d hair5 2e..hJ Shakespeare -e6er misses a .ha-.e t( p(ke /u- at his p(mp(us l'ri.ismJ %he t1( l(6ers e-.(u-ter ea.h (ther thr(ugh the h(le i- the 1all, e9.ha-gi-g a trite &ut .(-/used set (/ l(6ers' 6(1s i-6(l6i-g the her( Lea-der 7th(ugh +(tt(m mi9es up his -ame 1ith Ale9a-der's8 a-d Hele-, a-d (ther t1isted -ami-gs5 %heir passi(-ate .(--e.ti(- rea.hes its height as the' kiss thr(ugh the .hi-k, th(ugh %his&' admits, HI kiss the 1all's h(le, -(t '(ur lips at all5H A/ter arra-gi-g t( meet at HNi--''sH t(m& 7+(tt(m has still -(t g(tte- the -ame right8, the' e9it5 Ha6i-g dis.harged his part 7a-d, (-e se-ses, glad t( &e d(-e 1ith it8, the 1all als( gra.i(usl' lea6es5 %heseus a-d Demetrius .(-ti-ue C(ki-g 1hile agai- Hipp(l'ta e9presses her dis.(m/it 1ith the amateurs5 %heseus sa's that all pla's are &ut shad(1s, a-d the 1(rse (-es .a- &e made &etter &' the imagi-ati(-5 %heseus suggests his test' 1i/e &elie6e as mu.h i- the pla'ers as the pla'ers d( i- themsel6es5 %hat 1a', the' ma' &e see- as e9.elle-t me-5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F Agai- %heseus 1ea6es i- his theme (/ the p(1er (/ the imagi-ati(-5 %heater is all made up, i- a 1a', (/ light a-d shad(15 It takes &elie/ a-d imagi-ati(- (- the part (/ the audie-.e t( make s(methi-g m(re su&sta-tial5 %his pla' 1ithi- a pla' a-d its .hara.ters 1ithi- .hara.ters test a-d .halle-ge (ur a&ilit' t( e-gage (ur imagi-ati(-s5 --------------------------------------------------------------------LIN S A19-:EA N(1 the li(- a-d the m((- e-ter5 %he li(- deli6ers Cust the pr(l(gue +(tt(m had suggested, re6eali-g himsel/- s( as -(t t( /righte- the ladies- t( &e S-ug the C(i-er5 %he me- i- the audie-.e dig i-, e9.ha-gi-g C(kes a&(ut the ge-tle li(- a-d pu--i-g &a.k a-d /(rth5 Whe- the m((- starts t( sa' his part, he is .(-ti-uall' i-terrupted &' the he.kli-g (/ %heseus, Demetrius, Hipp(l'ta, a-d L'sa-der5 %he''re ha6i-g /u- at his e9pe-se, a-d '(u .a- /eel his gr(1i-g u-.(m/(rta&le-ess, at 1hi.h the' (-l' laugh m(re5 He /i-all' /i-ishes his li-es, 1hi.h merel' tell 1h( he is a-d 1hat he

represe-ts5 Whe- '(u thi-k (/ the magi.al a-d p(1er/ul 1a's i- 1hi.h the m((- a-d m((-light ha6e &ee- prese-ted i- A Midsummer Night's Dream, this m((- is a&surdl' mu-da-e5 Agai-, Shakespeare is p(ki-g /uat theatri.al .(-6e-ti(-s5 He's alread' th(r(ughl' &e1it.hed us 1ith his m((-shi-e, s( he d(es-'t ha6e t( 1(rr'5 %his&' e-ters, the li(- r(ars, a-d %his&' /lees5 +(th are .(mme-ded &' the audie-.e5 6e- the m((- dra1s applause /r(m Hipp(l'ta, 1h( seems /i-all' t( ha6e g(tte- i-t( the spirit (/ the thi-g5 N(1 is !'ramus's &ig m(me-t5 With his i-/lated alliterati(7Hgra.i(us, g(lde-, glitteri-g gleamsH8, rele-tless rh'me s.heme, e9.lamati(-s, a-d i-appr(priate terms 7H* dai-t' du.kJH8, '(u .are.(g-i3e +(tt(m i- his high st'le5 A-d '(u .a- als( see Shakespeare 7a- a.t(r himsel/, remem&er8 mer.ilessl' satiri3i-g a p(mp(us st'le ili3a&etha- theater that he (&6i(usl' did -(t thi-k 1ell (/5 7)riti.s suggest t1( ki-ds (/ a.ti-g 1ere at 1ar i- Shakespeare's time5 %he (ther, 1hi.h it is said he pre/erred, 1as a m(re rela9ed, -atural st'le58 He .alls t( the /ates t( .(-.lude his li/e5 +ut 1aitJ He's -(t d(-e 'et5 Wh' st(p -(1 1he- '(u .a- re.ite te- m(re li-esK S( +(tt(m .urses li(-s, e9t(ls %his&', .alls /(rth his tears, a-d dra1s his s1(rd5 2et m(reJ +(tt(m 1(-'t Cust d( itD he'll tell us he's d'i-g5 =i-all', at the height (/ his a.ti-g p(1er, he pr(.laims his (1- deathF HN(1 am I dead5H A-d pr(.laims itF HN(1 die, die, die, die, die5H Agai- the audie-.e are all (6er the a.t(rs 1ith their C(ki-g .(mme-tsD the' d(-'t 1ait a m(me-t t( .hime i-5 Whe- '(u thi-k a&(ut it, L'sa-der a-d Demetrius 1ere Cust re.e-tl' i- a pla' (/ their (1-, a.ti-g (ut their (1- r(ma-ti. trials5 It's a &it smug (/ them t( &e presumi-g su.h dista-.e /r(m their .(mpli.ati(-s, -(15 2(u, (/ .(urse, ha6e see- them as pla'ers i- a pl(t .(-stru.ted &' *&er(-5 %heir p(ki-g /u- at the a.t(rs remi-ds us h(1 re.e-tl' 1e p(ked /u- at them5 %his&' e-ters a-d /i-ds !'ramus dead5 She m(ur-s his passi-g, e9t(lli-g his Hlil' lipsH a-d H.herr' -(se,H his H'ell(1 .(1slip .heeks,H a-d e'es Hgree- as leeks5H Is this a l(6er's lame-t (r a re.ipeK Agai- '(u .a- see the ridi.ul(us heights 7(r depths8 t( 1hi.h &ad p(etr' .a- .lim&5 She .alls t( the sisters (/ =ate t( e-d her li/e si-.e the' ha6e alread' e-ded !'ramus's5 She sta&s hersel/, &iddi-g /are1ell t( her /rie-ds, HAdieu, adieu, adieu5H --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F N(ti.e h(1 the pla' H!'ramus a-d %his&'H mirr(rs the situati((/ the l(6ers i- A Midsummer Night's Dream5 %h(ugh the l(6ers .(me t( happ' 1edded e-ds, remem&er h(1 seri(us a situati(- Hermia 1as iat the &egi--i-g (/ the pla'5 She 1as threate-ed 1ith death5 %his u-derl'i-g tragi. eleme-t sh(1s the seri(us -ature (/ Shakespeare's .ritiGue (/ l(6e5 %he 1(rki-gme-'s pla' ser6es t( di//use this tragi. eleme-t &' 6irtue (/ its .(med'5 It ser6es alm(st like ae9(r.ism5 !'ramus a-d %his&' meet their terri&le e-ds amid laughter, -(t tears5 A-d the l(6ers, i/ the' .a- (-l' see it, are prese-ted 1ith a .(mi. re-diti(- (/ ill-/ated, d(ti-g l(6e5 --------------------------------------------------------------------%heseus a-d Demetrius -(te that the m((-, the li(-, a-d the 1all are le/t t( &ur' the dead5 %his is e-(ugh t( make +(tt(m rise /r(m the dead, (//eri-g his (pi-i(- that the 1all has -(1 .(me d(1-5 He asks i/ the''d like t( see a- epil(gue t( the pla', (r hear a da-.e, a-d '(u ma' re.(g-i3e his t'pi.al s1it.hi-g (/ the 1(rds /(r

