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THE LIBRARY

OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
GIFT OF

The Estate of
David Prescott Barrows

BISAYAN GRAMMAR
n

sox.

u t E

Bisayan Rhetoric and Poetics


AX

>

Filipino Dialectology

BY

NOBBEBTO EOMUAIDEZ,
Provincial

Fiscal of Leyte,

P.-

B. A.

r
I.

Attorney -at- Law

Formerly

Drrector of

"San Jose" College of Takloban

ProfessDr

<i:n

rial

At not

to

of Latin

$uch a truant since

know

tin-

lattffuage

my comhig
I

have

lie'

it

in.

SHAKES PEA UK.

1908.

Pag Pahayag" Co.-Taklobas

Copyright
!v

.K)8

NORBKRTO ROMUALDKZ

All Rights of Publication

and Translation Reserved.

GIFT

PL 5(* 23

YOUTH OF SAMAR AND LEYTE


who

are clearly demonstrating aspirations

for a brighter future thru education


this
in the

hope that

it

book

is

dedicated,

may give

a stimulus to their work

and an incentive to appreciate what

is

best in their language

as well as in the hope that, at a future day,

some one of them may be

fitted to

do

this

work

better than here presented.

The Avthoh

.430

Ill

IXTROULTrjTOX
The publication

Bisayan grammar has been eagerlydesired by those who are


interested simply in the study of a native dialect.
It has
been needed by all Americans who desire an acquaintance
with the language of the people among whom they live id
awaited by many.

of a

order that they

may

mass

as

of

English.

natives
It

has been

It

get

yet

has been

into

closer

touch with

the great

unable to speak either Spanish or


reque^terl by many natives who wish

improve their use of their mother tongue. To all such,


the present volume will prove of great value.
The author is recognized throughout Samar and Leyte
as one of the highest authorities on the Samarefio dialect.
His statements may therefore be accepted as authoritative
His treatment of prefixes and suffixes, of similar words with
different meanings, and of the various forms of the verb
are especially interesting and valuable.
Romu;ildez may be able
It is hoped that Mr. Norberto
to carry oul his intention of putting out a combined grammar and language book designed especially for those just
beginning the study of Bisayan. Such a work in conjunction
with the present grammar would immensely facilitate the
acquisition of a speaking knowledge of the dialect.

to

W. W.

MARQUARDT,

Division Superintendent of Schools,

REMARKS

PREFATORY

book is not intended to be a complete grammar,


an elementary work containing a collection of
some principles governing tbe formation of the words and
This

but

only

is

construction of tbe sentences ui. the Bisayan (*) dialect


spoken on the islands of Sama/ and nearly half of Leyte,
by about four hundred thousand people.
At random and at odd intervals as the author's time
permitted, he arranged, more or less in a logical grammatical order, the material
gather d. Bearing in mind that
there has never been any previous treatise on this subject
worthy the name, the whole field therefore remaining practhe

unexplored,

tically

of

the

in

this

any

field

be

surprising

short

that the use of

has

period

left

much

However, what has been collected


be found to be of primary importance to

undeveloped.

book will

one

desiring

gain

to

acquaintance with

quick

the

immediate practical use. After a careful study


the many examples under the different rules, coupled

dialect
of

will not

it

moments covering only a

spare

for

with a continuous practice, th user


at the ease with
a stranger

he
an
if
he is a Filipino how clear and
Asiatic
dialect, and
logical is one of the most spoken dialects
in his Mother-land.
The author had no intention of launching this work at
the present time; but it is done at the behest of his American friends who have urged him to issue what has been
will

is

he

collected,

that

this

( ,v)

\i

tor

no

material

We w

V or

treati-e

t j

*./Liud

>

of

what

is

inten

and

grammar

of

be

available

for

may

flisayan,
tu
of

if

acquires

portion only

be a onipletj

surprised

be

which

-m!
ultimately to
Bisayan, in order
1

use of persons

the

and not V sayan, for the reason, among others. that there
uur dii.Iect, and that there beema to be no necessity

changing- in English the

of

the original Bisaya into

V.

VI
taking an

interest

am on means
between

feeling
Tl,

is

it-

very
the

nity

the

limited

material and

sufficient

admitted
opportu-

has not

time

because

extent,

of

the

of

weigh the relative values and eliminate the exceptions

the

rubs.
Rhetoric and

on

>eties

Dialectology consisting

lipino

not in

divided into the usual parts: orthography, prosody,


Some of these parts have been treated

topics are treated:

An appendix has been added where two

of

newcomer.

is

and syntax.

collection

to

from

subjects

different

the

of

didactic form generally used in this class of works.


Thus the
ply due to the lack of sufficient time.

rn

of

communication, which
bom here and the

people

jition

11

promotes a better

of

the

about

bringing

thereby

Islands,

the

in

reference

dialect in

this

knowledge

of

first

Bisayan

are intended

second

the

one

Tagalog,

The

tipelago.

the

in

to

Bisayan, and notes on Fishort comparative study

of

common

of

sister-

its

notes

are

designed

after

the

grammar

show the

to

possibi-

language (*)
out of
the different dialects scattered thruout the Archipelago, in a similar way as the Modern High German has
out of the main primitive groups Frisian and
i,
Prankish, Hessian, and Thuringian, and Alemanhian
and Bavarian.
have to repeat that our work is far from being
of

lity

ition

t]

of

Filipino

'

mplete,

on

account

circumstance,

have
at

tl

book are
Othei

all

to
I

of

be

(*)

in

printing

from

any
marks
two sources pointed out by Horace
.

human

laek

to

industry,

tie-

of

humnna parum

time.

work

this

quas aut incuria

Aut

errors

which we have tried to correct


ling Evrntn.
But we sincerely
the mistakes that may be found in

book,

this

admit that not

of lack of sufficient time.

many

Like

bears

adit,

cavit natnra.

formed lately

in

Manila for this purpose.

VI

Acknowledgement is hereby made for the help rendered


by Messrs. W. W. Marquardt, Div. Superintendent of Schools
of Leyte, P.
I.,
Fred Shoemaker, and H. W. Halbourg,
in correcting part of the proof, and for the collaboration of
Mr. Henry E. Neibert, Former American Teacher of Jaro,
Leyte, P. I. whose knowledge of both tongues, English and
Bisayan, added much material to the work.
Hoping that this little volume may be of interest and
real help, it is offered to an indulgent public for what it
is

worth.

rjVowevto zJComualc/eic

Takloban, Province

of Leyte,

Philippine Islands.

November

8,

1908.

IX

CONTENTS
PAGE.

DEDICATION
INTRODUCTION

Ill

PREFATORY REMARKS

CONTENTS

IX.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PROSODY


BETTERS
THE ACCENTS

PUNCTUATION
VOWELS
SYLLABLES

3
o
."

CAPITALIZATION
CONTRCTIONS

ETi'MUJ.W';

PARTS OF SPEECH
ARTICLES
Deelension
.

Diminutive

10

Figurative
Verbal

13

'.impound

22

12

Derivative.

Common

Proper and

i9

Comparative, and Superlative

Positive,

32

Cardinal, Ordinal, Partitive, and Distributive


Collective
(lender

85
38
>

Somber

48

...

;|M-.

ll

Important Observation
Transposition of Accents

43

yvi.i-v

47

41

....

Personal.

Demonstrative

|s

ve
Relative.
'oatractions

50

lion. -V
,

Is

and

R]

Si

\.-iiv

.11

Active
D .-.-I Passive

'

Table
Table
Table
Table
tie

"o

4.--Progressive Direct Passive


5.~Prtiaitive Indirect Passive
(^-Progressive Indirect Passive

W
W

".--Primitive Instrumental Passive


8. -Progressive Instrumental Passive

78

82

Forms

84

Suppletory Verbs

Pronominal Form

Adverbial Form
Observation.

Impersonal Verbs
Defective

? fi

80

Negative Forma
[nterrogative

Verbs.

84
81
87

88

,....

88

Other classes of Verbs


Active Voice

89
90

Passive
Indirect Passive
Instrumental Passive
Depreciative Verbs

93

Direct

9r>

90

96

Adverb

97

Preposition

98

Conjunction

98

interjection

99

Syntax
Subjective relation
Predicative relation
attributive relation
Complementary relation

100
too

100

101

Adverbial relation
Representative relation

102

102

onkectite relation
Absolute and independent constructions
BlNTAZ OF verbs
Arrangement of words

108

103
108
105

VIOLATIONS OF GOOD USE

105

Barbarism
FOREIGN WORDS

Foreign word* inneeessarily used in Bisayam

Spanish words
Chinese words
English words
Foreign construction*
Foreign words necessarily used

108

105
'.

100
L06

m
in

112
in JHsayati

112

APPENDIX
NOTES ON BISAYAN RHETORIC AND POETIC8

117

Figures op Speech

n:

Prose

123

Lett*

Poetic forms
Versification

Collection op some BisayaN songs'


Moral Poetry

121

128

128
124
124

XI
PAGE
Philosophic Poetry
Love Poetry

125
,

Sundry

126

NOTE OX FILIPINO DIALECTOLOGY


Words exactly the same in Bisayan and
Words with some dialectal differences

128

in Tagalog

128

130

Differences in the vowels i, o


Differences ink, h, l,r, d,t
Differences in the accent, and in the separation of the syllables.
Transformation from a to o and viceversa
.

ERRATA

125

130
.

131

132
132

188

ORTHOGRAPHY AJSD PROSODY.


LETTERS.
The Bisayan
a,

as

a in large

ng, as

b 1
c

h, as

as in English

e,

as e in

twenty: (*)

letters are

i,

well

fl-

in /o/?^

o,

Aat

in

as

p, as in

sounding ee

in

long

English

qu. as the Efigiish

i
i

as in English

\-

as in English

g,

as

in #-otx/

n
u,

in good
young

sounding oo as
y, as _f in

to the nature of the Bisayan dialect and according to what


philologists have written, Rizal among them, referring to the diaPhilippines,
the letters of the Bisayan language must be the following
lects in the

(#)

According

some Filipino

a, b, d, e, g. g,

h,

i,

k,

1,

m,

n, o, p,

r,

s.

t,

u, y, w.

As it cin be notice I, the letters c. f, j, n, q, v, x and z arc omitted from


the preceding list, and g and w are introduced. The reason for this is as follows:
its sound as in city, can be substituted by the letter s; and, in its
c, in
sound like c in cup, it can be substituted by k.
f
is never used in Bisayan.
in its Spanish sound, can be substituted by h, which has an aspirate
j,
pronunciation in Bisayan In all cases. In Bisayan, there is no sound like that
of the English j; however, in some places on the western and soutbern coasts
of Leyte, the y is pronounced like the English j, as in maayo (pronounced nxahah-joh) good.
The Spanish letter n, or a sound like it, can be written in Bisayan more
properly with the combination of these two letters ny, as in viinyo (pr. mean-yo)
married.
q is not necessary, since the k can be used in all cases, where q is needed.
The phrase quiquitaon co (I shall see it) can be perfectly written kikilaon ko.
v is never used in Bisayan.
x, in its Spanish sound, can be substituted by ks; and, in its English sounds,
it can be substituted by as or ks, respectively.
in either its English or its Spanish sound, is never used in Bisayan.
z,
The y is for the nasal sound that is very often used in Bisayan, like the
ng in song, longing. Tbe g is preferable to the combination ng, which would
sometimes lead to confusion; because this combination ng in Bisayan, is not
pronounced as one letter, in many instances, but each of these letters is pronounced as, for example, the word buga (fruit), if written bunga, should sound boongghah, which means to dart or to bt darted.
w is needed in all ca<es of sounds like Spanish dipthongs; but it must be
used In Bisayan always as a consonant, never as a vowel.
Notwithstanding the preceding considerations, the orthography used in this
book is the old one. bat simplified to a certain extent, on account of the fact
that this alphabet (if it can be properly called an alphabet, it having no/ or sound
of /) is not yet used, even known, but by very few persons among the Bisayan
speaking people.
It would be very desirable for the people to adopt the new orthography proposed in this note, because it is evidently more simple and proper for the 'particular nature of the Bisayan dialect.
(Continual on page 2.)
;

knowing the respective sounds

After

cording

preceding table, no rule


Bisnyfeo words.

the

to

pronunciation

these letters, ac-

of
is

necessary for the

<<f

THE ACCENTS.
The orthographical accent
Baynn,

in

order to give

important sign in Hitheir proper pronun-

an

is

the words

to

meaning.
the Bisapronouncing
Of
way,
ordinary
the
is
one
ways:
two
are
there
yan vowels,
consequently,

and,

ciation,

the emission of

that

like

the

of

proper

their

the voiee

English

in

vowels,

as

in

haga

(red-hot coal or wood),

dinhi
olo

(here),

(head),

and the other

is

by a

guttural suspended emission of the voice, like


the last a in

ha^a

the last

diri

in

the last o in toro

(lungs),
(not or no), and

(drop).

This guttural pronunciation


of

From
cing the
ced,

it

four

only used

endings

in the

the various combinations of these

of

pronoun-

sounds:

1st.

As ordinarily, and without any

'2nd.

As ordinarily, but with force in its pronunciation.


By a guttural suspended emission of the voice,

8rd,

without
4th.

with

ways

vowels and the force with which they are pronounfollows that a vowel, no matter which one it is, has

different

and

particular

force.

force.

By

a guttural

suspended emission

of the voice,

and

force.

(Continued from

a study
to

is

words.

"f

be desired, as

i>n<je 1.)

method of reducing tin- number of IMsayan vowels is also


seems that not more than three are needed, to wit: a, e or <, or

this
It

The nature oi the Blsayan tongue argues for such a simplicity. Dr. t. h.
pardb de Tavera, referring to the ancient Filipino alphabet, says: 'The alphabet
was composed <>f seventeen letters, three of which were vowels, a consonant
standing alone was always pronounced with an a sound following; by the use of
lie consonant stem, iw much the
fame fashion
B do) or dash near and above
lie sound of the a. the sound
us is used in certain systems of short hand, instead of
of the vowels e <>r i was produced; when the dot or dash was placed below the
consonanl tstem the vowel Found given waa equivslcnl to o or u." (See Cemus
1903 Volume one. page 327)
of the Philippine Islands:
I


The
cent in

each case.

the

al

sound,

is

the grave

acute

When

And

sign.

ac-

pronounced as ordinarily, but with

is

than others

is

any orthographical

require a special orthographical

vowel

force

need

not

three ones

last

When
inure

way does

first

But the

in

the

same word, the proper accent

(').

vowel

pronounced with a suspended gutturwithout any force, the corresponding accent

but

is

y
).

when

a
vowel is pronounced with a suspended
sound with force, its accent is the circumflex ( A ),
which is simply the combination of the two foregoing accents, as this last represents a sound that is the combination of the two sounds; suspended guttural and with force.
Therefore, in writing the word quita, for example, in
its three different meanings and according to its three dif-

guttural

ferent

pronunciations,

quita (we)

RULE.
the

acute

as

three

are

grave

the

accents

different

(f)\

and the

improperly circumflex ( A ).
The acute is located wherever
the beginning or in the middle or
word. Examples:

may

follows:

quita (look

quita (see)

There
(')

must be

it

at).

Bisayan:

in

angular,

which we

call

upa

upa (reward)

it

is

at

needed, either

at

ending of the

the

(rice chaff).

The grave and angular, by their nature, are only used


upon words ending in a vowel, and then only upon the
last vowel.
Examples:
a

daco

daco

(large),

(larger)

PUNCTUATION.
The signs

punctuation

of

those

in

English,

colon

(:),

semicolon

quotation marks

the

rules

(;),

(" ")

comma

and

in

for

Bisayan
the

(,),

are

use of

parenthesis

apostrophe

(')

tl

same

the period
( ),

dash

as
(.),

being identical.

),

the

Bttt

rules

are

different

for

the use

of the interrog-

and exclamation points, and hyphei


In Bisayan, tlie Spanish way is followed in using two
points of interrogation and
two of exclamation, the one
at the beginning of the question or exclamation ( 6 ) (j), and
the other at the ending (?) (!).
While the hyphen (-) is also used in Bisayan to connect parts of a word divided at the end of a line, and
to connect two or more nouns, adjectives, or particles, so
as to form them into a single compound, it has an additional use which is to separate distinctly the syllables of
certain words that would have a different meaning or none
at all without the said separation.
Examples:

ation

sal-ong

(to

hook)

salo'ng (resin)^

sul-ay (belching of an infant)

bac-ad (to unroll)


os-og (to draw near from

imim

sulay (prop)
afar)

(lip)

sid-ap (to look at)

san-o (when, future)


cacan-o (when, past) (*)
Note.
acter

as

The

above separations are net


by contractions or

those caused

proper sign

is

not a

of the

same char-

where the
hyphen, but an apostrophe. As,

gal? i from gabii (night)


CubitOl? an, from cabitoonan

elisions,

(stars)

pabav'i,Jrom

pah ay ai (leave him or her)


it itn bugto ngan hit ad patod, from Hon imo
bugto ngan hiton aeon pa tod (your brother or sisi.r

and

my

cousin).

Therefore, it woulc^ not he correct to write gab-i, cabiton-an, pabayi, where the apostrophe should be employed
instead of the hyphen.
However, the apostrophe is used only
when needed to avoid wrong pronunciation or confusion.
(*) Tii moil of the towns of the Island of Bamar, such separation as well
as that by apostrophe Is frequently disregarded, this being
one of the mo
,t
reable differences between the SAmar and Leyte dialects.
1

So

the

last

any sign

of

of

the

preceding examples

punctuation, thus:

it

im

htrgto

without

written

is

ngan

hit ac patod.

VOWELS
The Sisnyan people,

especially

in

Leyte, always have

vowels in pronouncing the


Bisayan drpthong.
So it is bi-ol
basket) and not biol; ca-on (eat), ti-il (foot) ma-opay
and not caon, till, maopay. But this refers only tc

tendency

to

separate the

being

there

no

language,

not

to

Some words,

words,
(small
(good),

spoken

written.
like

uasay

(axe),

sabao

(broth)

are pro-

nounced ua-say. sa-bao, and not u-a-say, sa-ba-o. These


and ao are not diptfebngs.
The u in the
ua.
s}rl !ab]es
syllable it a and tha o in the 3jLable .10, are not, the vowels
Consonant w. These words should be writ-.
w, o, but the
ten more properly wasay, sabaw.
(1)

SYLLABLES
Every vowel (2) with the consonant
or
consonants
pronounced with it and every vowel pronounced alone form
one syllable, and are written as such. This is the rule apExamples:
plied to the division of a word at the end of a line.
*

ca-ru-ca-va-can (conversation)

bac-dao (stand)
a-ba-ca (hemp),

etc.

CAPITALIZATION
In Bisayan, the following words should begin with capitals:
1.

2.
3.

of

the
4.

The first word of every sentence.


The proper nouns.
The names of the days of the week and

the

months

year.
Titles

of

honor or

office.

Sc^ the note on the first page of this book. This is one of the facts that
(1)
urge the adoption of a more logical alphabet (?) for the Bisayan tongue.
and u when used as consonants, their function then being proExcept
(2)
perly that of a w.


except

words,

All

5.

names

All

of

titles

God, and

of

conjunctions

prepositions,

unimportant adjectives, in the


6.

books and

referring

expressions

and

essays.
to

Deity.

the

7.

Words representing important events

in

history

and

epochs of time.

CONTRACTIONS
There

is

the sign

of

plurality).

Mga
of

particle

is

manga

for

composed
and Tagalog

the Bisayan

prefix of

idea

no contraction used in Bisayan, except that


(a particle employed to express the idea

mga

in

of

ma

dialects,

(an important
which bears the

abundance or plurality) and nga (a conjunctive


which is necessarily employed to connect the vari-

able parts of speech).

Note.
tractions

It

would be desirable to have the following conBisayan, inasmuch as they are univer-

adopted in

sally recognized:
i.

e.

e.

for id est.

g. for

exempli gratia.

viz. for videlicet.

etc. for et cetera.

P. D. for post data.


P. S. for post scriptum.

N. B. for
a.

p.

m.
m.

for
for

nota bene.
ante meridiem.
post meridiem.

(*)

ETYMOLOGY.
Parts of Speech.
These are eight in number, in Bisayan: article, noun,
pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection.
(*) The author believes that it is better to adopt these contractions than
to iiiTent others <>i Bitftjan origin for the reason that they afford signs universally understood, and because every tmisnie has a tendency to assimilate such
univt'i

ARTICLES.
There are three

an

Definite:

definite

Bisayan

definite

demonstrative and

indefinite,

as

in

sometimes used

is

used

the

before

Examples:

pronouns.

possessive

used

is

equivalent

its

very often

is

it

the

however,

article,

and

as

manner

same

the

nouns,

proper

well

as

article,

in

The

English.
before

(a)

hi or si (no equivalent in English).

Pergonal:

in

(the)

in

Indefinite:

The

classes:

Nacanhi an bata (the boy or girl has come)


Xacanhi in bata (a boy or girl has come)
An Dyos (1) macagagahum (God is omnipotent)
An ini nga bucad (this flower)

An

aeon

The personal
of

persons;

except the

(my

calo

article

also

is

it

Instead of
a may

(the

hi Maria

The
in

hi,

articles'

father),

si

always

is

used

persons.

third

Hi
Hi
Hi
These

hat)

Pedro

the

names

pronouns,

(Peter)

(I)

icao

(you)

be

used.

do not change

an

before

personal

Examples.

aco

may

used

before the

(2)

in gender.

irdy (the mother);

Examples: an

hi Juan (John),

(Mary).
definite

the following

and indefinite
way:

We do not write "Dios", because


(1)
'Vowels", supra.

articles

it

change

would be

in the plural

pronounced

Di-os.

Bee

Tbe use of s instead of the h, in these articles, depends upon the place
(2)
where Bisayan. is spoken. In the towns of Burawen, Dulag and Abuvog. of the
island of Leyte, and in some places in Saniar, the h is never used, but the s instead for these articles. Generally, it is considered more solemn to use the s instead of the h, in speeches, letters and poetry, But many times it is considered
as a ridiculous affectation, in places where the h is used.
It will be noted that, in some instances, the Bisayan people show a tendency
to change the aspirate sound 'of the h, or soft sound of the Spanish j, into g.
So in olden times, the name Juan was pronounced Suan; Jucvc* was pronounced
Suebes: and from the Spanish jugar. they made the Bisayan word suyal, which is
still

in uee.

