Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76

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Quaternary International
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Mammuthus primigenius in the cave and portable art: An overview with a short account on the elephant fossil record in Southern Europe during the last glacial
Ingmar M. Braun a, *, Maria Rita Palombo b, c
a

Wyhlenweg 4, CH e 4126 Bettingen, Switzerland Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy c CNR, “Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria”, Montelibretti, Roma, Italy
b

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Available online 20 July 2012

a b s t r a c t
A rich Upper Paleolithic iconography testifies to a long coexistence of humans and Mammuthus primigenius during the last glacial in most of Europe, including northern Spain, and supplies additional information for a better understanding of the dispersion and last occurrence of woolly mammoths in southernmost Europe (i.e. in the Iberian and Italian peninsulas) during this time. In Italy, where the scanty M. primigenius findings are likely not younger than 38 ka (except for the Gravettian remains from the Arene Candide cave, eastern Liguria), no representations of woolly mammoths have been reported to date. An exception is the carved mammoth objects (a few Gravettian ornaments and female figurines), recorded in Ligurian sites, but the hypothesis that they could have been imported from some distant area cannot be ruled out. Conversely, in Spain along the northern Atlantic coast, M. primigenius remains have been found in some sites yielding mammoth representations. In southern Spain, where M. primigenius was present in the Padul basin (Granada) during most of MIS 3 (between 40.4 and 30.6 cal ka BP), artistic representations of woolly mammoths are unknown. As regard to Palaeoloxodon, some populations were present during the late MIS 3 in the Iberian Peninsula as in Western Europe, whereas no sound data support the persistence of straight-tusked elephants on mainland during MIS 2. Therefore, whether the intriguing elephant painting of the Spanish El Castillo cave could represent a straight-tusked elephant e suggesting a survival of the species in Northern Spain during the Last Glacial Maximum e or an unusual representation of a woolly mammoth, still remains an unanswered question. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction The iconic elephant of the last glacial, the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, is a species widely spread during the Late Pleistocene at the middle and northern latitudes of Eurasia (Fig. 1) as well as in North America, where it may have originated (Debruyne et al., 2008). In Eurasia its range reached its southernmost maximum extension during MIS 3a, when the woolly mammoth is recorded at 36 350 N in China (Ji’nan, Shandong Province) (Takahashi et al., 2007), while the southernmost records of M. primigenius in Western Europe are those of Padul (37 010 N, Granada Basin, Spain) (Álvarez-Lao et al., 2009) and Cardamone (40 210 N, Apulia, Italy) (Rustioni et al., 2003). During the late glacial, in particular during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the distribution of M. primigenius findings across Europe (Fig. 1) only partially matches that of vestiges of the Upper Paleolithic art, left by

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: IngmarBraun@gmx.ch (I.M. Braun). 1040-6182/$ e see front matter Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2012.07.010

our direct ancestor Homo sapiens, from about 35 ka to 11 ka BP (Fig. 2). This evidence is cave art products, known especially in Western Europe, and portable art objects which are documented all over Europe and as far as Siberia. The cave art includes figurative representations on walls and ceilings of caves and rock shelters as well as those on cave floors (e.g. engravings on clay ground). Objects of portable art are engravings of animals, rarely of humans, and various other representations (e.g. dots, lines) carved on stones, ivory, bones, reindeer antlers, as well figurines of animals and humans. Although the figures of woolly mammoths do not dominate among the zoomorphic Paleolithic representations, M. primigenius was depicted by Paleolithic artists using a variety of different materials and techniques. The paper aims to present a short overview of the main depictions of M. primigenius thus far known in the Eurasian Paleolithic art, and to discuss some intriguing issues such as the perplexing representation of the El Castillo elephant, and the lack of any representation in Italy, where the woolly mammoth is recorded definitively not later than MIS 3.

Bosinski and Fischer. 3: El Castillo. 56: P Klause. . 7: Gargas. Today. figurines and engravings as in some site investigations are still in progress (e. Dordogne). Abri Montastruc. Map showing the distribution of the main Late Pleistocene sites with woolly mammoth remains (modified and updated from Markova et al. Cavaille. 62: Kapova.g. Gély and Azéma. 12e14: Oulen. M.. 10: La BaumeLatrone. 1875. Grande Grotte d’Arcy-sur-Cure. found a piece of mammoth ivory with the engraving of a woolly mammoth (Fig. 40: Pair-non-Pair. La Marche cave. 59e61: Kostienki 1. Ebbou.1 and 3.. Ardèche. Bernifal. La Madeleine. Le Mammouth.M.2). Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 Fig. Jovelle. 54e55: Dolní Ve redmostí. La Mouthe. 1. Map showing the distribution of selected Upper Paleolithic sites with the main representations (cave and portable art) of Mammuthus primigenius (modified and updated from Bosinski and Fischer. M.R. Le Pigeonnier. primigenius in the portable and cave art: an overview The first discovery of a M. when. Pavlov. 2. old published data might be incomplete. primigenius known from about 76 sites (Berdin. add anything to already acquired convictions as to the coexistence of Man with the fossil Elephant (Elephas primigenius) and other great Herbivores and Carnivores which geologists regard as having lived together in the early phases of the Quaternary Period” (Lartet and Christy. 47: La Colombière. 6: Isturitz. 37e39: Les Vachons. 2). Fig. Geissenklösterle. 17: Bruniquel. 1999. 5: Los Casares. Les Bernous. Andemach. 46: Solutré. 207). 2: Pindal. Le Figuier. 18e20: Pech-Merle. 25e33: Croze-à-Gontrand. 1: Las Caldas. 1980). Cournazac. 42e43: La Marche-Réseau Guy Martin. in France the caves of Chauvet. 44e45: Le Cheval. indeed. This number likely underestimates the actual number of mammoth paintings. Chabot. Bellier et al. 53: Obere stonice. 21e24: Cussac. during the archaeological excavation of the Abri de La Madeleine (Dordogne. Laugerie-Haute. 1980. 49e50: Gönnersdorf. France). 1970. in 1864 Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy. 58: Sungir’. Cougnac. p. the Paleolithic art of Eurasia counts at least 561 representations of M. La Grèze. Les Combarelles. Braun. Labattut. 41: Chanlat. Roucadour. 11: Bayol. 51e52: Vogelherd. primigenius representation dates back to the second half of the 19th century. Kostienki 11. 34e36: Raymonden. and Cussac. Kostienki 4. 2005) (Fig. Rouffignac. 8: Les Trois-Frères. At that time. 15e16: Chauvet. 3. and unknown mammoth representations might exist in either private or public collections. 4: Arco B cave. this finding was regarded as proof that prehistoric men and woolly mammoths lived contemporaneously and interacted with each other: “This new fact will not. Font-de-Gaume. 48: Trou de Chaleux. 2.62 I. 2010). 57: Avdeevo. 9: Canecaude I.