ea.h a.ti(-5 %heseus pleads /(r -( epil(gue5 +ut he agrees that a da-.e 7the .(u-tr' H&erg(maskH8 s(u-ds g((d5 A-d s( the .(mpa-' da-.es5 %heseus a--(u-.es it's mid-ight, time /(r the l(6ers t( g( t( their &eds5 He adds, k-(1i-g less tha- 1e k-(1, that it's alm(st /air' time, as 1ell5 %he pla', he /i-ds, has d(-e its C(& (/ passi-g the l(-g h(urs5 A-d .a- '(u /eel the 1a' i- 1hi.h the per/(rma-.e has relie6ed the te-si(- /(r the l(6ers, gi6i-g them a .ha-.e t( laugh at themsel6esK N(1 the -e1l'1eds .a- retire t( their &eds, a-d the .ele&rati(- (/ their marriages 1ill .(-ti-ue /(r t1( 1eeks5 %he duke a-d du.hess a-d the /(ur l(6ers, all /irml' u-ited i- the s(.ial a-d sa.red &(-ds (/ marriage, lea6e t(gether5 %heir 1(rld (/ l(6e has .(me i-t( its pr(per (rder5 LIN S :E:-BB@ N(1 it is m((-light agai-, a-d the /air' 1(rld retur-s /(r a &(1, lest- i- (ur se-se (/ s(.ial (rder- 1e /(rget the realit' (/ its magi.al p(1ers5 !u.k e-ters 1ith a &r((m5 He des.ri&es the s.ar' -ight 1(rld, 1ith its li(-s r(ari-g a-d 1(l6es h(1li-g, the (1l s.ree.hi-g like the dead5 %his is the time, sa's "(&i-, 1he- the gra6es (pea-d the sprites leap (ut5 +ut it's als( the time (/ !u.k a-d his /ell(1 /airies5 "emem&er, *&er(- pre6i(usl' t(ld us the' are Hspirits (/ a-(ther s(rt5H %h(ugh the' t(( are .reatures (/ the -ight, the' ha6e .(me t( /r(li., -(t t( me-a.e5 %he' are here t( &less the h(use (/ the duke5 !u.k 1ill e6e- help .lea-, s1eepi-g (ut the dust /r(m &ehi-d the d((r5 --------------------------------------------------------------------N*% F It 1as p(pular /(lkl(re that !u.k helped s1eep the h(use .leaat mid-ight5 +ut -(ti.e, as 1ell, h(1 p(eti.all' apt his a.ti(- is5 It's as i/ he 1ere .lea-i-g the stage 7-(t Cust the h(use8 (/ its illusi(-s, (r s1eepi-g the sa-d /r(m (ur .harmed e'es5 --------------------------------------------------------------------*&er(- e-ters 1ith %ita-ia a-d all the /airies5 He se-ds light thr(ugh(ut the h(use a-d .(mma-ds his /airies a-d el6es t( h(p like &irds, si-gi-g a-d da-.i-g, &ri-gi-g .heer5 %ita-ia has them all rehearse their s(-g5 It's .lear that the /air' 1a' (/ gi6i-g &lessi-gs is thr(ugh a magi.al rite (/ s(-g a-d da-.e5 A-d this l(6el' gi/t (/ gra.e 1e get t( e9perie-.e5 *&er(- se-ds his sprites thr(ugh the pala.e5 He a-d %ita-ia shall &less the &ride-&ed (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta a-d assure that their (//spri-g 1ill &e happ'5 All the l(6ers shall &e s( &lessedF their .hildre- 1ill &e health' a-d 1ell /(rmed, -(t pre' t( a..ide-tal &irth de/e.ts5 %h(ugh agai- this 1as a traditi(-al realm atte-ded t( &' the /airies, *&er(-'s &lessi-g (/ -atural gra.e up(- the .hildre- (/ the l(6ers seems t( i-di.ate that the -atural 1(rld has &ee- rest(red t( harm(-'5 "emem&er the terri&le pi.ture he pai-ted 1he- he a-d %ita-ia 1ere at (ddsK N(1 1ith /ield-de1 he .(-se.rates the h(use t( the ultimate (rder (/ pea.e a-d harm(-'5 6er'(-e &ut !u.k lea6es the stage5 A-d !u.k, 1ith his usual mis.hie6(us gleam, (//ers us this ap(l(g'5 I/ '(u did-'t like the pla', he sa's, Cust prete-d that '(u ha6e Hslum&'red here, I While these 6isi(-s did appear5H I- that .ase, all '(u ha6e see- is H&ut a dream5H Like %heseus, '(u .a- prete-d that it 1as all s(me air' .(-stru.ti(- (/ the imagi-ati(-5 Like the l(6ers '(u .a- .(6er it (6er, as i/ the dream 1ere &est /(rg(tte-5 *r like +(tt(m '(u .a- test it, m(6e t(1ard it, glimpse it, respe.t

its p(1er, a-d thi-k it (6er5 I- the e-d Shakespeare teases '(u, prete-ds i--(.e-.e, a-d lea6es the seri(us matter (/ his .(med' /(r '(u, the reader (r 6ie1er, t( Cudge5 !u.k admits he is Cust aa.t(rD theater a-d spirit magi. are the t1( sides (/ his /a.e5 I/ he .a- es.ape the hisses /r(m his audie-.e, he 1ill pla' the part the &est he .a-5 I/ '(u &e/rie-d him 1ith '(ur applause, he'll &e/rie-d '(u 1ith his magi.5 % S%S>AND>ANSW "S % S% 1 >>>>> 15 %he three ki-ds (/ pe(ple %heseus sa's are u-der the s1a' (/ the imagi-ati(- areF A5 the /airies, the l(6ers, a-d the 1(rki-gme+5 the lu-ati., the l(6er, a-d the p(et )5 the audie-.e, the a.t(rs, a-d the pla'1right >>>>> A5 %he /l(1er's Cui.e that has the a&ilit' t( make s(me(-e /all i- l(6e 1ith the -e9t pers(- he (r she sees is i-/used 1ith the p(1er (/ A5 )upid +5 Dia-a )5 *&er(>>>>> :5 %ita-ia's /a6(rite resti-g pla.e is surr(u-ded &' A5 &irds a-d &um&le&ees +5 /airies )5 /l(1ers >>>>> B5 !u.k's (ther -ame is A5 !'ramus +5 "(&i- $((d/ell(1 )5 Ki-g (/ Shad(1s >>>>> 55 %he m((-'s light is s'm&(li. (/ A5 the true, .lear p(1er (/ l(6e +5 the a&ilit' (/ reas(- t( shi-e thr(ugh the dark )5 mad-ess, r(ma-.e, a-d magi. >>>>> ?5 +' ha6i-g the three 1eddi-gs take pla.e at the e-d (/ the pla', Shakespeare makes us /eel A5 that mistake- l(6e a-d dis.(rd harm(-i(us (rder +5 that the /airies are -(t real, a-(ther 1a' (/ seei-g pe(ples' )5 h(1 ruthless s(.iet' .a- &e iha6e .(me i-t( a a-d their magi. is Cust pr(&lems e-/(r.i-g its la1s A S% ! + 2*ND % S%S AND ANSW "S % S%S

