the lower end of the world axis, the amyta is located as late as Mahabharata V.97. crked.

The circumstance that these waters are only mentioned the most recent parts of the Rigveda (Luders, p. I Z I ~ . ) is due to the fact that the family collections concerned with this aspect. When this htsa is calle dering" (I.64.6), its water is meant after it h been drawn up to heaven. For the same reason the hdhar referred to as &dhar divya'm (IX.1o7.5, (e.g., 1.64.5). See also Luders, p. 38gff. If the preceding interpretation is correct, it must be concluded that (apart from the identity of Varuna's nocturnal iky with the cosmic waters) these passages do not confirm the theory of a celestial ocean.% However, so long as the fundamental problem of the ythological (not cosmological!) meaning of the "third heaven", and the background of its partial identity with the primeval or nether world is not entirely clarified, no final judgment on the "celestial oceanJ' in the Rigveda would seem possible. Leiden.
Cf., e.g., Bergaigne, La religion vidique, passim (see Index, 111, p. 348)) Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, p. 85, W . Neisser, Z u m Worte~buch des Rgueda I (1gz4), pp. 57-59, H. Lommel, Asiatics, p. 408f., Liiders, p. r11ff. "Der Himmelsozean" (but see Karl Hoffmann, OLZ. 1954, col. 391).

l. There is a considerable difference of opinion nowadays about the social and cultural background of the Rigvedic poetry. In Geldner's gveda-translation and in Renou's recent studies which are based on it1 there is a tendency to overemphasize the importance of literary contests, for which the poems are thought to be designed. Thieme, in a fundamental discussion of this trend in modern Vedic studies, not only noted "an unmistakable tendency to secularize the RV", but also stated to "hear in some renderings of Geldner's overtones of their own that call to mind unfortunate associations with the emberg master-singers and the minnesingers' tournament of song on the following studies, devoted to a social as well as religious phenomenon, may contribute to correcting the perspective and to eliminating some views about the Vedic society that are still materially based on t theories of the Vedische Studien. The influence of these theories is indee still perceptible in Geldner's latest interpretation of the Rigveda. In point of fact, the duels between poets may rather be regarded as a special instance of a more general type of contest, which included unpoetical verbal contests as well as chariot races, combats, etc. Here however a serious methodological difficulty faces us. The question naturally arises on which occasions these contests may have taken place. Thieme, who is disinclined to accept the theory of such contests at all, stresses the necessity of looking for a serious, genuinely religious content in the Rigvedic hymns.8 I quite agree with him but, while the contests
l Karl Friedrich Geldner, Der Rig-Veda aus &m Sanskrit ins Deutsche r&rsetzt (Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 33-36, 1951-1957); L. pdqiniennes, I (Paris 1955),p. 1 ff. a JAOS, 77 (1957),pp. 53 and 56. Cf. also H. P.Skhmidt a Ibid., p. 53.

(Editor's Footnote : First Published in India Maior: Congratuhtoty Volume presented to I Gonda, Leiden, 1972.)

^ and from parallels that could be adduce Trilogie altindischer Machte und Feste der Vegetathe new year was celebrated seems to have varied in later periods.from Earth.9.V. the ancient god of the waters of Chaos. 11. A different version is found in the archaic myth of the Churning of the Ocean. p. lIe. . it is true. were for the first time brought to light ther world. Ved. This myth is appar inheritance from the primitive Indo-Iranian religion."younger brothers" (read am-?). J. according to which the goods have been won directly from the depths of the Ocean pion of time as a cyclical process is also met with in India. 157. To Varupa. that at the end of every year the cosmos returned to its point of departure. Direct indications for this last conception. d'onofrio. 36 n. This implies that the beginning of every new year conceived as a new cosmic start and. 249). the undxerentiated state of the Chaos. See Macdonell-Keith. this process of creation (as we standing its predominantly demiurgical character) the goods of life.1. the itself as a nether world in oppo continues to be the "older" worl the younger dynasty of the heav (p. ially C. 177. The ancient Indian Royal Consecreation. p. P. 46. Vedic Index. during which the undifferentiated state of the cosmos is imitated and re-enacted in social life by a temporary abolishment of all social difference^. 148. p.pcirvata-) and kept the of the nether world closed (see p. to be reborn. consequently. p. Hillebrandt. Schmidt. H. accordingly. are not found in Vedic literature: from the South Indian Pongal festival.16 ff. Heesterman. er have been released from the power of Inertia. Vrata. The time at See the references in J. symbolized by Agni and Soma.) calls Cnujdvaratara. p. 31. a ne function is now assigned as guardian of the cosmic 1 remains hidden in the nether WO this process of differentiation. the cosmic regressive force. Caland's note on his translation of PB. 122. 7f. According to Vedic mythology. 111. p. Studi e or further references see tion. by which act a cosmic dualism of upper world and nether world (represented by Devas and Asuras-Diinavas respectively) is constituted. that lay on the hill (girt-. I%. Mythologie.

