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These wartime recipes were issue by the Ministry of Food during the Second World War [1939-1945] and

were intended to help the public make the best use of the available food, which at the time was rationed. They provide an interesting insight into methods of selecting food, preparation and cooking and were intended to help provide the population with a healthy and balanced diet. The leaflets were found with other unrelated documents and we believe this is the reason why they survived, unfortunately we do not have the complete sets. A brief description of their contents is given herewith; Leaflet No.3, deals potatoes; No.5, deals will salads; There are two No.6s, one deals with green vegetables and the other cheese; No. 6, deals with cheese and No.13, Steamed and boiled puddings. Also listed within this section are the recipes contained within a cookery book issued with a new Main gas cooker. Wartime Rations Issued by the The following Bacon and ham Other meats Ministry of Food listing is for one adult (children receive half) per week (3-4 slices/rashers) 4 oz 2 small chops

Butter 2 oz Cheese 2 oz Margarine 4 oz Cooking fat 4 oz Milk 3 pints Plus 1 packet dried milk per month Sugar 8 oz Preserves every two months 1 lb Tea 2 oz Egg (shell egg) 1 Plus 1 packet dried egg per month Sweets 12 oz Other foods such as canned meat, fish, rice, canned fruit, condensed milk, breakfast cereals, biscuits and vegetables were available in limited quantities on a points system. An adults monthly allowance might provide a tin of salmon or fruit, and half a pound of dried fruit. Bread, flour, fish (if available), offal, game (including rabbit, venison, etc), sauces and pickles were not rationed, but were not always available. Due to the rationing of fat and sugar not much is left over after the daily buttering of bread or toast and the sugaring of tea. However with care you will probably be able to spare sufficient of these to make some of these recipes.

Steamed and Boiled Puddings

[Sufficient for 4 persons] Basic Recipe 8 oz. Flour 2 oz. Sugar 2 oz. Fat 1 Dried egg (optional) 1 Teaspoon baking powder Salt Water or milk to mix Beat the fat and sugar until white and creamy, and then add the flour mixed with baking powder, salt and reconstituted egg alternately. Add enough milk to make the mix a dropping consistency. If no egg is used, mix with the milk alone. Add fruit or flavouring. Place in a greased basin cover with greased paper and steam for 1 to 2 hours. Basic Recipe using Raw Grated Potato [to replace half the fat] 8 oz. Flour 2 oz. Sugar 1 oz. Fat 1 oz. Raw grated potato 1 Teaspoon baking powder Pinch of salt Water to mix Rub the fat into the flour, add salt and baking powder. Stir in the grated raw potato, and mix to a moist consistency with water or milk, add fruit or flouring. Place in a greased basin and steam for 1 - 2 hours. Note By omitting the sugar and flavouring, this mixture can be used as a suet crust with a variety of fruit or meat fillings. Suitable Flavourings for use with basic recipes: 1. Black coffee or coffee essence. 2. Syrup and ginger. 3. Leave the pudding mixture plain and put jam or syrup or marmalade at the bottom of the basin. 4. Add 2-4 oz. dried fruit. 5. 1 oz. cocoa and a few drops of vanilla essence and a little more sugar. 6. Serve with a sweet sauce, flavoured with one of the above. Prune Sponge 8 oz. Flour 1 oz. Fat 1 tablespoon syrup teaspoon mixed spice teaspoon nutmeg teaspoon bicarbonate of soda Salt

Water or milk to mix 8-12 prunes Rub the fat into the dry ingredients and mix to a soft consistency with syrup and milk or water. Place the soaked stoned prunes in the bottom of a greased basin, and pile the pudding mixture on top. Cover with a greased paper and steam for 1 -2 hours. Use the prune juice thickened with cornflour or custard powder as a sauce. Marmalade Pudding 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 oz. Stale bread Tablespoons flour Tablespoons sugar oz. Margarine Tablespoons marmalade Level teaspoonful baking powder egg (reconstituted) pint of milk or water