7SMID% S%8

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E5 +(tt(m's Dream A5 u-like the l(6ers', /ades as s((- as he 1akes up +5 sh(1s that the e-tire pla' 1as .(-Cured up &' him )5 li-gers, h(ldi-g the m'ster' (/ the /air' 1(rld

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85 Athe-ia- la1 sa's Hermia must A5 (&e' her /ather's 1ishes, li6e as a -u-, (r die +5 marr' the pers(- she 1as e-gaged t( /irst )5 d( as %heseus tells her

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95 HSeei-gH is a theme (/ the pla' &e.ause A5 th(se 1h( are .harmed ha6e spe.ial 6isi(+5 l(6e sees 1ith its (1- e'es, a-d s(metimes l(6e is &li-d )5 realit' .a- &e see- (-l' 1ith the e'es (/ reas(-

>>>>> 1@5 Whe- *&er(- a-d %ita-ia Guarrel A5 it makes all the l(6ers Guarrel t(( +5 +(tt(m is tur-ed i-t( a- ass )5 the -atural 1(rld is (ut (/ (rder 115 Wh' are the t1( sets (/ '(u-g l(6ers s( hard t( tell apartK 1A5 H(1 is the theme (/ theatri.al illusi(- 1(6e- i-t( the pla'K 1:5 Des.ri&e the imp(rta-.e (/ /l(1er imager' i- the pla'5

1B5 H(1 d(es %heseus's relia-.e (- reas(- a//e.t his ge-eral u-dersta-di-gK 155 What is Hd(ti-g,H a-d 1hat is its sig-i/i.a-.e i- the pla'K % S% A >>>>> 15 Hele-a .alls Hermia a puppet &e.ause she A5 .a-'t make up her mi-d a-d is pulled &' e6er'(-e else's desires +5 is small )5 has a /u--' 1a' (/ m(6i-g 1he- she is a-gr' >>>>> A5 Whe- +(tt(m 1(rries a&(ut the li(- s.ari-g the audie-.e, it A5 remi-ds us that theater deals 1ith the d'-ami.s &et1eerealit' a-d illusi(+5 is a--('i-g, &e.ause he 1a-ts t( pla' all the parts )5 is /as.i-ati-g &e.ause the audie-.e reall' d(es sh(1 /ear duri-g the pla' >>>>> :5 L'sa-der 6(1s eter-al l(6e t( -

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A5 Hermia +5 Hele-a )5 &(th Hermia a-d Hele-a B5 *&er(-'s use (/ p(eti. la-guage A5 sh(1s h(1 his /l(1er' spee.h is i-/lue-.ed &' /l(1ers +5 is used &' Shakespeare t( m(.k the &ad p(ets (/ his da' )5 sh(1s us his magi.D the s(u-ds themsel6es are like a spell

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55 =l(1er s'm&(lism is appr(priate t( the /air' 1(rld &e.ause A5 the -ames (/ /l(1ers s(u-d like magi. spells +5 /l(1ers are small mira.les (/ the -atural 1(rld, 1h(se si3e helps gi6e a pi.ture (/ the /airies' si3e )5 reas(- is &ehi-d /air' magi., a-d /l(1ers sh(1 the p(1er (/ s.ie-ti/i. reas(-i-g

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?5 Whe- *&er(- sa's the /airies are Hspirits (/ a-(ther s(rt,H he mea-s that A5 alth(ugh the' are ti-', the' are -(t t( &e tri/led 1ith +5 u-like the l(6ers, the''re p(ssessed (/ true sight )5 alth(ugh the' are -ight .reatures, their i-te-ti(-s are g((d

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E5 I- the pla', a.ti6it' i- the 1((ds is .hara.teri3ed &' em(ti(-al i-dulge-.e a-d magi.5 A.ti6it' i- the .it' is .hara.teri3ed &' A5 u-rul' &eha6i(r &' &(ister(us pers(-s +5 s(.ial (rder a-d reas()5 t(tal .(-.e-trati(- (- .(mmer.e

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85 It is hard t( tell the sets (/ l(6ers apart &e.ause A5 the''re mea-t t( represe-t l(6ers i- ge-eral, -(t spe.i/i. .hara.ters +5 the' are rarel' (- stage t(gether )5 1he- their e'es are .harmed, their appeara-.es .ha-ge als(

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95 %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta represe-t A5 the p(1er (/ s(.ial i-stituti(-s, marriage, a-d la1 +5 the triumph (/ $reek (6er -glish m'th(l(g' )5 the &li-d -ature (/ r(ma-ti. l(6e

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1@5 %he (-e m(rtal 1h( reall' i-tera.ts 1ith the /air' 1(rld is A5 L'sa-der +5 +(tt(m )5 !hil(strate