PLURAL

SINGUL\R

an

an

in

i'd

The pergonal
except

ber,

third

the

in

person

pron>un third person, plural num-

of the third personal

form

(*)

not change, in person or numplural where it takes the

does

article

mga
mga

Examples:

ber.

Hi quita
Hi camo

(we)
(you, in plural)

Hit a Pedro ngan hi Juan (Peter and John)

DECLENSION. Articles

have two

cases:

nominative

and objective.
PLURAL

SINGULAR

Nominative: an

hi or

in

han hin

Objective:

can

an mga

hira or sira

san

nira,

canda

or

or

sin

mga

in

han mga hin mga

or

or

san

ni,

si

mga;

sin

mga

Examples:

An

bata

Peter's

nagbabasa han surat ni Pedro (the boy reads

letter).

Hira Carlos ngan hi Juan naghatag canda Tomas ngan


mga bucad (Charles and John gave flowers
to Thomas and Peter).

hi Pedro hin

The

objective

languages

other

case

covers
the

after

all

the different cases used in

nominative,

that

is

to

say,

the

genitive, dative, accusative and ablative cases.

RULES.

The Bisayan articles are used immediately


the words to which they refer.
The definite article may be used without expressing

before
2.

1.

which

the object

to

ture

relative

of

it

refers,

pronoun.

having,

this

in

case,

the na-

Examples:

An nagtotoon, nahababaro (He, who studies, learns).


An 'mga nagtututdo ha aton (They who teach us.)
m

is for ma. This contrac"


(*) Sec "Contractions", supra. As it is seen, the
>ws exactly the way In which the Bisayan original letters were used.
limply the ancient way of writing preserved after the adoption of the
>

I!

is

Spanish

letters.


The personal

3.

names

of persons.

hi

rat";

and

which

to

instances,

as

necessary before the

must

it

be:

"Pedro nagSnsu-

"hi Pedro

nagsusU'*

writing).

is

EXCEPTIONS.
word

always

is

not co: rect to say

is

needed,

is

(Peter

rat"

article

It

Between the definite article and the


other words may be placed, in some

1.

it refers,

phrase:

this

in

An

inf nga balay (this house), or


an maopay nga bata (the good boy

order in

regular

constructing

the

The

or girl).

phrase

last

is:

an bata nga maopay.

When

2.

names

the

personal

the

case,

article

persons

of
is

not

are

used.

in

the

Thus we

vocative

say:

Mariano, cadi dao (Mariano, come, please).


Pamati, Juan (listen, John).
In

3.

the

and ni

verb,

the

An can Juan
An guinsurat
N. B.

ning

The

guinsurat

indefinite

we wish

if

not

say
in bata

verb.

ni Juan

of the sentence,

So,

can is used before the


Examples:

objective case of hi,

after

to

is

say

nacanhi

(what John wrote)


(what John wrote)

article,

when needed

replaced by

the

at the begin-

phrase u usa nga."

came yesterday," we should

"a boy

cacolop;

but

usa nga bata nacanhi caeolop.


This

has

the

phrase

Therefore,

article.

usa nga
say,

usa nga

is

not

perfect

article,

but

it

an adjective, even when used as an


both the indefinite in and the phrase

character of

may

be

changing the

used

in

regular

the

same sentence.

order of

the

Nacanhi cacolop in usa nga bata

last

(a

So,

we can

sentence:

boy came yes-

terday).

NOUNS
These are substantive and adjective.

Both

may

be group-


compound,

figurative,

derivative, proper, copaion, positive,

parative, superlative,

and

primitive, diminutive,

ed in the following classes:


verbal,

10

cardinal,

com-

ordinal, partitive/ distributive

Nothing particular needs be said about the

collective.

primitive.

DIMINUTIVE
Examples:
DIMINUTIVE

PRIMITIVE

b&Uybalay

balay (house)
saroual

caraha'ajr

baloto (little boat)

balotoizay

As
tion

ay

seen,

is

the

of

diminutive is formed by the repetiby adding to the' latter the affix

the

primitive

or

or hay.

The primitive
twi

saroualajr

(trousers)

caraha (frying-pan)

is

repeated

when

it

more than

has not

syllables. As,

from
(hthon (leave),

dahondahon,

cahoy

cahoycahoy.

(tree),

The affix ay or hay is added when the primitive has


more than two syllables; ay being used in cases where the
noun ends with a consonant, or a vowel with a grave or
angular accent; and hay being employed when the primitive
ed

or

ends
a

with

vowel otherwise accented or non-accent-

vowel that

oiHDirint preceding

is
it,

pronounced
or

is

preceded

from
more than

separately

by

the

one

As,

cooeoaani.

from
sacayan (boat)

habobo (low)

sacayana^
haboboay,

balico (crooked)

balicoaj^,

r
,

(*)

(*) This diminutive as well as the preceding does not need to be accented witn grave and angular accent, as originally, first, because such accents are
only used at he ending of the words (see the rule, page 3), and second, because tiie suspended guttural sound of the last rowel of its; primitive is in some
wav preserved by means of the separation with which the vowels oa are pronounced (see 'Vowel,", page 5).
t

11

abaca (hemp)
babaye (woman)

afcacalwrp,

baoaye'Aay,

banat-i (a tree so called),

banat-i/zay,

malacsi (fast),

malacf-i77.Tr.

But the

primitive

dissyllabic

not repeated

is

when

its

by more than one consonant, or when


the last vowel has an acute accent or is pronounced separIn such cases the
ately from the consonant preceding it.
affix ay or hay is employed, the rules established for the
vowel

first

followed

is

being applicable

these affixes

use of

to

such diminutives.

As,

from
tamsi (bird), tamsi/?aj, not tamsitamsi,
(bone), tul-ahay, not tul-antul-an,

tiil-an

pula.

(red color),

\mUhay, not pulapula,

(1)

sagpo (plug), sagpoajr, not sagposagpo,


sab-a (a kind of banana), sab-aifaj", not sab-asab-a,
bungto (town), bongtoAay not bungtobungto.
Generally, as

it

has been observed in the preceding exam-

ples, the adjectives follow the

same

rules.

As,

from

matam-is (sweet), matam-isajr,

malomo

malomo/iajr,

(soft),

halipotar.

halipot (short),

But

in

must

bearing the

ticle

the

pula, hataas, halaba,

ded

in

being
(1)

the

formation

the

if

the primitive

prefixes

of their

the only elements


But

adjectives formed with ma (a parabundance) and ha (2) (a particle

the idea of place), like

bears

that

of

idea of

is

maopay, mabusag, mama or ha are disregar-

diminutives, their abstract roots

taken into consideration, as


mipula,

if

such

the diminutive will be mapulapula, as

will be noted later.

In some places in Leyte and Samar, this"] particle is hi, not ha, where it
(2)
said hibobo, hilipot, hilaba, hitaas. But, in my opinion, it is simply a result of
confounding the particle ma which is more proper for adjectives a it bears the
idea of abundance, with the personal article hi with which it is thus intended
to personify the abstract ideas of bobo, lipot. laba, taas.
is

adjectives

were

12

dyssillabic.

opay,

Thus,

kiba, being the abstract roots of


adjectives, their diminutives will be;
ttias,

the

pula,
mentioned

busfig,
last

from

raaopay-opar
mabasagbosag'
ma Mill (red), mapu!apu/a
hatas (high), hataastaas
halaba (long), ha|abaiada (1)

matfpay

(good-),

mabuaag

(white),

There are some

Such

ves.

are

the

adjectives

irregular diminuti-

that have

following:

DIMINUTIVE
f

REGULAR

IRREGULAR

daco (large),

dacodaqo

daco/aaj

guti (small)

gutiguti

gutiruru

rom

(2)

(3)

FIGURATIVE

We

nouns figmative that are applied to the


objects which, not being of the same nature as that which
nevertheless analogy or simis expressed by their roots, show
ilarity with those represented by the corresponding primitive, in their meaning, form, use, or application.
call

those

Examples:
from

bobon (fountain), \x\ohonhobon (4) (fontanel);


eabayo (horse), da'mpog (cloud),
carocabuyo, c/arodampog, (objects that are like a
horse

or

When
the

those

cloud).
the

formation
for

the

primitive
of

its

has

nut

figurative

dissyllabic

more than two


the same

follows

diminutive.

syllables,

rules

as

As,

It
hat also the regular form "halabaay".
(1)
This is a metathesis of "dacoalay", by the transposition of the liquid
(2)
in "dacoalay" has been substituted, tot phoneth'ul reason,
consonant /: and this
for the y of "dacoayny", which is the diminutive of "dacoai/' not med.
It
that
this
(:>,)
diminutive is tin- contraction of "gidiay" v/jadum"
seeme
is not strictly a diminutve, it is a superlative
it
(i)
Transformed from bobonbobon.
I

18

from
hadi
ness,

we have

(king),

hadihiidi

(a

resemble;

the

who, by his vanity or harsh-

person

kingV

of a

figure

But when the


or

its

or

is

it,

its

primitive has more than two syllables,


vowel is preceded by more than one consonant
pronounced separately from the consonant preceding
last

figurative

composed
or

of

formed by adding

is

its

syllable

first

vowel

of its first

if

begins

it

begins with

it

if

tition, or

a prefix

root

with a consonant

vowte!

ro (a particle that bears the idea

lable

the

to

and

syl-

;he

repe-

of in: lation,

As,

collection).

from
sacayan
isda

Note.

(centipede), uroulalahipan

(fish),

can'on

as the

sarosacayan

(boat),

ulalalipan

iroisda

(cooked

Many

rice)

carocan'on

(1)

nouns have the sarre form3


There are few figuratives among the adthese, those having the form of figuratives are
of the figurative

collective.

jectives;

of

comparatives.

really

(2)

VERBAL
These are formed from the verb-root transformed by parreferring

ticles

to

the

agents or the objects of the roots.

Examples:
from
siiyau

(to

dance)

parasaydn (dancer),
tig'sayau (person who sometimes dances),
rna^aravau (person appointed to dance)

sarayau&zz (3)
(1)

which

We

do not

write

(place designed for dancing),


can-on,

because

it

is

contraction

of

caran'on,

from caraouon.
See "Comparative" and "Collective", supra.
(2)
The last a is not a vowel properly; it should be the consonat
(3)
notes on pages 1 and 5 of this book.
is

also contracted

w.

See

14

sarnyauojQ (dance or musical piece

to be

danced)

(*);

from
um:i (to farm)

para dm a

(farmer),

ti^-uma (person used

mag-urumn

do farming),

to

charge of farming),
urutnihan, contracted urumhan (place designed for
(person

in

farming),

urumhon (ground

urumaizon, contracted

or plant

to be cultivated);

from
surat (to write), the similar verbals as above, so far

the

as

idea

the

of

root

and the use permit, with

this

variant:
susurata/2, not sururata/?,

susur-Xton, not sunzraton;

from
tooc (to
root

weep), the similar verbals, so

and the use permit, and

ma tooc

the

far as

this besides:

(weeper);

from

bdong
/naboroong

(to

break),

(liable

the

similar

verbals,

and

this:

or expected to be broken);

from

iuom

(to drink), the similar verbals,

and

the

fol-

lowing:

ma'momiaom

(an inviting drink);

from
soson (to correct),

the similar verbals, and this:.

hinoson (person fond


(*)
'daco

it

It also

ac

means anxiety

of or bold in correcting);

for dancing.

Uogtm" ('contracted from

IrUiogon),

So from is'og (to enrage),


my rage is great,

it is

said

15

from
litang (to borrow),

hingvtnng

or

hmgtwgut&iTg

(1)

(person fbnd of or

bold in borrowing).

may

It

the same

be observed that not

number

of verbal

of the verb-roots

all

nouns.

depends on

It

produce

the parti-

cular character of every idea conveyed in the root, and mainly

on the use.

From the preceding examples, it is een that the transformative particles of the verbal nouns are various, the said
particles being the prefixes para, tig, mag, ma, Hi, the inThese particles
Bisayan as they greatly help to enrich
the limited vocabulary of this tongue.
For the sake of clearness, we shall see first the affixes.

terfiles

(2)

ro, urn or the affixes an, on.

r,

are very important in

An, on.
These
root,

an

garding

particles

refer

the indirect

to

the

(generally

complement

of the

where the act

the place

direct object

to

object

action

verb-

the

re-

and on

to

the

the termination

of

the

occurs),

referring to

of

(generally

action).

An

on

when the

ends with a consoangular accent.


An h preceds them when the roots ends with a vowel
otherwise accented or non-accented, or pronounced separately
from the preceding consonant or consonants.
or

is

used

root

nant or a vowel wich a grave or

The

particle

an

or

han

is

simply added

to the

root,

as,

from
catiirog (to sleep),

caturogan (sleeping place);

singba (to adore), singbafran (church);


taclob (to cover)

tacloba/2 (3)

(covering place);

The second syllable of the combined prefix is sometimes doubled to make


(1)
the sentence more emphatic.
Tnterfix is here used to designate the particle placed within a word.
(2)
Such is the name of the present capital of the province of Leyte.
(3)
Acording to a tradition, this name originated from the fact that, before the
town was formed, a point of the eastern coast of its present site was known
as a place where fishes were taken from the sen by a bamDop instrument, like
a cever, called taclob.

16

tan-ao (to see at a distance), tan-aoan (1) (watching


place);
or

employed either with the

is

With the

vowel of the root or with the

first

ana vowel

interfix r

the root

of

first

combined
consonant

instead, as

from
con (to eat) caraonaiz

from
assembly)
(meeting place);
vowel if the root commences with a vowel, as

(to

tfroc

titiroea;!

or with

its first

from
vro

ask)

(to

aaroan (place designee

The

on

particle

the

ha:

king).

for
le

ax?,

as

caturogon,
sir/ngbaizon,

(from

li//baco22

libac,

to

backbite),

nsiroon.

Note.

The

affix

an

is

sometimes doubled,

as,

from
lohod

down),

(to kneel

\odhannn

(2)

from

tambo

(to

lock

tamboa/;an, from

out),

tamhoan

(window).

Para,

Para

hears

the

idea

Tig conveys the idea


name

of

tig.

habit,

custom or occupation.

of a repeated,

but not frequent,

act.

of one of the most important towns in Leyte located


of 8aid Island. Also according 'to a tradition, in the southof that town, before the town was built, there
was a large tall tree, from whose prominent brandies the people used to watch
{tan-ao) the Moros from Sulu, when intading the coasts of Leyte. The last oof
this tan-ao is properly the eonsonat w.
From lolo.ihanan, from loluhodaaan. where the o is suppressed, and the
(2)
h and d transposed, for phonetical reasons.
(1)

It

is

the

on the eastern eoast


western part of the

pw

They are simply prefixed


ntary

particle,

17

the root without

to

any other

as,

from
canhi

come),

(to

paracYuihi,
tig-can hi.

with on.

Ala,

The

particle

bleness,

When
t

putting

ma

means

it

ro,

or

fondness,

it

fondness,

employed

is

the

beginning of the

c:ion

(to

eat),

particle,

of

r.

desira-

possibility.

at

it

with

or

conveys the idea

potentiality

passive

or

with

either

without any

root

by

other

as

from

by combining

or

ing

the

to

case,

it

macron
with

the

(glutton),
affix

022

hon, accord-

or

as

from
sleep), .macaturogoiz

(to

catiirog

(sleepy head),

from
araba
moaning).

When
is

placed

the

(to

moan),

prefix

before

ma

xnaaraba/zotz

bears the

the doubled

root,

more than two syllables and its


consonants
not more than two
parately from

its

fond of

idea of desirableness,

when

last

or

(person

is

the

vowel
not

root

is

has

preceded

pronounced

it

not

by
se-

preceding consonant or consonants, *s

from
m

caon,

mae&oncaon

(thing inviting to be eaten) (*)

(*) As when we say: "macaoncaon ini v/ja btiyabas" (ihisguava is inviting).


idea of fondness sometimes takes the same lurai, as -macaoncaon ini n"7}a sorogoon" (this servant is fond of eating surreptitiously). This form is also used
for impersonal verbs, as will be teen later, as: "macae/icaQn na" (I have appetite already).

The

from
:

\ona

>cat!ve

quaT-

relsome),
root lias more than two sylre the
where its last vowel is preceded by more
than two consonants or is pronounced separately from
osonant or consonants preceding it, then this preis
employed in combination with the interfix ro
fix
preceded by the first consonant and vowel of the root

and

cue

in

or

Ui)l< s,

by the

or

not,

it'

.vel

v-

only

the root begins with a vowel,

if

as.

arobanyac,
look

maaroaraba,
(to grunt), mairoigham,
(to draw near from afar), waoroos-og.

,,

araba,

,,

igham,

.,

ds-og

When

the

ma

particle
lity,

with

bined

the

it

conveys the idea of passive poused with the interfix r com-

is

vowel

first

complementary vowel
root.

masiresid-ap,

at)

the

of

put

is

The r with

root.

the

after

syllable

first

of

its

the

As,

from boong (to break),

The

particle

tna

the

by

replaced

r or

interfix

cure), sural

(to

igtaratnbal or

(brittle)

(attainable).

frequently

is

with

bined

from tarabal

maborodng

reach), /aaarabot

(to

ib<5t

the

prefix

substitutes, as

write),

(to

ifaiatabal

its

(medicine),

isasuiat

(thing to write with).

Mga
1

y.

combined

with

combination
lable

and the

bears

of

en
root.

is

But

when

replaced

idea

of

employed

and before the

the

interfix

the
is

It

r.

by

forcible,

with

the

first

vowel of the

the

first

there

is

the

first

necessary,
interfix

and the second


an

in

trie

consonant

This

root.

syl-

[root

of

the


said
is

root.

the

If

with

begins

root

19

sometimes suppressed, the said

stead

the

of

(to

vowel

being used in-

As,

interfix.

from sodoy

vowel, the interfix

first

mag<oiod6y (one who

about)

stroll

about)

strolls

ma^bi riling (searcher),


magsismng, (petitioner), not

,,

biling (to seek or search),

,,

siring

request),

(to

magsiriring,

mag-orosoe (person designed

osoc (to set up),

,,

arot (to cut the hair),

to

up),

set

The particle
which case the

mag
root

is

mag-narot (barber).

frequently contracted

is

considered

as

ma,

into

having an

r,

in

as

from sulay (to tempt), marzunulay (tempter),


tabang (to assist), mauanabang (helper).
.,

Hi.

This

conveys the idea of boldness. When the


labial consonant, except the m. the said
transformed into m, as

particle

with

root begins

consonant

is

from basa
pitic

When

(to read),

the root begins

commonly used but


from miilay

(person bold) in reading,

him-lsa,

(to leap), himitlc

the

with

prefix

(person bold in leaping).

an m, the prefix hi

para ma,

is

not

or tig, as

para-,ma-, or tigmulay, not hi-

(to teach)

iniilay,

mogo

.,

(to observe), para-, ma-, or rig-mo go, not hi-

mogo.

When
pended

to

root

begins

with

prefix;

ng

also

with

begins

nant

the
the
a

from asoy
caon
,,

(*)

yan.

guttural

suppressed.

is

(to
(to

is

consonant,

vowel,

ng

is

(*)

ap-

appended when the root


but then

the said conso-

As,

hingasoy (garrolous),
hingaon (bold in eating),

refer),

eat)

say "U", because this combination ilg


ruja, as anciently.

which should be called

is

properly one letter in Bisa-


from irubat

When
the

u~'.

hi

prefix

&g

in

::!.-i

root

with

nasal consonant
the prefix para,
root isjuiaclu l^ng, a8

the

ordinarily replaced by

is

tie

.,;

commences

in invading).

(bold

invade), hingu.hzt

(to

the

20

syllable of the,

first

from ngisi (to laugh, showing the^teeth),


para-, ma, or tigrugisi, or ngk\ (person

fond of

grinning).

When
/.

the

n, r,

\\

from

In

to

consonant

i^

prefix,

as

tbei

(to struggle),

dolon./,

soson

tapod

hi

said

anpended

,,

any other consonant, except


and the letter n

the root begins with

all

of

suppressed

hinolong (bold in struggling),

correct),

(to

confide), /zmapod

the

case;,

these

(1)

syllable

sometime* doubled, according

is

(bold in

hino+on

(to

correcting),

(bold in confiding)

following the prefix

to the

use, as,

from himitic, himi/mtic,


..

hingasoy,

.,

hinoson, hinojioson, (2)

hingax^g'.asoy,
etc.

Urn.

This particle bears the idea of option. It is used among


It is always combined
verb- for the subjunctive mode.

the

the

with

first

the

r or

interfix

begins with

root

before

the

from caon

(to

diately

its

substitute's,

pected
(i)

This

(.)

The

to,

is

placed between

first

Examples:

vowel.
eat),

and

vowel of the root. When


vowel, the interfix is placed imme-

consonant and the

curnaraon (person going

to,

or ex-

eat),

is also a
verbal of x<tp<>(i (to gather).
particle hi lometimes with the verbs and especially amung the denial of "payment for", as when from the verbs budlay

(to embark), and the nouns apoy (grandfather or


If). Wlacay
(to tii'
Dave]), it i- said: himudlay (any thing given as in payment
grandmothi
hinafacay (paymenl for passage;; - hinghpoif (a present given to a
oj any work)
grandfather v grandmother upon the the marriage of his' or her graud-daug'hter under the consideration of the former's being the grandfather or grandmother
to the midwife for cutting and attenlatter) ;- himotod (present given
io the naval of n nw-born child).
:


from abot

um&rabot

arrive),

(to

21

expected

(person

to

arrive),

aro

Some
an

oma aro

ask),

(to

without r follow

roots

expected

(person
the

rule

as

if

to ask).

they

had

as,

r,

from

saca

go up,

(to

to

board), sw/wasaca (boarder).