Add the margarine to the milk and warm until the margarine has melted. Crumble the stale bread and pour over the warmed milk and melted margarine. Allow to stand for 10 minutes. Add flour, sugar, half the marmalade and the reconstituted egg and beat well then add the baking powder. Place the rest of the marmalade in the bottom of a greased basin and pour the mixture over. Cover and steam for 1 hours. Bread and Butter Pudding (sufficient for two children) 3 ozs. Bread 1 ozs. Margarine 1 oz. Fruit Pint Custard Spread the margarine on bread, cut into cubes. Arrange layers of bread cubes and fruit in a small pie-dish, pour custard over this and bake in moderate oven till brown. Ginger Pudding 2 oz. Sugar [or 1 tablespoonful syrup] 2 oz. Margarine 6 oz. Flour 1 Teaspoon ginger 1 Teaspoon baking powder Milk and water Cream fat and sugar. Mix together the flour, baking powder and ginger. Add to the creamed fat and sugar. Mix to a soft consistency with liquid. Steam for 1 hour.

Steamed Chocolate Duff 6 oz. Flour Teaspoon baking powder 2 Teaspoons cocoa 2 Teaspoons sugar 1 oz. Fat 1 oz. Grated raw potato Milk and water Rub fat into flour and mix all ingredients together. Make into soft dough with the liquid. Steam in a small greased mould for about 30-40 minutes. Steamed Sponge Pudding Tablespoons plain flour 1 Teaspoon baking powder Pinch of salt oz. Margarine or fat 1 Tablespoon sugar Few drops of flavouring 3 Tablespoons milk or water to mix Mix the flour, baking powder and salt. Rub in the margarine or fat then add the sugar. Mix in the flavouring and milk or water, turn into two greased cups, or a small basin, and steam for 30-35 minutes. Serve with sweet sauce. The recipe may be varied as follows; 1. Fruit Pudding. Add 2-3 tablespoons dried fruit with the sugar. 2. Chocolate Pudding. Add tablespoon cocoa and extra tablespoon sugar to the dry ingredients. 3. Ginger or Spice Pudding. Add 1 teaspoon ground ginger or mixed spice to the dry ingredients. 4. Jam Pudding. Place 1 tablespoon jam at the bottom of the basin before adding the pudding mixture.

Sweet Sauce 1 1 1 A Tablespoon flour Tablespoon dried egg, dry Pint milk Tablespoons sugar few drops of flavouring essence or -1 teaspoon ground nutmeg or cinnamon

Mix the flour and egg together and blend to a smooth cream with a little of the milk. Boil the remainder and pour on to the blended mixture. Return to the pan and bring to the boil, stirring all the time; boil gently for five minutes. Add the sugar and flavouring mix well, and serve hot.

Baked Puddings Basic Recipe for wartime Pastry 8 oz. Flour 2 oz. Fat Teaspoon salt Water to mix Mix the flour and salt, and rub in the fat until the mixture is like fine breadcrumbs. Mix to a stiff consistency with water, using a round bladed knife. This can be used for savoury or sweet pies and tarts. Potato Pastry 8 oz. Flour 1-2 oz Fat 4 oz. Cooked mashed potato Teaspoon salt Water to mix Cream the fat and potato until smooth. Work in the flour and salt and mix to a stiff consistency with water [if necessary]. Not too much water is required for potato pastry, as care must be taken not to make it too moist.

Fillings for Tarts Chocolate Filling 3 3 1 2 A oz. Breadcrumbs Saccharine tablets or 1-tablespoon sugar Reconstituted dried egg Teaspoons cocoa Teacup of milk few drops of vanilla

Dissolve saccharine or sugar in the milk. Beat the reconstituted egg with the sweetened milk. Pour over the breadcrumbs mixed with the cocoa. Beat well in a pan over the heat for a minute or two. Cool and pour into prepared pastry lining a deep plate. Cover with a pastry lid and bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes.

Date Filling 4 2 3 1 oz. Dates Pint water Heaped teaspoons custard powder oz. Breadcrumbs Teaspoon lemon essence