probably a vertebra of mammoth (Fig. Since 2005. and alignments of dots and grooves. 1995). albeit less numerous than those found in the Vogelherd cave. Among those representing woolly mammoths there is a nearly complete figurine (5 cm long. The figurines of mammoth from these sites are all marly representations (Abramova. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 63 Fig. In some engravings. a richly equipped double tomb of two children. Although in the cave and portable art animals were often depicted in a detailed. 4. In the Kostienki area. séparées par la dépression nuchale. and six fine lines are also engraved on the top of the head (Conard. 1995). Hahn.1. found in the Lone and Ach valleys in the Swabian Alps (BadenWürtemberg. 1986). South West Germany). as well at P redmost (Moravia). 2009) (Fig. but also on other materials. 3. regarded as a pendant. 8.] le mammouth est essentiellement évoqué par sa silhouette caractéristique.1 cm high) (Fig. diagnostic characteristics. and one in a spongeous bone.R. 1986. that was carved on the core of a mammoth tusk. marquée par un massif frontal lourd et puissant. the Vogelherd cave. Conversely to the Aurignacian figurines from the Swabian Alps. The mammoth in portable art Figurines representing woolly mammoths are especially frequent in during the early and middle Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian and Gravettian). where a figurine carved in ivory was found (Abramova. 2. se prolongeant vers le bas par la masse de la trompe. 2. In this figurine of Vogelherd cave.. about 40 figurines of M. some open air sites are located along the Don River north of the Black Sea. some representations consist of schematic outlines and the species can only be recognised because the silhouette highlights some specific. The most eastward site yielding a mammoth representation is the Siberian site Ust’ Kova. Les détails tels que les pattes. Figurines of woolly mammoths The oldest portable art objects thus far known in Eurasia are the ivory figurines. 2. including quite small ivory figurines of various animals (Hahn. 2009). the figurines of woolly mammoths became more numerous. completely excavated in 1931 by Riek (1934) yielded some important findings. Russia) (Abramova. The shape of the later is similar to that of figurines from P redmost (Moravia) (Gvozdover. as shown by the only woolly mammoth figurine found in the open air site of Eliseevitchi (Abramova. and stone. Braun. With a total length of 3. 1995). Eliseevitchi. Except for four sites dating . 2009) (Fig.1). Of particular interest is a perforated oval bone. The animal and female figurines recorded from this area date to the so-called Kostenkian. More eastward.7 cm. The use of clay for the fabrication of portable art objects is only known from the Pavlovian sites. 1986). Although the figurine is fragmentary and not perfectly preserved. 35 to 30 ka BP). it is the smallest figurine of a woolly mammoth thus far recorded from the Swabian Alps and the only complete among the 20 Aurignacian figurines of animals recorded in the Lone and Ach valleys. A drawing of the engraving of the mammoth of the Abri de La Madeleine modified from Roussot. representing the backside and the feet of a mammoth found at the same site. the soles of the feet are decorated with fine crossing lines. In the middle Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian. was also decorated with different signs (Bosinski. female and animal figurines (some representing the woolly mammoth). and Avdeevo.I.M. realistic way.1. the shape clearly indicates a woolly mammoth. 1995). 7). In the Ach valley.1).2. The sample includes two mammoth figurines carved on sandstone (Fig. The first discovered representation of a woolly mammoth found in the Abri de La Madeleine (Dordogne. Most are reported from open air sites in Moravia (Czech Republic) and in Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine). from about 28 to 22 ka BP). 4. 6). clay. The most important finding of these new investigations is represented by a complete figurine discovered in 2006 (Fig.2). primigenius were discovered in some sites situated in the Russian plain. p. primigenius (Fig. 1982). 1988). 1999). Engravings of mammoths Engravings of mammoths in portable art are especially carved on stone. belonging to a nearly complete figurine of a mammoth. decorating the mammoth body (Bosinski. M.2 cm wide. outskirts of Vladimir city. archaeological investigations were made by the University of Tübingen from 1973 to 2002 in the Geissenklösterle (surroundings of Blaubeuren). showing a demi-relief of a mammoth (Bosinski. found in horizon V.1. 2002) (below). In the Lone valley. 1982). these figurines do not show any geometric sign and were carved not only in ivory but also in bones. More than 40 pieces of ivory were found. at Sungir’ (Bogoljubova. formed in clay then burned. As are the other figurines of the Swabian Alps. as shown by microscopic investigations (Hahn. 1982. Bellier et al. it is decorated with different signs as well as with points of red ochre. an ivory figurine of a woolly mammoth was also found (Valoch and Lázni ckovà-Galetová. The objects of portable art are of great interest. it is difficult to decode the mammoth representations because of lines or other animal figures overlying them. 8. which shows X signs. Christy in 1864 (modified from Lartet and Christy. and Sungir’ (Abramova. 5). such as those of the Kostienki area. Most engravings and tools decorated with mammoths date back to the late Upper Paleolithic (Magdalenian). Lartet and H. 2. 1995). 3.2). An ivory figurine regarded as a woolly mammoth was discovered in a completely different context. et par l’affaissement de l’arrière-train. which clearly show the characteristic shape of M.1. par la ligne cervicodorsale soulignant les bosses de la tête et du dos. la toison laineuse ou les défenses ne sont souvent pas indiqués”. In the Pavlovian of Moravia. 1995). about 7 cm long and carved in the inner part of a tusk. (1999. Concerning woolly mammoths. A large fragment of ivory. corresponding to the European late Gravettian (from about 24 to 22 ka BP) (Djindjian et al. Interesting objects were also found in the open air site at Avdeevo.108) wrote: “[. France) by E. are known from the sites stonice and Pavlov (Valoch and Lázni of Dolní Ve ckovà-Galetová. At Pavlov. dating back to the Aurignacian (ca. a team of the University of Tübingen has been reexploring the Vogelherd cave. 1875) (above).