There are verbals formed with ma


r or its substitutes. This formation takes place only in the intransitive
verbs commencing with the particle ca which then conveys the idea of
Observations:

1.

combined with the

interfix

As,

passivity.

from caauod (to be ashamed), macaara'uod (shameful),


caborong (to be confused), macaboborong (con,,
fusing)
,,

casina

The

2,

the

ng

in

the

plural,

if

the

root

its

the verbs,
which are always
pag, are frequently employed as

begins

(odious).

of

particle

In such cases

substantives.

macasisina

angry),

be

infinitives

preceded by
ed

(to

the

particle

being then
with

vowel

pag

replaced
or

is

transform-

by the

guttural

letter

conso-

nant, except g, or by the consonant n when the root commences with a dental consonant, or by the
if it begins

In the plural, the roots commencing with a


consonant lose said consonant. When the root begins with
a nasal or with the guttural g, said consonant is preserved
with a

and the

labial.

of

from aro

pag

basa (to
pull),

pag-aro

is

ask),

(to

replaced

caon

read),

by

(to

Examples:

n.

daop

eat),

ngoyngoy

(to

(to

approach

groan), gabot

we have

SINGULAR

PLURAL

(asking)

pangaro,
pangaon,
panaop,
pamasa,
pan ngoyngoy,
pahgabot,

pagcaon (eating)
pagdaop (approaching)
pagbasa (reading)
pagngoyngoy (groaning)
paggabot (pulling)

(to,

ticle

commencing with the

roots

of

infinitives

rhe

par-

as substantives, and then with or with-

ca are also used


pag.

out tbe prefix

.abide

\vo\\,

In

(to

the affix

cases,

carina

be

(to

casaqAiit

sorry), pa-v-abido, cabido, borrow).


an or on is 60 utft times employed, as

In.

bo

(to

(sadness),

casa<juitan

sad),

(anger).

easinalrm

angry)-

COMPOUND
The use

from sofod

following:

the

gives

(to enter)

and halay (house)

solodbalav, which means the person


who thru his intimacy with the occupant of a house,
enters

at

in

any time;

from zaca

(to go

up) and Jasad (to go down),

sacalnsad, applied
is

very

to the

person

who

or who suffers a great misfortune and


down the house repeatedly. It is also
boys or girls who go out the house fre-

bttsy',

goes up and

applied to

quently, especially without permission

from doso (to push)

and botong

doso-botong,

who

from citbcab
does

(to

when

scratch)
it

picks

pull)

(*) applied to a person

and
up or

cabcabtoca,

(//*.

(to

toca (what a bird


something with

bites

beak)

have to expend
by their work;
from

their parents:

determinations that are contradictory:

takes

its

of.

applied

to

persons

for their subsistence all that

contraction

of

din

abutun. from nbot


caloton, from calot

who

they gain

(not),

(to

reach);

(to

scratch),

and

(*) We IM i hyi.h.-n in this word on account of tbe angular accent of


tbe last o of the rirst verb.

when

scratch

to

diabotoncaluton, applied to that part


back, which our hand* cannot reach

human

of the

from tahag

it

itches;

help)

ha, a preposition for the objective case,


amongamong (to malign),
t

applied

to

person

in

ah aghaamong- among.

those

who maliciously pretend

trouble,

but

injure

him.

to

help a

Etc.

DERIVATIVE
Whe

under this heading the nouns derived


Those originated from a verb are already
Most of the derivatives are acfjectivefc.
treated a? verbals.
The derivatives, like the verbal, are formed with particles, prefixes, interfixes, and affixes.

from

consider

other

nouns.

The usual
pala< tag, a*

particle* are ca.


prefixes;

r,

in

ma, macn, wag,


as

jnterfixes;

macjtii,

and an,

hi,

on

as

As,

affixes.

from paua (light), capsiua (clearness)

,,

aram (wisdom), nm'w&m (wise)


bayau (brother in law), mabixmy-AW (brother-in-

bido (sorrow), wacalnbido

,,

isda (fish),

..

law- to -be)

maquiizda.

fish)

attending

bugto (brother or sister), nmgbugto (referring


two persons who are brothers or sisters) (1)

,,

,,

bisaya (bisayan), bin i say a

,,

sala (fault or guilt),

buua

(2)

(lie),

(guilty)

buuSon (Her)

the brother* or sister* referred to


mafbxxrugto.
The second u most b? tbe eonsona-nt
r

is

to

(bisayan tongue)

sahiflfl

When

he intern x
(3)

of

pusod (navel), Zz/mosod (payment for


to the navel of a new-born child)

,,

(1)

(sorrowful)

(fond

used, as

\fi.

ara

more 'than

two,

then


Ca

bears

combination

with

from hataas

paua

of

oahataas

alone or in

(height),

(badness).

oarat'an

capaua

(light),

used

is

As

an.

the affix
(high),

and

quality,

(bad), caraotan,

dtfot

,,

idea

the

24

(clearness).

'sometime combined with the interfix in and


the joined affix anon, as
from masugot (obedient), camasinug'tanon (obedience).

It

is

Ma

conveys the idea

In

tion.

the

case,

first

which

primitive,

is

of

it

is

the form

abundance and future condiadded at the beginning of the


of

great

many

adjectives, as,

from lFOg (courage, rage), maisog (courageous);

and when

means future

it

condition,

r combined with the

interfix

from asaua

(wife),

first

it

used with

is

the

vowel of the primitive,

as,

maarasaua (woman betrothed)

particle ma is frequently combined with the interand the affix on or anon. In plural, the ma is
appended with g. As

The
in

fix

from tiiman

or

masinug'ta'nqn

(obedient)

also used without any affix, and then the primidoubled as from tuba (a wine) matnbatuba (person

It

tive

(faultless)

magtinumanon

sug6t (obedience),

,,

matinumanon

(performance),

plural,

is

is

thing that

M&CA

smells

as tuba).

has the idea of potentiality, and

is

added

to the

beginning of the primitive, by doubling the first syllable of


the primitive or by using the interfix r combined with the
first vowel of tie primitive.
As,
from alo

,.

(shame), macaa&lo

(shameful),.

macalHipay (rejoieer),.
budlay (grievance), macaburudlay
lipay

(joy)

^grievous).

Mag

conveys the idea

of

mutual relationship, and also

of continuity

in a

beginning

the

of

few

25

cases.

It

simyly

is

added at

the

primitive.

Relationship. Examples:

from pntod

magp&tod

(cousin),

(cousins each other),

sometimes appended with tala, as


from a may (father), magtala^vniy (father and son, or
lather and daughter).

li is

u-b mag conveying the idea


The derivatives formed
mutual relationship, art &lwayi in plural.
'

oi

Continuity. Examples:

Lorn

:ig-a
_

til

.(morning;. mag~\g* (the .whole


the morning);

magcolop

colop (evening);

night un-

whole day until

(the

the evening.)

Maqui

the

signifies

without any

other

idea

of

transformative

from Dyos (1) (God), tnai


It

is

used

fondness.

and

'

employed

pa: ick, as,


lyofl

(pious).

very few cases to form verbals, a?

in

from hampang

present during a

conversation).

maquihahsLinphngon (person fond

oi being present

(to

or take part

be
in

conversation).

Hi, as transformative particle of derivatives, conveys the


idea of boldness, and also of consideration, or of pavment.

We

have seen that it means boldness when joined to verbs to


form verbal nouns (2). As to its use, it follows here the
same rules as when employed with verbs. Examples:
irom quinatsila (Spanish language),

who
tle

of

iziiTginatsila

ventures to talk Spanish, knowing but

(one
lit-

it).

U) This is the modern way of pronouncing this void. The old Wf.y cor
sisted In making two syllables out of this word, and according to that pronun
ciation. it is written Divas (pronounced Di-yos), not Dyos.
(2)

See "Hi", under the headipg "Verbal" aupra.


troth

$S

A.

apoy

grandfathers hiugvyoy

piisod

(navel),

himosod

Pala means resemblance.


a//.

(*)

It

combined with the

is

affix

from buyo (betel

nut'),

wue

cccoauut,ihat
resembles the taste of the betel nut)

palabuyonv

(tippheel totiie

of

biniu (a plant)

pa/abiraua (applied

the fruit of cocoanut that

to

resembles the color of

camote (sweet potato)


pa/acamotian (applied

,,

birau)

to the fruit of

'

"nangca"

that resembles the color of

(a tree)

camote)
gat as (milk)

..

pa/agatasaa (applied to the young rice or corn


whose grain is yet liquid resembling
milk).

the

is

conveys the idea of ownership or authorship.


As
simply added to the primitive.
from

is

It

is

sometimes used

to

indicate

house)

tiiig

(year), tag\\\\^ (y< ar

These

list

whii-li

expresses,

from

by

ma

and then
As
it.

preceding

ye. r)

adlao (day), uia.ug-adlao (every day).

..

particles

the

are

same

tuig, adlao, btilan


/V/i//aatiiig

sometimes replaced
idea.

(month), pageaon (meal)

/V/mnaadlao (every day)


(every month)

/V/7///7apygcaon,

See noto

'-'

uii

page

20.

by

As.

(every yi-ar)

/7//////abulan

(.*)

distribution,

frequently combined with the prefix

from

na

of

sugo (order), tagsueo (author of an order).

.,

it

(owner

(house) tairbnlay

hnl-.iy

It

(every meal.)

kjtii-

Zi

life
Th? interfix r, whfc*
here employed under the $im% r
I

its

thy

use in

The

figura*'.

in

intermix

beginning

of

it

Mtieula

retbft]

is

the

if

placed

is

:d for

tiOJftns.

expresses imitation.

primitive

the

Otherwise,

vowel.

ind

fid

latter

It

is

added

at the

commences with a

before- the* first

vowel of the

As

primitive.

from Suing

(1)

(the

eitfulug (a fight

archipelago of
or'

dance

Sulu)

after the

Suluan fashion)

from tuyao (crazy)


t/riuyao '(foolishness)

from insic (chinaman)


imnsic (cbinese language,- ways or

-ml on among the derivatives, sigr'ty th# idea

/.;i

abundance
of

0* participation,

an

Both are appended to the pfimHivi


and complemented With kti h,

pi

as in the formation

of

of

ireque nt<y ."'conveying the idea

other particle,

way

fatbits).

verbals.

(2)

any
in

Exattjpi

the
.

from palad (fate), palaran (3) (fortunate),


asaua (wife), asauaAaii (married man),

sal a pi (silver, money), salapf^/j (wealthy)


curi (difficulty), curian (.stubborn person)

,,

,,

sumat (information), suraatiUJ (credulous)


burabud (fountain), buraburon (4) (place where

taro

tubnc (ant), tnbacofl

,,

are

there

(i)

(ha) Sulu

So

we say

many

fountains)

wax'. Uwohoti

dol'o hd fhtmff,

(an
(a

object that has wax on


thing that has ants on.)

which means a medicinal plant

>

{dula'o)

from

(Suluy).

under the heading of "Verbal"', page lo supra.


(2)
From paladaii, the d having been solved into r.
(3)
It is believed that the name of one of the towns of Leyte,
(\)
called
the Spaniards -'Burauen" and by the niUives^"Burau6n", has been
from burabiiron (contracted and made BUfauon), on account of th'
there are manv fountains in that plaGe. 'There is no reason why th>name "Burauun" used by the natives until the present time should not b<
loved for all uses, the u of said word being replaced by the w, if the
proposed in the note of the first pa^e of this" book are adopted..
See "an. on"

by

28

These particles are sometimes employed jointly, the an


This compound affix, anon, bears the idea
great abundance, or birth or residence place, and is pre-

preceding the on.


of

ceeded by an h

an and
from

according to the

same

rules

established

for

Examples:

on.

(wealth),

inangfftid

giranon

manggaran (wealthy), mang-

(rich).

abaca (hemp), abaoit/zan (person that has hemp>,


hemp),
:ihi\cahanon- (person that owns much
(a town so called), tan-auanaflon (native
wt of Tanauan),
town so called), palofujon contracted pa-

Tatwauuu
,,

or

resi'i

Palo

ca

Ion on

or

native

resident

of

Palo),

Tolo-a (a town), W,v*!banon, eoutr acted tolosan

..

hon

(native

:>r

resident

of

Tolosa),

..

Dagami (a town), .dagamiano/:, contracted dagawin' on (native or resident of Dagami),


Man sin (a town), maaainaaoiz, contracted maa-

..

sinhon (1) (native or resident uf Maasin),


Sugbu (Cebu). sugbuanon, (native or resident

.,

of

Cebu),

Samar (province

,,

ed

sanmrnon

Manila (Manila),

.,

Ian on

cnt
C.'t

manilaancin, contracted
or -resident

of

inani*

Manila).
contracted

Hon-. There are other forms of derivatives,


iqaina or quina. taga. tagum or tagun, hi

means

al.o

company, aa from tnpad

by side) oatupaH

(the person

side

(to

be

viz:

side

by side).

Thin word does not follow the rule. For ;phonetical reasons, in Its foris made viaasinhanon, contracted maasinhon
i- nxvl and it
instead
which is the regular form.
i,,a<i*in>in'>n
CD Th<- natives, especially the knv people, pronounce Merlin. instead of
eo; merlcanc instead of th Spanish "americano" for America*..,
(1)

mat;.
..I

samaranon, contractof Samar),

America (America). america/2/?/H)fl,


.trnericanhon i2) (americau).

..

c-i

(native

so called),

(native or resident

ml


Cat means

29

season, as from "ani" (harvest), "cat ani" (har-

vest time).

Iquina

quina expresses nature, as from "tauo" (man),


(property peculiar to men), "qui-

or

"buhi" (alive), "i.piinatauo"


nabulii"

(lile).

Taga means

origin or residence, posession, or measure,


"Leyte" (Island so called), "sundaiv.-;" (bolo), "iroc"
(artupitey, we have: "taga Leyte" (fponT*Leyte), "taga&undang"
(one who bears a boho), '"tagairoc" (up to the armpits). When
this particle taga means measure, it is sometimes replaced
by pm, as from "Kaiiae" (belly), "pabaiL-lc" (up to the belly).

as

t'rom

Tagum expresses the idea of [Mnysr, virtue,


When the primitive comiiences with n,

iarity.

tagum

is

suppressed.

When

the

primitive

or.

pecul-

the

begins

of

with a

h
consonant not labial, the said
placed by n.
It is
sometimes combined with the affix an. As: from "miita" (eye)
"baba" (mouth), "lipong" (confusion), we have "tagurnata"
(peculiar desease of the eye), "lagumbabaau" (person whose
words have a peculiar power or virtue), "togunlipongan" (one
who has the power to make himself invisible).

Hi

is

also

combined with the

interfix

r and the

alrix

an, as from "polos" (profit), "himorolsan" (profitable). Among


verbs ha is used instead of hi, as from "caon" (to eat), "ha-

caradn" (eatable^.
Note.

The past participles

take sometimes the affix an, as


V

from cauil (fish-hook), bitana (a kind of fishing net)


quinauihin (fish caught with "cauil' )
binitanaan (fish caught with "bitana").
1

tant

There are other transformative particles not so impormentioned, and which the use will
as those already

show

to the student.

PROPER AND COMMON


Like, in

other

between proper

tongues there

is

in

and common nouns.

Bisayan a distinction
TaclobaK* Catbalao-

36

gan, llong-kong (lloilu), Espiniyu (ijpaiu), Pedro (Peter j,


Gttilkrmo (William), etc?., are proper nouns; bucad (flower):
bato (stone), ajram (dog)., etc., are coinmou.
alio ftuniliar

Th Bisayan langun?.r If-

names

fcfir/Jtft*

AB

BODS.
of
,,

Pedro, Pcndong, Endong, Edong, Edds. Pedo, etc;


Juan, Uauang, tJiicfe U;hia, Uuan Uua, etc;

etc;
Vicente, Ten'tanJ, Ktfng, Sente, S#Ufe,
Rafael, P.'pen^, Paenj*. Pae'l, Pape, etc;
.,

..

Titov.

I toy,

Franc: slctij Quicoy, In coy, Quico,

etc.;

M;ir-:i

It

..

.;

nio.

Uaday,

'

..

etc.;

Tonyn. To-.oc, etc.;


Andong. Andoy. etc.;

Sabel.

etc.;

taflbftl,

.,

Gregorio, fJoyApg,

etc:

.Mejandro,

..

,,

Itong,

titoni,

to,

etc.;

.Satumino, S*tu>, etc;


Claudia, Calau,

etc.

nnmes of places, there are a few formed


by the preposition can (which means possession or properhe particles ca (which denotes abundance), and
ty ). and
A'mong the

guin (which

Mriftfcys

CansamqUl

the

place,

(a

idea

of

past

probably

which

passive

action), as

belonged

formerly

one named Saniqui)


(place probably owned formerly by one
ed Or quia)

to

Cin-orjiiiii

'-iiii -a

(%)

been

008,

call-

transformed
Cnrnimos (place probably
(*j
owned of possessed in former tinier by one
named Ramos)

mwn of cariparn, Lej'teJ ha*


of the
'tow Cangarn (placed of one called GWrrf). A similar
for the formation of the :iaines Oatbiga and Qatkayog

The iiamei Colqura (nnii\e name

'

pronoun

whs probably used for similar cases.


the woid Leytc, npplied to a town
,,/
the Wand" "f the wmc narfce) fa formed by the s.iid pronoun ftw and /ft,
nmbablj tie nJb of tke ancient ownei- o: that plaee.
l<

We

think thai

tin

word

mi. the

IliraiO- (Hisiiyan

hira

nam.' of

- 31

Cabu)uan

was much "burn"

(place where formerly there


(betel nut)

Cabalfan

where the

(place

strong current

breaks the oars

Gulhtignian

(place

the

in

sea

the

of

(bali)

San Juanieo strait" where

the strong current of the sea tastes the rowers


(tigui)

Guiatulyan

place

(a

many

Bd ';-. Samar,

in

were (taught

fishes

where

probably
with

(tviluy)

nets.

Etc/
Note.
are-

names

The

names

christian

all

Spanish,

are

many

To indicate
of

respect,

Bisayan

between
the

for
,.

Many

relationship, as the

confidence,

nouns,

which

sh<

or

is

applied.

Examples:

writer

ta'tay or tatay,

mamma,

nanay

the

of

or

English pap&-

tenderness,

or

speaker

papa,

the Bisayan people


sur-

others 6eli g ot Bisayan origin as

the

noun

among
time.

Cabaobafy Balasbas, Ysgomyom.

La'gbas, Pdcpoc, Macasait,

and

persons

of

the present

at

'
I

there

art-

::

etc.

amma,
number

themselves the relation


person to whom

and the

tatang or taking, itay. or itang;

nan ay, nanang

or nanang, inay. or

inang.

There are others applied to grandfathers and grandmothand also to those persons who act or are considered
Examples:
as fathers or mothers.

ers,

Mano, manong, mamo, mamov,


tutoy,

babay.

dudoy

dudu

inco,

yuyu. iyo (applied to elder brothers, uncles or


elder male relatives of any degree, even
to

persons not related' to but respect-

by the speaker or writer).


mama, mamay, manding, duday,
tutay, yuya, tuta (applied to elder listers,
aunts or elder female relatives of any
ed

Mana

(*)

dudu,

;.*)

manang.
insi

Mano tmd mana

'hermana."

inanity,

are probably a corruption of

the Spanish

"Acrmano,

degree, even

women

to

not related

to,

but respected by the speaker or writer).


or

Ti'o,

or

tia

ti,

ti

(applied
respect,

not

form

as

and

politeness

of

men or women
unknown by the

respectively to

related

or

to

speaker or writer).
Idoy,

budoy,

in toy,

bididay,

Ijfng,

busoy,

The

boys of

word cuan

girls

and

(so

uday

inday,

iding,

(applied with tenderness

nonay, neneng,
to

Note.

and iday,

respectively).

not meaning any-

so),

whose names
the speaker or writer does not know, or venture, or wish
As the phrase "so and so", it helps a great deal
to express.
in a conversation, and
is used also
instead of the verbs
and other parts of speech.
thing by

itself,

to persons or things

applied

is

The words inin (contracted


guess,

perhaps)

iliary

particles, 'they

are

ini

of

being

and

nga)

the conversation,

also used in

equivalent to

then

the

ada
as

(I

aux-

English

why.
Examples:
Question.

ready

"^Guinsorat
u

^Hain
A. Inin.

my

co na gad" (Yes I already] have).


an basahon? (Where is the book?)
aadto ada ha ac solod (why ... I guess it is

room)
Mapirau.

Q.
shall

A.

<',and in

bubuhaton co?

Ada

As
tives,

(I

am

sleepy, what,

do?)
.

eaturog

(Why.

POSITIVE, COMPARATIVE.

are

al-

Oo guincoan

Q.
in

(Have you

balos?"

the answer?)

written

Answer.

mo na an

in

also

other
used

positive,

to

AND SUPERLATIVE.

languages, there are


for substantives

sleep).

in

three

degrees for adfe-

Bisayan.

These degrees

comparative and superlative.

Nothing particular needs be observed about the positive


except what is mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs.

degree,

tt

The comparatives are formed exactly in the same way


as the figuratives (1), the number df syllables being disregarded, as if all had more than two syllables,
from hataas

(high), Aarohataas (higher),


hobog (intoxicated ), Aorohobog (more intoxicated),
tauo (man), taroiauo (more of a man).

..

,,

In

the formation

particle

not

,,

as

such

if

particle

this

did

as

exist,

from

ma,

prefixed" with

adjectives

of

preferably disregarded,

is

ma 6 pay

There

is

(white),

another form

use of the combined


ca
labi

ma or on pay

(good)

magbupag

ca

This last form

is

The superlatives

com on rati

of

labi

particles

maopay
mabusag

(better}

'r.aooroi;

ig
e

Xc

[\

hi

c<

'<?}

;a,

the

as

(better)

(whiter).

sometimes used
are

of

for

superlatives.

three classes:

Those which do not admit any comparison, and which


we call absolute or supreme superlatives, as

guimaopayi (the best

of all);

those which are not so absolute,


superlative,

and which we

madpay
maopay nga capin
maopay hin sogong
capin ca

and those which


call

call

ordinary

as,

excessive

convey

superlatives,

\
>

(2)

the idea

(very good);

of excess,

and which we

as

See pages 12 *t seq of this book.


by 'he
The word capin. sogong, uraura, in some localities are :
mao\
Spanish word duro (hard). So they say duro ca ?naopc .'
maopay hin duro (very good). It is proper to adopt foreign word; when there are
not words eorespondirig in Bisayan, but we do not see why the pttTe
.iginal. The
words should be forgotten when they are expressive, pure am
preposition cund} (but) is suffering the same fate, by the introduction of the
(1)

(2)

Spanish pero.