Wash and stone the dates and stew in the water until soft. Add the blended custard powder and lemon essence. Bring to the boil and cook for 2-3 minutes stirring the whole time. Press the dates on the side of the pan to help break them down. Lastly, add the breadcrumbs and stir. Line a tin with pastry and spread over the filling. Bake for 20-30 minutes. Swiss Pudding 4 Tablespoons rolled oats 3-4 Tablespoons milk 1 Tablespoon dried fruit or 3 tablespoons fresh fruit Sugar to taste Soak the oats in barely enough water to cover them. Leave overnight. Add milk, fruit, and sugar to taste. Beat well and serve cold. Chocolate Oatmeal Pudding 4 oz. Oatmeal 1 Tablespoon sugar 1 Dessertspoon cocoa 1 Pint milk or milk and water Vanilla flavouring Soak the oats overnight in half the milk. Add the rest of the milk and cook slowly until soft. Add the cocoa and sugar and cook for 15-20 minutes. Add the vanilla, beat well. Pour into a damped mould and leave until set. Turn out and serve cold. Mocha Pudding [for 2 adults] 2 Tablespoons sugar 1 Tablespoon cocoa 3 Tablespoons flour Pinch of salt Pint coffee pint milk Vanilla essence Mix the sugar, cocoa, flour and salt, adding the coffee gradually. Heat the milk and add to the mixture. Return to the saucepan, bring to the boil stirring continually, and cook for about eight minutes. Add vanilla essence to taste. Serve cold. Chocolate Mould 2 oz. Cornflower or custard powder 1 oz. Sugar Pint milk

Pint water Teaspoonful vanilla 6 Teaspoonfuls cocoa Put two-thirds of the milk and water into a pan. Bring to the boil. Mix cornflour, sugar and cocoa together with the rest of the milk and water. Add to hot liquid. Bring to the boil and cook for 2-3 minutes. Stir very well as the mixture thickens. Add vanilla essence. Rinse out mould with cold water. Pour in mixture, leave to cool, then turn out. Cake Trifle 3 oz. Stale cake 3 Teaspoonfuls jam Pint sweetened custard Spread cake with jam. Cut into cubes. Put into an individual dish. Pour custard over it. Rice Custard 1 2 2 1 oz. Rice Teaspoonfuls custard powder Teaspoonfuls sugar Pint milk

Cook the rice in the milk, using a double saucepan. Add the sugar. Blend the custard powder with a little extra milk or water and add to the rice. Cook until thick and creamy. Egg Custard Pint milk 1 Dried eggs 2 Teaspoonfuls sugar Reconstitute the eggs by mixing 1 level tablespoonfuls dried egg with 3 tablespoonfuls water till smooth. Heat the milk and pour over eggs and return to pan. Cook slowly till thickened, add sugar and serve in custard cups. WAR COOKERY LEAFLET Number 6 and 12

Cheese Cheese is an A.1 food source because: It is an excellent body-builder, better than meat for building firm muscles. It builds strong bones and teeth too. Therefore it is invaluable for growing

children. Plenty of cheese in childhood means less dental troubles in later life. It is a concentrated energy-giving food, especially suitable for heavy workers, as it gives a large amount of energy in small bulk. It contains a high proportion of fat and so gives a feeling of satisfaction after a meal. It is also a valuable protective food, guarding against infection and helping us to see in the dark. Cheese is such an important food it deserves a place of its own at mealtimes. Use it as a main dish and not as an afterthought to a meal already containing meat and fish. Used in this way cheese can be made to help out the meat ration. Cheese is not indigestible, even for children of 18 months, if eaten uncooked and grated. How to keep Cheese: - Wrap in margarine or butter paper, hang in a piece of muslin in a cool, airy place. This hardens the cheese and makes it more economical in use. Use the rind for flavouring sauces, etc., but remember to remove it before serving the dish. One of the easiest and pleasantest ways of serving cheese is with a green salad this with national bread is a perfect meal. All recipes below are for 4 people unless stated otherwise. BREAKFAST DISHES Tomato Cheese Savoury 4 Slices bread toasted on one side. 4 Tomatoes. 3 oz. Grated cheese. Salt and pepper. Method, Cut tomatoes into slices, lay these on untoasted sides of the bread. Sprinkle with grated cheese, salt and pepper. Put under grill until cheese has melted and browned. Serve hot or cold. Oatmeal Cheese Rarebit (for one person) 1 oz. Grated cheese. oz. Toasted oatmeal. Salt and pepper. 1 Teaspoonful coarsely chopped parsley. 1 oz. flour. Pint water. Toast. Method, Make a sauce with the flour and water. Add the cheese oatmeal and seasonings, stir well and cook for a minute or two. Pour on to toast. Place under the grill until brown. Sprinkle with parsley just before serving. MAIN MEALS