115 )(mpare +(tt(m's re.(lle.ti(- (/ his magi.al e9perie-.es t( that

(/ the l(6ers5 1A5 H(1 d(es %ita-ia's des.ripti(- (/ the -atural 1(rld (ut (/ (rder a//e.t (ur u-dersta-di-g (/ the /airiesK 1:5 Wh' is m((-light s( imp(rta-t i- the pla'K 1B5 Dis.uss the di//ere-t 1a's i- 1hi.h the three gr(ups (/ .hara.ters speak5 155 H(1 d(es the .(-te-t (/ H!'ramus a-d %his&'H re/le.t (- the rest (/ the pla'K ANSW "S % S% 1 15 + A5 A :5 ) B5 + 55 ) ?5 A E5 ) 85 A 95 + 1@5 ) 115 %h(ugh Hermia is des.ri&ed as small a-d dark, a-d Hele-a as tall a-d thi-, L'sa-der a-d Demetrius are -(t gi6e- ph'si.al des.ripti(-s at all5 %he' seem t( &e alm(st i-ter.ha-gea&le5 */ .(urse, (-.e the l(6e Cui.e has 1(rked its magi. the' are, i- terms (/ their l(6e, i-ter.ha-gea&le5 =irst the' &(th l(6e HermiaD the- the' &(th l(6e Hele-a5 +' ha6i-g these l(6ers s( ill-de/i-ed, Shakespeare makes them sta-d /(r l(6ers i- ge-eral, rather tha- appear as spe.i/i. .hara.ters5 All /(ur '(u-g pe(ple speak the high .(urtl' p(etr' a-d r(ma-ti. .li.hes (/ pe(ple i- l(6e5 +ut l(6e is a p(1er that, like the magi. Cui.e, tra-s/(rms pe(ple t( its (1- purp(ses5 I- a 1a' the' are -( l(-ger themsel6es, &ut age-ts (/ its p(1er- l(6ers5 +' keepi-g his l(6ers i-disti-.t, Shakespeare sh(1s h(1 l(6e le6els pe(ple t( its (1- e-ds, &li-di-g them /r(m seei-g the realit' (/ (ther pe(ple i- the pr(.ess5 1A5 %he rusti. a.t(rs rehearsi-g their pr(du.ti(- (/ H!'ramus a-d %his&'H gi6e Shakespeare the .ha-.e t( satiri3e theatri.al .(-6e-ti(-s a-d t( pla' 1ith his audie-.e ar(u-d the limits (/ the theater's illusi(-5 +(tt(m 1(rries a&(ut h(1 the audie-.e might rea.t t( the appeara-.e (/ a li(- (r t( !'ramus d'i-g5 He's a/raid the' 1ill take these a.ted r(les seri(usl' a-d -(t u-dersta-d that the' are i- the realm (/ theater, -(t Hrealit'5H He 1a-ts the a.t(rs t( e9plai- that the' are Cust a.t(rs5 +ut theater is &ased (- the audie-.e's a&ilit' (r 1illi-g-ess t( suspe-d /(r a time their -(rmal per.epti(- (/ realit' a-d t( &elie6e i- illusi(-5 Shakespeare tests this suspe-si(- t( the limit i- A Midsummer Night's Dream &' p(rtra'i-g a m'thi.al, magi.al 1(rld (/ /airies that is e-tirel' &uilt (- illusi(-5 2(u are asked t( &elie6e that this m'steri(us, /a-.i/ul 1(rld is real5 1:5 %he /air' 1(rld is .(-ti-uall' ass(.iated 1ith /l(1ers, as 1ell as 1ith (ther -ature-related imager'5 %his makes /l(1ers part (/ a 1(rld slightl' &e'(-d huma- per.epti(- (r i-/lue-.e5 =l(1ers a-d pla-ts ha6e traditi(-all' &ee- ass(.iated 1ith magi., a-d i- the .ase (/ .ertai- her&s their Hmagi.H .urati6e p(1ers are 1ell pr(6e-5 A-d the' im&ue us 1ith a se-se (/ 1(-der at their .(l(r/ul a-d &eauti/ul /(rms, i- spite (/ the depth (/ (ur s.ie-ti/i. k-(1ledge a&(ut h(1 the' gr(15 Shakespeare's ass(.iati(- (/ the /airies 1ith

these small mira.les makes the /l(1ers seem part (/ a- eleme-tal .reati6e p(1er5 %he /airies are als( .(-sta-tl' .(mpared i- si3e t( the /l(1ers, gi6i-g us a- imagi-ar' 'ardsti.k &' 1hi.h t( measure a-d t( 6ie1 the /airies 7si-.e the' are pla'ed &' huma- a.t(rs (the stage85 %he .(-/li.ti-g realities (/ the si3e 1e hear a&(ut a-d the si3e 1e a.tuall' see test (ur p(1er (/ imagi-ati6e per.epti(-5 1B5 %heseus's relia-.e (- reas(- rem(6es him, i- s(me degree, /r(m u-dersta-di-g the .reati6e 1(rlds (/ art a-d magi.5 He d(es -(t reall' &elie6e the l(6ers' st(r' (/ their magi.al e-.(u-ters5 His 1(rld (/ 1ar .(-Guests a-d s(.ial (rder keep him materiall' gr(u-ded5 He .a(-l' s.(// at tales (/ /airies a-d magi.5 We 1h( ha6e alread' e9perie-.ed the p(1er a-d p(etr' (/ the /air' 1(rld .a- see that reas(-, /(r all its 6irtue, .a- als( lead t( &li-d-ess5 %heseus .(mpares l(6ers, madme-, a-d p(ets5 He sa's that imagi-ati(- .alead them all astra'5 I- (-e 1a' he has a p(i-tF 1e'6e alread' seethe 1a's i- 1hi.h pe(ple .a- &e &li-ded a-d misled &' r(ma-ti. l(6e5 +ut 1e'6e als( glimpsed- like +(tt(m- a- u-speaka&le &eaut', a dream 6isi(- (/ /l(1ers, magi., m((-light, a-d p(eti. art5 A 1(rld 1ith(ut these eleme-ts might &e materiall' s(u-d, &ut it la.ks a p(1er/ul dime-si(- (/ huma- e9perie-.e5 155 HD(ti-gH is used agai- a-d agai- t( des.ri&e the ki-d (/ r(ma-.e-i-spired seei-g 7a-d l(6i-g8 that is esse-tiall' &li-d5 I(ther 1(rds, d(ti-g is -(t seei-g at all5 Whe- Hele-a is des.ri&ed &' L'sa-der as d(ti-g (- Demetrius, he mea-s she is s( /((lishl' il(6e that she .a-'t reall' Cudge Demetrius's .hara.terD her l(6e sta-ds i- the 1a' (/ her reas(-a&le sight5 Similarl', %ita-ia is des.ri&ed &' *&er(- as d(ti-g (- +(tt(m, ass's head a-d all5 Her situati(- is e6e- .learer5 %h(ugh 1e .a- plai-l' see the ass &e/(re her, her l(6e-tra-s/(rmed e'es see (-l' 1hat the' 1a-t t( see5 Ass-headed +(tt(m is a ha-ds(me pri-.e t( her5 A..(rdi-g t( Shakespeare, 1he- pe(ple d(te the' are i- a da-ger(us, i-t(9i.ated realm, seei-g 1hat their mi-d a-d heart tell them t( see, -(t 1hat ma' a.tuall' &e &e/(re them5 % S% A 15 + A5 A :5 ) B5 ) 55 + ?5 ) E5 + 85 A 95 A 1@5 + 115 %he l(6ers 1ake up /r(m their dream alm(st as i/ the' had &eek-(.ked (ut5 %he' ha6e (-l' /u33' re.(lle.ti(-s (/ their stra-ge e9perie-.es &ut are 1illi-g t( &elie6e that the' 1ere Cust dreami-g5 M(stl', the' seem t( 1a-t t( /(rget the e6e-ts a-d m(6e (- t(1ard their -(1 m(re sta&le marriages5 +(tt(m, t((, 1akes up 1ith /u33' per.epti(-s, &ut he seems .l(ser t( his HdreamH e9perie-.e tha- d( the l(6ers5 It seems alm(st as i/ he remem&ers 1hat happe-edD his di//i.ult' is i- /i-di-g a 1a' t( talk a&(ut it5 He appr(a.hes the e9perie-.e a-d retreats /r(m it, &ut ultimatel' h(lds it i- a ki-d (/ suspe-si(-5 6e- i/ he .a-'t /ull' talk a&(ut this H6isi(-,H he 1(-'t dismiss it5 I-tuiti6el', +(tt(m seeks t( keep h(ld (/ his dream thr(ugh the tra-s/(rmi-g mea-s (/ artF he immediatel' de.ides t( 1rite a &allad .alled H+(tt(m's DreamH t( &e per/(rmed duri-g the pla'5 1A5 +e.ause (/ the /airies' .(-sta-t ass(.iati(- 1ith /l(1ers a-d