. 2009).64 I. northern Spain) (Angulo and Moreno. The westernmost site is Las Caldas (Asturias. (1999) believed that the representations of Gönnersdorf document the latest population of mammoths in Western Europe. 2009). Although the representations are very detailed. primigenius have been dated to 21.M. The later is the most northern finding of a woolly mammoth engraving known. various animals and schematic female figurines were engraved on slate plates (see Bosinski. 2008. Bellier et al.8 cal ka BP (ÁlvarezLao and García. 1995). Bosinski et al. With its overlong legs. The best known representation is that on a fragment of a tusk found in the Abri de La Madeleine (southwestern France). Following Guthrie (in Bosinski. Eastwards. and a representation craved on a tusk of a young mammoth was found at Berelëkh A (Sakha Republic. 6. where mammoths. 1980). Germany) in 1931 (modified from Floss. 4. this stonice and Fig. Molariform teeth of M. 1984) the tusklessness would affected the Gönnersdorf mammoth population as a result of starvation caused by low vegetation productivity at the end of the late glacial period.R. During the Magdalenian (from about 18 to 12. to the middle Upper Paleolithic (see Bosinski and Fischer. 9). 1991e1992). all mammoths of Gönnersdorf are tuskless. 2012). Czech Republic (modified from Absolon and Klima. The greatest number of mammoth engravings (76 representations) was found in the Magdalenian open air site of Gönnersdorf near Koblenz (Rheinland-Pfalz. 1977). Braun.5 ka). 1) Figurine of a woolly mammoth found by G. 2011). where an engraving on a stone plate was found in a Middle Magdalenian context (Corchón. most of engravings known thus far in portable art date to the late Upper Paleolithic. Fig. 2008). their geographical distribution is mainly restricted to Western and Central Europe. 2) Figurine of mammoth found in the Vogelherd cave (Baden-Württemberg. . Adult mammoths and also young individuals were represented both alone and in groups. Ivory figurine of Mammuthus primigenius from P redmost in the Moravian region. The southernmost site yielding engravings of woolly mammoths likely is Los Casares (Guadalajara. where an ivory perforated plaquette is recorded from the open air site of Mal’ta near Irkutsk (Fig. northern Spain). 10). mammoth engravings are recorded in Siberia. the very long trunk and the proportionally small body. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 Fig. Riek in the Vogelherd cave (Baden-Württemberg. 2001). Germany) (Fig. Yakutia) (Abramova. M. Germany) in 2006 (modified from Conard. eFigurines of Mammuthus primigenius in burned clay from Dolní Ve Pavlov in the Moravian region. Czech Republic (modified from Valoch and Lázni ckovàGaletová. 5.

found in the Protomagdalenian layer of the Abri Laugerie-Haute (Dordogne. Fig. with other Magdalenian objects. 1991) but whose actual use is still unclear. 1990). supposed to be ornaments (Bellier et al.b. in the second half of the 19th century (Sieveking. 15% of all sites with cave art vestiges.. Engraving of Mammuthus primigenius on a perforated plaquette of ivory from Mal’ta near Irkutsk.3% of the figurative representations depict woolly mammoths (Tosello and Fritz. Horses are the most frequently represented animals. 12). 14). Fig. primigenius. A fragment of a bâton percé. France). 8. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 65 Fig.2. 11). 1999) followed by the Chauvet cave (Ardèche. 1980). Braun.I. France) with 158 figures (Plassard. Caves showing the greatest number of mammoth representations are the Rouffignac cave (Dordogne. 1986). deer representations are much more frequent than those of M. About 6. The second. facing each other and touching their heads (Peyrony and Peyrony. mostly from France. more schematic. was carved on an antler of the reindeer (Sacchi.c) figurine of Mammuthus primigenius from Avdeevo. 13).1.R. 7. M. 10. France) and Trou de Chaleux in Belgium. Russia (modified from Abramova.15). which were regarded by Bosinski and Fischer (1980) as two fighting animals (Fig.M. 1995). while none has been discovered in Italy so far. Fig. Only a few representations of mammoth are known from the Iberian Peninsula. was discovered. Two Magdalenian perforated bone disks. especially those of herbivores. Two marly figurines of Mammuthus primigenius from Kostienki 1. and have been recorded from 46 caves. eBone (1) and sandstone (2a. the representations of animals dominate. representation differs clearly from the other engravings of woolly mammoth known in Eurasia (Fig. 1938). 1995). 1987) (Fig. Engraving of Mammuthus primigenius on a slate plaquette from Gönnersdorf (Rheinland-Pfalz. only a few tools decorated with mammoths are known to date. Russia (modified from Gvozdover. Two Magdalenian spear-throwers in the shape of a mammoth were found in France at Canecaude I (Aude) and at the Abri Montastruc (Tarn-et-Garonne). 2006). perfectly reproducing the silhouette of a woolly mammoth (Fig. shows two deeply engraved mammoths. . Tools decorated with woolly mammoths In contrast to the figurines and engravings. Russia (modified from Bosinski. 9. The first. Germany) (modified from Bosinski and Fischer. have been found at Raymonden (Dordogne. The mammoth in cave art In the cave art. 2. followed by bison and mammoths (Gély and Azéma. France) with 76 specimens (Gély and Azéma. 2005). The first disk shows engravings of a mammoth on both sides (Fig. 2.3. whereas on the second only a figure of a mammoth is present. 2005). In northern Spain.

66 I.1 and 16. The most northern depiction of Mammuthus primigenius from Berelëkh A in the Sakha Republic. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 2. whose geographical distribution is much more limited than that of the portable art. while the black colour used manganese oxide and charcoal. A dozen caves with cave art are known in Italy. Léopold Chiron discovered some engravings on the walls of the Chabot cave (Gard. Colours were often obtained from mineral components. are the most  eastward caves with cave art known to date (S celinskij and  Sirokov. The yellow colour was obtained from either limonite or goethite. 1984a) (Fig. Techniques in cave art: painting. caves with Paleolithic cave art were discovered for the first time in Great Britain (Bahn and Pettitt. . both in the Southern Ural Mountains. 1990). The cave art In Europe.. 16. 12. especially hematite. Russia (modified from Bosinski and Fischer. some of which nowadays are known as depicting woolly mammoths (Combier. there are figures made by means of different techniques.2. for the first time. 1987).1. the red from ferric oxides. red and black. 1999). France) (modified from Bosinski. 2. in France and in Spain. Painting.M. The Paleolithic painting is based on three fundamental colours: yellow. Braun. Pigments Fig. 2009) and in 2009 in Romania (Besesek et al. providing.2.2. engraving.1. Bâton percé with two depicted wolly mammoths from Laugerie-Haute (Dordogne. Most are located in Western Europe. 1980). engraving and sculpture. France) that he published in 1889. M.2.2. Discovery of engravings in the Chabot cave In 1878. and sculpture.R. 2. 2010).2). In 2003. especially from Sicily (Roussot. Other nuances of colour could be achieved by mixing these colours. a graphic and photographic documentation of paleolithic cave art and identifying some of the Chabot engravings as birds and humans. engraving and sculpture can be present in each cave in combination or singularly. In many cases the Paleolithic artists either modified or integrated the natural relief of the walls in their art works. Fig. 2002). vestiges of Paleolithic cave art are recorded in about 300 caves. Three main techniques were used in cave art: painting. 11. Chiron did not realize the old age of the representations of Chabot cave (Aujoulat. In most caves. The caves of Kapova and Ignatievka.