Vegetable Pie with Cheese and Oatmeal Crust 1 lbs. Cooked mixed vegetables. Pint stock or water 2 oz. Oatmeal 6 oz. Flour 1 oz. Fat 2 oz. Cheese Pastry Salt Water to mix Method, Place cooked vegetables in a pie-dish with a little vegetable water. Season, rub fat into the flour then add the grated cheese, oatmeal and salt. Mix to a stiff dough with water. Roll out the pastry then cover the pie and bake in a moderate oven for 30 minutes. Cheese Savoury 1 egg. Made from 1 level tablespoon egg powder and 2 tablespoons water. Pint milk. 1 Teacup of breadcrumbs. 4 oz. Grated cheese. Seasoning. Method, Reconstitute the egg, then beat with the milk. Add the other ingredients and pour into a greased dish, bake for 20 minutes in a moderate oven until brown and set. Potato Jane 1 lbs. Potatoes. 3 oz. Grated cheese. 2 oz. Breadcrumbs. Chopped leek. 1 Sliced carrot. - Pint milk or water. Salt and pepper. Method, Put a layer of sliced potatoes in a fireproof dish. Sprinkle with some of the leek, carrot, crumbs, cheese and seasoning. Fill the dish with alternate layers, finishing with a layer of mixed cheese and crumbs. Pour over the milk and bake in a moderate oven for 45 minutes or steam for 1 hour. Cheese Omelette 4 dried eggs. Made from 4 level tablespoons dried egg and 8 tablespoons water. Salt and pepper. 2 oz. Grated cheese. oz. Fat.

Method, Reconstitute the egg and add seasoning. Heat the fat in a pan and pour in the egg and work the mixture with a fork in the usual manner. When set sprinkle in the grated cheese and cook for one minute longer. Fold, and serve hot with a garnish of watercress or other raw green vegetable. SUPPER DISHES Cheese Pancake 4 oz. Flour. 2 oz. Grated cheese. 1 Gills milk and water 1 Teaspoon baking powder. Salt and pepper. Method, Mix the flour and liquid into a batter then add baking powder and cheese. Melt fat in a frying pan, and when smoking hot pour in sufficient batter to cover the bottom of the pan. Fry pancakes to a golden brown on each side. If liked, this mixture can be made into drop scones, using a girdle, greased hot plate or frying pan. Vegetable au Gratin 3 1 1 3 3 4 Breakfast cups diced cooked vegetables. Breakfast cup cooked white or coloured beans. Small piece chopped leek. Tablespoons browned crumbs. oz. Grated cheese. oz. Flour.) Pint vegetable liquid. ) Sauce. Pint milk.)

Method, Mix the flour to a smooth paste with some of the liquid. Bring the rest of the liquid to the boil and pour over blended flour. Return quickly to the pan and cook for a further 5 minutes, stirring all the time then add the cooked vegetables and half the cheese. Pour into a fireproof dish, sprinkle with remainder of the cheese and crumbs. Grill until brown. Cheese Jacket Potatoes Scrub 2-4 potatoes and prick with a skewer or fork. Bake on the rack in a moderate oven for about - 1 hour. Cut down the centre and scoop out the potato inside; mix this with 2-4 oz cheese, seasoning and a little sauce or milk to moisten. Pile back into the potato case and serve hot. Cheese Frizzles 2 Tablespoons medium or coarse oatmeal. 1 Tablespoon flour. 2 Tablespoons grated cheese.

1 Teaspoon baking powder. Salt and pepper. A little water to mix. Fat for frying. Method, Mix all dry ingredients together with the exception of the baking powder, then add enough cold water to mix into a stiff batter. Just before using add the baking powder. Melt a little fat in a frying pan and when smoking hot drop spoonfuls of the mixture into hot fat. Fry till golden brown on both sides. Dishes suitable for two children Vegetables in a cheese sauce - 1 lb Cooked mixed vegetables. Browned breadcrumbs. Pint cheese sauce. Method, Mix the vegetables and cheese sauce together, pour into a pie dish and sprinkle with browned breadcrumbs. Brown in a moderate oven or under the grill. Cauliflower Cheese 1 Small cauliflower [cooked]. 2-4 oz. Cheese. Pint white sauce. Method, Put the cauliflower in a greased dish. Mix half the cheese with the sauce and pour over cauliflower. Sprinkle the rest of the cheese on top, and bake or grill. Potato Cheese 1 lb Cooked mashed potato. 2-4 oz. Grated cheese. Salt and pepper. Method, Mash the potatoes and season well then add half the cheese. Arrange in a greased dish and sprinkle with rest of the cheese then brown under the grill. Other usages Cheese with Fish Sprinkle some grated cheese over fish when baking it in the oven. This lends quite a new and subtle flavour to the fish. Making Your Own Cream Cheese Allow sour milk to form a thick clot. Pour into a muslin bag and allow liquid to