1i-ged i-se.ts a-d &e.ause (/ Shakespeare's emphasis (- their dimi-uti6e si3e, 1e ma' get the i-itial impressi(- that these spirits are .ute, ti-', dai-t', a-d harmless5 %h(ugh *&er(- sh(1s a huma-like Ceal(us' a-d 6e-gea-.e, he d(es-'t .ause a-' i-te-se tr(u&le 7e9.ept 1ith his use (/ the l(6e Cui.e85 +ut %ita-ia's des.ripti((/ the dis(rder i- the -atural 1(rld resulti-g /r(m her Guarrel 1ith *&er(- gi6es us a- e-tirel' di//ere-t se-se (/ their p(1ers5 N(1 the ki-g a-d Guee- (/ /air'la-d seem like eleme-tal /(r.es5 %heir em(ti(-al li/e has giga-ti. /(r.eF it .a- .ause tidal 1a6es a-d terri&le st(rms, disrupti-g the ge-eral .alm a-d (rder (/ humali/e5 +e.ause (/ the terri/'i-g pi.ture %ita-ia pai-ts, /illed 1ith disease a-d death, (ur .(-.epti(- (/ the &e-ig- /airies is altered i-t( s(methi-g m(re respe.t/ul5 %heir magi. 1(rld has &ehi-d it a primar' p(1er, a-d as its represe-tati6es, *&er(- a-d %ita-ia are might' rulers5 1:5 9.ept /(r the &egi--i-g a-d the e-d, m(st (/ the a.ti(- (/ the pla' takes pla.e at -ight5 *&er(- makes .lear that -ight is the /airies' time5 %heseus, 1h( is alig-ed 1ith reas(-, appears duri-g the da'light p(rti(-s5 %he /airies, 1ith all the midsummer mad-ess the' set i- m(ti(-, 1(rk their magi. at -ight5 M((-light thus s'm&(li3es em(ti(-s, as .(-trasted t( reas(-, a-d (/ .(urse is the /a6(red tr'sti-g time (/ l(6ers5 *&er(- is re/erred t( &' !u.k as the ki-g (/ shad(1s, a-d the shad(1' -ight 1(rld he presides (6er is (-e (/ m'steri(us glimpses a-d stra-ge &eha6i(r5 !u.k a-d %heseus &(th re/er t( the theater as a pla.e (/ shad(1s, s( the m((-lit -ight als( represe-ts the realm (/ theater, 1here theatri.al illusi(-s take (- the appeara-.e (/ real li/e5 A-d /(r huma- &ei-gs, it is mu.h harder t( see i- the dark5 Si-.e s( mu.h (/ the pla' is .(-.er-ed 1ith the di//i.ult' l(6ers ha6e i- Hseei-g,H m((-light thus s'm&(li3es the .l(ud' light (/ l(6e i- 1hi.h l(6ers Hd(te5H 1B5 %he l(6ers te-d t( speak a .(urtl' p(etr', /illed 1ith high-s(u-di-g 6(1s a-d m'thi.al allusi(-s5 %heir /(rmal spee.h alm(st al1a's rh'mes- espe.iall' i- the l(-ger spee.hes- gi6i-g the l(6ers a- arti/i.ial s(u-d5 %heir dial(gues .(-tai- ma-' .le6er tur-s (/ phrases5 2et -(thi-g mu.h i-di6idual .(mes thr(ugh a&(ut a-' (-e (/ them5 %he /airies- espe.iall' *&er(- a-d %ita-ia- als( speak p(eti.all'5 +ut their p(etr' is disti-guished &' elega-.e a-d gra.e, -(t &' .li.hes5 It is /illed 1ith the -ames (/ /l(1ers a-d small a-imals, li-ki-g the /airies t( -ature5 *&er(-'s des.ripti(-s are pre.ise 'et l'ri.alD his la-guage seems (/te- t( &e a magi.al .harm i- itsel/5 I- %ita-ia's des.ripti(- (/ the -atural 1(rld (// &ala-.e, she pers(-i/ies all the eleme-ts (/ the -atural 1(rld s( that the' seem t( &e huma-5 %he 1(rki-gme- speak i- pr(se, -(t p(etr'5 %his gi6es them a /eeli-g (/ earthi-ess, (/ &ei-g gr(u-ded i- the dail' 1(rld5 %he' .(-ti-uall' misuse a-d mispr(-(u-.e 1(rds5 %heir dis.(m/it 1ith la-guage makes them per/e.t 6ehi.les /(r Shakespeare's satire (/ &ad a.ti-g5 155 H!'ramus a-d %his&',H a st(r' a&(ut t1( l(6ers kept apart &' their pare-ts, re6eals a /rustrated r(ma-ti. i-trigue similar t( that (/ the l(6ers i- A Midsummer Night's Dream5 "emem&er, Hermia a-d L'sa-der tr' t( /lee Athe-s at the &egi--i-g (/ the pla', &e.ause her /ather's 1ishes sta-d &et1ee- them5 H!'ramus a-d %his&'H

sh(1s the u-/(rtu-ate result that .a- &e/all '(u-g l(6ers .aught up itheir passi(-s5 Alth(ugh Hermia is threate-ed 1ith death, %his&' a-d !'ramus d( a.tuall' die i- their pla'5 %he material is dealt 1ith .(mi.all', &ut the traged' is there as a .auti(-ar' sig-5 %hi-gs 1(rk (ut 1ell /(r Hermia a-d L'sa-der a-d /(r Hele-a a-d Demetrius, 1h( e-d their pla' .(m/(rta&l' married5 %hr(ugh its .(mi. she-a-iga-s, H!'ramus a-d %his&'H di//uses the tragi. eleme-t i- its st(r' a-d releases it thr(ugh laughter5 % "M>!A! ">ID AS % "M !A! " ID AS AND *%H " %*!I)S =*" W"I%IN$ 7SMID% "M8 )HA"A)% "S 15 What are the t1( sides t( %heseus's relia-.e (- reas(-K A5 Des.ri&e 1hat is u-iGue a&(ut +(tt(m's dream5 :5 Dis.uss the imp(rta-.e (/ !u.k's /i-al m(-(l(gue5 55 Dis.uss the limits Shakespeare pla.es (- his .hara.teri3ati((/ the l(6ers5 IMA$ "2 Dis.uss the imp(rta-.e (/ the /(ll(1i-g imagesF 15 =l(1ers A5 M((-light :5 %he 1((ds B5 Dis.uss the imager' i- %ita-ia's spee.h a&(ut the result (/ her Guarrel 1ith *&er(-5 LAN$#A$ 15 H(1 are di//ere-t ki-ds (/ la-guage used /(r the di//ere-t sets (/ .hara.tersK A5 Dis.uss *&er(-'s use (/ p(etr'5 I- 1hat 1a's is it magi.alK :5 Des.ri&e a-d a-al'3e the 1a's i- 1hi.h the 1(rkme- misuse la-guage5 %H M S 15 H(1 are the lu-ati., the l(6er, a-d the p(et alikeK A5 Dis.uss the imp(rta-.e (/ Hseei-gH /(r the l(6ers5 :5 Dis.uss the relati(- &et1ee- illusi(- a-d realit' i- the theater5 B5 Dis.uss the imp(rta-.e (/ dreami-g i- the pla'5 55 D(es Shakespeare i-te-d us t( see the /air' 1(rld as realK H(1