17. the ~iidras.ciji-) must have taken place at that time. op. which allows us to infer that cin3has. a1 races are also suggested by such phrases as IX. The poets frequently pray for deliverance from anxiety (cirizhas-). their ritual. p. the priests are said to be longing for the sun (svarydvab. which is its normal meaning. the question must be raised whether also other expressions of the Vedic language may perhaps have a far more concrete meaning than Geldner's translation attributes to them. etc.6 &&ire bhdrrtya / &vo ydd a ta indrarn dtra "Da stellten dich allein. 24/25 (1953/1954). p. svarvidrt vcfsumatrt rdthena). n. the first two pddas relate a nlythicaf fourth refer to a recent assault of the demon (aorist) and the new decision of the gods (present tense). 256-276. with Geldner the word cSji. 127 ff. 68. Indra' current epithet. AR the name of an intercalary month in VS.g. In the Avesta the same (or nearly the same) epithet is also attributed to Yima.g Religionens Varld.8 He is therethe sun". 51-70). Religioni. Akad. On the other hand maghcivan-. This suggests an equation of Indra and these lords. op. .(lit.12pdrya-. 42 f.. .). Ved. C. 182. 258. vdjino vijajito v&a& also cftya.. personified by a certain social group. 23 the same conclusion.. pp. 30. Cf. 141 f. Etudes sur le vocabulaire da RV. . Wiirterb. Cf. etc. the winter solstice. 422. Now we know from the Vgjapeya ritual that chariot races can have a ritual characterQnd in the passages quoted we have no reason to take sense "Kampf" instead of "race". Mayrhofer. 65. 63. e.6 ( t v h . I.11 svardtiam / hinvt v u vrtjiizam: just as the chariot of the gods is called "sun-finding" (VII.could refer to the end The association of cirizhas. The many mafzgalavaciritsi for "race-horse" in the Rigvedic language should be noted in this comection. In such circumstances the powers of the nether worl. asti any& RS W . da erwahlen sie im Kampf . C. See Weber. Myth. Myth. cannot refer but to one definite period of the year.(cf."darkness" (see p. 787 ff.20). VI. den azShi+vtadevh svdr.4). 253 f. Only in passing can attention be drawn to other words that possibly refer to the same period.sdtG Starken. 81. as well as the races for sunwinning. men invoke Indra's aid and are helped in races '6which have the sun as their prize'7. p a r i v ~ t s a r d .l0 What was the religious significance of these "races that had the sun as their prize". rdtri ~~ pdritakmyii..l3 etc. Now arhhasaspati. e. der Gaben schenkt. Sitzungsber. p. 36 (1939). o Indra. and vycfti.daras6 maJyrtnqm (Y. e. ISSee e. when a lord gives a portion Hillebrandt. Numen. 39 (1892)...8 hbntii yd vytrbriz sdnitotci vdjapiz ddtd maghd~i maghbvd surddh@ "der Toter des Vrtra und der Gewinner der Beute ist. (etc. is also a title given to liberal patrons. 7. If from the facts mentioned we draw the general conclusion that some at least of the hymns to Indra concern the critical period of transition from the old to the new year. 1.). lZ . p.g. viprrtb. IV.. 30. vdjin. who in the social sphere may have personified him in his function of present-giving (maghcitti-). als der Ungott sich uber die Gotter uberhob. and some at least of the chariot races (e. alle Glitter an die Spitze. . e. 11. If this is true. etym. urn (den Sieg) zu gewinnen. 130.g. jEin tus bei den Zoroastriern in Iran. . 1. I. p. p. for the data about ancient Iran cf. On the other hand.5 svdrmilhe+vu ydm ndrab / nhc2 hdvanta Btdye.30. Now similar rites are known from th at which an Arya (VaiSya) and a Siidra had to fight a ritual combat over a white piece of leather representing the sun.11. 484. pp. 37 ff. svardtithe sun". Tavadia. p. I. 3.w VIII. I. Ved.sviirmilhegv rfji.ans. Now one of the technical words for Indra's divine gifts is maghci-. p. tdd dhdvato 'nyclrr cfty II. p. (cf..31. Hillebrandt. U[. Cf. op. e. we must assume that men tried to assist Indra in his fight against th and Darkness by ahiivrata-ceremony. 1. 7. vy-oti-gm-.8 indrab sanuitsu ydjam-nam &yam prdvad. n.. but this is a hypothesis. Abaev.and t as.. C. while the dryas acted as the representatives of Indra and the heavenly Gods. Hwterman.6 ih 'smdkam maglzdvii stirir astu. Der arische Kriegsgott. and from the ceremonial buying of the Soma (Somakrci-yap) as a preliminary to the sacrifice. of this "acquiring of the sun"? The poets tell us that Indra's primordial act was continuously repeated.21.. 269 and n. no that the sun must be won again. Hence. p. 12g6. kuiikdsab 1 1 1 . e. I.I. Kurzgef.. Belohnende". This. X. ktinzologiCeskij slovar' osetinskogojazyka. der Freigebige. 201-209.g. g of the Sun. Hillebrandt. Lornmel.) sv&mi/he ndra rtjd havante. 17.g.(cf. p. pp.8 ddha viive purd indra devd tkariz tavhai. Auspicious terms for the race horse are &ri-. the svdrmtlha.g.g. who was hvara. 9. "by-passing".14). viz. cf. so the horse that is the winner in the race can be considered a "sunfinder". Berl. Renou.

could only be spoken of in terns during this Lime. Keith. based on a comparison with the Old Ostara and the Lettish Uhsing. Renou. Et. how we must conceive the nature of the Goddess Dawn (USUS). fails to 3. IV.S1 Also Renou does not see sufficient indications for H theory: "ceci reste une hyp~thkse". 6. p. every theory about Usas must needs be a hypothesis. II. (1957). Is. vkd. 11. ISiUebrandt. p. See IZJ. See Ludwig. then the ominous God. 243 n. Oldenberg. Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni. 173 a. 1935). .5). pp.~ ow. p. B. 26 (to which M. p. Cf. Ilgveda. M. 124. lB l7 An ethnological Study (thesis Leiden..12). etpcip. NiUebrandt's theory was only accepted by G . LU. . X. olars however have rejected it. Etudes vkdiques et pcinindennes. Religion and Philosophy of the Veda. l8 L.20 Foy combated Willebrandt's view that R ujahrslied" and his arguments ere accepted by Olde Renou. though seemingly prompted by common sense. 58 f. Noten. IIT. Myihologie. Ved. 28 ff. 1.18 eith objects that Hillebrandt holly unsupported by any evidence. Renou. M 0 1 6 kindly drew my attention after this study had written). Religion des Veda. p. Montesi. Arische Religion. pp. this is mainly because the current view. 101. p.17 A similar view. we are confronted with the real methodological difficulty.if it was too dangerous-in this Death. 16. 205. out of which both Indra and are said to be born. 10. Hill that the twenty hymns to Usas do not day but especially the first dawn of the new year.lB Oldenberg points to the lack of clear references to the beginning of the new year and controverts Hillebrandt's arguments based on the use of U~as-hymns to in and on a possible connection of U ~ a s night. p. and victory (RS. one soon recognizes that the basic difference of opinion is ultimately rooted in a different approach to the Vedic hy en we try to defend again Hillebrandt's theory. Following Ludwig. was taken by von Schroeder. 211. U ~ a and s the fundamental questions for our understanding of the characgveda is. Oldenberg. and depends on a t is arbitrary". von Schroeder. 52. 121 f. l0 A. which en reading Foy's important criticisms has never been stated explicitly.