(l)_ca. ma,)pa>

lUBjlni

pr

"

ve

is

the
r

:orni

from

seen

id

nga oraiira

ray

Lative

:U

adding to
"v V]
prefix ^u*' and
by

:ix

The

tfhrt

adgli*,

tai'j.

f.

The
-

fch

j;

corgi

first

highest degree

io

is

']
:

caph: .a
c!cs

may

(the highest

for

the

s'.

to

phra.'.e-

-this

in

anii\

ah natauaj ha imo

your very lather who calls you).

oid nary

suj erlatiye

lah'i

or

priuii-

(ma

adopted

id

the

(if

iblo

or identity as

mo g

^uiaamaji
.'It

said

'

ami perfect man;.

also

is

bejpmring

i*be

.-"

guihataasi, or guihahataasi
o/r (a tzue

g0(K i).

example^ the supreme

preceding

tfre

mined

{{{)o

with

particles

the

olaced before the primitive, or with the

ca

nga

cao'pay,

formed

is

capin, or bin

sogong put

after

the

g 'imitive. As,

from mabido aery)


eapin

mabido

ca

ca mabido

labi

mabido ovarjag
mabido nga oapfn
mabido hin sogdng
the

>me of
tber
root

and

form

(very sorry).

formed with
ordinary superlative,

;<djecl"ves

for

the

disregarding

(dark). 'masirornsirdm"
.jive

(2i

prefix

(very

ma,

particle
in

as

ma, have

doubling their

from ^masirdm"

dark\

superJalive...Ja,_lor.med 1 with .the.

partmle

word masiado, a eorrhptkwi of tb gpfrtiish' donahe preceding mitt]


It-must-be noted th ,t- the iceenl in the superlative^ is on the last sy(2)
iile ii. the '1: ninutive (witfeh'hRjB exactly the. sump, form-,
IhvVle,
ti.e accent
is uoon
ivce-rt)
the penult, T$d%irmn*ir&m. Tin- nrearirthe phrns.
titastn
iromsirorti pi: the first
means "it is a little dark yet"; the second -it is very dark yet".
(1)

Itntead

wrcwro;

tl

'

'

..

.-

urauva ca placed before primitive,


uraura located after the root.

cr

"e

pr

*cle

nga

from maasin (salty)


uraura ea maasin
maasin nga uraiira

The idea
sometimes
witli

(out

the
of

the

of

with the

phrase

>

superlative

particles

-Ha pa a

"ciirf

excessive

sono

measure), placed
lap as

(excessively Ba4ty)\

ca"

bin ca"

before

the

is

also

expressed

(excessively),

or

or "din socdl hin ca"


primitive,

ca maasin

sono hin ca maasin


diri socol hin ca mar
diri

Note. The
ea

the

affix

'

particles

an,

labr

and "capin", take

nr

ir

as:

from mahusay (orderly, beautiful),


labihar ca mahusay (very beautiful);

from masa;iuit (paintful)


masa'quit nga capin an (very paintful (.

CARDINAL, ORDINAL, PARTITIVE, AND DISTRIBUTIVE.


The cardinal

adjectives

usa, contracted

duha
tulo

are the
us,

following:

(one)

(two:

(three)

upat (four)

lima

unom

(live)

(six)

pitd (seven)
ualfl

(eight)

siya'm (nine)

napulo (*)

(ten)
r

(*) The Bisavan cardinals


pie in cotuiting was the decimal.
and pulo (pile, island). Xapulo
system clearly shows.

show that the original system of BiBayitn penSo nap.ilo is a compound word from no. (made)
means one pile made", w herefrom the decimal

napulo cag (1; us;i (eleven)


(twenty)

caru.iaan (2)

(thirty)

catloin
cap' tan

(forty)

caiim'an (fifty)

cuinmau

(sixty)

capitoan (seventy;
caualoan (eighty)

casiyamin (ninety)
Q8ii ca gatos (ore hundred)
doba" ca gatos (two hundred)
usa ca yocot (one thousand)
usa ca ribo (3) (ten thousand)
usa cagatos ca lioo (one million), etc,

the

A3

it

p-

po

tulo,

the

affix

upa%

gat5i, yoodt,

consideration.

lima,

prefix

added

an 5m',

pita,

phonetical

ths

ribj",

"an",

formed by
(which
means
"ca"

cardinals

the

Hon "cag" (and), the

colluchon) and

duhi,

above,

noticed

is

to the
u,ilo,

reasons

are

primitives "usa,

siyim,

napulo,
taken

in

especially

in

being

Thus we say:

caruhaan,
catloan,

not

caduhaan,

catuloiin,

not

cap'atan not caujatan,

caiim'an not caliraahan,

cadnmao, not catinoman.

The word "usa"

frequently

is

contracted,

familiar language, by the supression of the last vowel. Thus:

us ca gatos
us ca yocot.
us ca ribo

>

insted of "usa'' ca etc.

This won' tag (and) U used In the island of Panay, but not In Samar
(1)
or L;v;e ifbete *ga*, *g are employed tor the said conjunction.
In the southern part of Leyte it is said: napulo ug osa.
A collective noun formed by the prefix ca and the primitive du ha whose
(2)
d la transformed Into r, and by the aflix an. It means the reunion of two piles.
There seems to be no doubt that this word ribo has the same origin
(J)
u lib)"\ but each one lias a
different meaning: while the Iiisaas the Tagalog
yan lioo means ten thousand, the Tagalog libo- means only one thousand. TO expnasa ten tho-mand, the Tagalogs have the word laetd.

--

Jn
the
in

reading

numbers, the English way is followed,


may" being sometimes employed e3p^ciaily
amounts. Thus, to read this number

he

"ng-i

particle.-*

37

cases of large

US7654321,

we would say:
'Oasiyaman

ualo

cag

cag lim-i

caribo,

caruhaan

cag

nga

Note [n

Bisayan,

there

(nothing}

'

pi to

cagatos

y.)cot,

which

Arabic cafiun,

bfe

that

tulo

cifrun

frtm

gatofl

figure

corresponding
used

i?

in

empty).
particle "'ica"

bears the idea p! order), placed before the cardinal.


ica

to

Bi-

word "lungag ?? (empty), or


as corresponding to the word
modern Latin zephirum from

scfer

or

its

The ordinals are formed by employing the


(which

caunman
ca

the

lopted

decided

is

no word

is

However,

English zero (0).


sayan
It is sugge&teki
"zero"

upat ca

usa.'-

the

"narav

cavocot,

inay

As

usa,

ica

napulo

iea

ea linr an

ica

upat ca gatos

ica

si

ica

pirn ca

yam

ca ytieot
riho.

of usa has also simple forms, ae siyahcin,


admits! the particle icag instead of
frequently
and
siyapa,
ica. as icag usa.

The ordinal

The
dinals,

partitives

except

in

have,

sivapa are never need

lunga
nga (half*, employed
nn(\

its

to

ordinals

form as the

or-

cag usa, siyahan and

partitives; that and there is the form


cat a nga, tunga or catunga hm or
instead of icaduha.

variants

The phrase ca
partitives

the same

exactly
the

that

avoid

hahin

(part)

confusion.

is

Thus

frequently

used

in

the

pit
The pahiele
tunga

(hn

led' IS"

"c-xurog"'"

If),

'the fourth part)..

vr l^.ahin

sometimes contracted into ca, as "ca(most\

formed by- adding to the cardinals


particle tag (which conveys the -idea of distribution). As

'In

the

..u'ives are

(list:-

ddha

.;}g

tag

p4li;M),

(t..V,'Q,

ar.aloan

rag

uoot (thousa

j,

..

...,,

each-

^'eighty,

...

.,.'

each)

meaning
When th
distributive
As'
tag.
with
comb.^ed
is
iqiu
ra
article
the J
ars

iqr.ina" tag ntvha

,5

the

(each two), etc.

of

portion,

COLLECTIVE
collective

le

the

reunion') "ajnd

or

collection

oi

nouns are formed by adding; at the beginca (which bears the idea
te predx

i.imitive

the

aflix

an.

As;

from bata (boy or girl), cabataan (reuuion of boys or girls)


tawo (person), catauohan (reunion of persons).
,,
doha
(two), caruhaan (twenty).
,,
frequently: used ty

These forms are very


the

of

nouns,

mga
:

Nt>TE

tract

The
of

Urn

the

singular bata, we

make the plural


make the plural.

,\>ata or c.abataan.
-

ca

is

also

employed

express abs-

to

as
(A'ljHe C'moi).

b.ns.ig
t

of

The 'particle

ideas,

fapljp

as

wui

mabusag (white), eamahnsag

;e.:>esM

rjartfcfe

pdg.

ts

particle, as

hornet imes

added

at

the

begfiuifti-g"

'['

_-'

-\."C"

pagcauoabusag (whiteness).
'

The coiiecUves take

or ViiUiout the particles

also the form of the fTguratives'with


ck and ;m,'as the use 'may permit; as'

--^

---

cftborohongtohan,
borobotfi

Note.Ther^-Ms^nofhcf

*
.

16*40 of -hbu'ns

called

defective. They are;, limbed im


lowing belong to such class:
:

for bata

lumatud (perse n

ajB

nt

abdomen)

of. big:

(2)

*j

moti' r 'fr#tai,bcQ.-.(?epcr

ahac (son

for bal>a

of a

;*:.-

oV't&'tfjjhtfcr)

nah^bot-rrastrj^ticiple

of

"hoibot" to pui; out

of a hole;

(mouth)

(of-"s*irag" to put

lias a rag

>g

rfhvl

lugttic, (1)

for

may

(child),

>nrhobdta..(ftIi>eing born -tru

mot a to

;:

#!tfcH

number..- jftr^fol-

something

in the

mouth);

cam tit (hand)

for

camrauon

(from

"ctfmram",

what an eagle

does

with

its fingers);

Hoot)

till

ijfet

sinoadol (3) etc.

There are despectives

The venations
are:

ling of a thing
.(

2jj

(3)
(5)

Uia<j; of

(4)

which the Rinavan noons are subject,


ar.d

ca^es-.

due

Wff

|T|

""l

to

"

primitives, as.

1
rom- laptiri' which mean? th
hfrT^-'fTTl'l
I'1
dampness, humidity, or water.
An;, onamaficrtfi-ci^vcifd. banrtivi-r ch Idea- -of pa
An onomatopic w^rij.nieiuung.a^thi!]^. that Brakes noise (caradul}.
As it will be Been 'fater "tlipre'rire de-spoctiye verb^.nv*: of faoat&tQ walk)

^hlfi TTH>rit

(\)

to

ntfflfttotfr?

from their

''hiibsae";

Uukjy*-. (isiy),

for

render.

<fx-rivei\

ywan

(to tl^),

2/a$u/77?&ot.

40

Gender.

The gender
iew

nocins

the

Examples

id

scarcely

natural
of

natural

>lA6CULINK

regarded.

We

and grammatical
gender:

have however
genders.

foi

41

of

matam-is Jjj&weet), magtam-is (sweet, plural),

of

hataas

When
singular

(tiTffri),

noun

the

keeps

hagtaas
is

preceded

form,

its

(high,

plural).

by numeral adjectives, the

as

usa ca tauo (one man), napulo ca tauo (ten men),


usa Dga balay (one house), calim'an n^a.balay (fifty houses).

Some
phonical
of

adjectives

reason,

hubya

do not admit

the

interfix

g,

for

eu-

as

(lazy), rhga hubya, not hiigbya, etc.

Case.

There

is

different

their

no

Bisayan nouns to distinguish


Greek and Latin. The cases are
prepositions and by variable parts of

inflexion

cases,

for

as in

determined by the
speech preceding the noun.

IMPORTANT OBSERVATION.
Tl ere

samet

are

leters,

great

but

many Bisayan nouns composed


which

have

ding to the accent they bear.

different

of the

meanings accor-

Of these are the following:

anay (she-hog), anay (before)


apo (grandson or grand-daughter), apo

(a thing

fully

introduced)
iivao (distributive possession), ayao (no, imperative)
baba (mouth), baba (to carry a thing on the back)
babaye (woman) babaye (female not person)
baga (red-hot coal or wood), baga (lung), baga (like)

balay (turn), balay (house)


balod (a kind of dove), balod (wave)
oalos (return) balos (revenge)

banns (abunaant, thick), bantis (to scrub)


barany; (an amulets bariing (knot)

bayao

baya'o (brother-in-law),

(to

up)

lift

bnc.id (flower), biicad (to dig rip)


bdliat (work), bufaut (to
(alive)

b ihi

raise)

buhi (losse)

bntao (yellow), btilao (to provoke a stranger)


bliroog (1)

borong

(fog),

throw)

(to

busa (reprimand), biisa (therefore)


edbal (thread), cob.il (corn, callosity)

oomot tsinked), comot (quick)


dosol

(pain

of

the

'"caon",

to

eat)

boron

(to
fjustV,

pass

Mga

(flume'),

lava

(a

lnlaqui

boron

night),

the

be

igo (to

(despeetive

dosol

afcjaiack),

form

of

(farm)

hit)

(cooked)

laga

net for fishing), laya (to wither), lava (withered)

overtaking),

latos.

(reaching,

ldya

(weakness),

not

(male,

(man), lalaqui

person)

Iat6s

luya (lime),

luya

(to

whip)

(restlessness),

luy-a

(zingiber)

mnlay
or

us:i

obos

usa

pili

(a

11

pa

teach)

(to

exhaust)

(to

usa

(one),

llpa (reward).

pa'tag

mulay

(play)

{low)

obos

marvel)

(to

(rice chaff)

(plane) patag (a kind of basket)


tree so called), pi

p/dnd (palm), pa lad


(flower

(a

(to

banana),

of

select)

fish)

puso

ri^e especially

pnsa (pounded), pusa (to wash the feet)


puto (a dainty so called), puto (partition) puto

cooked)
(last son

or daughter:!

sabot
6a* cay,

(agreement),

(passanget

sabot
or

(filement. or

companion on

to
a

moderstand)
sacay (to

boat,

embark
I

qil< nt.

SOCiSt

to

collect

This is the origin o "Borongan" a town on the eastern coast of the


ll)
island of Samar, on account oi the fact that during certain epoch of the -year,
that place is more or less covered with fog.


&U80

suso

(teat),

tiao

(joke

43

suso

(thickset),

mollusk so called)

(a

(maniac)
tlnia (finished) tima (uneven)
tiao

tuba (a plant so called),

from cocoanut or

tuba (wine

nipa)

tubo

(sugar-cane),

tubo

grow),

(tc

etc.

Transposition of accents.

The Recent
its

In

by
the

word frequently changes

of

the

the

by repetition of the root or


accent is always placed upon

ay, the acute

affix

As

'

balaybalav

bala'v,

saroual, saroualay

,,

baloto, balotohay.
of the root

accent becomes grave, which

is

from daco, dacodaco


boho (hole) bohoboho
,,

.When

the

said

accent

is

(little

repeated

the

to

its

its

angular

repetition.

As

hole).

accent

acute
the

last

primitive

on

syllable

its

of

penthe

following the, pre-

dahondahon

from- dahan,

cahoy, cahoycahoy
halipotay

halfpot.

In

transferred

and

preserved;,

As.

rules.

,,

is

preserved in

primitive has. the

original primitive,

ceding

The grave accent

ult,

place upon

diminutives formed

penult.

from

its

transformation.

,,

maopay, maopay-opay

,,

hataas,
the

hataastaas

figurative?,

the

same

rules

are

followed;

and

employed, the primitive generally


when the interfix
which
is
placed upon the penult of
a.
'cent
loses its acute
ro

the

figurative.

is

As

from sacavan,

sarosacayan.

...

In

the

verb

the

ami

has

root

have said

bals

norms

verbal

from sunit,

(to

accent on

penult,

its

last

their

to

tigsiirat

tigbasa

magsusika-t

nmgbarasa

sus n r a t an

ba r a sa h a n

susuniton

barasahon

masurat

mabasa

isusurat,

ibarasa;

when

transformative particle

the

when

that

rule

its

ver-

syllables,

from basa (to reach


parabasa

write;,

para?iirat

except

general

transplaced

accent
as

is

it

acute

its

vicevcrsa,

44

is

ma

meaning

always on
the last syllable; and also in case of the particle Ai, where
As
the accent is always put on the penult.
desirableness,

which

in

the

case-

accent

acute

is

masuratsurat,
hima'sn.

where the penult of the verb root is neceswhen its vowel is foil wed by more than
sarily
and
when the last syllable of the root is
consonant,
one
pronounced independently from the consonant or consoIn

case.*

long,

preceding

nants
root

as

is

it,

preserved

from canhi

then

(to

the

the

ori

come),

dol-ong

Jn

the

accent

(to bear, to

tigdol-ong

cumaranhi

domorol-ong

caranhian
caranhion

dorol-ongan

macanhion

madol-ongon

dorol-ongon
idorol-ong
h no

when

derivative?,
it

the

accompany)

paradol-ong

primitive,

of

As

verbal.

para can hi

ha ngara n h

the

the

tigcanhi

iraranhi

of

acute

original

penult of

is

'

also

the

accent

placed

on

6 -o n g
1

is

the

on

the

penult

penult
of

the-

and when the accent

derivative;

primitive,

the?

45

derivative,

it

is

put

also

on

on the

is

the

last

syllable

syllable

last

of

of

the

as

from aram, bayau, pusod, biiua, tubae,


maaram, mabnrayau, himdsod, Dilution, tubacon.
It must be noted that we
refer to the acute accent.
sometimes happens that the last syllable- of the primitive
has angular accent, in which case such accent is discomposed, the grave being kept and the acute being transpos-

It

ed

penult

the

to

from

sal a,

of

the

derivative,

as

sal an n,

where the a of the penult really bears two accents, angular


and grave, the angular not being employed for the reason
that is it not necessary, as the last two aa are pronounced separately (1), and because it is not proper, as the angular
accent

is

In

only

the

used

the

at

endings of the words.

derivatives formed

the accent of

the

root

from bddo, (salted

is

with taga, or tag, or

not changed.

fish),

(2)

balay

maqui

As

(house),

calamay (dark

sugar)

tagabodo
tagbalay

maquicalamay

The comparatives formed with the interfix ro, have


always the accent on the last syllable no matter where it
was in the primitive. As
from halaba (long),

ugnis

(white

harohalaba, nrougnis.

The

superlatives formed with the prefix gui and the


always have the accent on the penult, without regarding where it was in the primitive. As

affix

(1)
(2)

of this book.
See "Vowels", page
See "Rule", pape 3 of this book.
f>

46

from halarum (deep), maUhiim (beautiful)


guihahalarumi, guimamatahumi.

The

way

which their primitives


have the accent on the
penult, they have it on the penult,- and when the primitives
have the accent on the last syllable they also have it on

are

their

follow

collectives

accented,

so,

in

As

syllables.

last

the

primitives

their

if

from bata (child), bahiy (house)


cabataan, cabal ay an.

must be observed also that there are nouns which,


Of
variations, have more than one forms.

It

thru

phonetical

such

words

are

following:

t lie

bacho, bfcho (groaning)


bat doc,

bundac (kick)

guipac,

guipac

guisi,

'broken)
cusi

quisi,

gusi,

(sagged)

i'malaron, Palanaron, Planaron (one


the
piln,

town

lopi

of

Bit sit,

(trembling)

corogpoa

(surtout)

(whittle)

BUtstit

taplac

taclap,

the suburbs of

(fold)

quirdg, eorog
quir<5gpos,

of

Tacloban), (1)

(blanket),

etc.

There are also words composed of the same letters but


Bounding differently and having different meanings thereby, on account of the separation with which some of thensyllables are pronounced.
As.
>

lauay

tree),

(saliba),
iik),

bag-o

lau-ay
tag-oc

(new)

(repugnance)
(unarticuiate

voice).

However, the correct and proper form Is Mi" Brat, PantUanm, a verbal
from panalad
plural Infinitive of tin; verb pagsatad which means "to
Bound*'. The said buuutd 51 Taclohan, it is believed took this name from the fact
thfct, anciently, Die people used In sound (panahul)
in Mich place which
wag
then covered by the sea.
(l)

.k'rivc<l

;i

bagang (an

bag-ang (grinder)

insect),

(bulky), but-ol

biitol

47

(throat),

bulanon (moony), bul'a'non (from Bohol),

etc.

PRONOUN
sive,

There are four


and relative.

classes:

demonstrative, posses-

personal,

PERSONAL.
They

are

the

following:

SINGULAR

Aco

PLURAL
Quita, cam! (we)

(I)

Camo

leap, ca (1) (thou, you)

Hiya, or siya (2) (he cr she)

(you)

Hira, or sira (they).

Declension.

The

cases

are

four: nominative, genitive, objective,

and

vocative.

First person. Singular.

Nominative. Aco
Nacon,

Objective. Ha
Genitive.

[)

aeon, co

(4)

aeon, dacon

(5)

(of,

(to,

by me)
for,

in, at,

on, upon,

over, under, etc. ine)

Plural.

Nominative.
(1)

Garni quita

(G)

(we?

Only used after the verb.

Hiya &nd tiy-i are the same. See the note 2 on page 7 of this book.
The same may be said about hira and sira.
Quita means "we", the listener included; caw* means "we", the listener
(3)
(2)

excluded.
(!)

Contracted from

ni

(of)

and aeon (mine).