1999). 14. Saura and Múzquiz. Engraving (1) of Mammuthus primigenius and other lines in the Chabot Cave (Gard. Of particular interest are the strange representations of mammoths (Fig. Plassard. 2002). which were drawn using clayey material (Louis and Drouot. bichrome. 1980). 1987). 1999). Lorblanchet. Interesting silhouettes of woolly mammoths. 2005).M. France) (modified from Bosinski. 17) (see Barrière. Bone disk with engravings of Mammuthus primigenius on each side from Raymonden (Dordogne. Spear thrower in the shape of Mammuthus primigenius from Abri Montastruc (Tarn-et-Garonne. France) (Lorblanchet. 1953). The representations could be either monochrome.I. and its scientific drawing (2) (modified from Roussot. M. used to carve on the rock Fig. 1986). in Spain in the Pindal cave (Asturias) and in Russia in the caves of Kapova and Ignatievka (Combier. 15. Oulen (Gard). 1999.R. Spear thrower in the shape of Mammuthus primigenius from Canecaude I (Aude. Red painted representations are present in the Grande Grotte of Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne). 2007. 2010). 16. 2010). Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 67 Fig. drawn more   frequently in black than in red (Bosinski in S celinskij and Sirokov. 1984b. Baffier and Girad. in general a flint tool. and Cougnac caves (Lot). and paintings (Gély and Azéma. were used to draw outlines or to paint the whole figure. Fig. performed with the aid of a pointed object. France) (modified from Bosinski and Fischer. 13. France). France) (modified from Sacchi. France) are represented as both black silhouettes. The woolly mammoths in the Chauvet cave Fig. 18) and other animals found at the Baume-Latrone cave (Gard. S celinskij and Sirokov. France) (modified from Sieveking. Engraving is a technique of abrasion. or polychrome.   1998. Braun. . (Ardèche. 1999) and in Pech-Merle caves (Lot. 1982. are present in the Rouffignac (Fig.

Plassard. 2004b) described two styles of representations: a realistic and an archaic style. Archaic representation of Mammuthus primigenius from the Baume-Latrone cave (Gard. The scraping technique (raclage in French) is another type of abrasion performed to obtain a kind of chromaticity by scraping the cave wall. 1958. France) (modified from Bosinski. 1910. Cussac (Dordogne). 1993. 18. 1983) (Fig. . 19. apparently interacting. 19). especially from rock shelters in southwestern France. M. 2005). In this case the figures are strongly raised from the plane of the cave wall. Braun. 1982. 17). 2005). the head and the back of the mammoth were drawn in a continuous. A very deep technique of abrasion is the sculpture. 1e9 and 22. Jovelle (Dordogne). The latter are present. wall one or more. France) (modified from White. a number of individuals are represented. Chauvet (Ardèche). and characterized by a silhouette showing a not bloated abdomen and extreme long legs in proportion to the rest of the body (Delluc and Delluc. 17. woolly mammoths are depicted in a very detailed way. while some others were engraved with the fingers into the soft cave walls. 1976. Archaic and realistic representations of mammoth in cave art The mammoth was represented in the caves either as an individual animal or groups. Engraving of Mammuthus primigenius from the Rouffignac cave (Dordogne. 21. Barrière. 2004a. in a plastic way (demi-relief). a number of anatomical details were represented such as eyes. Font-deGaume. Engravings of mammoths are fairly frequent in the cave art. Outline of a realistic representation of Mammuthus primigenius from the Rouffignac cave (Dordogne. 1e2). 2. ears. fine or very deep lines (Fig. together as if they were interacting (see Barrière. France) (Photo and ÓJean Plassard). 20). 1999). Delluc and Delluc. Realistic representations of mammoth are known from Rouffignac. usually dating to the middle or late Magdalenian. In most of these realistic representations. Based Fig. Font-de-Gaume (Dordogne). Conversely to the realistic representations. The only sculpted representation of mammoth was discovered in the Grotte du Mammouth (Dordogne) (Delluc and Delluc. Delluc and Delluc (2004a. Several of such configurations are present in the French caves of Rouffignac. 1993).3. 2004b). In the Chauvet cave there are the only representations of woolly mammoths made using the scraping technique (Gély and Azéma. the archaic ones are depicted in a schematic way. tail and even the “finger” at the end of the trunk (Fig. France) (Photo and Ó Jean Plassard). 1982. single line. Gély and Azéma. The lines drawn on soft rocks with fingers are called finger flutings. in the Rouffignac cave where numerous animals were depicted close Fig. The sculpture technique is known from a few sites.68 I. Plassard. Les Combarelles I (Dordogne). 1991. Les Combarelles and Bernifal (Dordogne.R. Fig. the fur. for instance. 1997. In a realistic representation. France). 20. 1999. Gargas (Haute-Garonne) and Les Trois-Frères (Ariège) (Capitan et al. There are also the dessins cursifs where the trunk.M. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 Fig.. Sculptered mammoth in the demi-relief technic from the Grotte du Mammouth (Dordogne. without indication of anatomical details (Figs. 1999). Bégouën and Breuil. tusks.