drip into a basin for 24 hours, [the whey, which is remains, can be used in soups or for mixing cakes.] Remove the cheese from the bag, add seasoning and, if liked, chopped chives for flavouring. Mash up well with a fork. Use as a sandwich spread. WAR COOKERY LEAFLET Number 3

Potatoes There is no vegetable more useful than the homely potato. Potatoes are a cheap source of energy, and they are one of the foods that help to protect us from illness. They contain the same vitamin as oranges and lb of potatoes daily will give over half the amount of this vitamin needed to prevent fatigue and help fight infection. Potatoes save Shipping. Potatoes, which are home-grown, give us the same kind of energy-food as cereals, which are imported. Eat them in place of bread and other cereals wherever possible, and you help to save shipping space. So dont think of potatoes merely as something to serve with the meat. They can be much more than that. A stuffed, baked potato can be a course in itself. Potatoes can be used, too, for soups, bread-rolls, pastry, puddings and even cakes, as the following recipes show. Hints on cooking Potatoes 1. 2. 3. Always cook them in their skins. If you must peel them, peel thinly After peeling, cook at once. Avoid soaking in water if possible

Boiled Potatoes Scrub the potatoes, and put into boiling salted water using just enough water to cover. Cook with the lid on. Boil rapidly but do not let the potatoes break up and become mushy.; When tender (this should be after 10-15 minutes cooking) drain carefully. Shake the potatoes gently in the saucepan over a low heat for a minute or two. This dries the potatoes and leaves them deliciously floury. Baked Potatoes Scrub the potatoes and prick them. Place in a hot oven and bake until tender. This method can be used when cooking the rest of the dinner in the oven, so saving the top heat. Mashed Potatoes

Cook the potatoes by roasting or boiling, remove from the skins and beat well with a little hot milk, or margarine, if these can be spared. Add salt and fresh coarsely chopped parsley just before serving. Serve potatoes immediately as keeping them hot destroys some of their protective qualities. Use potato water for making soups, and gravies. Potatoes left after a meal should be kept in a cool place and used for making pastry, pancakes, scones, potato salad or for thickening soups. Potato Soup 1 lb potatoes. 1 stick celery, a few spring onions, or a little leek. 2 tablespoonfuls chopped parsley. 1 pints of vegetable water or water. 1 teacup of milk or household milk. Seasoning. Method-Scrub and slice the potatoes and celery. Place in boiling salted water. Cook with the lid on until quite soft. Rub through a sieve or mash well with a wooden spoon. Add milk and re-heat, but do not re-boil. Sprinkle in coarsely chopped parsley just before serving. Stiffed Potatoes Bake the potato whole without removing the skin. Cut a slice from the top. Take out the centre and mix with one of the following fillings. Pile back into the potato case and reheat for a minute or two under the grill or in the oven. Fillings 1. Finely flaked fish or minced meat moistened with sauce or gravy. 2. A little yeast or vegetable extract and chopped parsley. 3. Finely chopped left over vegetables. 4. Grated cheese and a little milk. 5. Sausage meat. Potato Salad Boil 1 lb potatoes in their skins (extra can be done at dinner time). Peel and cut into dice. Add a little chopped onion. Bind together with salad dressing. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve with watercress and shredded cabbage. Potato Milk Pudding 10 oz shredded potato. 1 oz flour. 1 pint milk or milk and water. 1 oz sugar or 1-2 tablespoonfuls jam. Nutmeg. Method-Mix the flour and milk and boil. Shred the potato, but do not let it stand

or it will go brown, and cover at once with milk and flour. Place in a pie dish, add the sugar or jam and stir. Sprinkle with grated nutmeg. Bake for 1 - 2 hours. Potato Scones 6 oz flour. 4 oz mashed potato. 1 teaspoonful baking powder. teaspoonful salt. 1 oz fat. 4-5 tablespoonfuls milk. Method-Mix the flour and salt. Add the baking powder and work into the mashed potato. Rub in the fat. Blend to a soft dough with milk. Roll out to inch thickness. Cut into rounds. Brush the tops with milk. Bake on greased baking sheets for 15 minutes in a hot oven. For a sweet scone add 1 oz sugar. Potato Pastry (for savoury dishes) 8 4 1 oz mashed potatoes. oz flour. oz cooking fat. teaspoonful salt.