(">)
Contracted from da and aeon. This particle da is used in some places
as equivalent to the preposition ha or the contraction han. So in Oarigara, Leyinstead of hanhani used in Tacloban and
te. they sav dahani (at old times),
other towns of Leyte. The forms damon, daton, dimo, diyo, diya, dim have the

same explanation.
(6; Quita is frequently used for "aco", as when we say
lap2 fgive me money), instead of tagui aeo hin salapi.

tagui quita

hin sa-

N.inion, anion aaton, aton, ta


Ha anion, damon ha aton,

Genitive.

Objective.

(of,

by us^

daton

for,

(to,

us)

Second person. Singular.

Nominative.
[cao, ca (thou, you)
Ximo, imo, uio (of, by thee, or you)
Ha imo, diwp (to, for, etc. thee, or you)
Objective.

Genitive.

Icao

Vocative.

(thou, or you)

Plurnl.

Nominative.
Genitive,

Canio (you)

Niyo,

iyo (of, by you)

Objective.-

-Ha

Vocative.

Camo

iyo,

diyo

(to, for,

Third person

Hiya (he,
Niya, iya

Nominative.
Genitive.

(of,

Objective.

Vocative

Ha

iya,

Hiya

etc.

you)

(you)

or she)

by him, or her)

diya

(He,

Singula!.

(to, for, etc.

him, or her)

she).

or

Plurnl
Nominative
Genitive
Objective

Hira (They)

Nira,

Ha

ira
ira,

VocativeH5ra

(of,

dira

by them)
(to,

for

etc.,

them^

(they).

Demonstratives.

They
plural,
\i

have

a??

the

name forms both

for

the

singular

and

follows:

(this,

these,

nearer

to

the

speaker than to the

lis-

tener)
ini

(this,

these)

ito

(that,

those,

tener,
esos,

nearer to the speaker than to the liscorresponding to the Spanish "ese, esa, eso,
esas").


adto

(that,

from the speaker than from


and Corresponding to the Spanish

further

those,

the .listener,

"aquel,

When

used

aquel

aquella,

before the

them; said particle


pronun. As

los,

aquel as
I

').

nouns, they have the particle

bjing

frequently

adi

nga.

contracted

adin,

ini

nga,

ito

nga,

contracted
contracted

infn,

contracted

nga

after

with

the

iton,

adto nga, contracted

So

49

a'dton.

The form iton sometimes takes again the particle nga.


is said iton nga bata
(that boy or girl).
Adi, adto in
some places have their variants yadi,

it

vadto.
In
ing

plural,

the

particle

niga

placed

is

after the preced-

combinations.

They have two

subjective

cases:

ami

objective.

Declension.
*

Adi.

Adi,
Hadi,

Singular

Subjective

adi

Objective

hadi nga,

etc.

nga,

Adi,
Hadi,

Subjective

etc.,

adi

hadi

mga

nga mga, adin mga (these)


nga mga. hadin. or hadin

(of,

Ini,
Mini,

Subjective

mga

these).
Ini.

Objective

hadin

Plural.

(of.

(this)

hadin, or

this)

'

Objective

adin

ini

hini

Singular

nga, ,inin

nga,

(this)

hinin

(of,

etc., this).

Mural.

Ini, ini nga mga, iniu mga (these)


Hini, hini nga mga, hinin mga

Subjective
Objective.

these).

(of,

etc.,

50
Ito.

Hito,

Subjective.

Objective

Singular

nga, iton, iton nga (that)

Ito, ito

nga,

hito

hiton,

hiton,

nga

(of,

etc.

that)

Plural.

Subjective.

Ito,

ito

mga, iton nga

nga mga, iton

mga

(those)
Objective.
(of,

Hito,

etc.,

hito

nga mga, hiton mga, hiton nga mga

those)

Adto.

Adto,
Had

Subjective.
Objective.

to,

Singular.

nga, adton (that)


hadto nga, hadton (of,

adto

etc.,

that)

Plural.

Adto,
Hadto,

Subjective.
Objective.

adto nga mga, adton mga (those)


hadto nga mga, hadton niga (of, etc.,

those)

The forms adton and hadton are frequently used instead of iton, hiton when the object referred to is very
.

close

the

to

Iton
Examples:

listener.

form hadton.

mopay adton
say

hin'i

darodaco

condi
co

ioi

haton

(I

sometimes

is

(that

one

hadton
prefer

is

better

(but this

that

replaced

is

than

by the

this)

larger than that)

one).

POSSESSIVE.
They

are

the

following:

SINGULAR

PLURAL

aeon, co (my, mine)

imo,

mo

aton, la, anion (our, ours)

(thy, thine, your, yours)

iya (his or her)

The forms

iyo (your, yours)


ira (their)

co,

mo, ta

are

used

only

after

the nouns.


The

51

same distinction exists between aton and ainon,


quita and cami. (*)

as between

They have

two eases: subjective,

also

and objective.

Declension.

Aeon.

Aeon,

Subjective.

Ha

Objective.

Singular.

co (my, mine)

aeon, hau aeon

my)

etc,

,-of,

Plural.

Subjective.

Objective.
etc.,

Aton,

Ha

anion (our, ours)

ta,

aton, han

aton, ha anion,

ban anion

(of,

our)

Imo.

Singular.

Imo, mo (thy, thine,


Ha imo, han imo

Subjective.
Objective.

(of,

your, yours)
etc.,

your, thy)

Plural.

Iyo
Ha

Subjective.
Objective.

(your, yours)

han iyo

iyo,

your)

(of, etc.,

Iya Singular
Subjective lya (his, her, hers)
Objective. Ha iya, han iya (of,

his,

etc-.,

her)

Plural.

Subjective. Ira
Objective. Ha

These
plural
case

plurals

referring

to

itheir)

han

ira,

refer

the

ira

(of,

the

to

objects

their)

etc.,

subjects

possessed,

is

possessing.

by using the particle mga, As

Aeon mga
Iyo
Ira

(*)

cabogtoan

(my brothers

mga lauas (your bodies)


mga cabalayau (their houses)
See "Personal pronouns" page

47.

or

The

formed in each

sisters)

52

RglSALATIVE.
They are
(that,

(what)

bisan

ano

hfn'o

or

whatever)

sin'o

hin'o

ha in

<

(1)

or

(who)

bisan

bmi'o

(whoever)

which)

bisan

bain

These

pronouns,

in ilex ion

This
It

which)

Nga
a no

bisan

DO

follows:

as

(-whichever-]

hin'o

always' refers

relative

never relates

except

and

bisan

the

subject

have

hin'o

cases.

for

the

to

to

complement.

So the

of

the verb.

sentence.

house that Peter builds is big",


cannot be translated laterally into Bisayan.
.* ; the

by passive

"an

bala'y

litterally

And

It

verted

is

.Thus:

nga guintitindog
house that

book

which you gave

is

ni

being

"the

Pedro,
built

by

daco",
Peter

is

big",

this:

"the
is

voice.-

me

yesterday'?

translated

"an
litterally

This
qualified

basahon nga ihinatag mo ha aeon eacolop";


"the book which was given by you to me yesterday"

pronoun is indispensable when a


by an adjective, as

substantive

maopay nga tauo (good man,) not maupay tauo,


bucad nga ma ha mot (fragrant flwer) notbnead mahamot
It

differs

from the conjunction

(that)

in

that

^2)

the

7.
We use apostrophe and not hyphen, because
from hi ano and si ano.
However in this form in which the substantive preceds the adjetive
yi)
ne suppression of nga ls"peraaislble in poetry.

(l)

s<'o tin-

note 2 on page

hin'o, sin'o are contracted

nga

is

pronoun always
Note.
idea

This

particle

noun, never to a verb.

to

nga

expresses in some instances the

"saying," "question," "answer,"

of-

Nga
Juan,

refers

as

Pedro: "ta'gui aco bin salapi."

ni

nga

etc.,

niya: "uaray

Peter said: ''give

co

when we

Da'yon

say:

baton

ni

salapi."

me money."

John immediately replied

by saying: "I have no money."


Paca'nhia

Nga

Guillermo.

hi

hanglan ca didto."
Make Guillermo come.

naton

(1)

"guinquiquina.
*

Tell him: "you are needed there."


i

When

applied to the third person

with the particle laong

it is

frequently combined

as:

Xasiring hi Pedro, ngalaong: "magtotoon aco." (Peter said:


(I

shall

study

).

This special idea conveyed by the word nga seems


in the Bisay ni tongue, as when it

in other instances

to
is

show
said

depreciatively:

;Ca

damo

hin

How many

im nganga!
you ask or

things

where the doubled nga

talk!

means request

or

talking.

Ano.
pronoun has the same use as the English what,
except when the latter is used as an objective relative, in
which case the said English pronoun is translated by the
As when it is said:
article an.
This

'What you

need

is

patience,

not

science,"

which

i9

translated:

An

guinquiquinah uiglau"

mo an

pag-IJob, diri

hibaro.

This is another irregularity of the pronoun quita. Here it is equivalent


(1)
nimo; but this last form i<- inadmissible in such phrase, naton being the special pronoun for the same.
to

54

Bisan ano.
Bisan ano means "anything" or "whatever." Examples:
Whatever you do I'll know it.
Bisan ano in buhaton mo, hisasabotan

me anything

Give
Ta'gui
It

is

bisan ano nga hacaraon.

bin

aeo

Anything yon may


la

You wish

it

is

desire,

see

to

give

I'll

la.

Ex.:

you.

everything

mo

la buot

anoano

la, or

mo, ihahatag co ha imo.

caruyagon

liga

Anoano

When

ano

frequently replaced by

Ano

co.

eatable.

hiquit'an.

preceded by an article,

Which horse do you


An ano nga eabayo

it

means "which,"

as

like?

mo?

buot

in

Hin'o
This
It

is

serves

is

relative

not employed
as

"that',.

"th.it

person

translated: "iton

not "iton
It

tauo

only

is

as

used

the interrogative phrases.

in

"who" when

the English

this

relative

Bo this phrase

who

talks

hin'o

has two eases:

is

my.

brother"

nga nagyayacan, aeon bugto,"

tauo

nagyayacan, etc."
subjective

and objective.

Declension
SINGULAR
Subjective- -Hin'o

Objective

Canay,

(of, etc.

PLURAL

(who)

Hira

can can ay
wliom whose)

hin'o

(who)

Cauda canay

(of, etc.,

whom.

whose)

Bisan hin'o
Bisan hino means "whoever"

or

"anyone".

Example

55

Whoever is there, let him come.


Bisan hirto in ada, pacanhia.
Anyone knows him.
Bisan hirto naquilala ha iya.
It

also

has

two cases: subjective

arid

objective.

Declension.
SINGULAR
Subjective.

PLURAL

Bisan hin'o

(who-

Bisan hira hin'o

(whoever)

ever)
Objective.
etc.,

Bisan

camiy
whomever)

(of,

Bisan canda cana'y

(of,

etc.,

whomever)
Hain.

Hain means "which."


Which
4

Hain

of

these

Examples:

hats

mga

hint nga

is

yours?

calo

in

imo?

Similarly to "ano," the pronoun "hain"


interrogative forms, never as

nga

(that).

is only used in the


So the phrase

"the book which you saw"


is

translated

and not

"and basahon nga irao quinita" (literally: the


book that was seen by you),
"an basahon hain icao quiumita.

Bisan hain.
It

is

equivalent to the English

"whichever." Examples:

Whichever of those books satisfies me.


Dida hito nga mga basahon bisan hain maopay

Thete

co.

hain and bisan hain must not


of the same form,
hain
(where.) and bisan hain (wherever).
The former refer only
Note.

be confounded

to

nouns, the

relatives

adverbs

with

the

latter

to verbs.

56

Contractions.

The pronoun* arc


a co,

fivq'U'ntly

aeon,

contracted

as

follows

VERB
The verb- may

As
rogative,

As

to

conjugation:

their

suppletory,
to

their

The Active

grouped in

be

following

active, passive,

impersonal,

inflections:

the

classes:

negative, inter-

defective.

primitive,

and progressive.

verb represents the subject as acting, as:

aco nasugo (I order).

The Passive

verb represents the subject as being acted upon, as:

am

aco sinusugo (I

The Negative

ordered).

verb involves a negation, as:

ayao caturog (do not sleep).

The Interrogative

verb involves a question,

^diin ca cadto? (where did you go?)

The Suppletory

verb

supplies the lack of

all

auxiliary and

a few other verbs as from ini (this), we have:


lini aco

am

(I

here), to express the

verb "to, be," in

Bisayan.

The Impersonal
nauran

The Defective

verb has not a definite subject,


(it

rains

verb lacks one or more oHts principal parts

iya (receive

The Primitive

as:

verb

as,

it).

is

used in

its

original

and simplest form

as:
act')

nasurat (I write).

The Progressive

verb denotes continuance of the action,

aco nagsusurat (I

am

writing)

as:

;,.s

CONJUGATION
VOICES
They

are

The
ject

ami

active

classes: direct,

indirect,

direct

passive

where the subject

is

an aeon n gar an (write


he written by you).

surat:i

the direct

ob-

literally: let

my

is

as:

active voice,

in

The passive voice has three


passive.
and instrumental.

my name;

name
The
object

indirect passive

the verb

of

in

is

where

the

subject

active voice,

its

is

an indirect

as:

an imo a may (write to your father; literally:


be written by you to your father).

suratf

let

a leMer

The

instrumental

instrument or real
igsurat
let

ini

this

passive

object

of

where the subject

is

the

is

the

action, as:

nga pluoia (write with this pen; litterallv:


pen be used by you in writting.)

MOODS AND TENSES


There are four moods: infinitive, indicative, imperative,
and subjunctive.
The infinitive his two tenses: present, and gerund; three
in passive voice: present, gerund, and past participle.
The indicative has three. The ordinary forms have preThe irregular forms have present, imsent, past and future.
past, and
past.
The imperative an

perfect

subjunctive have

one

each

tense:

present.
In'fininvk.

an

Tli!

pagcaon

The gerund
for

past tenses,

present

(the
is

is

frequently

frequently

as:

used

as

noun,

as:

meal).

used

in

compound

sentences


han pag-abot

59

(when

co

arrived:

litterally

upon

my

arriving).

The past

participle

employed

is

a?

an

adjective,

hinigugma ci nga iroy: (my dear mother;


mother loved by me).
Note.
alent

in

There
many

are

as:

litterally:

Bisayan forms resembling and equiv-

in

instances

Latin

the

to

infinitive future end-

and in dus, in passive, as amaturus


and amandus. Such Bisayan forms are those formed by the
particle urn combined with the intermix r or its substitutes
(See page 20), as:
ing

in rus,

active,

in

eumaraon
caraonon

(one

who

to

is

thing to

(a

be

eat)
eate.i).

Ordinary forms. The present corresponds to the


in
English, and also to the Spanish and

Indicative.

same tense

Latin imperfect past.

nacaon
nacaon

aco <I

As:

eat)

ban pag-abot mo

aco

was eating

(I

when you

arrived)

The past
and

tense

nagsunit aco

The

represents

mood.

indicative

past,

have

(I

shall

Suppletory forms.
present

He
He

and future
is

here:

will

written

corresponds

future

masurat aco

be

hiya

present

perfect,

to

wrote)

(I

the

English future tense, as:

write)

The

tenses,

here

the English

As:

present represents the


indicative.

English

As:

haliani.

tomorrow:

hiya hahani

buas

The imperfect past and past tense corresponds to the


same tense of the Latin and Spanish languages: as
didinhi (1) hi Juan han pag-abot co (John was here,
when I arrived)
(1)

In -Dulag

and other plaees

of Leyte. this

word

is

pronounoed

didinhi.

~ - 60

Imperative and Subjunctive. The single tense ^present)


each of these moods corresponds to the same tense

of

in

English, as:

cad to buas (go there to-morrow)


cun cutnadto ca buns, tauaga aco
morrow, call me).

(If

you go there

to-

1
The English past perfect, indicative, is supBisayan by the present tense, indicative, of the
As:
potential form which we shall see later. (1)

Observations.
plied

in

ban imo pag-abot nacacatima na aco (when you arrived,


I
had already" finished)

The

2.

English

by

Bisayan

future

perfect

tense

the future tense, indicative, of the

supplied, in

is

potential form.

As

umabut ca ngani macacatima


shall

na

aco (when

you

arrive,

have finished).

The

Latin and Spanish imperfect -past tense, .submood, is supplied in Bisayan by the present, subAs
junctive, and future indicative.
3.

juntive

Cun gumican aco niyan,


should go today,

(If I

diri co hiya igquiquita buns


would not meet him to-morrow).

The Latin and Spanish

4.

perfect

past tense, subjunc-

Bisayan by the past tense, indicative.


The Latin and Spanish pi usquam perfect past tense,
5.
Subjunctive, is supplied in Bisayan by the past and future
As
(potential) tense:, indicative, respective!^

tive,

supplied

is

in

Cun nag<Iagmit
hastened,
>.

The

junctive,
7.

And

potential
(l)

ac6\ hinaabutan co cunta


should have reached him)

Latin and

supplied

is

languages,

iff

the

in

(If

hade

Spanish imperfect future tense, subBisayan by the present subjunctive.

perfect

supplied

hiy.-i

in

future

Bisayan

form.

Bee Other elasses of rcfrbs",

uiji-a,

tense,

subjunctive,

by the

of

said

'present, indicative,

61

NUMBER AND PERSON


There are two numbers: singular and plural.'
There are three person*: first, second, and third.
in

imperative,

the

not change,

the

inflections

each tense.

in

of

the

However,

Except

verbs generally do

the

and

progressive

suppletory forms frequently undergo some changed in plural, a3


aco

nag.susur.it

are

am

(I

writing),

cami

nanunurat

(we

writing)

INFLECTIONS.
The inflections are determined by
shown in the following tables:
(In
sign
s

(d)

and

the

tables

below

means that the

p mean

which are

dash represents the

the

syllable of the root

first

and

singular

particles,

plural,

TABLE

is

root; the

doubled;

respectively).

Primitive active
Infinitive

Present, and gerund: pag

,s;

pang, pam

Indicative
Present: na-~Past: inm

Future:

ma

jsm

or

Imperative
(the

root

unaltered)

Subjunctive

ni,

or

um

,pan

p.

G2

Ow.~LUVATin.N-:

The present, and gerund are formed by the


pug. and the root. In the plural, the g of pag
Undergoes tin.' following changes:
Wnen the root begins with a vowel o: with the consonant c, the pag is changed into pang, the c then beingsuppressed.
Examples:
Infinitive.

prefix

from "aro"

the root

If

pag

ask),

(to

"caturog"

,,

(to

disnppears.

pam: and

When

the root begins with

when

is

paghapon,

pi.

invade), pageaibat,

pi.

(to perch),

"bi't.io'"

to

visit),

p:ii'lti;tn,

pi.

tubo"

to

grow), pagtubo.

pi.

order

(long
hort

Past.
(1)

panmiilay.

(to

is

Examples.

h.

write),

pagsurat,

pa

panhapon,
pangubat,
lino.

panubo,
pi.

panurat.

The transformative

Present.

particle

of this

not to

which must always be pronounced


confound it with the short na of the

paesive potential form,

pi.

the prefix na,

is

in

g or
(to

Indicative.
tense

into

Exam p.:

said consonant, being then suppressed

"gtibat"

'sural"

..

transformed

is

it.

commences with any other consonant, pag

from "bapon"
..

pamili.

teach), pagmulay,

(tc

pan, the
it

in

pam ay ad.

pi.

m, pag

remaining

of the root

the root

replaced by

except

m,

Examples:

from "miilay"
If

pangatiirog.

then the labial consonant

"pili" >to select), pngpili, pi.

pan, the

pi.

labial consonant, except

from "bayad" (to pay), pagb-iyad,


"

pangaro.

pi.

pngcatiirog,

commences with a

transformed into

is

pag-aro,

sleep),

na)
nil

mipih

as

aco

it

(I

napili aco (T

Thia tense

See "Potenclal

is

Form",

will

be

seen

later.

(1)

As

select)

was selected).

determined by the interfix inni placed


infra.

~
betvren

ho

When

first

consonant and the


to the root.

from "surat"
acp sinmimit
Note.

write), "abot"

(-1)

(I write),

The m

mi mil ay,

imn

of

root.

particle

is

(to arrive)

inmabot hint (they arrived)

frequently suppressed.

is

teach), abot

(to

vowel of the

a vowel, this

As,

(to

i'rom "miilay"

first

commences with

the root

simply prefixed

63

(to

As,

arrive)

in abot.

Future. The particle determining this tense is the prewhich must be always pronounced long, so as not
to confound it with the short ma used among the verbal
and derivative nonns. As,
fix:

ma

ma)
ma)

(long
(short

hiya mac. ion (he or she will eat)


hiya macaon (he or she is a glutton)

maborong (there will be


maborong (confuse)

(long)

(short)

Imperative. It
sformative

Note.

simply

is

fog)

the

any tran-

root whit bout

particle.

There

form consisting in doubling the first


this form is used only in the preceptive language, as when we say: tauagon ca ngani, babatom'
(whenever you are called, always answer).
syllable of

is

the root.

Sulrjunctive.

a vowel,
(to

ask),

the

But

The

single

um

which

ed by the inter fix

sonant and

first

tense
is

vowel of the

the-interfix

is

added

of this

is

dermin-

first

con-

with
beginning as from "aro"'

root. If the root begins

to the

"umaro," from "cao.r'

mood

placed between the

(to eat)

cumaon.

Example:
Root: surat.
Infinitive
Present, and gerund

*****
\

plural

P^ ^
1

panucat

(to write,

writing

(l)
In Basay, B&mar the m [a frequently suppressed, the first vowel becoming tang on account of *fttd suppression. So they say there: ttnurbt', umbo!.

6i

Indicative
SINGFLAK
ac6
icao

ua<ura:

liiy:i \

I'LUriAL

PRpajBNT!
i::ni)i

1,

<

thou,

he, she

you

>

^^T

"

quita

cam6

>

hira

we
you

they

nasurat.

^
/

write

PAST
ac6, etc.

sinmurat

wrote

(I, etc.

camf, etc. simnunit (we,

1
)

etc.

wrote)

FUTURE
ac6, etc. lnastiraMl shall, etc. write)

camf,

etc.