2010).. According to Breuil (1952). France) (modified from Delluc and Delluc. Pérez and Smith. M. Some others. the archaic mammoth representations would represent individuals without or reduced fur because of seasonal moulting. La Pasiega and Las Monedas caves. with archaeological layers ranging in age from the Lower Paleolithic to the Bronze Age (Pérez and Smith. 21.5 ka BP. as González (2001). back is gently curved. teeth of P. Other researchers thought that the figure represents either a young mammoth or an individual with reduced fur (Leonardi. higher than the shoulders and with a back profile more or less backwards inclined. which lost weight because of a long winter starvation. such as La Grèze (Delluc and Delluc. 9: Jovelle cave (modified from Lorblanchet. or even a weakly arched abdomen. Braun. 3. as consistently with the presence in the same layer of Mousterian lithic implements (Liberda et al. albeit considering this hypothesis as the most reasonable. The intriguing elephant painting of the El Castillo cave In 1903. Although recent datings demonstrate that at El Castillo the tradition of decorating caves extends back to about 40. the apex of the skull is only slightly higher than the back. Following Delluc and Delluc (2004b). four main different types of representations can be recognized. 4: Pech-Merle Cave. in: Ripoll-Perelló. with some exceptions. and the outline of the Fig. only woolly mammoths are represented in Paleolithic art.8 ka (early Aurignacian period) (Pike et al. Among others. antiquus in Northern Spain during the Upper Paleolithic (see below). 1991). Moreover. H. except for the problematic silhouette of the El . 5: Cougnac cave. Ripoll-Perelló. nearly symmetric abdomen. located on the Mount Castillo (Puento Viesgo. 2012). 1995).7 Æ 3. 2. The archaic representations date to the Aurignacian. 2002). 8: La Grèze cave. on the shape of the abdomen. Gravettian or Solutrean (Delluc and Delluc. Excavations in the entrance hall of the El Castillo cave exposed a detailed. Cantabria. the tusks are short and not much curved.. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 69 Fig. A graphic documentation of the El Castillo Paleolithic representations was provided by the Abbé Henri Breuil (see Alcade del Rio et al.R. or a straight abdomen. Breuil (1952) suggested the figure could represent a straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) because of the general shape of the body. Mammoths and straight-tusked elephants in Southern Europe during the last glacial: a short account In Southern Europe. a mammoth representation is present among other figures of animals depicted in the archaic way. 2004a. 3. whether the painting of the El Castillo cave represents a straight-tusked elephant still remains an unanswered question. Archaic representations of Mammuthus primigenius in the Jovelle cave (Dordogne. 22. 1964. Actually the profile does not clearly depict either a woolly mammoth or a straight-tusked elephant.M.4. and Arco B caves (González Sainz and San Miguel Llamosas. 2001). 1e2: Chabot cave. 1911). antiquus found in the cave dated to about 42. there is no firm evidence of the actual persistence of P. 2005). 1984. Therefore. the outline of the animal was drawn by joining a number of short lines.I. Only one foreleg and hind leg are depicted. showing an arched. 18 m long stratigraphic succession. or an ogival abdomen. Alcade del Rio discovered Paleolithic representations on the walls of the El Castillo cave. 1991). 2004b). differing in this from the outlines frequently depicting woolly mammoths with a roundish head. 6e7: Roucadour cave. The richest sample of archaic representations of woolly mammoths is known from the Chauvet cave (Gély and Azéma. claimed that it is not clear whether the figure represents a mammoth. Examples of archaic representations of Mammuthus primigenius.. the red-brown linear drawing of a proboscidean has been matter of a still open debate (Fig. 2002). In other caves. 23). Chauvet cave. northern Spain) as in the Las Chimineas.

but the extinction of Mediterranean insular species was much later (see below). some residual straight-tusked elephant populations might be present at the time of the first dispersal of modern humans towards and across Europe possibly shortly before the Aurignacian (see e. Since the late last interglacial (MIS 5a). antiquus.g. mammoths and straight-tusked elephants have been an important component of the Eurasian fauna. the marked climate changes that characterised the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic differently affected the expansion/contraction. two belonging to a young individual. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 deciduous temperate forest or Mediterranean evergreen woodland spread during the interglacial phases. a weak support to this hypothesis can be found in the fossil record. Although the silhouette painted on the wall of this Spanish cave somehow evokes a straight-tusked elephant (e.M. The last straight-tusked elephants In the Iberian Peninsula (Fig. in response to climatic cooling and in keeping with vegetation changes over most of Europe. and the extinction of the representatives of these elephant lineages. whose layers frequently yielded late Mousterian or Aurignacian artefacts. their relative abundance was very different because of their different ecological behaviour. from the latest Early Pleistocene to about MIS 3. 1972. populations of Palaeoloxodon antiquus progressively reduced their range to core refugial areas. Straight-tusked elephants prevailed in regions where Fig..70 I. although their ranges largely overlap. representatives of Mammuthus and Palaeoloxodon lineages were infrequently found together in the same local faunal assemblages (LFAs). not-curved tusks. particularly with the differences characterizing the Iberian and Italian artistic and fossil records. 24). but their evolutionary history differs in terms of dispersal. position of the tie). Drawing by H. During the long period of their coexistence. Stringer.1. located in Southern Europe. Braun. 24). 1911).g. but not exclusively. Therefore. M. 3. were retrieved along with Aurignacian artefacts from layer 18 (Altuna. In the El Castillo cave. The intriguing elephant painting of the El Castillo cave (Cantabria. 1982). dispersion. the most recent Palaeoloxodon remains have mainly been found in cave sedimentary successions. but not paintings. and timing of final extinction. primigenius) mainly inhabited more open steppe-tundra environments. 23. Spain). except for the El Castillo cave mentioned above (Fig. head nearly in line with the gently arched back. three molariform teeth of P. small. Breuil (modified from Alcade del Rio et al. Since their appearance. Middle to late Pleistocene populations of mammoths (Mammuthus trogontherii and M. 24. Straight-tusked elephants lasted until about 37e?32 ka on mainland. This is consistent with the Late Pleistocene fossil record of Elephantini in each region. Therefore. last stands in different regions. Bernaldo de Quiros. engravings or objects representing elephants.R. In the LFAs where both were present. . 2008). mainly. the dispersal. Map showing the distribution of Iberian and Italian sites yielding the latest remains of Palaeoloxodon antiquus (as source of data see references in text). Fig. A number of numerical dates performed with radiocarbon and ESR on some remains found in levels 18 and 20. as well as in the underlining Mousterian levels 22 and 23 (Cabrera- Castillo cave.