Cosmic aspects The importance of Usas in the cosmic process is apparent from the fact that the two representatives of the opposite powers of light and darkness (or upper and nether world) are u ~ h and .en not as a piece of resuppositions from which illustrated by the words te".15. whatever may have been the role of the poe nique. apart from ds given in the early m~rning. e."~ no serious attempt for this remarkable association of the dawn ably due to the implicit conviction that . it is our task to understand a the Vedic poet were fundamental. 14.2 prd me phinth8 dnthah y h te svd itaro devaydndt.6 vy &varjydti8d tdmah. Her role as a jhyantf deserves notice (see below).g. those associations nical problems as the connection of the tardyapla. a V l l e b r a n d t . 75. 51. Our investigation on the principle that the hymns as religious poetry deserve to seriously and that. Ndkto~dsd). . There is a reference to a (first?) Ups.the nether world has scarcely ever been clearly stat . 33. 49.1. cf.4. Renou compares tiplirvyci I.ntikta. Instituut. 61. op. 81 f.m.1 Qo bhadrtbhir i diva cid rocancfd a'dhi).6 kvri svid &lfk katam ' puriipi y6yB vi&&d vidadhzir rbhags'm).2 pdrvti vis'vasmdd bhlivanlfd abodhi jdyaizti vdjam bfiatcf sdnutrl 'Triiher als die ganze Hohe erwacht. and to the early awakening of Usas prior to the whole creation in I. it cannot be denied that the light of Usas "n7est autre que la reprise de la lumibre originelle". IV. Rigvedic references to the winter solstice are according to Hillebrandt I. 171. siegend. 130).15 &so ydd adyd bhBntind v i v gtivo rdivdh and IV.10 dbudhyamlf~zdfz paphyah sasantu.2 vy jr vrajdsya tdmaso dvdro 'chdntlr avra ayah pavakcfh (cf. This is not contradicted by the passages which state Usas to come from the sky. den Preis erringend". 123.. 51. 107 (1951). dtiro cidreh. 46. a7 "t&&bres &temeUes".z8 ost prominent feature is the prayer for wealth and d seem far from selft that the dawn of a lored to bestow wealth fact that. VI.28 The parallelism between. IV. Ia. I. 51. JB.sya dliro ddrer aurgob is not accidental: it rests on the identity of dvhd divdh and vrajdsya dvdrii.5. Still the role of Usas in the cosmogony is hardly ever mentioned. sa vai svasti sahvatsarasya pdram as'nute. 29.1 divojdh). rather yo vai sarftvatsarasyd 'varodhanad codrodhanain ca veda.3 acitrt ant& ah sasantv dbudhyamdn8s tcimaso vimadhye. Cf.1 divijch. Thieme. The most fundamental misunderstandings about Vedic mythology have arisen from the fact that the mythical identity of the nocturnal sky with . 107. VII. 113. p.4 v i dr&i. VII.1 k ~ d lid d asthcrB aryd vihdyzih. While she arises. VII. 9 s'ukrd kr~pddajani~tas'vitlccf (otherwise 1. Cf. or to be the daughter of Heaven (dulzits' div ssim. As a result of this conviction any attempt to understand the poets' religious attitude towards their gods must seem useless and runs the risk of being denounced as "rec~nstructionsal6at0ires". through whom the gods arranged the works(?) of the Sbhus (IV. 124. 1 1 1 .e. AB. e.26 it is our conviction that the true nature of Usas cannot be really ood unless we take the cosmogonical aspect into consideration. might seem simply to refer to the but the frequent references in others to the "firm rock" (i. 79. taken in themselves. Der Fremdling im RV. IV.. n the following pages we shall point out some aspects of Uws which seem to us not sufficiently explained by the hypothesis that the dawn of be addressed in the way the gvedic poets address Usas. 48. E. p. X. I. IV.which induced the Vedic poets alth and progeny.~ On the other hand.5 A. U[.g. 36 and cf.. C.1 thmaso vayrindvad asthdt. p. 51.Renou. etc. VII. the primordial hill opened by Indra) suggest that also in the first group the birth of Usas was conceived as a reiteration of the cosrnogonical process.. n. p. Usas is born from the darkness of the nether world. I. the is must keep sleeping in this darknessz7. 52. 73. I.1. which once slipped from Oldenberg's y did not overlook the diitlculties. . 65. 5.g.2 ("But none of these passages are conclusive". p.(U~dsdndkilf. e. 27 (but see now 255. 179.1 hpa drtihas trima dvar djq?am. 76.1). 75. Ved. V.1 citrdh praketd aja fa vibhvd). Vedic Index. Myth. P"lee Bijdagen Kon. 123.

She. This ne budhdnd gdvcirfz n6 primordial hill.3. cf.29 As in the parallel cases of Agni and Soma.orld (that is. has opened the doors of the firm rock: 5. 79. I.4 (Indra) h.7. the firm rock which Indra has opened. the subterranean waters and the nocturnal s realm and here is the seat of @h. 51. who dwells on the surface of the nu.8 @hya devfh s u j h o jarante.7 rujdd drfhdni VII. 113.VI.. 48. which reference to the nocturnal sky also accounts for Usas being called duhit d i v e . 65. where U p s is said to have s denotes the nether parcvcitah shyasyo 'dbyancid lidhi. Only once U ~ a s is ove. .. cf. pelling of darkness t d m h . . 123.5). I.15). also IV. 121. This interpretation. which is "hidden hey unharness the horses of the of Varupa (I. VII. wcisah purhtcin mi rj. Darkness and the Goods of t $ e The appearance of Usas goods of Life from the b associated her appeara ultimately due to her addressed in the words treasures.scinutriI.. / vy & n is i i r ~ d . 1 indrah soryajiid wcisah svdr janat. however. which can here only be indicated in passing 8. cf. 76. etc. 51.2 Great Goddess (mahf111.5). Therefore is said to open' in I.2 cisthur u c 'chcintir avran" chdcayah svciravo 'dhvark. A similar interpretation applies to comes to this the stone house (harmyd-) from which the light of U ~ a s will be discussed below. is and is said to awa e from Pta's abode. So Indra 1 .Hence ~ ~ the pdvakdb.dgdm.7 y6h sibyah yci to have engendered U ~ a and s the Sun.4 bhhvati nedrf sGny'tcin13m vah must be the dziro bdrer (VII. iV. orld: VII. thou keeps priraritdhir h u vratcini the doors of the fi . A different WO fathers are said to have found the hidden light and to together at the tirvd-. 12. 123.2. the victorious ercomes that of Darkness is also assigned to Usas herself. 76.4 vi drfhcisya ddro 6drer awqob. Cf. the vrajhya var jydtisci t d m b ) and cf.