(we

iiiasurKt

shall,

etc.

write)

'

Imperative
surat icao

sum unit.

(write)

(*) hiya

sumtirat (*) camf, hira (let us, them


write)
surat quita, cam6 (let us, you write)

him

(let

or her

write)

Subjunctive
ac6, etc.

sumurat

(I

may,

etc. write)

camf,

etc.

(we may,

sumurat

etc.

write)

TABLE

2.

Progressive active
Infinitive.

(the

some

that

as

of

primitive

the

active)

Indicative
Present: nag((J)

Past:

NAG,

Future: MAG(d)

S:

NA(d) or nan(<1)
OT NAN.
MANo(d) MAfd) or MAX(d) p

nang (d)
NA
NANG

,s;

sj

J).

Imperative.

PAG

S;

PA

PANG--,

Of

PAN

p.

Stihjunctive

MAG,
(')

This form

la

S;

MANY}

MA--, or

taken Froxu the snbjupctive, as

MAN,
in

p.

the Spanish language

65

OBSERVATIONS.
Infinitive.

Indicative.
ling

the

When

Present.

Its

singular

the root

determined by doubby nag.

is

(*) of the root, prefixed

formed according

is

of

primitive active.

syllable

first

Its plural

root.

forms are exactly the same aa those

Its

the

the

to

of the

letter

first

commences with a vowel,

or with the con-

sonant c as
arc (to ask)
c4on

(to eat),

the formation takes the

lowing

process:

ng

is

added

to the

fol-

beginning of the root,

being suppressed, as
ngaro, ngaon;

the
led,

(*)

first

ngangaro.
prefixed,

doub-

which the particle na

as

nangangaro,
final

is

nga ngaon,
to

is

syllable

as

nangarfgaon,

which

is

the

form.

When

the root

commences with

a labial consonant, as

bay ad (to pay)


mulay, (to teach)
pili

the
lows: the

first

altered

it

if

consonant

(to select),

formation of the plural

of the root is replaced

is

as fol-

/n, or

not

an m, as

mayad, mulay,

mill;

then the
is

by

first

sellable

doubled, (*) as

(*) In the towns of Dulag, Burauen, and Abdyog, of the island of Leyte,
these iorms are always contracted, the first syllable ot the verb so formed becoming long on account of the said contraction. Thus it is said in the mentioned
placet: ndijsarat instead of nagnuaurat.

-r 66

mamayad, mumulay, mimili^


:

and the prefix nan

...-,...

.....

em ployed,

-- :

is

as

nanniamayad, nanmumiilay, nanmimili,

The

the final from.

last

nan

of

frequently suppressed, as

is

namamayaa
namimili.

When

root begins, with

the

dapo

dental

surat

write),

(to

the formation

the

replacing

sists in

first

napo,

22,

as

whoso

.first

syllable

doubled

is

-.

nanabon,' nunurat,.
to

prefixed

which

,.

the

final

root

commences with any

formed by doubling the

and by prefixing the particle nan


Example's:

particle

na

is

nananapo, nam! nabon, naniinurat,


.the

is

the

as
-

If

plural con-

the

nabon, nurat,

nanapo.

plural

of

consonant by

..'..-.

Mr)-"*.

as

approach)

(to

tahon, (to cover)

consonant

^first

to

form.

other consonant,
syllable

of the

the
root,

the root so transformed.

...
from

lm gas

(to

wash)

lohekl

(to .kneel,

rabot

(to

pull),

down)
'

nknhuhugas, nanlolohod, nanrarabot.

the

Past.

The singular

prefix

nag.

(1)

See the note on paga

is

65.

formed

by adding

to

the

root

Ebe

plural

except in
is

that

formed

is

the

first

exactly

syllable

plural

the

the

root

present,

transformed

not doubled.

The

Future.

formation

and plural,

singular

in

tense

of this

that

as

that the prefixes used here are


of

as

of

same, both

the

is

the

of

present,

excep in

mag, ma, man, mang,

instead

nag, na, nan, nang.

Imperative. In singular the prefixes pag and


ag are
employed. In plural, the prefixes, pa, pan, pang, ma, man,
mang, are used in the same way and cases as the prefixes
na, nan, nang, in the present -'indicative.
Subjunctive.
indicative,

It

except

not doubled

is

formed

that

in

in the

the

same way
syllaHIe

first

as the future

the

of

root

is

here.

Root: surat (write)


Infinitive
,-,

Present, and, gerund

singular:
pagsur&t

pan u rat

writing)

Indicative
.

aco, ete.

PRESENT

SINGULAR

0)

nagsusurat

(I

am,

be writing, being

(to

plural

ete.

writing)

PLURAL

camf, etc. nanunurat (we are,


writing)

etc.

PAST
aco, etc. nagsurat
ing)

(I

was, etc. writ-

camf

ete.

nanurat

(we were,

etc.

writing)

FUTURE
aco,

tnagsusurat
be writing)
etc.

(I

shall, etc.

camf, etc. manunurat (we shall, etc.


be writing)

Imperative
panurat quita, cam6

pagsurat icao (be writing)

(let us,

you be

writing)

nmsaurat hiva.

(let

him

manurac camf, hira

or her be

(let us,

them

be writing).

writing)"

Subjunctive
ico

etc magsurat (I
'writing)

mav,

etc.

be camf, etc. manurat


j

'

l->

e writing)

(we may.

etc.

68

TABLE

passive

Primitive direct
I

and

Present,
A,

gertintl:

nfinitive

pag

s;

a.

pang

a,

pam

A,

pan

p.
-

participle: in---, or

Past

in---

Indicative
Present: ix(d)
Past: in

or

or

in

iN('d)

(d) on.

Future:

Imperative

A.
Subjunctive
7 ON

The present and gerund

Infinitive,

singular by

the

pag and

prefix

The

the

are

affix a.

determined

P&g

is

in

used

a is accented (if the last


and simply appended to
This affix is sometimes ha. The
the root prefixed by pag.
use of a or ha follows the same rules established for the
use of the affixes an an hand (See page 15 of this book).
as

in

the

syllable

In

active

the

cf

voice.

root

is

affix

accented)

plural the prefixes

pang, pam, pan, are employed


The said prefixes are used

the combination with the affix a.

same way

as

62 of this book

The
If

this

He

first

begins

from

in

(See page

).

participle

past

,.(.'0

the primitive active.

their similar in

;in

is

consonant

formed by the intorfix in placed


ami the first vowel of the root.

with a vowel the in

eaon''.,

"inom"

(to
(to

eat),

is

prefixed tc the root.

qiuhaon (eaten)
ininom (drinked)

drink),

As


Indicative.
the

Present.

syllable

first

This

the

of

doubling the said

(after

way

a similar

as

ooservution).

in

69

root
first

the

past

tense

formed by

is

and

by

then

syllable) the

doubling

placing in
interfix

in,

it

in

(See the preceding

participle.

As,

from caon, quinacaon


inom, iniinom (1)

Past.
as

that

The

Future.
lable

formation

the

of

This

tense

tense

this

oi

past participle

formed by doubling the

is

the root and appending to

of

the same

exactly

is

above.

seen

it

the affix

first syl-

on.

As

from "caon," cacaduon


"inom," iinomon, contracted iinmon.
,,

Imperative.

The

the root appended


that this
the

son
to

affix

of

mode

this

"a."

It

or

in.

"a" in the imperative bears the idea that


is always directed to the second perplural,
[f such order or command is directed

first

command

some

plural

consists

must be observed

affix

order
or

form

single

by the

other person, not to the second,


then the subjunctive is used. As

higugmaa an

Dyos (love God;

litt:

let

or

God

first

(quita)

be loved by

you)
an catadungan (let us love justice; litt: let
by us).
higugmaon nira an igeasitauo Uet them love the fellow man: litt: let the fellowman be loved by them).

higugmaa

ta

justice be loved

The

last

son, singular

form is also frequently used for the second perand plural, and for the first person, plural. As

higugmaon mo an Dyos
higugmaon niyo, etc.
higugmaon nam on, etc.
higugmaon ta, etc.
Subjunctive.
(l)

The

~ee the note on page

(love

single

68.

God)

form

of

this

mode

consists in

70

by the

the root appended

on, as

affix

it

seen in the pre-

is

ceding examples.

Example:
Root.:

s-ur*t

Indicative
Present, and

gerund

singular: pngsurata

plural: panurata

be

(to

written,

being

written).

Pat! participle: sinurat (written)

Indicative
PRESENT
SINGULAR
ae6,

etc. sinusurat
written)

PLURAL.

etc.

ana,

(I

(we

eainf, etc. sintisurat

'

are, etc.

written)

PAST
aco, etc. sinurat (I was, etc. written)

caini,

sinurat (we

etc.

were, etc.

written)

FUTUREaco,

etc.

susuraton

(V shall. etc.

be written

camf, etc. susuraton (we shall,


he written).

etc.

Imperative
snratti

aed,

icao,

camf, quita, camo, hira (let me, thee,


you, him, her, ns, you them he written by you)
hiysi,

Subjunctive
aco.

etc,

uraton

<1

mny,

camii. etc. auraton


he written^

etc.

written

we mav,

etc.

TABLE
-

l.

pj-dgresaive direct passive.


Infinitive.

and gerund:

Present)
A
;

Past

p.

participle:

guin

pagi

-a,

s; pina

pang

s;

a,

pam-

pinan --, p.

Indicative
Present:

i;ui_\(d)-.

s;

pin.

(d)

pinan (d)

p.

a,

pan

71
pina pinan

Past:
guin s;
Future: pag((1)

on,

p.

PA(d) on, PAN(d) on,

s;

p.

Imperative

PAG A

PAA, PAN

S;

A,

p.

Subjunctive

PAG

ON

S|

PA ON,

PAN

ON,

p.

OBSERVATIONS.
Present and

Infinitive.

by the root prefixed by


the prefixes pa, pan, or
cases as those mentioned
of

The singular

gerund.

formed

is

pag an affixed by a. In plural


pang are employed in the same
for the use of nang nam, and na

present tense, indicative, of the progressive form, active

the

voice.

(1)

The past

participle

is

formed by the prefix gain added

the root.

to

Indicative.

Present.

In singular

the

first

syllable

guin is employed.
In plural the prefix pina is used and the root is
formed exactly in the same way as the plural, present
doubled,

of

indicative,
Past.

Future.
the

the

root

it*

the

form active

voice.

transtense,

(3)

present, except in that the

first

transformed is not doubled.


Jta singular is formed by the prefix pag', added
whose first syllable is doubled, (4) and by the

the

root

on.

aflix

Its plural is

formed by the

root transformed in the

and

is

prefix

progressive

The same

syllable of

to

and the

(2)

as the

trasfoi tnation

indicative of

tense,

(l)
{t)
(3)
(4)
(3)

prefix:

same way

the

of the

pa,

pang

as in the use of
root in

progressive

the

or para and the


na nang or nam
plural,

See page 6T> tt. seq.


See note on page Go
It is not doubled some placet]
rt wq.
See page
n is not doubted some localities. Bee note on page 63
See page 61

present

form, active voice.

(5)

and

Imperative.
affix-3.1 by ft.

on

the

consists in

It

We

tense

the

by

observation

hers tho

form,

passive.

direct

pag

made
(1)

formed by the root prefixed

is

on.

plural

Its

same way as

consists in the

use

in the plural, present

form, active voice,

progressive

indicative,

affix

by

in the

prefixed

root

tbe

WW

singular

Its

pag and affixed


pa pang or pam

by
of

primitive

imp3rative,

Subjunctive.

repro

(2)

and

of

on.

Example:
Root:

sunit

Infinitive
tiineti; and gerund

**** ******

phirah panurata

Past participle; gui neurit

s.

>

I* be

pinannnurat

written,

be-in*

written)
p.

written).

Indica tive

IVMLAK
.-no.

PRESENT

gftinmmirAt

etc.

(1

am,

etc.

PLURAL

cami, etc. pinanunurat (we are, ctc<


being written)

being written.

past

cami

etc. pinanurat (we were,


being written)

acA. etc. guinsnrlt (T was. etc. being!

written)

etc.

rrTTRE
i.ay^amuaUn

iu>, elf.
etc.

vhuli

be.

rami,

>

heiue writtei,

paminuiattfn (we shall be,


being written)

etc.

etc.

Imperative
Pagsiuat* Aco,

icao, hi.ta.

<-amf. Lira

let

me, you, him or her,

us, von,

them be being written).


Suttjunctive
c6, etc.
i.^incr

pagsurat6n
written)

tee
(i)

may

be. etc.

camf,

65

pariuraton (we
being written'

etc.

etc.

** 6S

See pS

may

be.

73

TAP.LE

Primitive indirect passive


Infinitive.

pag i,

Present, and gerund:

in an,

Past participle:

or

pa pan pang

s;

i,

i,

i,

p.

in an

Indicative.

Present:

or iN(d) an

in((1) an,

in an, or

Past:

in

an

(d) an

Future:

Imperative.

Subjunctive.

AN
Observation

in

transformed by the

root

and pang, pan,

singular,

rules above established

Past participle,
the

interfix

established

ling

the

first

syllable

pa

This form consists in


and by the prefix pag

in plural, according to the

form

consists

in

the

root

tran-

in

said

syllable

first

interfix.

of

the

begins

to

the

root

whose

See page 82
See page
i

ei

with
first

$eq,

by

syllable

determined by doub(after the said

placing the

interfix in bet-

the

vowel,

is

and then

root,

and

consonant

first

root

(2)

This tense

doubled)

being

the

(J)

This

Present.

If

(i;

or

i,

the use of these prefixes. (1)

for

interfix

the

for

Indicative.

ween the

affix

and the affix an. The use of


in follows the same rules as those hereinbefore

by the

sformed

and gerund.

Present

Infinitive.

the

first

the

has

vowel

interfix

of

in

the
is

root.

prefixed

been already doubled.

74

same form

Past.-^-Tbis"tense has the

Future. The form


(syllable

first

Imperative.
the

affix

Its

form

consists

in

the

to

doubling the
the affix an.

it

appended by

root

I.

The same observation

as the past participle.

this tense consists in

and by appending

root

the

of

of

perative

Subjunctive.

Its

made

is

primitive

the

of

form

is

here,

as that

on the im-

passive. (1)

direct

the root appended by the affix an.

Example:
Root: surat

Infinitive

and gerund

Present,

singular: pagsurati

J
I

,
,
panurati
plural:

,,

do be addressed with

being

ter,

a let-

addressed

a ]etter)

(2)

Past participle: sinurahin (addressed with a letter)

Indica tire
SINGULAR
aci'i,

PLURAL

PRESENT

sinusuratan (I am,
addressed with a letter")
etc,

etc.

cami, etc, sinusnratan (we are, etc.


addressed with a letter)

cami, etc. sinuratan (we are, etc.


addressed with a letter)

ac6, etc. sinurat&n (I was, etc. addressed with a letter!

PUTUBE
ac6, etc. susuratan

shall be, etc.


addressed with a letter)
(I

cami, etc. BU&uratan (we shall be,


etc. addressed with a let f ei\>

Impera tive
urati

ie.io,

rtc6,

her,

hiya, cami, qnita,

you,

us,

eamo,

hir;i

(let

me, thee, you, him,

them he addressed with a

letter)

Subjunctive
i\r'>,

suratan
etc;
addressed with
i,

in

may

be,
a letter)

etc.

cami,

suratdn (we may be,


addressed with a letter)

etc.

etc.

89.

('.')

(2)

T!]-'

English

i
:

translation
-

made

these conjugations la
ned in
hose forms.

In.

litteral,

We

try

t(

TABLE

0.

Progressive indirect passive


Infinitive

i,
Past

pag

and gerund:

Present

p.

pa

s;

i,

pan

i,

pang

an.

participle: guin

Indicative
Present: GuiN(d)

an,

pina(cI)

s;

an, pinan(<1) an,

pi-

NANG(d) AN, p.
Past: guin an, s; pina an, pinan an, pinang an, p.
Future: PAG(d) an, s: PA(d)
an, PAN(d)
an, PANG(d)

AN,

p.

Imperative

PAG

PA

S;

PAN

I,

I,

PANG

I,

p.

Subjunctive

PAG

AN

S;

PA

AN,

PAN

AN,

PANG

AN,

p.

OBSERVATIONS.
Infinitive.

same

Present,

Past

participle.

Indicative.
root
is

is

(1)

its

except in

It

is

Present,

d oul) led

formed as

sive,

and gerund.

Their single form

their corresponding primitive form, indirect

as

distinguished

singular.

and the

affix

is

the

passive.

by the prefix guin.

The first syllable of the


guin added. Its plural

corresponding in the progressive direct pasthat here the affix an is added. (2)

The forms of this tense are the same as those


corresponding form in the progressive direct passive,
except im that here the affix an is added. (3)
Past.

of

their

(1)
(2)
(3)

See note on page 65.


See page 7o ct seq.
See page

71.

as that of the progressive direct passive,

Future- -The same


except in

an

is used here instead of on.


of the progressive direct pasnsjhat
The same

that the affix

^Imperative.
exeepl

sive,

the

thai

in

7(>

affix

Subjunctive .--Also the same


passive,

direct

instead

except

the

that

in

that

as

instead of a.

here

tiscd

is

affix

of

the progressive

nn

here

is

used

of on.

Example:
Root: surat

Indicative
tv

Present, and

gerund

pagsurati
singular:
e

\
\

plural: panurati

Past participle: guinea lit

Indicative
PRESENT

PLURAL

BJNGULAB
aco,

etc.

guinSQsaraUn

camf,

pinanunuratan

etc.

PAST
aco,

etc.

guins-uraUiu

camf, etc. pinanunuratan

FUTURE
ac6,

etc.

pagsnsaratin

camf, etc. p&minurat&n

Imperative
pajjsuratf

aco,

icao,

cami, quita, camu, hira

hiya,

Subjunctive
io6,

etc,

rami.

pagsurattn

TABLE

etc.

panuratan

Primitive instrumental passive.


Infinitive.

Present, and gerund:

an,
Past

PAG AN

p.

participle:

[IN

nx

s;

pa

an,

pan

an,

pang

-Indicative

Past: ix iin
Future:
(d)
Present:

in (d)

iin(<1)

Imperative
i

AN
Subjunctive
i

Observations:
Infinitive.
is

made

and gerund. The same observation


same tenses of the primitive, active,
that here the affix an is appended to the

Present,

as that on the

with the addition


root.

Past participle.

formed by the prefix i and the


commences with a vowel, the prefix

It is

fc

interfix in.

and

the root

If

interfix are joined,

from "aro"
Indicative.

as

(to ask), iinaro.

Present,

present and past tenses


passive,

with

Future.
the root and

addition of

the
ft

past.

is

by

They are

indicative

the

of

the

the

prefix

i.

formed by doubling the


using the prefix

i.

same

primitive

as

the

direct

(1)
first

syllable

of

As

isusurat, iaaro.

ImperativeThe
root the

the

particle

root

the

particle

Subjunctive.
ticle*

first

form consists

The second form

/.

Jt

in

prefixing to tha

consists in

affixing to

an.
consists in prefixing to the root the par-

f.

Note.

The

instrumental passive is also employed


when we say in English:

press substitution, as

to ex-

Read

word for me: ibasa nc6 him nga polong (Htbe substituted by you in reading this word).

this

teraly: let

me

Example:
Root:

sural

Infinitive
,,

,
Present, and gerund

singular: pa^suratan

..

.,

Past participle: isinur&t

(to

[
)

(plural: panuratan

be used in writing,
* JT
being u.sed in writing)

used in writing)

Indicative
SINGULAR
in

PLURAL

PRESENT

ac6, etc. isinusunit (I

am,

used

etc.

camf, etc. isinusurat (we are, etc.


being writing)

writing)

PAST
aco, etc. isinuriit (I was, etc. used in

writing)

camf

etc. isinurat
in writing)

j
I

(we are,

etc.

used

FUTURE
Bed,

etc

isnsurat (I shall etc. be,


used id writing)

camf, etc. isusurat (we shall etc. be,


used in writing)

Imperative
camf, quitii, camo hira (.let me, thee,
you, him her, us, you, them be used in writing).

isunit or suratan aco, icao, hiya,

Subjunctive
aco, etc. isurat
in writing)

(I

may

etc.

be used camf, etc. isurat (we


used in writing)
I

TABLJE

may

etc.

be,

8.

Progressive indirect passive


Infinitive

Present and gerund: pag

AN p.
Past

participle: iguin

s;

s;

pa

an. pan

an,

pang

Present: iGi'ix(d)-

an,

ndicative

IPiNA(d)- iPiXAN(d)- iPiNANG(d)-, p.


Past:

iguin

Future:

ia(d)

s;

79

ipina ipinan ipinang p.


s: iPA(d)--, iPAN(d) ipang((1) p.
,

Imperative

AN, PA AN, PAN AN,


IG
IPA IPAN IPANG
PAG

PANG

S;

S;

AN,

p.

p.

Subjunctive
IG

S;

IPA

IPAN

IPANG

p.

Observations:

The observations made on the conjugation

of

the pro-

above conjugation
except in that the present, and gerund take the affix an,
and that the past participle, the present, and past indicative,
and the subjunctive, plural, take the prefix i, and in that
the imperative has the affix an, and the subjunctive singular the affix on, and the future, imperative, and subjunctive have a g after the prefix i.
gressive direct

passive

are

applied to the

Example:
Root: surat
Infinitive
A
Present, and gerund
,-,

pagsurat&n
6
.
panuratAn

singular:

plural

Past participle: iguinsur&t.

Indicative
SINGULAR
aco,

etc,

iguinsusurat.

PRESENT

PLURAL
eamf,

etc,

ipinanunurat

PAST
aco, etc. iguinsurdt

cami, etc. ipinanurat

FUTURE
acn, etc. izsusurSt

camf, etc. ipanunurat

80

Imperative
Panonvtan or ipanurat

Pulsar. it.ui or igsarlt ac6, ieio, hiya.


>)iiit;t,

cauif,

hira.

rami'),

Subjunctive
ace, etc.

igsur.it.

catni,

etc.

ipanurat.