d(es he pla' 1ith (ur per.epti(-sK ?5 "elate +(tt(m's dream t( the i-terpla' &et1ee- reas(- a-d imagi-ati(-5 E5 L(6e is &li-d5 H(1 d(es the pla' sh(1 thatK 85 Dis.uss the di//ere-.e i- this pla' &et1ee- the .it' a-d the 1((ds5 95 H(1 d(es the idea (/ marriage /u-.ti(- i- the pla'K %H A% " 15 I- 1hat 1a's d( the setti-gs gi6e mea-i-g t( the pla'K A5 H(1 1(uld '(u p(rtra' the /air' 1(rld i/ '(u 1ere a dire.t(rK What 1(uld &e its pr(pertiesK :5 I- 1hat 1a's d(es H!'ramus a-d %his&'H re/le.t (- the rest (/ the pla' a-d (- the -ature (/ theater itsel/K B5 H(1 d( the di//ere-t realms i-terrelate a-d gi6e a se-se (/ stru.ture t( the pla'K 55 H(1 is *&er(- a dire.t(r (r pla'1rightK ?5 !u.k .alls *&er(- the ki-g (/ shad(1s5 I- 1hat 1a's might 1e see Shakespeare as the ki-g (/ shad(1sK %H !LA2 15 )(mpare a-d .(-trast the treatme-t (/ l(6e i- A Midsummer Night's Dream a-d "(me( a-d 4uliet5 A5 )(mpare a-d .(-trast the magi. spirit 1(rlds (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream a-d %he %empest5 :5 H(1 d( A Midsummer Night's Dream a-d "(me( a-d 4uliet illustrate the di//ere-.e &et1ee- .(med' a-d traged'K )"I%I)S %H )"I%I)S 7SMID)"I%8 %H !LA2 HA Midsummer Night's DreamH shi-es like H"(me( a-d 4ulietH idark-ess, &ut shi-es merril'5 L'sa-der, (-e (/ the t1( -(-e-tities 1h( are its her(es, .(mplai-s at the &egi--i-g a&(ut the &re6it' (/ l(6e's .(urse555F S( Gui.k &right thi-gs .(me t( .(-/usi(-5 %his, h(1e6er, is at the &egi--i-g5 +right thi-gs 1ill .(me t( .larit' i- a pla'/ul, sparkli-g -ight 1hile /(u-tai-s gush a-d spa-gled starlight &etra's the prese-.e i- a 1((d -ear Athe-s (/ magi. pers(-s 1h( .a- girdle the earth i- /(rt' mi-utes a-d &ri-g a-' .ure /(r huma- 1(e5 N(r 1ill the 1(e t( &e .ured ha6e a-' p(1er t( eli.it

(ur a-9iet'5555 %here 1ill &e -( prete-se that reas(- a-d l(6e keep .(mpa-', (r that &e.ause the' d( -(t death lurks at the h(ri3(-5 -Mark <a- D(re-, Shakespeare, 19:9 )HA"A)% "I;A%I*N I- A Midsummer Night's Dream, the-, Shakespeare de/i-es his .hara.ters a..(rdi-g t( 1hat the' represe-t, a..(rdi-g t( their la&els5 %he l(6ers are -(t i-di6iduals, the' are Hl(6ers,H a-d the de/i-iti(- (/ that 1(rd 1ill determi-e their &eha6i(urD !u.k's a.ti(-s t(( are predi.ated &' the de/i-iti(- (/ H!u.k5H N(r is the pr(.ess restri.ted t( .hara.tersD e6e- pla.es sta-d /(r s(methi-g, are la&els5 Athe-s, esta&lished i- literar' traditi(- as the lege-dar' seat (/ reas(- 7i- +(..a..i('s %eseida a-d H%he K-ight's %aleH8 is here alm(st a &'1(rd /(r rati(-al (rder5 %he 1ilder-ess (utside Athe-s is .alled a H1((dH a-d -(t a /(rest, as is the .(rresp(-di-g l(.ale i- As 2(u Like It, &e.ause it must als( &e a la&el /(r Hmad,H a-d i- .ase 1e miss the p(i-t, Demetrius is made t( pu- (- H1((dH 7/(r HmadH a-d H/(restH8 a-d H1((edHD HA-d here am I, a-d 1((d 1ithi- this 1((d5555H With e6er'thi-g s( .learl' de/i-ed a-d 1ith the i-/i-ite .(mple9ities (/ realisti. .hara.ter a-d Hreal li/eH setti-gs s( /irml' e9.ised, -( 1(-der th(se 1h( .ame l((ki-g /(r realism g( a1a' .(-6i-.ed that the pla' is a little t(( simple5 -Stephe- =e-der, ShakespeareF A Midsummer Night's Dream, 19?8 %H ND *= %H !LA2 I/ e6er the s(- (/ ma- i- his 1a-deri-gs 1as at h(me a-d dri-ki-g &' the /ireside, he is at h(me i- the h(use (/ %heseus5 All the dreams ha6e &ee- /(rg(tte-, as a mela-.h(l' dream remem&ered thr(ugh(ut the m(r-i-g might &e /(rg(tte- i- the huma- .ertai-t' (/ a-' (ther triumpha-t e6e-i-g part'D a-d s( the pla' seems -aturall' e-ded5 It &ega- (- the earth a-d it e-ds (- the earth5 %hus t( r(u-d (// the 1h(le midsummer -ight's dream i- a- e.lipse (/ da'light is a- e//e.t (/ ge-ius5 +ut (/ this .(med', as I ha6e said, the mark is that ge-ius g(es &e'(-d itsel/D a-d (-e t(u.h is added 1hi.h makes the pla' .(l(ssal5 %heseus a-d his trai- retire 1ith a .rashi-g /i-ale, /ull (/ hum(ur a-d 1isd(m a-d thi-gs set right, a-d sile-.e /alls (- the h(use5 %he- there .(mes a /ai-t s(u-d (/ little /eet, a-d /(r a m(me-t, as it 1ere, the el6es l((k i-t( the h(use, aski-g 1hi.h is the realit'5 HSupp(se 1e are the realities a-d the' the shad(1s5H I/ that e-di-g 1ere a.ted pr(perl' a-' m(der- ma- 1(uld /eel shake- t( his marr(1 i/ he had t( 1alk h(me /r(m the theatre thr(ugh a .(u-tr' la-e5 -$5 K5 )hestert(-, )hestert(- *- Shakespeare, 19E1 SHAK S! A" 'S !* %I) S! )H S N(, his heart 1as i- these passages (/ 6erse, a-d s( the heart (/ the pla' is i- them5 A-d the se.ret (/ the pla'- the re/utati(- (/ all d(.tri-aire .riti.ism (/ it- lies i- the /a.t that th(ugh the' ma' (//e-d agai-st e6er' letter (/ dramati. la1 the' /ul/il the i-m(st spirit (/ it, i-asmu.h as the' are dramati. i- themsel6es5 %he' are i-sti-.t 1ith that e9.iteme-t, that sp(-ta-eit', that se-se (/ em(ti(-al (6er/l(1 1hi.h is drama5 %he' are as .are/ull' .(-stru.ted /(r e//e.ti6e speaki-g as a messe-ger's spee.h i- a $reek drama5 *-e passage i- parti.ular, !u.k's HM' mistress 1ith a m(-ster is i- l(6e,H is &(th i- idea a-d /(rm, i- its te-si(-, .lima9, a-d r(u-di-g (//, a true messe-ger's spee.h5 Shakespeare, I sa', 1as /r(m the /irst a