Renou's remark "L'U. seems unavoidable. As the dawn of the first day Usas is also know its name (I.2 gciv&n m-td netry a hmyd-. 'yyrim . The cosmogonical prototype of Usas as the first of many is referred to in TS.6 grivdni netrf. 1 she is also called agriyd (see below). when there is a general reference to the u.9 jdnaty dhnah prathamdsya ndma iukrd kr~ndd ajani~ta Sviticf. 92. p. IV. she goes in front of the other dawns (VII. which only that what is said about the first Dawn is also essentially true. 92. I.g. We are drawn to the same conclusion by the frequent use of the word iigra-. 95. Sometimes. 60. 124. and sometimes. 123. IV.1. 123. though to a less degree. similarly Renou). 80. Usas. 3. Whether a sirnjlar idea prevails in VII. but of a long series: U ~ a s brings the days (plural!). selon la norrne bien connue"32 fails to appreciate her importance as a netry dhndm fully. Cf. 80.1).9 dsdm pdrvdsdm cihasu svds!@dm dpard pdrvdm abhy kti paicdt / tdh pratnavdn ndvyasir nandm asmk revdd uchantu sudind u~dsah. Zum Worterb. Indeed. the plural seems to denote especially the first one in I. of all the following dawns. RS. 123.1 1a (etc.) iydm evd sd yd prathamd azichab ince this trait is SO frequently mentioned.. where the dawns of a month seem to be taken as one group. In the Rigveda vyatichat sd dhenzir abhavad yamk (cf. TS. des RV. Renou.&ah. The same hymn ends with the following words (13) dstodhvariz stomyd brcihmagci me' 'vivydhadhvam uiatl'r ujdsah / yupndkam devir dvasd sanema sahasrigam ca Satinam ca vdjam.1 1p rttlndm pdtniprathame' . In contrast with the other hymns to Usas. p. also I.4 dgram-agram id bhajate vciszkdm. 76. 182. it must have been regarded o we are driven to the cone U ~ a here s addressed can scarcely have been the dawn of eject Nillebrandt7stheory as " have dismissed this argus succession of days can be called the first: the conclusion that the U g ~ s addressed must be the first of a new period. AthS. (n) yd prathamd 1 1 . (m) yrhya gdrbhah prathamd vy@ti~y apdm kka mahimdnam bibharti.e cosmic struggle of light and life against Srayante. Inversely. but Geldner: "das Allerbeste von allen guten Dingen". I. Usas is opposed to the great mass of ordinary days. m. I'ostly Usas is regarded as representing the whole series which she inaugurates. VII. dgdd nezrf janitri prajdndm.1 prdti gdvd 'rwir yanti mdtdrah "es kehren die roten Kiihe wieder. which also suggests that the beginning of a new period was celebrated. properly "related to the waves of the subterranean waters". vkd. actuelle comme privilkgike. 10. where the Vasisthas are said to have awakened first at the appearance of Usas is doubtful.11 bhadd tvdm u ~ vitardm o vy dcha nd tdt te any&zqdso naianta. e. 86 f. who is the foremost (agriyd X.p. however. V . die Miitter". 51 is entirely addressed to the Usgsah. 3. 3.2 dgra eti yuvatir dhraycigd prdcikitat sdryah " Etudes vkdiques.1 etd u tyd u~cisahketlim akrata ptirve drdhe rdjaso bhdntim aiijate. V.SSt4 ydd u. where the aorist shows that the dawn of this first day has just appeared). she is obviously included in their number. the poets state explicitly that this Uws is the beginning not only of a single day. A new succession of happy days is apparently inaugurated in I. Note also TS. 77. Et.2).1 1f trihidt svdsdra tipa yanti ni~kytcidi samdndih kettim pratinlun"cdmdniih. Cf. distributes the first goods (I. DI. IV. hence "darkness"? See Neisser.

p. .6.dsrS viriipe hetd vciji jdyate dgre dhmZm. 12 ihddydjah s'rkjfhatamci vy dcha. . This particular day th equal frequency the hymns stress the importance of the present day. Is thi to be the end of the last night? Elsewhere we read: "Arise! The living spirit has come to us. 13.: ceci reste une hypoth objected that any day could be regarded as a special day onne connue". V . qui pourtant ne doit pas nous obliger allusion au dkbut de l'ann6e . 12 ratnavdn ndvyasir niindm asmk revdd uchantu sudinci usdsah (c G o adykhd . 124.1 prdty agnir ugdsii &gramakhyad. vahathci purd cif. revdd asmk vy licha). VI. 226). for prolongation of their earthly existence (X. c. o VII.agnim). 8 sadfs'ir adyd sadfs'ir id u s'vd dirghdk sacante vdrupasya dhdma (see above. Cf. where the words kvo dhcita vidhatt. Especial emphasis is expressed in V I . 48. . Cf. 92. she inaugurates the sac&ce (VI.2 dgrariz yajfihya brhatd ndyantir). also p. at which U ~ a s is invoked to appear. pratnavdt I. 92. 11 lid irdhvam jivd lfsur na jydtir eti / cfraik pdntham ydtave S .4 kuvit sd devih sandy0 ndvo vci ydmo bablziiydd u. Et.2 mahk no adyd suvitdya bodhi.3 ycid adyd bhcigdk vibhdjdsi ntbhyah. rdtnam adyd are varied with a etition of the word idd "now": id& h i vo dcis't@a ~ c i s a h / idd v@rciyajdrate ydd ukth h i ta u ~ adriscino o gotrd gdvcim dngiraso grvdnti. cf. I.1 dgnir dgre 9. op. 68. I do not think this does full justice to the particular character of the passages cited.1 dgre byhdnn q h i m zirdhva' asthcln nirjaganv 5 vi bhdty dgra upiscim idham@. VIJ. X. 113. V. p. 5 jcinigta hi jhnyo dgre ' 2. Psychologically it is hardly conceivable that such prayers should have been repeated at the beginning of every new day. Again we must ask: is it likely from a psychohat Vedic poets should have welcomed every new day as a point where they prolonged their existence? Renou.3 drbghiya hyuh pratardk dddhcinGh). 65. 110. 1. 8. Renou.2 tknci sus'rdvasani jdnamprtPvddyd duhitar divah.9. Equal1 cant is the fact that A is said to wait for the beginning of the D to shine at that begin IV.1 maht. at these references to the beginning of a new oo explicit and too frequent to be ascribed to the wbims of certain poets. 52: "L'idte gtnCrale est la m&me:exalter l'U.4-5. A period of darkness has obviously come to a close: in I. only Willebrandt's theory can account for them. IV.4 ydd im sdvcite a. 123. 51. vdd. Though far from conclusive in themselves. rather than to the preceding days. As in former days Sometimes the poet's prayer for the present day is accompanied by a reference to former days: pnrvdthci I. 80.6 (cf.1). It is natural but significant that as a netry d h d m she t the beginning of the days. I.11 vi niindm uchcid prd ketlir. 92.3 uvbsosd uchdc ca nli devf jird rdthcincim. 243 n. VII.5 prdti tvcidyd sumcinaso budhanta. have gone (to the point) men prolong their life-time" (I. If this is true. p. 75.2. IV. D. . 17 adyd tdd ucha gmatk maghoni.2 ath& kpvatf ydty dgre / brhadrathd jydtir yachaty dgre dhnrlm. VI. 79. 111. 75.4). I. This is true. Darkness went away.6 the poet says dtdrigma prirdm asya "we have attained the end of this darkness". nd. The same phrase recurs in V.9 dgre budha cinmd. 78. (The ess) left its path for the sun to go.saso vo adyd. 52 reniarks on this stanza: "Surrection soudaine de la phrasCologie c o m e 92. E.7 @o adykhd subhage vy ircha.14 zbo adykhd gomaty ds'vcivati vibhcivari / revdd asmk vy dcha sCwtcivati. I. but was every day actually 9. des Veda. 79. V.6 . these words find their most natural explanation if they are taken to refer to the beginning of former periods. $0. F. . 5. I. 65. V. vdyah krnuhi Sdcibhir). 87 remarks : "Instant priviltgit soulignt par le pronom dtictique". Other words that stress the present day are nzindm. 129. p. Deluded by "diese so durchsichtigen Texte" he has been blind to their real problems.3 civo dhcita vidhatt rdtnam adya'.8 nd no gdmad virdvad dhehi rdtnam.. The new life The poets pray for increase of their vital strength (VI. 18. I . 1. 51. d'aujourd'hui parmi l'ensemble des U. The fact that such prayers are constantly directed to . 1) disregards these facts. V. 15 yuksvd hi vcijinivaty ris'vcidi adydrupddi usah. 13 t@o no adyd suhdvci vy itcha. .1 nihdni divd duhitdro vibhcitb gcitzirit krpavann u ~ d s jdnciya. no adyd bodhaydso rciyk divitmati. comme la divinitt invoqute est exaltbe parmi I'ensemble des divinitts invocables". 13 s'divat purdsd vy livcisa devy dtho adykda'riz vy dvo maghdni. Oldenberg's objection that this interpretation of the Uwshymns is "vielmehr hineingetragen als aus ihnen herauslesbar" (Rel. 111. the light is coming.3 citrdbhcinur u&sdrit bhaty dgre VII. 65. 65.