whether H. southern Latium). The specimen described by these authors as a molar plate actually is a portion.. except for the rich samples of Pámanes (Liérganes.. and with the very reduced range of the few long. The southernmost findings. roughly the same time during which the latest M. while the species was rare in southernmost Europe especially during the LGM. because the marine sediments were likely deposited during an interglacial substage (either MIS 5e or 5c) predating the last glacial (Pinto Llona and Aguirre. Stuart. 1999). 3. In Greece. It is worth noting. 1977). dwarf elephants have been supposed to have survived on Cyprus to the end of the Pleistocene ca. 2012). À310 BP. southern Latium) (Blanc et al. P. the species is reported from levels yielding Mousterian artifacts (Saenz de Buruaga. antiquus coexisted in the region still remains to be confirmed.. primigenius in Paraskevaidis. 2012 and references therein for the most recent critical inventory) (Fig..I. antiquus are not significantly younger. for instance. but it is not recorded during the last glacial phase (Doukas and Athanassiou. 1920. antiquus in Southern Europe was the molariform tooth found at Foz do Enxarrique (Portugal). are those of Padul (Granada) (Álvarez-Lao et al. Stuart. Palombo and Ferretti. indicate that the Palaeoloxodon teeth are slightly older than 40 ka. 2008). 2009) (see below). maybe to about 3. but likely much older (see Stuart. At Olha (Laburdi. Farina.M. are recorded in the central Iberia peninsula (few sites in Portugal and in the Madrid area).2. 2010.57 ka obtained for a partial skeleton found in marine deposits of Cueva de la Silluca Buelna (Asturias) could be rejected in the absence of further confirmatory evidence. the not significantly younger molar plate from Gruta da Figueira Brava (ca. At Pámanes. Markova et al. one well preserved mandible with the last molariform teeth (M3). Evangelia Tsoukala et al. coming from the Kiev-Telichka locality. and that the doubtful identification of the elephant painted on the wall of the cave cannot confidently support the hypothesis of a longer survival of the species in northern Spain.. where an unworn upper molar plate was found in layers dated at about 33e34 ka. and any radiometric dating failed because the molar fragment contains no collagen. A large fragment of tusk and a molariform tooth were found in layer V of Cova Negra (Valencia. Conversely. was assigned to the latest MIS 5a (Caloi and Palombo. their dwarf insular descendants lasted on some Mediterranean islands much more than their ancestors on the mainland. 2005). Schwarcz et al. 2003.R. the woolly mammoth fossil record is extremely poor and limited to the northernmost Greek regions (Fig. whose age would be slightly younger than the youngest radiocarbon dates available for specimens from the Netherland (37. where a fragment of tusk and an incomplete molar were found at Aggìtis (Drama) in a possibly late glacial fauna. 18 ka or later (¼“Palaeoloxodon chaniensis” in Symeonides et al. primigenius are much more abundant and have been reported from at least 25 sites (see Álvarez-Lao and García. Rink et al. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 71 Valdés et al. along with a nearly complete skull seriously damaged during the archaeological excavation. 2010). 2003). 1977). the woolly mammoth remains. only scanty remains were found.. mandibles.. indeed. the virtual lack of P. Another small fragment of an unworn plate is too incomplete to allow any firm identification. Woolly mammoth remains were mainly retrieved from karst deposits in a number of caves located in the northernmost Spanish regions (Cantabrian area and Catalonia). 2011). of a fallow deer antler. Conversely.. while an age older than 54 ka has been suggested for the specimens found in the uppermost portion of the sedimentary succession cropping out at “Canale delle Acque Alte” (Pontina plain. southern Italy). In the Iberian Peninsula. Scanty remains are reported in Eastern Macedonia. 2003 and references therein. at about 18 ka. a site located at about 37 N (see Doukas and Athanassiou. at about 37 N. 1981). M. Braun. 1912.11e10 ka (Reese. Palaeoloxodon “mnaidriensis” disappeared on Sicily around 32 ka (Bonfiglio et al. . Skulls and postcranial bones are less frequent. Kahlke. Perez Ripoll. 1997.. 2012) include. Casa Eulogio and Padul sites (Fig. antiquus during late MIS 3 is documented by the findings of Foz do Enxarrique. the available data indicate that straight-tusked elephants had disappeared from Southern Europe long before the onset of the LGM. antiquus has also been reported from “Layer b” of Ingarano cave (Apulia. 2011). 25). and on Tilos Palaeoloxon tiliensis persisted during the Holocene. 24). P. Mol et al. 1998). generally consisting of few molariform teeth. primigenius has been claimed as also present in Southern Greece at Megalopolis (Peloponnes). Theodorou et al. 25). In the eastern Iberian Peninsula. remains of M. including among others Coelodonta antiquitatis (Koufos. taking into account that the youngest known stratigraphical record of Palaeoloxodon in El Castillo cave shortly predates the first appearance of Homo sapiens in the area (see Pike et al. two tusks. Arriaga. 2001. A recent geochemical analysis performed on the remains stored in the Museum of Paleontology and Geology of Athens University demonstrated that these woolly mammoth specimens were not found in the Megalopolis region. ca. as supported by the radiometric (U-series) and ESR dating available for this site (average age ca. antiquus is among the dominant taxa during the last interglacial. that the radiocarbon date of 23. and more or less fragmentary tusks. 2005 for a discussion). 2008). Álvarez-Lao and García. The other most recent Iberian remains of P.4. given as a present to the Greek University’s Museum (Iliopoulos et al. In most localities. fully adult individual (Carballo. 2007). 2005. mostly inhabiting treeless steppe-tundra environments. 1999. Liberda et al. 1995 and references therein. already correlated with MIS 4 (Aguire. 27. 1999. The woolly mammoth from the Iberian and Italian peninsulas During the last glacial woolly mammoth populations. 1996. País Vasco). but are part of the collection of Ukrainian fossils. as continental Europe. The molariform tooth from the Neanderthal site of Grotta Guattari (Circeo. there is no compelling evidence for a survival of straight-tusked elephants later than MIS 5a to MIS 4 transition (Fig. Cantabria) (Carballo.. Brugal and Raposo.5 ka (Theodorou and Symeonides. transversally cut.440 þ 350. sapiens and P. 2009). All in all. Caloi and Palombo. one pelvis. 2001 and references therein). Made van der and Mazo. and in the Penios valley (Eastern Thessalia) near Stomio (¼Elephas (Mammontheus) cf. 30e31 ka) cannot confidently be ascribed to the species (Cardoso. when. 2001). In the Italian peninsula. 2010).. 2001)... claimed to have deposited during MIS 4 (Petronio and Sardella. woolly mammoth populations dramatically contracted their range or even disappeared in Western Europe (see e. while a few finds. In Greece.. the presence of P. on Crete a population slightly reduced in size has been claimed to be present during the LGM. Accordingly. The age of this remain is uncertain because the stratigraphic relationship of Layer b with the sedimentary succession assigned to MIS 2 and 3 is unclear. Doukas and Athanassiou. dating to the late MIS 3 (25. 1912.g. mainly coming from alluvial deposits. 1968/69. 25). 1957. Harlé. 2000. southeastern Spain). 1912) and Padul (Granada) (Álvarez-Lao et al.. 1991). one tibia and one femur likely belonging to a single. 2005. 1996. with complete tusks only recovered at Pámanes. As a result. antiquus in the Paleolithic art is roughly consistent with the timing of its extinction on the mainland.surviving populations of European straight-tusked elephants. Álvarez-Lao and García.6 cal ka BP. Sousa and Figueiredo. 57 ka (Æ6 ka). 2012). were widely spread across Northern Eurasia. primigenius inhabited Wrangel Island (Vartanyan et al. 1995) or to the beginning of MIS 4. 2007). Therefore it seem that the latest record of P.. 1920). M. 1999.