pla'1right i- spite (/ himsel/5 6e- 1he- he seems t( sa.ri/i.e drama t( p(em he- i-sti-.ti6el' (r -(t- ma-ages t( make the p(em itsel/ m(re dramati. tha- the drama he sa.ri/i.es5 -Harle' $ra-6ille-+arker, M(re !re/a.es t( Shakespeare, 19EB +*%%*M'S H<ISI*NH +' .(-trast H6isi(-,H as it is i-tr(du.ed i-t( the pla', is a .(de 1(rd /(r the dream u-derst((d, the dream .(rre.tl' 6alued5 */te- the user d(es -(t k-(1 that he k-(1sD this is a-(ther (/ the pla''s themati. patter-s, supp(rti-g the ele6ati(- (/ the irrati(-al a&(6e the merel' rati(-al5 As a de6i.e it is related t( a .hara.ter t'pe al1a's prese-t i- Shakespeare, &ut m(re highl' re/i-ed i- the later pla's, that (/ the 1ise /((l5 %hus +(tt(m, a1ake-i-g, is immediatel' a-d i-tuiti6el' impressed 1ith the sig-i/i.a-.e (/ his Hdream,H 1hi.h 1e (/ .(urse re.(g-i3e as -(t a dream at all, &ut rather a literal realit' 1ithi- the pla'5 -MarC(rie +5 $ar&er, Dream I- Shakespeare, 19EB %H =AI"I S What is true (/ the m((- applies t( the /airies5 %he' are a .uri(us mi9ture (/ 1((d spirits a-d h(useh(ld g(ds, paga- deities a-d l(.al pi9ies5 %he' i-ha&it the e-6ir(-s (/ Athe-s a-d /(ll(1 the /(rtu-es (/ %heseus a-d Hipp(l'ta, &ut the' are .learl' the spirits 1h(m 1e .a- .(-sider Halm(st esse-tial t( a Midsummer !la',H dete.ta&l' -glish i- .hara.ter a-d ha&it5 %hr(ugh %ita-ia a-d her trai-, Shakespeare emphasi3es their i--(.e-.e a-d deli.a.'D i*&er(- a-d !u.k, he e9presses their darker side, p(te-tiall' male6(le-t i- the l(re (/ the time5 -Da6id !5 2(u-g, S(methi-g (/ $reat )(-sta-.'F %he Art (/ A Midsummer Night's Dream, 19?? %H )*M D2 *= LAN$#A$ %he Dream's .(med' (/ la-guage attai-s its peak (/ e9tra6aga-.e iH!'ramus5H *-e /a6(urite e//e.t is .(-ti-ued /r(m the pla' pr(perF the misassig-me-t (/ se-se-e9perie-.e- !'ramus sees a 6(i.e, h(pes t( hear his %his&''s /a.e, a-d &ids his t(-gue l(se its light5 I- the rehearsal-s.e-e he is supp(sed t( ha6e g(-e H&ut t( see a -(ise that he heard,H a-d the e//e.t has &ee- take- t( its highest p(i-t i+(tt(m's gar&li-g (/ St5 !aulF H%he e'e (/ ma- hath -(t heard5555H %hat par(d' 1(uld -(t ha6e &ee- p(ssi&le i- a-'thi-g &ut .(mi. pr(seD a-d pr(se, as is -(rmal i- Shakespeare, is the 6ehi.le /(r the s.e-es (/ ple&eia- .(med'5 +(tt(m's adhere-.e t( it i/air'la-d, 1hile %ita-ia speaks 6erse, adds t( the .hara.teri3ati(a-d the .(mi. e//e.t, emphasi3i-g h(1 u-shakea&l' he remai-s himsel/, a-d h(1 (ut (/ t(u.h, i-ha&iti-g still their disparate 1(rlds, the' are 1ith ea.h (ther5 -Har(ld =5 +r((ks, I-tr(du.ti(- t( Arde-, A Midsummer Night's Dream, 19E9 AD<IS*"2>+*A"D AD<IS*"2 +*A"D 7SMIDAD<+8 We 1ish t( tha-k the /(ll(1i-g edu.at(rs 1h( helped us /(.us (ur +((k N(tes series t( meet stude-t -eeds a-d .ritiGued (ur ma-us.ripts t( pr(6ide Gualit' materials5 Sa-dra Du--, -glish %ea.her

Hempstead High S.h((l, Hempstead, Ne1 2(rk La1re-.e 45 pstei-, Ass(.iate !r(/ess(r (/ -glish Su//(lk )(u-t' )(mmu-it' )(llege, Selde-, Ne1 2(rk Le(-ard $ard-er, Le.turer, -glish Departme-t State #-i6ersit' (/ Ne1 2(rk at St(-' +r((k +e6erl' A5 Hale', Mem&er, Ad6is(r' )(mmittee Nati(-al )(u-.il (/ %ea.hers (/ -glish Stude-t $uide Series =(rt M(rga-, )(l(rad( lai-e )5 4(h-s(-, -glish %ea.her %amalpais #-i(- High S.h((l Distri.t Mill <alle', )ali/(r-ia Mar6i- 45 LaH((d, !r(/ess(r (/ -glish State #-i6ersit' (/ Ne1 2(rk )(llege at +u//al(

"(&ert Le.ker, Ass(.iate !r(/ess(r (/ -glish M.$ill #-i6ersit', M(-treal, 0ue&e., )a-ada Da6id 5 Ma-l', !r(/ess(r (/ du.ati(-al Studies State #-i6ersit' (/ Ne1 2(rk )(llege at $e-ese( +ru.e Miller, Ass(.iate !r(/ess(r (/ du.ati(State #-i6ersit' (/ Ne1 2(rk at +u//al( =ra-k *'Hare, !r(/ess(r (/ -glish a-d Dire.t(r (/ Writi-g *hi( State #-i6ersit', )(lum&us, *hi( =aith ;5 S.hullstr(m, Mem&er, 9e.uti6e )(mmittee Nati(-al )(u-.il (/ %ea.hers (/ -glish Dire.t(r (/ )urri.ulum a-d I-stru.ti($uilderla-d )e-tral S.h((l Distri.t, Ne1 2(rk Mattie )5 Williams, Dire.t(r, +ureau (/ La-guage Arts )hi.ag( !u&li. S.h((ls, )hi.ag(, Illi-(is

%H ND *= +A""*N'S +**K N*% S WILLIAM SHAK S! A" 'S A MIDS#MM " NI$H%'S D" AM +I+LI*$"A!H2 MIDS#MM ">NI$H%S>D" AM =#"%H " " ADIN$ )"I%I)AL W*"KS 7SMID+I+L8

Arth(s, 4(h-5 Shakespeare's #se (/ Dream a-d <isi(-5 %(t(1a, N545F "(1ma- a-d Little/ield, 19EE5 )hestert(-, $5 K5 )hestert(- (- Shakespeare5 )hester Spri-gs, !a5F Du/(ur diti(-s, 19E15 "eada&le essa's 1ith a 6er' -glish se-si&ilit'5