. 2.10 viivasya h jfvanah tvk v i ydd uchdsi. IV.3&).3 t-rrdhvd hy hthdd ddhy antdrikst 'dhd vytrdya special place.) it may be useful to dwell on this point. 4) that our previous conclusion that in the Rigvedic hymns.= No inference can be drawn from AV. as the personification of Vitality (S. and the victory of life over death. 30. was lebt. 3 4 Grdhvb adhvaryzir jujwdgb asthdt.means mamr&ih prdydve phah. 48.. I. 36. must have implied his victory over death (cf. slinari I.10 tisrd mdtfs t r h pitin bibhrad &ka tirdhvds tasthau n h dva gldpayanti. 123. 1 1 1 . 63. 11.8 vyuchdntij k i m udirdyanty kdn? can&bodhdyanti. and that they are accompanied by those for progeneration is. Cf. as referring to the New Year festival. 19.5 etc. 5) that iirdhvd. where Savitr is said to stand erect: zid u syd vab savitd suprapitayd 'sthcid zirdhvd vdrepyah. for thou art not dead!"s8 n quite the same manner U~as.1 iirdhvd. Cf. z ndvyam cfyur drkhdna.1 zirdhvrl te cinu i t h tislhatu. In VII. 1. with this stanza VIII. In Egypt the dead man is addressed with the words: "Arise. 30. p. . which may be said to characterize Life in its victory over Death. In the fist passage iirdhvd hy hthdd may be taken in the usual sense. Note the ajd akrdb. it should be noted that Indra has slain V@raimmediately after his birth). but the evidence as a whole allows us to state 1) that the notion of standing erect was of special importance to the poets. arise.Ups.8 should not be confounded with VII.10 ydsya tvdm tirdhvd adhvardya tisthasi ksayddvirah sd sddhate / sd lirvaehih shitti sd vipanyribhih sd Adraih sdnitci kytdm. is said to stand erect: 111. VIII. I. 27. VII.B. 1 prri vadhdm jabhdra (the sole passage where Indra is said to stand erect. V . and V. 16 jivdm udirdyanti in combined with Sri-: tirdhvd agnih sumatini vcisvo as'ret praticf jtirpir devdtdtim eti.6 zirdhvcis tisfhd na zitdye 'smin v&e Satakrato.13 tirdhvci ii p 2 p a titdye tijfhci devd nd savitd / Zzrdhvd vdjasya shitd yddaiijibhir vdghddbhir vihvdydmahe. 2. m a h h devds tdmaso nir amoci and X . 64. 36.2 Eid iraya prdti mE szTmy'td q a 4 col& h these passages may further be compared 111. pratici bhlivamini viivo 'rdhvd ti~lhasy amttasya ketzih. 48. Cf. 39. Net ieven uit den dood.12. I. I. Ath vis'vqvdre. 13. 113. and fur asthub.where Agni's arising from the realm of darkness. ara8wd hiStanta Yt. vibhdhy) irdvah stlribhyo amy'tak vasutvandk s the parallel phrase lid irdhva~ jivd.. X. III. . finally VIII.1 (see above).14 (Usas) pddyd vaste pururkpd vdpzirhsy iirdhvd tasthau trydvirh rtrihdpd.. Renewal of life is no common everyday experi very renewal that U ~ a is s expected to bring about. Several passages are not conclusive. viz. n . 77-5 (asmt . 123.10).3 iirdhv amttasya ketlih "thou standest rect as the symbol of Life" (see low). I. 1931.1 dgre byhdnn u&hBn tirdhvd asthdn nirjaganvdn tdmaso jydti~dgdt. 1st ed.7 iirdhvd gandharvd ddhi ndke asthdd.8 "im Aufieuchten alles. Other passages are I. 20. incompatible th the assumption that the everyday dawn is meant.1 viiva?h jivdm prasuvdnti i: Geldner's translation of I.1.76. X . siiny'td m h s tighatu (where 2rdh Id be connected w divk-dive sahcisrd s22ny'td iatd / Cf. The erect position represents life. auftreibend (aber) keinen Toten mebr erweckend" is not quite correct.2. "vital strength" and nothing else is found in I. . .3 ijrdhvdn nah karta jivhe. 3) that in the other passages referring to Usas and Agni the same idea of a rebirth (I. Cf. V I .14 krdhf na cardthdya jivcise. Et. 6. 77. 80. 48.5 e Subhrd nd tanvd viddnd dhvd vdm agnir adhvartsv 'rdhvCva sndtf drs'dye no asthdt. Kristensen. 12. 113. Since Lommel has tried to emonstrate that the expression tirdhvd. 164. p.4 (A asthdt prd rdtir etijtirpinighytdci. 6. 270 B.1 iirdhvd zi sli 00 adhvarasya hotar dgne ti. 1.r#ha. 123. 16 Eid irdhvah jivol &W no dgdd dpa ve sibydyd 'ganma ydtra jybtir eti / haik pdnth . 113. IV. 172.1 only twice explained by a 1 .means "'mit fe bereit stehen" (221. . if connected with the beginning of the new year.8 zirdhvds tasthur indirect indication that siiny'td. therefore.35. vid. for thou art living. IV. 48.9 ajani~fa!) may have been present in the mind of the poet. the idea of a renewal of life is closely connected with that of present-giving and victory over opponents may account also for 1 1 1 . 134. 8. 2 Grdhvdm bhdnlim savitkviiired.sthd. cf.9 dd d hy dsthdd upcistham jihmdndm tirdhvd vidytitalli vcisdnah. where Usas as the symbol of life (amjta-) is said to stand erect. p. 2) that the standing position was the manifestation par exce f life. VI. 55.9 pr&d yandhi sutapdvan vdjdn sthd ii .5 jusdd mdnwasyo 'rdhvds tasthdv fbhvd yajEt. I. 17 asmk dyur ni (d = VIII.~ri iirdhvci zitf drisagyann aktdr vykyfau pdritakmytiydm. although this is not expressly stated. cf. 45. I. 61. 85.12 tid iratdk siinJtd lit pliralitdhir jaritJbhyo vimdmhate.2 tirdhvd agnih sumdndh prdtdr asthdt . 103 ff.sthd. also Renou. 140.risur na dgdd in st.1).12. and IX. VI. Cf. 8. where the tree etected as a flpa is addressed with the words: afijcinti tv adhvart devaydnto vdnaspate mddhund daivyena / ydd iirdhvds ti##hd drdvipehd dhattdd ydd vd kjdyo matt2 asyd uphthe and for the following passages where the god is invoked for aid in contests: I. 5 1. 24.