Method-Mix the flour with the salt. Rub in the fat and work into the potato. Mix to a very dry dough with a small quantity of cold water. Knead with the fingers and roll out. Potato Pastry (for sweet dishes). 8 4 2 oz flour. oz mashed potato. oz fat. teaspoonful salt.

Method-Mix the flour and the salt. Cream the fat and the potato, add the flour, and a little water if necessary, to form a rather stiff dough. Potato Sandwich Spreads Savoury Any of the fillings given for stuffing potatoes, mixed with a little mashed potato can be used for savoury sandwiches. Sweet Potato chocolate spread 2 tablespoonfuls mashed potato. 1 tablespoonful cocoa.

1 tablespoonful sugar. Almond or vanilla flavouring. Method; Mash the potato thoroughly, mix in the cocoa, sugar and flavouring. Use as a spread in place of jam. Note:As sugar, fats, jams and preserves are rationed, energy-giving foods available are limited. Therefore if we are to keep up our weight and health the unrationed foods, potatoes and bread, must be eaten in larger quantities. Potatoes come first because they are home grown. Green Vegetables How to Cook Green Vegetables

If you have a garden don't cut youur vegetables until you actually need them. Much food value is lost if the are left in the rack to get stale. It is wrong to soak green or root vegetables for a long time before cooking, as this wastes valuable mineral salts and vitamins. Wash them thoroughly, and, if tight-hearted, soak in salted water for not more than 1/2 hour. If the outside leaves are really too tough to serve, save them for soups and stews. These dark green outside leaves have more food value then the centre. Green vegetables must be cooked as quickly as possible as slow cooking destroys much of the vitamin, so follow these rules:1. Shred them-that is, slice them with a knife. Shred cabbages, spring greens, turnip tops, nettles, Brussel tops, even Brussel sprouts if they are large. In short, shred any green vegetable except spinach which cooks so quickly that it does not need it. Divide cauliflowers into sprigs so that they will cook more quickly. 2. Never drown green vegetables. You need only just enough water to keep your pan from burning-usually a teacupful will do. 3. Bring the water to the boil, add a little salt and sprinkle the green into the boiling water. Less salt is needed than the old-fashioned way of cooking greens, because by this method you keep in nearly all the natural salts of the vegetables. 4. Cook with the lid on the pan. This is important because you are going to "steam boil" the greens, and if you let the steam escape the pan may go dry. 5. Boil briskly for 10-15 minutes. If you can spare the time, give the pan a shake or two during that time. 6. Drain off any liquid from the pan and save it for gravy or soup. If you can spare a teaspoon of margarine, add it to the vegetabbles and toss well before serving. Serve at once. If you follow these suggestions you will find that the greens are quite cooked, but crisp and full of flavour.

Tops Broccoli tops, turnip tops and beetroot tops, have good food value and are all excellent if cooked as described above. Cabbage with Variations All sorts of additions can be made to cabbage as described above. A few bacon rinds chopped small: a few teaspoons of vinager and a sprinkle of nutmeg, or perhaps a shake of caraway seeds, and you have something quite new and intriguing. Cabbage with Horseradish Sauce Shred 2 lbs of cabbage and cook as describe. Drain and use the liquid for the following sauce: Melt 1 oz fat in a pan, stir in 1 oz flour and cook together for 2 or 3 minutes. Then add gradually 1 teacupful vegetable water and milk (half and half if possible) stirring all the time. Put the cabbage in a heated dish, pour the sauce over it and serve. Spinach Wash the spinach very throughly. Shake and put in a pan without water; sprinkle a little salt, put on the lid and cook gently until tender (about 10 minutes). Drain and serve or, if preferred, the spinach may be chopped, and a little margarine and pepper added. Peas When boiling fresh garden peas put a teaspoonful of sugar, if possible, and a little salt in the water as well as the mint, and be careful not to cook them too long or too fast, or they will come out of their skins. If you are cooking another vegetable, peas are delicious cooked in a steamer on the top. Sprinkle with a pince of salt and put a sprig of mint with them in the steamer. Save the water for soup and gravy. Pea Pods Pea pods provide a delicious dish if the clear-skinned, fleshy pods are used like this. Divide each pod into two. Hold one of the sections in your left hand, stalk end uppermost and inside towards you. Snap down about 1/2 inch of the pod of the stalk end towards you. Then, holding firmly, pull downwards, stripping the inside skin from the outer. With a little pratice, this is easy. Cook the fleshy outsides in very little salted water until tender (about 10 minutes), drain and serve. Pea pods also make an excellent stock for soup.