)hute, Mar.hette5 Shakespeare (/ L(-d(-5 Ne1 2(rkF 5 !5 Dutt(-, 19B95 A &i(graph' that reads like a -(6el5 )(leridge, S5 %5 Shakespearea- )riti.ism5 Ne1 2(rkF 5 !5 Dutt(-, 19?@5 A great p(et's grasp (/ Shakespeare's musi.5 =e-der, Stephe-5 ShakespeareF A Midsummer Night's Dream5 L(-d(-F d1ard Ar-(ld, 19?85 $ar&er, MarC(rie +5 Dream i- Shakespeare5 Ne1 Ha6e- a-d L(-d(-F 2ale #-i6ersit' !ress, 19EB5 A pe-etrati-g l((k at Shakespeare's 6isi(-ar' 1(rld, i-.ludi-g a ps'.h(l(gi.al a-al'sis (/ dreams5 $ra-6ille-+arker, Harle'5 M(re !re/a.es t( Shakespeare5 !ri-.et(-, N545F !ri-.et(- #-i6ersit' !ress, 19EB5 I-sight/ul essa's &' a great Shakespearea- dire.t(r5 Kerm(de, =ra-k5 Shakespeare, Spe-ser, D(--e5 Ne1 2(rkF <iki-g !ress, 19E15 A- essa' that i-.ludes the (..ult phil(s(phi.al traditi(- &ehi-d Shakespeare's magi.5 Ler-er, La1re-.e, ed5 Shakespeare's )(mediesF A- A-th(l(g' (/ M(der)riti.ism5 +altim(re, Md5F !e-gui- +((ks, 19E85 Nagler, Al(is M5 Shakespeare's Stage5 Ne1 Ha6e-F 2ale #-i6ersit' !ress, 19815 %he .lassi. i-tr(du.ti(- t( the li3a&etha- stage5 !ar(tt, %h(mas Mar.5 William ShakespeareF A Ha-d&((k5 Ne1 2(rkF )harles S.ri&-er's S(-s, 19555 Shakespeare, William5 A Midsummer Night's Dream5 dited &' Har(ld =5 +r((ks5 %he Arde- Shakespeare5 L(-d(-F Methue-, 19E95 =ull' a--(tated, 1ith e9te-si6e i-tr(du.t(r' -(tes5 <a- D(re-, Mark5 Shakespeare5 Ne1 2(rkF He-r' H(lt, 19:95 2(u-g, Da6id !5 S(methi-g (/ $reat )(-sta-.'F %he Art (/ a Midsummer Night's Dream5 Ne1 Ha6e-F 2ale #-i6ersit' !ress, 19??5 A#%H*"'S W*"KS Shakespeare 1r(te :E pla's 7:8 i/ '(u i-.lude %he %1( N(&le Ki-sme-8 (6er a A@-'ear peri(d, /r(m a&(ut 159@ t( 1?1@5 It's di//i.ult t( determi-e the e9a.t dates 1he- ma-' 1ere 1ritte-, &ut s.h(lars ha6e made the /(ll(1i-g i-tellige-t guesses a&(ut his pla's a-d p(emsF !LA2S 1588-9: %he )(med' (/ rr(rs 1588-9B L(6e's La&(ur's L(st 159@-91 A He-r' <I 159@-91 : He-r' <I 1591-9A 1 He-r' <I 159A-9: "i.hard III 159A-9B %itus A-dr(-i.us 159:-9B %he %ami-g (/ the Shre1

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159A 159:-9B 159:-1?@@ 1?@@-@1 %H

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ND *= %H +I+LI*$"A!H2 =*" +A""*N'S +**K N*% S WILLIAM SHAK S! A" 'S A MIDS#MM " NI$H%'S D" AM BA5 +) S*!H*)L S' * DI!#S %"IL*$2 &' $erald Lee "atli// Ass(.iate !r(/ess(r M(-t.lair State )(llege S "I S DI%*" Mi.hael Spri-g, dit(r, Literar' )a6al.ade, S.h(lasti. I-.5

A)KN*WL D$M N%S We 1(uld like t( a.k-(1ledge the ma-' pai-staki-g h(urs (/ 1(rk H(ll' Hughes

a-d %h(mas =5 Hirs.h ha6e de6(ted t( maki-g the +((k N(tes series a su..ess5 7)8 )(p'right 198B &' +arr(-'s le.tr(-i.all' )*N% N%S )*N% N%S S )%I*N55555555555555555555555555 S A")H *N %H A#%H*" AND HIS %IM S55555555555555555 S* DA#%H S* DL $ S* D)HA" S* S* S* S* S* S* D%H A D%H * DS %% D%H M DIMA$ DLAN$ du.ati(-al Series, I-.5

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%he Athe-s that S(ph(.les k-e1 i- the /i/th .e-tur' +5)5 1as a .uri(us pla.e5 +' m(der- sta-dards it 1as a small a-d u-.(m/(rta&le .it'5 %here 1as -( ru--i-g 1ater, -( .e-tral heati-g, a-d -( adeGuate tra-sp(rtati(-5 %he a6erage Athe-ia- 1as p((rl' paid, u-edu.ated, a-d pr(&a&l' 1(uld rather 1at.h athleti. .(-tests thag( t( the theater5 2et, ama3i-gl', /i/th-.e-tur' Athe-s &e.ame a /(u-tai-head (/ Wester- .i6ili3ati(- i- the stud' (/ hist(r', ar.hite.ture, s.ulpture, phil(s(ph', a-d drama5 N( (-e .a- reall' e9plai- 1h' all this happe-ed i- that .it' at that time- u-less it 1as &e.ause the Athe-ia-s' e-(rm(us spirit a-d e-erg' led them t( e9pl(re their 1(rld 1ith a keee'e a-d a- (pe- mi-d5 Like the earl' Ameri.a- settlers, the Athe-ia-s 1ere a pr(ud, i-depe-de-t, a-d /ier.e pe(ple 1h( resisted a-' attempts t( e-sla6e them5 Ha6i-g /(ught (// i-6asi(-s &' the !ersia- mpire /r(m the east, a-d &' (thers /r(m the s(uth, the' 1ere /ired 1ith a se-se (/ patri(tism a-d sel/-.(-/ide-.e5 %he' k-e1

their .it' 1as the d(mi-a-t .it' i- $ree.e5 Athe-s 1as a- aut(-(m(us .it'-state, (r p(lis, like m(st (/ the .ities i- a-.ie-t $ree.e5 It had ad(pted a /(rm (/ g(6er-me-t that helped it sur6i6e the .ha(ti. times (/ /(reig- i-6asi(-s- a ki-d (/ dem(.ra.' that e-.(uraged (pe- assem&l' (/ all -(-sla6e male .iti3e-s, a-d ga6e eGual rights t( them, mu.h as t(da''s Ne1 -gla-d t(1meeti-gs d(5 L(.al (//i.ials 1ere ele.ted t( (//i.e a-d ser6ed u-til the' 1ere de/eated i- a-(ther ele.ti(- &' a-(ther (pp(-e-t5 S(ph(.les himsel/ 1as t1i.e ele.ted t( a g(6er-me-t p(siti(- a-d ser6ed 1ith disti-.ti(- i- the armed /(r.es5 %his dem(.ra.', h(1e6er, 1as-'t Guite as e-lighte-ed as it s(u-ds5 W(me- a-d sla6es 1ere-'t all(1ed a-' 6(i.e i- g(6er-me-t5 S(ph(.les 1as a mem&er (/ the --------------------------------------------------------le.tr(-i.all' -ha-.ed %e9t 7)8 )(p'right 1991 - 199: W(rld Li&rar', I-.5

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