M. M. some isolated. it is certain that woolly mammoth populations were spread in northern Iberia in a time span including the Heinrich event 2 and most of the LGM. intermedius in Sesé and Soto. three mandibles and a number of limb bones. primigenius.). Solutrean and Lower Magdalenian archaeological contexts) are almost exclusively located in northern Spain.or was the last representative of a former population that inhabited Portugal since MIS 3. This finding. 25). representing the southernmost remains of woolly mammoth thus far known in Iberia. 38 ¼ Canale delle Acque Alte.g Aldehuela locality. primigenius mainly dated to the last glacial.72 I. The Iberian findings of M. Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 Fig.R. along with a few remains of steppe bison (Bison priscus). Italian Greek sites yielding Mammuthus primigenius remains (as source of data see references in text). 17 ¼ Butarque. ranging in age from 30. 33 ¼ Buca della Iena. 21 ¼ Edar Culebro.6 cal ka BP). Braun. 2 ¼ Las Caldas. various sites. M. older in age (MIS 6) (mainly teeth but also a skull with mandible). Morim. were retrieved. Whatever the actual age of Algar de Joa Ramos M. 1992). 32 ¼ Settepolesini. 12 Labeco Coba. 7e11 ¼ Udìas. primigenius became much more abundant. Italy: 26 ¼ Arene Candide. as at Riparo Tagliente (Veneto). dated at about 100 ka (Álvarez-Lao and García. 23 ¼ Algar de Jo ao Ramos. primigenius is mostly recorded during MIS 4 and 3 by few. as well as at the sites of Butarque and Edar Culebro. those dated between about 28 and 18 ka cal BP (mostly found in Late Gravettian. various sites. or early Late Pleistocene (e. In central Spain (Madrid province) woolly mammoth remains have been reported from sites whose age have been estimated by stratigraphic correlations to be either late Middle Pleistocene (e. Woolly mammoths likely dispersed towards Iberia at that time following a northern dispersal route and extending their range to those territories where the most significant Iberian representations of woolly mammoth are known. 19 ¼ Aldehuela. The molar fragment found at Cueto de la Mina is slightly older. although archaic representatives of the species have been recorded at the transition from the Middle to Late Pleistocene (Sesé and Soto. 30 ¼ Asolo. 2012). primigenius in the Iberian Peninsula. Asolo (Treviso. and La Lloseta (from about 20. Most of the Iberian woolly mammoth remains date to MIS 3 and 2. Whether the mammoth from Algar de Joa Ramos would belong to a population that dispersed from central Europe towards the Iberian Peninsula about 16 ka BP . 15 ¼ L’Albreda. 2005. El Cierro. primigenius reoccupied some of the western European territories it had withdrawn during the LGM . 2002a. 1992. Pámanes.4 cal ka BP. 25 ¼ Cruz Quebrada. Minas de Heras. the Iberian fossil record of M. La Lloseta. dating at about 23. Greece: 41 ¼ Penios valley (Eastern Thessalia). 24 ¼ Figueria Brava. Map showing the distribution of selected Iberian. from swamp clayey deposits cropping out at different sites in the Padul Basin. During the last glacial. primigenius in Southern o Europe at that time. Palombo and Ferretti.when M. as well as in Europe. 35 ¼ Arezzo.6 to 40. would represent the only occurrence of M. 2009). M. Algar de Joa a fragment of femur showing extensive gnawing. Casa Eulogio and Arriaga localities). M. . 2009 and references therein) (Fig. is a still o unanswered question. findings. primigenius remains dated to the late LGM were found in the Asturias region (northern Spain) in the Lower Magdalenian levels of Las Caldas (about 20e17 ka cal BP). 2002b). 39 ¼ Veroli. The woolly mammoth remains. In Italy. Woolly mammoth remains have been found associated with Mousterian tools. although a molar plate ascribed to this species has been reported from a Mousterian level of the Arbreda cave (Gerona) (Álvarez-Lao and García.. 2010. Mina Angel. 18 ¼ Casa Eulogio. 22 ¼ Padul. 2010). 16 ¼ cau de lesGoyes. primigenius was possibly present around 14 ka BP at o Romaos (Antunes and Cardoso. a complete and a fragmentary tusk. if not reworked. M. 37 ¼ Tarquinia.g. there is no firm evidence of the presence of M. 27 ¼ Po valley. red deer (Cervus elaphus) and a medium sized horse (Equus sp. The Padul specimens. consist of a few molariform teeth. 40 ¼ Cardamone. belonging to at least four adult males (Álvarez-Lao et al. 14 ¼ Clot de Llop. 2002a). During the following early Late Pleistocene. 2012 and references therein). 3e6 ¼ La Güelga. but whereas those ranging in age between about 30 and 43 ka cal BP spread from the northern to southern Iberian Peninsula. and showing some archaic features have been ascribed to this species (see Reggiani and Sala. Some other remains. In the westernmost Iberian Peninsula. 28 ¼ Adda Valley (Cremona). until the beginning of the last glacial. 20 ¼ Arriaga. Cueto de la Mina. 36 ¼ Torrente Conca. 2012 and references therein). when the climate registered cold and dry phases and steppe environments dominated the landscape (see Álvarez-Lao and García. ¼ Mammuthus cf. Mussi and Villa.2 to 17. Spain: 1 ¼ Bujàn. mainly in the extant Basque territories. 29 ¼ Riparo Taglinte.5 ka cal BP (Álvarez-Lao and García. 42 ¼ Aggìtis (Drama) (see references in text). 31 ¼ Vidor. 13 ¼ Urtiagako Lleizea. 25.