French or Runner Beans When young, cook whole with only the tops and tails removed. When older, the stringy vein which develops along the rib of the pod must be removed. Most housewives like to slice the beans lengthwise. But it is a great saving in time to break them with the fingers into 2-in. lengths, and less flavour is lost this way. Boil until tender in a very small amount of salted water. If you like your beans to glisten, add a teaspoonful of fat to the water. Be sure to save the water. It is good as a drink by itself; or use it for gravy or soup Broad Bean Tops and Broad Beans The tops of broad beans, which gardeners always pick off, make a delightful dish if cooked as a green vegetable When young, broad beans can be cooked, unshelled, in a little salted water, and eaten pod and all. Or the beans can be shelled and the pods sliced. The cooked sliced pods are very good as a hot vegetable or served coldd in a salad. When the beans are older the pods are too tough to eat as a vegetable, but make good stock for soups. Broad beans which have been allowed to mature in their pods may be stored for winter use. Make sure they are quite dry before packing in airtight tins. Soak and use as haricots. Nettles Young nettles, cooked as described above are as delicious as spinach and a splendid spring tonic Cauliflower Leaves and Stalks When buying califlowers, always ask for the leaves as well as the flower, as the leaves make a dish by themselves if cooked as cabbage. The stalks, cooked until tender in a very little salted water and then drained, rolled in browned breadcrumbs and quickly fried in a very little hot fat or browned in the oven, have a nutty flavour and are a new dish to most people. They are also delicious greated raw in a salad. Ministry of Food, War Cookery Leaflet Number 6 War Time Recipes - Salads

Use vegetables as fresh as possible and prepare the salad just before it is required, as chopped and grated vegetables and fruit quickly loose their vitamins. Vegetables to use in salads: Finely shredded raw cabbage hearts, savoy,

spinach, sprouts, chopped cauliflower, watercress, raw grated swede, turnip, beetroot, carrot, cooked potato and beetroot. Salads There is hardly a root or green vegetable that does not deserve a place in a salad. Use them raw whenever you can. A good mixed salad with wheatmeal bread and a little grated cheese makes a complete meal. So serve and enjoy a salad or raw vegetable sandwich every day. When making salads, touch the plants as little as possible. Use directly after picking or buying. If this is not convenient a saucepan, with a well-fitted lid, placed on a cool floor is excellent for keeping a salad crisp. Just before serving, wash carefully, shake off the water gently and dry the plants in a clean cloth or wire salad basket. Outside leaves can be saved for soup. Root vegetables, such as carrots, should be washed and scrapped lightly before grating, but the thicker skins of turnips call for peeling.

Spring Salads 1. Make a thick bed of chopped raw cabbage heart in your bowl. In the centre, pile a teacup of grated raw white turnip. Round this centre arrange smaller piles of grated raw carrot and grated raw beetroot, using a teacupful of each. Decorate with radishes and parsley. 2. Shred 1/2 lb. young turnip tops. Mix with 1 breakfastcup diced cooked potato and 1 breakfastcup cooked beetroot. Put into a bowl and decorate the top with 1 large fresh grated carrot and sprigs of watercress or dandelion leaves. 3. Young dandelions make a delightful salad by themselves. Cut of the roots, wash the clusters of leaves well, dry in a cloth and toss in a vinaigrette dressing. For a more substantial salad, add fresh grated parsnip or grated swede, and a few chopped spring onions.