NEGATIVE FORMS
employing the adverbs ''diri" before
present and future 'indica-

These forms consist in


the

inflections

the

infinitive,

and subjunctive; "uai\iy" before

tive,

an

of

indicative,

inflections of the root, they are the same as


corresponding affirmative except the past indiwhich always takes the inflections of the imperative.

As
those

past

the

imperative.

the

'ay.io" before

the

to

of

cative,

the

Example:

Negative Primitive Active.


Root: surat

Indicative
Present, and

\^^\av:

gerund

plural:

pagsurat

diri

(not

din panurat

to

write,

not

writing)

Indicative
I'RESFXT

PLfJRAL

SIN ilTLAK
vini ac6, etc,

nasiiraf.

.]:

*te

nut. elf.
',

etc,

eami, etc. n its unit

ctiH

i'vve

do no},

write)

PAST
uaray aeo,
etc.

etc.

surat

(I

did

not,-j

etc.
i(

diri*CJ,

uaray eami,

write

*fc>

'"i^irat

>I

rr

dnii not,

i:

etc. surat

[:

diiicamf,

etc.

etc.

(we did not,

write)

write)
J

t,

imisurat (we shall

etc write)

Imperative
ayao surit
diri

icao,

sumurat

qui

1.6*

cam 6

(let

hiya, eami. hint

you. us you hot write)

[let

him,

HS,

than

riot

write

81

Subjunctive
sumurat

diri aco, etc.

may

(I

not,

Note.

etc.

The

past

sive

forms,

first

syllable

it

In plural,

the

and

in progres-

pag and the root whose


.the pag undergoes the

in the prefix

doubled.

as in

in primitive forms,

syllable doubled;

first

consists
is

same changes
Examples:

sometimes,

consists

having the

the root

fn

camf, etc. sumurdt (we may,


not write)

diri

etc. write)

conjugation.

active

uaray aco susunit (I did not write)


uaray aco pagsusurat (I did not write)

Nega tive Progressive A ctive.


Root: surat

Innitive
Present, and gerund

j
(

sin g ular: dh>i pagsurat

(not to be writing

plural: diri panur&t

being writing)

not,

Indicative
PRESENT

SINGULAR
diri

aco,
etc.

etc.

nagsusur&t

(T

am,

diri

not writing)

PLURAL
camf, etc. nanunur^t (we are,
etc. not writing)

PAST
uaray ac6 ete. pagsur&t
etc. not writing)

was,

(I

uaray camf etc. panurdt (we were


etc. not writing)

FUTURE
din aco
etc.

etc.

not

magsusurat

(I shall,

diri

'

be writing)

camf, etc. manunurdt (we shall


not, etc, be writing)

Imperative
ayao icao pagsurat (do not be writ- ayao

quita,

ing)
diri hiya

maggurat

(let

writing)

camo panurdt

you, not be writing)


him not be! diri camf, hira manuntt
them not be writing)

(let us,

(let

ua

Subjunctive
diri aco, etc.

magsurdt

not be writing)

.(I

may,

etc.

diri

camf, etc. manurat


not be writing)

etc.

<,we

may,

S2

IXTEUROCATIVK FORMS
They
and

by the phrases "'cay unu" (why).


(where), arid y ''san-o", "cacan-o"

determined

are

" hii
iii in*\
by
(when, past and future
k

respectively).

Cay ano
The
consists

every

nga

by

conjugation

interrogative

phrase

this

simply

the regular conjugation of the verb, placing before


inflection the said phrase followed by the particle
in

As

icay and nga nasurat ca? (why do you writer)


Cay ano nga sinmurat hiya? (why did he or she write?)
go there
I cay ano nga maeadto quita ?(what shall we
for?)

etc.

Dun, ha in.
formed by these adverbs,
one which consists in the original

The interrogative primitive


two inflections:
and which is the

has only
root,

which consists on

the

past

same

and

Other

syllable

being

indicative;

tense

root,

first

its

and future tenses,


indicativeThese three tenses are the only tenses that
The adverb "dim" is for the present
this conjugation has.
and past -tenses. The adverb '"bain" is for the future. Thus:
doubled;

this

last

Present:
Past:

form

;.diin

is

for the present

aco susurat? (wher do

write?)

diin ca surat? (when- did

Future:

<hain

you write?)
(where shall we write?)

cami sm-urat?

The interrogative progressive only


ding one in that the particle

pag

differs

precedes

all of

from the precethe inflections.

In pi oral this "p$g becomes p#, pRtl or pang, according to


lh- smic rules laid on the progressive active form.
(1) Thu s
x

diin ca pagsusnrat? (where are you writing?)


J,hain came'

(U

Page

panunurat? (where

04 of Mils

book.

will

you be writing?)

Iii passive voices, these same forms are


followed except in
that the root takes the. affix a in the direct passive and the
affix
i in the indirect passive, and
the prefix /for the primitive form,

or

the prefix

for the

(g-

progressive form,. In lh

instrumental

Thus:

passive.

diin surata?

2'difn Burati?, etc.

Note. Instead
an

passive, the affix


;.diin

the

of
is

prefix

ig or

i,

frequently employed.

susuratan? for ^difn isusunit?

in the

instrumental

As.

etc.

Cacan-o san o
"Cacah-o"

placed before the past indicative;

san-o" is
used before the future, indicative. There are the only two tenses
of this kind of conjugation.
As to the inflections in the primitive form, the past is simply tin? root, and the future is
the root, whose first two letters are doubled.
As
is

^cacan-o caino surat?


san-o

In

ea

(when did you write?)


will you came?)

caeanhi? (when

the progressive

form the root takes the prefixes

pag

and pa, pan, pang in plural.


In the passive, the affix a is used in the direct passive;
the affix i, in the indirect passive; and the prefix i or ig
singular

for the

in

by

These prefixes are frequently replaced


Examples:

instrumental.

the
the

affix
;,

an.

cacan-o surata?

^san-o susurati? etc

Important observation.

The verb

referred to

by any ad-

verb of time take the same form, as to the indicative, as the


adverbs cacan-o and san-o. As

buds aco caeanhi (tomorrow I shall come)


canina ban aga aco pagsurat (this morning

have writ-

ten) (1)
(1)

where
wjite).

it

of this form is the same as in the regular Tagalog fojin,


said susulat aco (I shall write), bucas aco sunulut (tomorrow 1 shall

The future
is

84

SUCTLETORY VERBS
Irregular conjugal

u >n

by
in JBisayan are those formed
pronouns "ini", "adi", "ito", "iton", "adto", "adton";
supply the English "to be", and those formed by the adverbs.
The Buppletory verbs

the
to

"dinhi",

"dida", "didton", dithon",

"didi".

"didto",

to sup-

the verbs "to come",


and als
Of these verbs we call pronominal those deand
to go."
rived from pronouns, and adverbial those derived form adverbs.

ply the saina

v^rb "to be"

:>

l,

PRONOMINAL FORM.
This

is

form,

defective

doubling the
mood.

which consists

in

present

indicative

tense,

am

aco (I

iini

as

has only one inflection

it

vowel

first

it

being for the

Ex.:

here)

aadi cam! (we are here)

hiya (he or she

iito

is

there)

hira (they are there)

iiton

aadto ca (you are there)

aadton camo (you are there)


Xoti:.

are

bled

not
as:

same places

In

used

but instead
adiadi,

iniini,

them,

itoito,

using these forms


postponed to them.
[n

as Dulag,

of Leyte,
of

it i-

the

these

forms

pronouns are dou-

etc.

preferable to have the pronouns

ALVERBIAL FORM.
This conjugation

common

is

to

the

adverbs dinhi, didi

didto, dithon, didto.


Root: dinhi

(here)

Infinitive
i>

Present, andi irerund


,

i
;

pagdinhi

singular:
,

plural

pamnhi

..

(to

,
,

be here,

being here)

85

Indicative
ENT, ,\XD

JGULAR
acO, etc. aanhi or hahani (I
ehall he, etc. here)

am,

etc.

FUTURE

PLURAL

cami,

etc. aanhi or habani (we are,


etc. shall he, etc. here)

Imperfect past, and past.


ae6, etc. did in hi or nacanhi (I was,

etc. here)

ca mi etc. didinhi or nacanhi


were, etc. here)

(we

Imperative
dinhi icao, etc.

<

he here, etc).

Subjunctive
maanhi

or
etc. he here)

aco, etc.

mahani

(I

may

camf, etc.

may,

'

maanhi

or

mahani

(we

he here)

etc.

Observations.

Present

and gerund. Here the particles pag


and pan are employed in the same way as among the primAs
itive active voice (1).
Infinitive.

PLURAL

SINGULAR

pagdinhi

paninhi

pagdidi

panidi

pagdida
pagdidtop
pagdithon

panida
panidton
panithon

pagdidto

panidto.

Indicative.
placing the
led.

Present

first

two

and

future.

letters of the rout

It

is

As
from dinhi

(l)

See

prtgefil.

formed

by

re-

with the prefix a doub-

aanhi,

,,

didi

aadi

,,

did a

a ad a

it

did ton

,,

dithon

aadton
aathon

,,

did to

aadto

Not::.
The form hahatri is the transformation of nimwhere the h U doubled and transposed by placing each
h befere each a. The* other pronouns have not such a form.

bi,

>

past and past.

Imperfect

doubling the

two* letters

first

form

Their single
the

of

from dinhi

consists

dida

didida

,,

did ton

di did ton

dithon

didithon

did to

dididto (2)

the particle

root

replacing

in

man.

prefix

the

to

the

first

madinhi,
madidi,

,,

dida,

did ton,

madida,
mndidton,
madithon,
madidto,

dithon.
didto,

The form mahani


hahani of aanhi.

Note

The
a

we

which

conjugated
conjugation,

for

basis

have

didi,
tin.'

(j)

So

in
it

);'i

is

la--

dida,

cada.

<li<ii<i>t.

etc.

in

second

form

with the

maanhi
maadi
maada
maadton
maathon
maadto.

transformation of

English

the

ordinaryly.

derived

and other plao

suil:

is

from

root.

didton,

corresponding

canhi, cadi,

penult.

as

conjuifational

call

dinhi,

we

supply

that

verba
are

go"

the

letters of the root

didi.

.,

two

ma;

root.
first

As
from dinhi,

like

consists

dtdidi

didi

prefixing

in

dfdinhi

,,

Imperative. --It simply consists in the


has two forms. The
Subjunctive.
ft
in

consists

as

root,

"to

But

maanhi

come" and
.they

tin 4 original root,

So from

dithon,

the

didto,

eonjugational roots:
cadton. cathon, cadto.

have
and

original


tive,

87

The form followed in this conjugation is that of a primiThus from the root "eanhi", we have:
Infinitive, present and preseut participle: pagcanhi (to
coming)

eotne,

Note. But

the

plural

pagpaeanhi

past: aco,

irregular.

It is

quinmanhi.
etc, macanhi.

future: aco,

Imperative: canhi,

micanhi.

etc,

etc,

Subjunctive: aco,

is

come, coming, plural).

(to

Indicative present: aco,


"

this tense

of

etc.
etc,

cumanhi.

The past, indicative, and the present, subjunchave the irregular forms, nacanfii and macanhi respectively which must not be confounded with present and
future, indicative, as the accent of the former in past and
subjunctive is on the penult and not on the first syllable
as in the present and future indicative.
Note.

tive,

Ohsei vat ion.

We
place

when

have seen that

it

is

the

expressed

frequently

verb

in

"to

be"

Bisayan

pronominal form or by the adverbial form.


But when the verb ''to be" is equivalent
"estar",

nish

i.

when

e.,

contigent condition,

nag, ma, na added


be"

in
I

English.
shall

be

is

it

to

it

represents

state,

refers to a

either

to

by
the

the

Spa-

situation,

or

then expressed by the particles pag,


the

words which are predicate

of "to

As
sorry:

magmamabido

aco.

where the verb "to be" needs to be represented by an independent word, the expressions "amo", "asva", "asay", "say" (which express identity, rather than a
>3tan3e or existence) are frequently emplomere e3seti
In

yed.

cases

A,

Peter

owner

tin-

is

hi
1

hi

hi

other

In

the

eases,

Hi Pedro aino an tag-iya hini nga'balay

house

of this

ss

Pedro asya an tag-iya, etc,


Pedro asay tag iya. etc
Pedro say tag-iya, etc.
verb

"to

be'

is

not translated into

As

Bis ay an.

God

omnipotent: an Dyos maca gaga hum.

is

IMPERSONAL VERBS
The impersonal verbs follow the two forms: primitive,
and progressive.
Owing to the fact that the Bisayan tongue has indirect and instrumental passive, all of the verbs, no matter
So the into what class they belong, have passive voice.
transitive verb? of other languages have passive voice in BiSiiyan.
The same thing happens to the impersonal verbs.
They have indirect and instrumental passives which are
complete in their conjugation.
Thus, in passive, there *is no impersonal m verb in Bisayan. Tin; forms of conjugation of this kind of verbs are
same

the

those

as

of- the

regular

verbs.

Examples:
i j

ag

<

a d a 1 ogd og

nagiinuran
iuuurauan

(It

than d e r s

rains persistently)

(it

(the rains falls on

hini.

than;

litterally: they

are rained)
etc.

DEFECT] VE VERBS
The following belong
only
a

(no,

iy.i

May
there

said;

--it

such class: limy

(to

have) which

do not wish)

(receive

oho (look

is,

to

one form.

is

ako used

was.
is

etc.";

said,

it)

at it)

it

as impersonal
con<5

and thru

it

means "there,

(he or she says or said; they-say or

was said)

ambot
the

do

(J

know)

not

The English "to have" is also expressed in Bisayan by


root mav-ala, whoso irregular conjugation it a? follows:
Infinitive
Present, and gerund: pagcaada or

SINGULAR

may ada

aco, etc.

or na^cacaada

(to

have)

PLURAL

camf.etc.

(I

may ada

or nangagcaca"

ad a (we, etc. have)

have)

etc.

pagcamay-ada

PRESENT

PAST

nagcaada

aco, etc.

had

etc.

(I,

carni, etc.

nangagcaada (we,ietc.had

FUTURE
aco

ina^cacada

etc.

CI

shall, etc.

cann,

have)

etc.

mangagcaeaada
have

(we

shall, etc.

Imperative
pacaad;

Subjunctive

mageaaoa

Note
''to

may
2.

joined

os the form may-ada is


have", for which the defective

meaning

strict

rather

than "to

used.

is

The impersonal and


verbs

to

May

passive

in

naquita

regular

eo

tinagan

litterally: there

may

is

very frequently

keeping

its

impersonal

nga bucad (I saw a flower; litterally:


There is a flower seen by me),

tauo

'naquita

salapi

some one

'"tauo

nga

eo.

gave money to someone;


by me with money):
nga" are tacit, the regular form being

eo bin

is

where the words

Mav

it

order being:

may bucad nga

May

defective
voice,

As

character.

its

The

1.

acquire",

(I

given

tinagan

CO

bin

salapi.

OTHER CLASSES OF VERBS


There are other kinds
acter

consists in

of

verbs whose distinguishing charThey are always

their conjugation:!! roots.

from

derived

verbs, but bear different meaning,

the ordinary

conjugated as ordinarily.
The conjugations} roots in active voice

altho

those

in

pai

From

arc-

different

from

ive.

the original root surat

we have the following

classes:

ACTIVE VOICE

sinurat

CONTINUATIVE

easurat

nacacasurat

cagsurat

naca cagsur.it

ABSOLUTE POTENTIAL
RELATIVE POTENTIAL

isiwurat

n a is us u rat

ABSOLUTE APTATIVE

ipagsustirat

naipagsusurat

RELATIVE APTATIVE

pagpas.ur.it

na

papagsurat
papagsurat

na papagsurat

RELATIVE PERMISSIVE

pinasusura't

ABSOLUTE IMPERATIVE

papagsurat

pinapagsurat

susurat

na

suratsiirat

nasuratsiirat

A BSOLUTE DIMIN UTIV

suratsiirat

nagsusuratsurat

RELATIVE DIMINUTIVE
ABSOLUTE REPETITIVE

ABSOLUTE PERMISSIVE

pas u rat

ELATIVE IMPERATIVE

IMPREMEDITATTVE

susurat

suratsnrat

misuratsurat

suratsnrat

nagsusuratsurat

R E L ATIV E R E P B T HI V

nagpapasuratsurat

reciprocal

>a

sural sura t

From

From

napaeahahi

tin*

nature

it

have
ABSOLUTE GRADUAL
RELATIVE GRADU VL

nagtiticabusaj

original

root

-k

we have

sayao'

nagsasavao

may

great
of

18

miticabusng

savao

As

IMITATIVE

the original root '"busag."'

pagticabusag
pagtieabusag

Prom

the original root "hadi," we have

pacahadi

give

Classes

Indicative Present

Conjngational root

the

be

observed

number
root

of

and

FIGURATIVE

above,

one

different

classes

may

permit.

use

original
of

root

verbs,

as

may
the

The subdivision

m
absolute and relative of these etasses corresponds exactly
to the primitive and progressive forms already explained.

The
root,

coritinuative

by

action.

hiterfix

the

distinguished,

is

and

///.

in

expresses

it

its

conjugational

persistence

of

the

As

nagtitinooe

The

an

potential

Data (the child

determined,

is

crying persistently)

is

in

its

conjugations]

roots,

by the prefix paca or pacag (absolute and relative) and


it
means ability on the part of the subject to execute
the action expressed by the original root. As
diri maaram (he cannot write,
know how to)
nacacagsurat, cay damo in buhat (he cannot

hiya nacacasura't, cay

diri

because does not


hiya

diri

he

because

write,

busy)

is

The optative has, in its conjugational root the prefix


ipag (absolute and relative), and it represents the
idea of desire.
The absolute means a desire about to be
As
executed; the relative signifies a mere intention

or

ban ae pag-abota (he was about to demet him)


naipagsusurat aco ha imo (I was intending to write you)

na'ilalacat na hiya

when

part

When

bunga (the

The permissive
by the prefix
it

means
diri

is

represented.

papag

it

to

fall)

eonjugalional

root

and

and

relative)

As

abandonment.
bin

its

(absolute

(he

safari

tend any
any money to

does not

not permit

original

root

place, then

the

of

this

idea

of

form is a substantive
"going" or "coming,,

As

Manila caini (we shall go


napahoron hi Juan (John went
ma-pa

ca,

lent)

the
to

about

is

laterally: he does

money;

referring

fruit

distinguished in
or

napaiitang

hiya

When

is

pagpa

leave of

be

particle

proximate passivity, as

an

naicahorolog

bears the

optative

absolute

the

then

expresses

to

to

Manila)
farm)

the

92

means order

T!i

termined

and the

pa.pB.g-

by

pirincacadto

ordered

are

ca

The irnpremeditative
of

syllable

first

and inconsiderate

miyayacnn

no tin.

The
The
table

the diminutive

of

class

has

one

consonant

ing

consonant.

follows

that of

a.

sum" formation

the

diminutive.

the
as.

the diminu-

always on the last syl


formation of the fi(1) vvhen the root has more than two sylthe last syllable is preceded by more than
or is pronounced separately from the precedThe repetitive expresses a repeated action. As
that

accent

the

repetitive

when

or

lable,

repetition of

(we are cultivating

has the same formation as

nouns,

gurative

study)

As

(1)

repetitive
in

there)
to

inconsiderately)

talk

repetitive

the

of

As

camote)

little

except

tive,

de-

As

nagtatanomtanom cami hin camote


a

go

determined by the

is

(you

hi

The formation
diminutive

to

is

inter fix in.

the original root, and expresses a sudden-

action.

ca

command,

commanded

pinnpagto6n ramo (you are

.the

or

the

is

fellows

It

the

magtatanomtanom aco hin abaca

(I,

shall cultivate

hemp

again)
aco

niacaroeanhi

The
cepl

th-

recipocrate

mutual action.

;iUo

is

tie- affix

cami

hihisilgat".

The
the

as
th*

(l)

for;n"d

As

an.

has

1!

absolute

See the

of

pa

the

UL-ea

by

(we
the

"pagquitaan

imitative

object

come again

to-morrow)

prefix

pa.

It

means

naepapa-uratsurat
1'

shall

(L

formed exactly as the diminutive, ex-

recipi

that

in

bulls

a
is

passive

the

writing

prefixes
(to

to

each other)

pBg and

\g\

and

meet), iguinquiquita iguin-

character.

formed

potential,

are

by the prefix jKicn, the same"


but here the root is always a noun,

imitation.

As


hiya napa.camaiiram

Tw

gradual

means an

nagtiticapaso

adlao

inin

figurative

the

affects

to

be a

learned)
Spaniard)

determined by the prefix pagtica, and


by degrees. As

nagtiticalamrag an

The

(he

is

action

except in

pretends to be

..(he

hiya napac-acatsila

93

day

(the

moon

(the

biila'n

is
is

becoming hatter)
becoming brighter)

verb has the same form

accent which

is

nagsasayao hiya utngitd

always on the

nan

was dancing, on account

as

As
jumps 'as' if he

caol-ol

(he

-of ..the

pain

DIRECT PASSIVE.

its original.

last syllable.

he

feels)

'

_.

'V

CONTTNUATTVE VERB

C o n ug a t on a F r oo
i

.:

,:

.;..

....

.-

..-

?>

pagpina-

guin<isiniirat s; gmnpipinanvirat _p,


:

guinsinurat.

s;

Imperative:

pagsinurata.

Subjunctive:

pagsinuraton

s;
s\

pagpinanuni.ta p.

pagpinamiraton

ABSOLUTE POTENTIAL

Conjugational root: hisurat


Infinitive:

paghisnrat

Indicative:

Present:
Past:

s;

v panhisurat

/>.

nahasusurat

naha-sivrat-

Future:

mahasusuraF.

Imperative:

(no imperative.).....

Subjunctive:

mnhasnnft.

RELATIVE POTENTIAL

Conjugational root: hisurat


Infinitive:

s;

;.

gu in pin amir at p.
Future: pagsisin.uraton s; pagpipinanuraton p.
Past:

pagskiurata

nu-rata p.