rayim.the hymns . ChU. . but modern translations give the following rendering: "A son lever et A chacun de ses retours" (Senart). Life and Security Numerous are the passages where Usas is said to have overcome the darkness and its danger: in close association with tcimas.ts ta i).3 ftani vasutvancim (IV. But the opposite amy abhayam "life and security" was present in the minds of the poets . 189. Progeneration The clearest manifestation of vital strength to the Vedic poet was progeneration. the udaya. sarvam d p r eti. 12. if Usas inaugurates a new year. only denote the new year's day.3 bhiinrivo . it seems.6 1 1 .6 sd iliz rebhd nd pra'ti vastrr wrdh s'oci~iiriirapiti mitrcimahdh "We ein Barde ruft er bei jedem Aufgang der Morgenrote laut mit seiner Fla~nrne''~~ it does not follow that the rebhd. IV. dwitcf-.g. . 1 I. rirfhi. p. rather point to a perio new year put an end? N. 51.2) sa ya e. however I.7 sarvdni ha vcl imdni bhatdny ddityam uccaih santani geyanti). . V.19) can only be accounted for.g.8.13 asmc! exactly denote "wealth" in our sense of the word. etc. suvfryasya piitayah is not surprising that she Uws has very close connections with e religious importance of should be invoked to secure progeny. RS. But again we must put the question: Is it likely that every d a m should have been invoked for life and offspring? Even texts which might suggest an exuberant adoration of every new day still make a significant distinction 1 1 . ChU. which is mostly translated by " parallelism between material wealth and of one's blessed state. I. prcigf bhavati. e. . we have clear instances of a etymologica rayim rci.drlrrih-. Once it is admitted that vih . a (ogni) suo ritornare" (Papesso). dfves:divus. 123. 11. ~ t 8 a i p v ) .6 suv rayim g.does not 1 .10 ray& divo duhitaro vibhdtfh prajhvantariz yachatii . same association of vital strength with wealth (and social prestige) 1 . tan?j d y a m d m ~ gho~ciulfilavo 'niidati~thantsarvdpi ca bhtatiini sarve ca kdmds.(Indo-Ir. It must be due to mere accident that we do not here meet with the expression tamo bhayam (cf. .. 11. I. it may be useful to point out that rayi. 92. 'raHfm raH-).G. 75.2-20. 276) praised the Dawn every morning. tasmcit tasyodayam prati.3 (in a between the sun's udaya.and pratydyana-. . 284.1 cfpa dmlh nii viivii da in jux so is bhcfya-. 123. prajayd ca pakubhis' ca prajdyate KS. From RS. The Indian notion of wealth blessing. 'si prajayii ca dhane rayfn? zzdate / s'is'ihf nab S S: asya kule viro jiiyate (ChU. as well as material wealth.(see p. This is what he longs for as the clearest proof of his vitality.must be different from both the primordial birth and the everyday sunrise and can. 1 1 1 . one of the Vedic deities that are specially implored to stow progeneration. p. 61.g. and since U e s was considered a janitrf she is implored to bestow ni didihi prajdvat (cf. Gr. Lat. a gift (cf.8 z&as td as'ydn? yas'cisani suviram . 11. a rebirth of life itself. e. and every reappearance of the dawn is to some extent a re-enactment of this event.13 amy'tasya pcftnfb. VI. 80. pratydyanaliz prati. 19. 3. If so.1 .5 cfpa jydti$(f'giit. In 1 rayiriz riisi vfrcfvantam VI. I.12). 65. e. VII. 81. "at its rising and at its every return" (Hume). Although the little use that is made of technical terns for New Year remains VII. 13. "a1 suo sorgere. A few quotations may suEce: I.6). The words pratyriycnariz prati might be taken as an explanation pointing to the fact that every new sunrise is a return (cf. the goddess Usas lies no doubt in her close association with the origin of life in the cosmogonical process. 13 the phrase rayim suvfram). gho~d ulfilavo 'nfitti~{hanti sarvdgi ca bhtltdnLsarve ca kdmdh (cf. 3. For prdti vcisto see Oldenberg. bhavati. 13 &as tdc citrdm d vrfjinivati / ykna tokdriz ca trfnayariz ca dhrlmahe. 1 veah. . ZDMG. 75.g. 1 cosmogonical myth) atha yat tad ajdyata so 'sciv Kdityas. . 55. the prayers for progeneration (including cattle. ChU. mahan kirtya.2 (cf.1 zrdyar. cf. I.