while.800 to 33. 2000). B. Microtus oeconomus. possibly correlatable with MIS 4 cropping out at S. primigenius is known from the alluvial deposits cropping out at Torrente Conca (Cattolica). Farina. Bison priscus. Moreover. The fact that some M. ivory figurines are known from a number of sites in the Czech Republic and the Russian plain. or because the Ligurian Apennines. primigenius spread southward along the Adriatic coast to about 40 220 N. a few proboscidean bones (a second phalanx. The bones are not diagnostic and have been ascribed to the woolly mammoth mainly because of the age of the deposit. Palombo unpublished data). Anna. Among the most interesting remains is an incomplete mandible with the penultimate molars found during a well excavation at S. In general. the lack of numerical dates as well as of associated artifacts makes it difficult to ascertain the chronology of this woolly mammoth. 4. the hypothesis that a few individuals could have dispersed from the lower Rhone valley to reach the easternmost Ligurian territories is reasonable. the high lamellar frequency and thin. At Riparo Tagliente (Grezzana. and. The abundance in these layers of Cervus elaphus.950 Æ 600 BP (Stuart. 1977. but the radiocarbon date of 38. primigenius populations actually inhabited the Italian peninsula after MIS 3 is still an open question. Reggiani and Sala. a few M. primigenius about 32 years old (Reggiani and Sala. engraving and sculpture). Palombo / Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 61e76 73 Veneto). Palombo and Ferretti. Latina.g. for instance. while figurines of mammoth made by using clay are only known in the Moravian region and those of marl only more eastward in the Russian plain. quite humid climate conditions. Remarks Although a rich Upper Paleolithic iconography testifies to a long coexistence of humans and M. Veroli) and 41 280 N (Canale Acque alte. M. antiquus) and in the overlying level correlated with MIS 3 (Blanc et al. No numerical dates are available for the Cardamone fauna. 1977) in the neighborhood of Pagano d’Asolo (Asolo. such as the elevated number of plates. Ferrara) (Gallini and Sala. close to the modern boundary with southern France.M. and Alces alces found a deposit at Settepolesini di Bondeno (eastern Po Valley. Coelodonta antiquitatis. north-western Italy). that Rangifer tarandus is recorded in Italy only in this region (Sala. In north Italy. Capreolus capreolus and Alces alces. for instance. the still unanswered question arises why any dispersion event from East Europe allowed the presence of M. The southernmost findings on the Tyrrhenian side of the Italian peninsula are between 41 410 N (S. 2001. primigenius was still present in Italy during MIS 3. but the avifauna indicates temperate-cold.. At Buca della Iena the fossiliferous bed. the presence of a “mammoth steppe” during MIS 3 is indicated by the fauna with M. primigenius remains has been retrieved in layers correlated with MIS 4 (the same layers with P. 2000. southern Latium). M. leading to the emergence of an extensive part of the Adriatic platform. indicate a moderately humid.R. represented a severe barrier to be crossed by these elephants. 2005). There is no stratigraphic control for the deposit. 1957. 1931). 1992). During the Gravettian. Together with other species (e. In central Italy. 1983. Finally. primigenius at least in northwestern Italy during MIS 2. which separates Liguria from the Po Valley. while cave art is mostly known from South West Europe. 2005). the main documentation comes from numerous caves located in France and in Spain. especially in France and northern Spain. Tuscany). Another partial skeleton of a 35 old male was retrieved in 1973 from lacustrine deposits. 1971). Verona) two fragments of plates of a young mammoth were found associated with Mousterian lithic implements within the lowermost layers (levels 52 to 31) of a long stratigraphic succession. Venzo. most of the other MIS 4 and 3 localities yielded only isolated dental and skeletal remains. ranging in age from the Mousterian to the Epigravettian (Capuzzi and Sala. was found in 1878 together with a few Mousterian flakes (Dal Piaz. but the carved objects have been supposed to be imported from elsewhere (Mussi et al. a possible fragment of a patella. Rustioni et al. Megaloceros giganteus. Pontina plane. depictions of mammoth are only known in the form of ivory figurines in the Swabian Alps region (South West Germany). primigenius herds could reach Liguria from southern France does not necessarily imply that they further dispersed to other parts of the Italian peninsula.830 BP). During the Aurignacian. Coelodonta antiquitatis. near Veroli (Frosinone. while the Levallois implements associated with the skeleton fit well into either MIS 4 or 3 (see Mussi and Villa. The uncertainty regarding the precise stratigraphic position of the finding. personal communication to MRP in 2004) indicates a correlation with MIS 3. Woolly mammoths might be confined to eastern Liguria either because the low number of individuals inhabiting the region did not allowed a range extension. the frequency of representations of M. and except for eastern Liguria. Treviso. Valpantena. All things considered. primigenius left by H. (2003) hypothesized that the faunal assemblage could date to the LGM because of the absence of Equus hydruntinus and Dama dama. The most eastward . whether some M. highly creased enamel (Palombo and Ferretti. a few sites in the Marche region. together with the presence of Marmota marmota. Therefore. The available radiocarbon dates confirm that M. Treviso). and in the Arezzo basin (Tuscany) (De Giuli. Caloi and Palombo.. Woolly mammoth was likely present in Liguria. At “Canale delle Acque Alte”. Anna. containing Mousterian lithic implements. Montecatini Terme (Lucca). a skeleton of a female of M. sapiens during the Upper Paleolithic (ca. the typology of portable art representations and the rough material used to produce the objects differed during time and across space. pending a confirmation about the actual age of the Cardamone woolly mammoth. 35. 1994). Ferretti. and Buca della Iena near Mommio (Lucca. The direct radiocarbon date of about 27. an epiphysis fragment and two shaft splinters) have been found (Cassoli and Tagliacozzo. primigenius (14C dates on mammoth bones range from ca. Apulia)... 1982). temperate-cold climate (Fiore et al. although no radiocarbon dating is available. 2005 and references therein). As regards the three main techniques of cave art (painting. especially considering. The material can be confidently referred to M. Bartolomei et al. 2011). objects of portable art are known from numerous European regions. most engravings and tools decorated with mammoths are reported from Western and Central European Magdalenian sites. 35 ka to 11 ka) as portable and cave art varies in either number of representations and their geographical distribution. no compelling evidence indicates its presence since the LGM. 2001). A few mammoth ivory ornaments and female figurines have been also recorded in easternmost Gravettian sites of the Ligurian coast. 2009 for a discussion). Veneto) (Venzo. priscus) M.I. is younger than 41 ka (Pitti and Tozzi. Giovanni di Valdobbiadine (Vidor. 2004). Braun. At the Gravettian Arene Candide site (Liguria. 1992). primigenius during the last glacial in most of central Eurasia and even in southern Europe.8 ka obtained for the mammoth remains has to be rejected because the bones were consolidated using fish glue. as documented by the findings of some bones of young mammoths at Cardamone (Lecce. 1980. 1922. Souther Latium) (Biddittu and Celletti. The dispersal of cold adapted taxa throughout the Po Valley was likely permitted due to the lowering of the sea level during glacial stadials. believed too recent for yielding straight-tusked elephant remains. Sicista betulina. In the alluvial deposits dated to the Last Glacial (cf. primigenius on the basis of the derived character of the molars. Excluding Asolo and Vidor. 1995.

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