Summer Salads 1. Line a bowl with crisp lettuce leaves. Mix together 1 breakfastcup cooked peas, 1 breakfastcup diced potato and 1 breakfastcup diced cooked carrot. Pile this mixture in the bowl and serve with mint sauce. 2. Line a bowl with crisp lettuce leaves. Put in a breakfastcup cooked broad beans, a breakfastcup fresh grated carrots and a medium sized cucumber, diced. Decorate with a few nasturtium leaves and parsley. 3. Mix together a breakfastcup cooked runner beans cut into 1 in. lengths and breakfastcup diced cooked potato and a large lettuce shredded. Decorate with sliced tomato and a few chopped spring onions, if possible.

Autumn Salads

1. Break a cauliflower into neat sprigs and steam them or boil in very little salted water. When cold, arrange on a bed of lettuce leaves with a breakfastcup of cooked sliced potatoes. Decorate with parsley, a sliced tomato, or cooked beetroot. 2. Allow 1 cooked round beetroot for each person. Hollow out the centre and fill with a mixture of chopped apple or pear and chopped celery, moistened with a little mayonnaise. Arrange the beetroots on a bed of green salad (lettuce, chopped cabbage heart, watercress or spinach) and surround with little heaps of fresh grated carrot, diced cooked potatoes and the beetroot centres, diced. 3. Wash and dry young celery leaves. Toss them lightly in vinaigrette dressing and serve with diced cooked beetroots, or grated raw beetroot, whichever you prefer. Serve with a potato salad made as follows: Boil the potatoes in their skins. Peel while still hot, cut into slices and mix well with whichever dressing you prefer. A little chopped spring onion mixed with the potato is a great improvement. When quite cold, sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve.

Winter Salads 1. Make 3 tablespoons of vinaigrette dressing in your bowl. Put in 2 teacups of shredded raw cabbage heart and 1 teacup each of diced cooked potato, apple and celery cut into in. lengths. Turn over and over in the dressing with a wooden spoon. Decorate with watercress and grated raw beetroot 2.Mix together 2 teacups grated raw cabbage heart, 2 teacups fresh grated carrot and 1 teacup grated raw swede. Decorate with green celery tops and a little raw cauliflower. 3. Line a bowl thickly with watercress, add 1/2 lb. chicory cut into thin strips and mixed with 1 breakfastcup grated raw beetroot. Serve with vinaigrette dressing. Additionals Cole Slaw 4 oz. shredded cabbage heart; 1 tablespoons chopped spring onions; 4-5 tablespoons salad dressing (about 1/8 pint). Mix well together and turn into a salad bowl to serve. Mixed Vegetable Salad 4 tablespoons finely shredded cabbage; 2 tablespoons grated carrot; 1 tablespoon swede or turnip; tablespoon sultanas or raisins; 1 teaspoon finely chopped onion (optional); a little salad dressing or vinegar; salt and pepper; 2 tablespoons diced or grated beetroot; 1 tablespoon chopped parsley. Mix together the cabbage, carrot, swede, sultanas, and onion, if used. Moisten with a little salad dressing or vinegar, and season to taste. Pile in a dish, and garnish with the beetroot and parsley. Beetroot and Watercress Salad

4 oz. cooked beetroot, diced; teaspoon salt; pinch of pepper; 2 tablespoons vinegar; 2 tablespoons water; 4 oz. watercress. Place the beetroot in a dish, sprinkle with the seasoning, and pour over the vinegar and water. Garnish with watercress. Vinaigrette Dressing Mix together 1 tablespoon salad oil and 2-3 tablespoons vinegar with salt and pepper to taste and a little mustard, if liked. Royal Dressing 2 ozs. National Flour; 1/2 pint milk or vegetable water; 2 ozs. grated raw beetroot; 1 tablespoonful vinegar; Salt and Pepper; Sugar. With the national flour and milk or vegetable water make a sauce thick enough to coat the back of a spoon. Beat in the beetroot, sugar, pepper and salt. Use this dressing to serve with raw vegetable salads. Economical Salad Dressing 2 oz. flour 1 oz. margarine or cooking fat 1 small teacup milk 1 small teacup water 1 teacup dry mustard salt and pepper vinegar to taste Melt the fat in a pan, stir in the flour and mustard and cook together for a couple of minutes. Then add the liquid gradually, stirring well, Season well with salt and pepper and add vinegar to taste. A tablespoonful of salad oil whisked in before the vinegar is added as an improvement. Store in a corked bottle.