51. the competitors" (see below). 141. 81. der gewinnt den ersten Preis mit seinen Tapferen".which is characteristic of Indra (and Uvas) allows only . der Held erschlagt den Vora mit .5 db C 'him? pdrthivasya vcfsva @o adyCh&sub ur . 19.9 maghdvadbhyai ca mdhya~zca.discussed below (p. 1.6 irdvah skibhyo amftah vasutvandrit vdjam asmdbhyam gdmatah / codQyatrf maghdnah siiny'tlfvaty u. who fight this part of the contest for him: VIII. was at the same time victorious by his speech and his horses: vljpro cfrvadbhir hdntz vytrdm ntbhih $drab "er gewinnt mit den Streitrossen.a. The sole fact that the patrons are denoted by the same term maghdvan. der gewinnt mit Rennpferden.these concepts seem to have fused to such an extent that it m y seem difficult to separate the various aspects. 265). 86. 139. 6 a i ~ u maghoni stirigu / y t no rddhdlizsy dhraylf maghdvcino drdsata slijate divasllnrte.g. but this wealth is also won in strife.10 sd drvadbhih scinitlf sd vipanydbhih sd iikaih sdnitd kytdm "der hat als annerbeherrscher Erfolg.12).6 (Indra-Agni) td stirip irdvo brhdd rayim grndtsu didhrtam i ~ a hg. y h v IJfina iaJami 10 rayim divo duhitaro colouring: it denotes the good otions must have had their orted to drink the Soma with toter in der Anhaufung von Schatzen. 48. in which ealth was won (or lost).11).dently closely connected with vital strength aning of szlnjtfi.5 maghdvcino vaydriz ca. . Anyway. 78. the co-operation of these sdkhdyah .3 indro nd tasthau samarC dha'nclirufm)may also cover its replica in social life. 250) denotes this association of a siiri. Often. particularly VII.rpdtsu didhytam. As a single instance we may quote IV. I.was not yet quite ut although the ideal type of the sabhtyargotten in later times (see below. The prototype of the competing hero. god Indra.11 vaydh sydma yaidso jdnegu.g.1 revdd uchu maghdvadbhyo maghoni rev& stotrt siinrte jlfrdyanti. when the poet says " with our poems and race-horses" (dhibhir rirvadbhih VI. th edic society shows L further grade of specialization: the maghdvan. V. The mythological concept (X.6 uchd divo duhitah pratnavcin no bharadvlfjavdd vidhatk maghoni / suvfralit rayik grpatt ririhy urugayirit ddhi dhehi irdvo nab. in contests which are fought with the traditional weapons of the ns. VI. V. o Held" the ritual act of invigorating the god is closely associated with a reference to a present-giving. e. .rte. and the vcfstZni m y be the goods won from the enemies that are the earthly representatives of the gods of the nether world.. but which may equally well be an actual war or a ceremonial contest of the potlatch-type. 46. VII. which starts with a praise of U p s as rdycf devi dhvatiin st. p. 124. der mit seinen uchad dpa sridhah "den Opferherren (bringe sie) unsterblichen Ruhm und rinderreiche Gewinne. e. I.or s k i .I.13 amf ca y t maghdvdno vaydm ca. in many passages the word vaydm does not refer to the poets alone (and thus rules out the idea of merely literary tournamen ut to the different win the vdjas members of their party. Die Lohnherren anspornend moge die freigebige Usas die Unfalle wegleuchten". A few quotations may illustrate the importance of is besought to bestow: I. which may be the god's annual renewal of life. Cf. viz. 3.2. 71.with his helpers. the poets make a clear distinction between themselves and their patrons. 113. who are also called sdkhlfyah (I. J. mostly secures the assistance of one or more priestly poets. Uws as the goddess of contests (Potlatch?) At this point we are faced with the most important aspect of the worship of Ugas: she bestows wealth. 92. These stanzas suggest the conclusion that the stress formerly laid on the importance of the dakging as the poets' fee was rather excessive. . 45. 79. 7 tkbhyo dyuntndm byhdd ydia @o maghony d vaha / yd no rddhcirizsy cis'vyd gavyd bhdjanta siirdyah s. 165. and depicts her in st.6) might even be considered the ritual counterpart of the myt co-operation between Indra and his ndrah. with races and word duels. calls her jird rdthdncfm in st. 65. They form a party with common interests: if the sakhyd. abki y t tvd vibhlfvari stdmair g~ndnti vdhayah / maghair maghoni suiriyo dha virdvad ydia &o ddmanvantah surlftdyah stijlfte LiSvastin. 6 as vi yd srjrfti lit vy ctrthinah "who lets loose the contest.8 &as t h avargalit rayim risvabudhyam. 1. VI.

VIII.manYs vdja was a quality. viz.. 49 n. I. on the divine maghdni). 48. Geldner. . if ordinary war is ruled out? The terminology of the Rigveda does not allow us to determine.g. 96. Renou and Gonda (op. VI. I. @o vdjariz suvfryam. . a sort of power. and on the dependency of the poets. 45. The same idea is expressed in the next stanza by the word rayi-: +as tdm ajytirh yaidsah suvfrarh ddscipravargam rayim h. 48. cf. Although originally a quaiity attributed to a horse. e. to what extent mock battles and ceremonial combats may have played a role in For references see Renou. the god VSja incites the gifts (VS. 21. If so. . &d. I. cornmenqtnt en esclaves.33 vdjo no adyd p . 77. similarly I. s'achevant en chevaux! Toi qui brilles d'un renom fait de rCussite. 48. 124. of slaves and renown (cf.2. If however a. mimikpd . etc. p. p. and on the other hand consisted not only of horses an cows but also. . Et. . I. 68) rightly reject the translation "booty".2 jdyanti vdjam brhati sdnutri. 123. which manifested itself' through wealth and which was won through the acquirement of this wealth (cf. . which on the one hand was a quality.12 etc. besides the word may perhaps have denoted the "tournoi".)? Renou holds the central meaning to be "prix". .12 sd 'smdsu dhd . Most important would be the consistent references to vdjain connection with U$asySB if only the exact meaning were beyond doubt. . 16 (sdm . On ~ the other hand she wins th . what can have been this vdja. Usas also bestows these v&as on men. puisd-je atteindre la richesse qui porte distinction.7 prajdvato nyvrito cis'vabudhycin $0 gdagrcidz &a mcisi vdjrfn.dvans. Gonda.10 prri bodhayo 'jab pypatd maghoni.4vabudhyam / suddrizsasti Srdvasd yd vibhdsi vdjapras~tdsubhage bficintam "Aurore. a mule. Aspects o f early Yi$@uism. a ram. note ad I. (cette) haute (richesse)!" (Renou). m[. .1 1 ijo v&ariz hi vdmsva yh. IV. I. p. 9. however. It is on the one hand the victorious power which bestows the gifts and incites the gods themselves: Usas is vdjaprasata(I.) sdfi vdjair vtijinivati. vdjasya p r a s a ~ i ) . As in the case t7ny'td-.8) and vzjini-. her task is to awake the earthly gvers (I.4 citrd m wejdne. 92.2 cbda rddho maghdndm. toi qui es rnue par les prix de victoire. 51. 92. apparently. 18. . qui consiste en h o m e s utiles.13 yupn devir civasd sanema sahasrinarh ca Satinariz ca vhjam) the fundamental question is: Where was this wealth won.4. which admits of different interpretations. C. the waters. 124."' its meaning in the Rigveda seems to be a more restricted and technical one. 6 bienheureuse..3 rddhodciydyo '~ciro maghdnih). ti-.20 sd vdjasya Sravasyhsya ddtd..

V. OLZ.3 as "the goddess wh nhates the chariots that ar in readiness at her approach and are desirous of renown like (the waters) in the subterranean ocean". Perhaps this light on the very obscure stanza I.16 abhi vdjaliz sciptir iva iravasyd 'bhi a. why not only the horses but also the chariots themselves were said to be Sravasyliory". vayciliz Sravasydm d huvlimahe. . Dem. also K. . pp. Cf. Geldner translates: "die Wagen in Bewegung setzend. 268-271 . that there is more evidence in the Rigveda suggestive of some ss Against Liiders. In any case. eda are strongly reminiscent of the winter ritual of the North "i 1 1 l l l i i 1 1 l l I won. indeed. the frequent references to Usas arriving with her own chariot(s) do not prevent us from taking rdthdn&n here as denoting the chariots ready for the fight for "glory" and for the hitdni dhdnam. so we interpret I. On the other hand there are several passages which suggest the inference that the cosmogonical streams released by Indra were as much desifous of glory as their ritual counterpart. tels des gens avides de renorn (qui s'appretent pour un voyage) en mer. 45. V . .3 dsya Sravasytid rcitha cf ca gho~at.4 tipa k~arantisindhavo mayobhtiva ijdn dhendvah / pygdntariz ca pdpurik ca Sravasydvo ghytcisya dh&d tipa yanti vis'vbtab "Erquickend stromen dem die Fliisse. through the discussion of a single deity. Renou (-Oldenberg): "dkesse animatrice des chars.^ We have tried to demonstrate. 14 ya' ta ntir amitrahan mak&javastama' 'safi / tdyd no hinuhi rdtham. der reichlich s schenkt. IX.6. A few stanzas from a single hymn to Indra may be quoted in illustration of this interpretation: VI. Ceux qui. Chariot races were equally important and that is. 37. samudre' nci since the interpretations put forward are unacceptable: Srdvas. conclusion. Sessen von allen Seiten die Schmalzstrijme wett ow. thought of as and as such is likened to horses sirous of renown".l l V I . 87. see p. The chief difEculty is. 27 the winner of such seem more appropriate than "rendez-vous" (Renou). just as Soma is rnythologically conceive om the subterranean samudrd-. 48.3 uvho 'pd uchrfc thtincim / ye' asyli dc&rage&f dadhrire samudrt nd Sravasyhvah.10 pdvamdnasya te kave vdjin sdrgd a s f i a t a / drvanto nd Sravasydvab.5 ett sdmd abhi gavyti' sailzdsrci nzahk v&iiy pavitrebhih pdvamEna asygraA chravasydvo nd py prd snindso rdthd ivd 'rvanto nd Sravasydvah / The association with the cosmogonical waters I. 1954. the Soma: Soma is likened to horses in IX. 12 dhlbir drvadbhir drvato v@d& indra iravdyydn / tvdyd j q m a hit&+ dhdnam. 125. 66. this association would be quite understandable. If the arrival of Usas coincided with the annual vytrailzdtya. or o of gaining renown by wealth acquired by such a trade. Hoffmann. 28. . se tiennent prets. n this society by the means which it 'pro eda suggestive of an overseas trade. 391 f.11 tcim u tvd ydh purhitha yd vd ntindni hit6 dhdne / hdvyah sci Smdhi hdvam. K. I X . dem die der geopfert hat und opfern a notion closely connected with society. Varutla. col. A ses approches. 96.".and with the renewed release of the waters and the goods of life. die auf ihr Kommen gewartet haben wie die auf Ruhrnestaten ausgehenden (Seefahrer) auf die Meeresflut".cf. 48.

clearly an essential feature of hers. 1 1 1 . p. rY to discuss the entire evidence. It is not yet possible for us to understand. However. TB. such as those depicting birds flying out in the early morning and men going to their work (I. e.).whose true character as referring to the finding and winning of the su6 of the new is mostly misunderstood. 124. her erotic character. Anyway. 123.7). different from that of the Sun. deed. 1 .g. : u~abiabdena kinswoman of Varuqa (I. no Vedic god can be fully understood outside the context of the whole mythology. 48. besides the Sun. also parivatsark. Uws. in some other religi s unaccountable as it may be stated in general that the hymns to U ~ a are documents of religious thought. 6. the preceding observations by no means claim to have fully explained all aspects of Usas. dhar vy&fib. 123. 227). 61. and in spite of the fact that (see further p. There are certainly a few passages in the U~as-hymns which suggest a reference to everyday events. The relation Usas: Night may have been parallel to that of Mitra: Varuna. 8. Montesi. That of the us always back to the cosmogony and its annual reiterati Year festival. IV.16. indicates that they recognized in her an essential aspect.. he daily return of the sun is indeed celebrated.4 u&se svshd v&fyai svdhk 'ty Gha. is both closely to Night and the nether world (cf. there remains a particularly obscure aspect of the mythological concept of U~as. viz. we can be sure that we are a long way yet from a complete insight into the nature of the Indo-Iranian goddess 1 1 . The sole fact that the IndoIranians worshipped. a goddess Dawn. 11 ff.5) and a sister of Night.and svdr~dti-. however. however. and such very significant terns as svarvid. unless we take U ~ a s to be in the first place the Dawn of On the other hand. the fact that Usas seems to have been opposed both to Night and to Daybreak. also G. Cf. 28 (1957). including the hymns to Indra and Agni. as a (Comm.12.5. Since this is. which is the most radiant manifestation of the creation of the Cosmos. 51.5) and the phrase divCdive in the very special context of I. ahordtrd evd 'vamdhe. Dawn (cf. shows how intricate the theological ideas may have been. Cf.4 twithstanding these. rdtrir vd W&. I. dtho ahordtrdyor evci prcititififhati.which it is impossible to explain. just what aspect induced them to worship such a separate goddess beside Agni-Siirya. Indeed. rdtryabhim-nini devato 'cyate).of the new year than to nstration. etc.

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