'

Indicative::-" Present::.

sin li r a

and gerund:

present

Infinitive:

paghisur.it S; panhi-urat p.

p.

nahapapagsurat s; nanhihisurat p.
nahapngsurat s; nanhisurat p:
Past:
Future: mahapapao^urat s; manhihisurat p.

Indicative:

Present:

Imperative:

(no

Subjunctive:

mahapagsunit

imperative)

manhisurut

s:

/>.

ABSOLUTE OPTATIVE

Conjugation a
Infinitive:

pagMsusurata

Indicative:

Present:

root: isusurat

pag-ipanunurata p.

s;

guin-iisusurat

guin-isusurat.

Past:

pag-iisusuraton.

Future:
Imperative:

pagisusurata

Subjunctive:

pag-isusuraton.
REL5.TI7E. OPTATIVE.

Ci?r4uga uona 1

r.oo t

is usura

s, pag4pan-unurata p.
guin-iipagsusnrat, s; gnin-iipanunurat.

Infinitive:

pug-ipagsusurata

Indicative

Present:

guin-ipagsusurat s; gnin-ipanunurat.

Past:

pag^iipagsusuraton

Future:

s;

pag-iipaaunu

rsito-n.

Imperative:

pag-ipagsusnrata

Subjunctive:

>a g-i

pacrsusn

(The permissive

verbs

AliSOIA'TK

Iufiuitive:

papagsuratan

Indicative.

Present:
Past:

mv.

have

rip-

passive)

IMPERATIVE.

pa-panuratan

s;

p.

ipinasusurat
pin hsu rat.

Future:

ipaausurat.

Imperative:

ipasnrat.

Subjunctive

ipnsurat
KKLATIVi: IMPERATIVE

(onjugational root: pasurat


Infinitive:

papagsuratan

s;

papanuratan p.


Indicative:

3-5

-=

Present: ipinapagsunit

s;

ipiniipanurat p.

Past: ipuiapagsurat S] ipinapanurat p.

Imperative:
Subjunctive:

Future: ipapagsurat s; ipapanurat p.


ipapagsurat s; ipapanurat p.
ipapagsurat s; ipapanurat p.
IMPREMEDITATIV E

Confugational
Infinitive:

pagsusurata

Indicative

Present:
Past:

s;

root:

susurata

panunurata p.

sinususurat.

sinusurat.

Future;

sususuraton.

Imperative:

susurata

Subjunctive

s us u niton.

ABSOLUTE DIMINUTIVE

Conjugatiunal root: sinuratsurat


Infinitive:

pagsuratsunita

Indicative:

Present:
Past:

s;

panuratsurata p.

sinusuratsurat.

sinuratsurat.

Future:

susuratsuraton.

Imperative:

suratsuratn.

Subjunctive:

suratsuniton.

RELATIVE DIMINUTIVE

Conjugational root:
s;

Imperative

pagsuratsurata

s;

Subjunctive:

pasuratsuraton

s;

Indicative:

guinsuratsiirat

panuratsurata p.
Present: guinsusuratsurat s; pinanunuratsurat p.
gninsuratsurat s; pinanuratsurat p.
Past:
Future: pagsusuratsuraton s; panunuratsuraton p.

pagsnratsurata

Infinitive:

panuratsurata p.
panusatsuraton p.

(The repetitive have the same form as the diminutive)

(The reciprocate have no passive)


(The imitative, gradual and figurative have no passive)

INDIRECT PaSSIV,

The
sive

passive

indirect

indirect

96

passive

continuative form

(see

the

is

similar to

the ordinary

page 76), except


in

inter fix

is

in

page 7S

(see

The imperative have ho


The impremeditative has
as

that

to

the affixes.

of

The
that
to

of

the

primitive

the

indirect

passive

ordinary

the

et seq.), as to
indirect

of

the

primitive

the

in

that of the

as

the

affixes.
'

passive.

~-

passive' (see

same

the

passive

indirect

its

indirect

that

used.

The potential have no indirect passive.


The optative have their indirect passive
ordinary form

progres-

page 74)

as

diminutive is the 'same as


as
page 73 et seq.)
1

(See

affixes.

INSTRUMENTAL PASSIVE.
The instrumental passive of the continuative impremeand diminutive verbs is si'miliar to that of The progressive (page 79 and 80) as to the prefixes.
The other verbs above mentioned have not instrumen-

ditative

passive.

tal

Note.
particles

There are other classes of verbs formed' by other


and combinations; but their conjugation will be of

no difficulty
if
the different
thoroughly mastered.

forms

hereinbefore

DEPUECJATJVE YKKBS
There arc
for
,,

'

used

ciioo

(to

eat)

laeat

(to

walk)

yr.oan
/

verba

These

(to talk)

verbs

are

given

are

in a

,'
."

...

..

Examples.

clepreciativtirtuiie.

asoe, lamojn, etc.


r

laag

".'..^
.

yaquimbot,

conjugated

as

etc.

ordinarilv.

97

ADVERB
The adverbs are

of the following clashes

ADVERBS OF PLACE

DUN

DUN

(where), -BIS AN
(wherever, anywhere), DIDI (here,
nearer to the speaker then to the listener), DTNHI (here), DIDA
(there, nearer to the listener than to the speaker), D1DTO (there),

HARANI (near),~HARAYO

Ltr).

ADVERBS OF TIME

CACAN-0 .when, past) --SAN-0 (when, future) BISAN CACAN-0 (whenever, past), BISAN SAN-0 (whenever, future^, NIYAN
(now), CANINA (before,
short
time ago, in the same day),
CAGAB'I (last night) ,-C ACOLOP (yesterday), --OASANGAB'I (the
;

night before

last),--CASANGCOLOP

(the day before yesterday ),--CAthe day before yesterday), --ANAY


(before, ancientlyy-UNINA (after, in the same day),-BUAS (to-morrow), --ISANGBU AS (the day after to-morrow), -ISANGYADTO (the
day following the day after to-morrow)- CANON AY (always), -DAYO-

SANGYADTO

DAY

(the

(persistently),

to

-LAYON (Soony.-DAYON (inmediately),--HADTO


GUN (when, whenever), --NAMAN (again), -

before), --NGANI,

(then,

LIUAT

NAY

day previous

(agai:i),--PA

(sometimes)

(yet\--NA (already), --AGSOB (frequently),- -DA-

--NGAHAO

(then;,

ADVERBS OF DEGREE

CAPIN, LABIS, LAPAS (more),-OR6G


sively

V-TU MAN

(a little scarcely),

(most),

-URATJRA

(exces-

ADVERBS OF MANNER

AMO, ASYA (so, thus) ~ONAN-0


COLASOT, COLANTOY. (for example,
;

(how),

-MAN

(also),-COLA6NG,

for instance).

ADVERBS OF DOUBT
LI,

ADA, MAHAMOO, MASAGNI, MAHARANI^ CADUAS TINUABANGIN. SABALI (probably, perhaps), --BA&A (as).
A DV E R BS

00

HAPON

ye.^.

-MANGUO

1'"

A I'll li M ATI O N

UGA, CAY UGA, GUI-

(indeed), --CAIYA.

(of course).

ADVERBS OF NEGATION

PIBI

(in,),-

UARAY

inn,

past),--AYAO

ADVERBS OF CAUSE

CAY

(because). --TUNGI^D (because^

(no,

fature^-

Observations I.
ployed as adverbs, as

Many

adjectives

and phrases

are

em-

igbao (above)

niy*m

ngft

adlao (to-day)

da mo (much)
etc.

Some

2.

of

composed
Examples:
those

adverbs are frequently contracted, as


"bisan" which is contracted into "bis."

the
of

bisan diin contracted bis diin

guihapon

guihap.

U%

The adverbs have diminutive, comparative and superA3

o.

lative.

from harani, haraniay, haroharani, guihaharanii.


etc.

PREPOSITION

HA

(to,

from, over, under), --TIPA (against, towards), --TUNGU D

ior),--FATI,

UPOD

(whith),--GAUAS

(without), -CAN

CANG, GUICAN (from, since), --TUBTUB


UAN (after). --LABUT (except).

(up

to,

till,

(of,

to )r -TI-

until), --TALI-

CONJUNCTION
The conjunctions

are of the following classes:

COPULATIVE

UG, NGA.N

and/, --MAX (alsu).--NGA (that).

DISJUNCTIVE
0,

CUN,

.1

Bi

(or).

1DVERSAT1VE

idea

CUNPJf bm .--SABALI, IJGARING (bttfcbott^), CUN, NGANI


BISAN (even, though) ,-B AC AY (as),--CUNTA (which bears the
of pasi or future desire; it may frequently he translated in En-

glish with

the

phrase: u tf possible").

(l)
This conjunction is seldom used, At preheat, for the disjunctive or. The
Koglish or and the Spanish o become difficult to be translate 1 into Bisayan
with ciin. For this reason the Spanish o is frequently employed in Bisayan,
w-11 ft In Tagalog for the English or.
ft!

99

CONDITIONAL

CVS NGAN1,

ABI,

UGARING

(1)

(if).

CAUSAL

CAY. TUNGTIO, BACAY. SANGLIT, CAY

(inasmuch, because'.

FINAL

BAS1

order

(in

to),~BANGIN

(lest).

CONTINUATIVE

TACAY

(then),--BUSA -therefore)

-TAR A

(then).

INTERJECTION
Admiration:
Ipastilan!,

ja

jay!, [baa], jabaa!, jbaadao!,

j ,

jabaadao!-

ipauican!, jpauisac!, jpalipac!, jpalfsac!, jpamday!.

jaguimpauisac!,

jaguimpauican!, jaguimpastilan!,

jaguimoali,

pad, iaguinipalisac!, jaguimpauiday!, jpaecalan!, jbongansiso!,


jalagad!, jalagad dao!,

!odoy!,

Pain and sorrow:


;

pastil an!,

;solibangco!,

johonda!,

|6ho!,

jdao!,

jgad!,

joy!, jacay!

jtabi!,

jhacay!,

linge-

etc.

;huLtt!.

ibodol,

jbalitaoi.

ibaya;.

;ayao|,

juaray!,

|dirij,

jugaring!,

jluga!,

juga!,

jharomamay!,

jpudo!,

jcaiya!,

Reprobation:
etc.

Surprise:
etc.

etc.

jdhov!,

jaroy!,

jagui!,

etc.

Insistence:

jburo!,

ngahao!,

ac pa!, jito

etc.

Attention:

ring!,

jan

jayhay!,

jay!,

lay!,

iauL

ialngad!.

^usi,

(2)

Pity:
iaguii

Cairo 1,

pastihtn

!,

lodogi.

;baadaoi.

etc.

Desire:
Joy:

;mangad

icuntal, iupiiydal, iimta!,

itubangan pa

pa',

taao!,

(in

iay.l,

Aversion:
Invitation:

la!,

iahayl,
iai,

etc.

iupaydal,

iagui',

icadi

-,

pa!, ihinaot-

jsalaraat!,

iamboti,

Itan:i!,

isaba!,

tha!:U,

ita!,

etc.

etc.

etc.

as in the example: 'nftsiring mi


It also Gonvrys tin- idea of "Staying",
ngala6ng: -pagame", abi tapa: "bayari ftco*.
There is another, viz: *n*marttoecp or m*vuiro*cp, th- corrupted
(2)
Spanisb "Jestls. Mart* y Jo*6".
(\)

eatsila,


Self-correction: ;au
Suspension: cuan, ..
isaho!,

Gratitude
suga!,

isapayan!

lay'.,

iniyan!, etc.

ihulat!,

infn

Despair:

1450

etc.
""

na anikU,

\t) yofe

n ag
1

my ad

Dy <>s

ra a g

etc.

SYNTAX
SUBJECTIVE RELATION

The
or

namely

pronoun,

he

either

noun

or

its

verb in the infinitive moo:!,

As

phrase.

an entire

may

verb

of

subject

equivalent,

an DY03 macagagahum

(God

omnipotent)

is

hags usu rat (I write)


an pagcaon maopay (The meal is good; litterally: the
eating is good)
an guinquiquinahanglan ta amo an pag-orosa (what
we need i= union).
ac*5

PREDICATIVE RELATION

The verb

agree- with

quitu

.pauur/it

hiyi

magsunit

subject in person and number.

its

(Jet
(let

us

As

write)

him

or

her

write)

ATTRIBUTIVE RELATION

The nouns and


substantives,

pronouns,

and

and

Data

ii;

the

an

Except in cases of possessive probetween the noun or its equimodifying word. As


>goori

'i!i:'r:i\

nga

aeon

be modified by
pronouns, possessive

placed

-is

ii"

i>oy

an

may

equivalents

demonstratives

participles.

nouns, relative nga


valents,

their

adjectives;

maopay

nga

ha lay

a maw

MnigUguia

(ti\e

young servant;

litterally:

nit)

ng:i

his

(the

good

house)

(my

father)

irov

(loved

rnotber)

friend)

the

101

are

Note.- When the pronoun


equivalent
tri
'"deceased",

not

employed.
adton

The
in

that

and

"adton"

Us

infections

the particle

"late",

nga

is

A?

Pedro

(the

Peter)

late

modifies

also

article
it

The

noun and

the

equivalents,

its

the word
As is seen before (page 9)
employed before the proper
As
the vocative case.

limits them.

articles

always precede

which they refer.


the personal article is always

or

words

nouns,

to

except in

an langic (the heaven, or the sky)

Endong

hi

(Peter)

sometimes used before proper nouns,


demonstrative and possessive proand frequently
is sometimes employed before
article
indefinite
nouns. The
personal article is sometimes
pronouns.
The
the posses~iv<?

The

definite article

is

the

before

used before the personal pronouns except the third person.

ah
an
an

Dyoa (God)
nga bata

(this

bungto

(our

ini

anion

macanhi
hi

in

aeon

eamo ngan

hi

As

boy)
town)

sangcay (a friend of mine


aeo (yon and I)

will

come)

COMPLEMENTS R"Y RELATION

The

object

determined by
tion.

of

the

U always

v<rl

corresponding

the

the

in

article.

>r

object;

by

preposi-

As
Pedro nagbabasa han surat (Peter reads the letter)
ep on the boat)
ha saeayan (tl
(Thomas wishes to
hi Tomas naruruyag hin pagcanhi
come; literally: Thomas wishes a coming)
macadto aco ha Ahuyog (I shall go to Abuyog).
hi

hira n

The

object

of

the verb to be

an imo bahin.

ani<>

ini

an nino mamaratyon

is

in the

(your part

(the

man

is

nominative
is

this)

mortal)

case.

As

102

ION

The adverbs and the udv

"ilanay'

nabasa

aco cuniadto

ngani

(I

verb,

there sometimes)

&o

"man"

ntibasa

aco,

As

an adjective, or another adverb.


1

modify

tses

hiya (If

read, he

reads also).

The adverb* are general ly placed next to the word that


they modify, some before the said word as "ag-ob" (frequently), "danay" (sometimes), "maaocoi" (often), "macataiagsa''
(seldom), etc., and other after the eaid word as "pa" (yet),
"na" (already), "man" (also), "gud" (precisely), etc., and
some before or after the said word as "lugud" (on the contrary), etc.
KiavUKWENi'ATlYE RELATION

The important Bisayan word that expresses representative relations is the relative pronoun nga, which is invariable.

an

bai.-i

nga tinmauag ha aeon

an eabataan

As

to

in

eases,
refers

who

called

me)

aeon

(the

boys

who

we

have <^ew

to

the object

(page 52)
of 'the

that this relative

verb.

The

sentences

and other langmiges, where the corresponding


pronoun relates to the object of the verb and where

the English

relative

consequently

the

tongue.

this

the

boy

relative

said

expressed in Bisayan
in

(the boy

ha

me)

called

nga never

linmawnsr

nga

in passive

Thus,

(1)

whom

if

is

in

voice

the

objective

which

we wish

is

case, are

the most used

say

to

called

we thould say
an

which
in

bat a

litt.eral'.y

nga
is:

tinanng
the

boy

co

who was

called

by me.

The personal, demonstrative and possessive pronouns agree


person and number with their antecedents or the word

The fact That ih'-ie are hive classes of passive voice in Bisayan show
(1)
ihe great Importance of the said voice In this tongue. Thus if we wish to say
(ma (litterally: you
I love you", it is more expressive to say: Mniliigumtk
than to Bay: nakigugma aco ha imo.
d by in
I


words that

or

gender

because

represent.

ey

the

ioa -Th<

nt

pronouns have

in

nder.

CONNECTIVE RELATION

The prepositions join the nouns, their equivalents, or the


to some other word.
They place in the objective

pronouns
case

word

the

that

depends on

then.

The most important preposition


is

equivalent

to

nearly

all of

in

Bisayan

is

ha, which

the prepositions of other languages.

Examples:

He saw me hiya quinmita ha aeon.


He wrote to me hiya. nagsurat ha -aeon
I come to Tacloban nacauhi aco ha Taeloban
I come from Palo ticang aco ha Palo
I pass by your house linmabay aco ha iyo balay
He is in the room aadto niya ha solod
etc.

ABSOLUTE AND INDEPENDENT CONSTRUCTIONS


Absolute and independent constructions take place in Bisayan with vocatives, and interjections.
Vocatives,

Pedro,

as

nga niya, cadi dao (Peter, he sad, come, please)

Interjection,

Pastilan,

the

as

gad

calodyi

aco

have pity

(oh!,

of

me)

Some independent phrases are connected with the rest of


thought by the adverb man, as
naabot camf, natutunod man an adlao (when we arrived,
the sun set;

litterally;

we arrived, the sun

also set).

SYNTAX OF VERBS

The

The present has the construction

infinitive.

of the

noun, as

an pag-aram

ban bata

bin

The gerund expressed


by
the

the

particle

article

kan,

an. as

a'mo an eatungdanan

maopay

(to learn

well

the

is

the duty of a boy).

idea

contraction

of

of

past

when proceeded
ha and

the preposition

104

han adlao, nagmatnata na acd (when


the sun raised, I- was already awake).

ban

pagsitang

The past

participle has the construction of an adjective, as

hinilango nga tsiuo

(prisoner:

imprisoned

an

litterally:

man)
Indicative.

quently
idea

01

cun

is

its

ordinary

used,

its

present

is fre-

via ray

ca canhi, nalacat cunta aco (If you had not

come,

Subjunctive.
it

Besides

employed with the particle cunta, to express the


an interrupted or intended action. As

would have gone)

cun, ngani

(if),

used in

It being

always constructed

cunta

with
(if

subordinate propositions,

conjunctions

the

a5a

(thato),

possible).

Nga and cun always precede the verb; ngani and cunta
when used for the subjunctive, is always placed after the
verb.
As
caruyag co nga cumanhi ca buas (I wish you to come
to-morrow; literally: I wish that you may come
to-morrow), (1)
cun u ma-bay hi Juan, tamiga. (If Jonh passes by, call
him)
lumabay ngam hi Juan tauaga.
lumabay cunta hi Juan (God grant that John passes).
I

Note.
with

-The

binations

subjunctive

modal adverbs and

the

have
nga

tauo
:t

the

form

construction

maopay

man who

of

sumurat
writes

frequently

is

adjectives and

an
(a

constructed

then

adjective.

good

writer;

such com-

As
literally;

well)

macosog sunning nga earnh.io

(a

Rtrong dragger carabao)

etc.

In Bisayan, there is no construction Bimiliar to that of the English


(1)
tongue, consisting in putting the subject in the objective case, and its
the infinitive; which is an exact Latin syntax, as
rue
to come
lie wishes
venire
llle vult
me
Such sentence is expressed In Bisayan with the aid of the conjunction /ton.
verb
in subjunctive mood, thns
case,
and the
thp subject in nominative
enruyny niva nga aeA cumanhi.

tap

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS

The

adjectives

whenever

possible,

and verbs are always preferably employed,


at

the

beginning of a phrase, clause, or

sentence.

Examples:
mad pay nga tauo (good
nagsusurat

aco"

(I

man)

write)

etc.

VIOLATIONS OF GOOD USE


BARBARISM

The most frequent violation


is the Barbarism.
is
committed by using
It

of

good use

of the

Bisayan

tongue

foreign

words,

and foreign

constructions.

FOREIGN WORDS

Many

foreign words have been and are being introduced


Bisayan conversations and writings. Must of such
words are being adopted, not because they are necesi
but simply thru affectation and love of innovation, thus attempting against the purity of Bisayan. Some of the words
introduced however are necessary as they have no corres-

in

the

ponding

in

Bisayan.

M)G

FOREIGN WORDS UNNECESSARILY USED IN BISAYAN


Spanish words
(open)

abre

Abierto,

for

Binucsan,

inucab, bucas uc<lb.

,,

Day a n r a y a n d a y a n
Talamhot

,,

Ilob, hulat

Alisto (from listo)

,,

Andam

Amigo

A dot no (adonment)
Agua (used to mean perfume)
,,

Aguanta (wait

suffer)

(friend)

,,

Sangcay

Apiqiie (close)

,,

Apura, apurado (hurry)

,,

Atrever, atrevido (bold)

,,

Sooc
Dagmit, cadagmitan
Paggahiim, gamha'nan

,,

Mangad pa

Aver (for "give me")


Aver pa (God grant)
Bajado, Bajar (low)
Banco (bench)

Bando

(edict)

Icadf

,,

,,

,,

Batido (for "experienced")

Bote

(for

boat)

,,

Cftdrt

usa

(each one)

,,

Calabozo (jail)
Calculo (calculus)
Calle

(from "cantores")

"debt")

Cargo

(for

(flesh

Capaz

(able)

meet)

Castigo

(pntiisnment)

Cocina

(kitchen)

Coger
Cola (from "cnlar")
Color

,,

,,

Igoigo

,,

,,

(jail)

Came

Lasgud, hiara

Dal an

Catnpana (bell)
Canta (sing)
Caree!

Pahamatngon

S a cay an
Tagsa
Bilangoan

(street)

Cantodes

Habobo, obos
Pongcoan, lincoran, papag

(color)*

,,

,,

Linganay
Laygay, laylay
Para lay gay
Bilangoan

utang

Unod
Sadang, angay, tacuSi rot

.Lotoan

Pagdacop paeasacob
Baca
Tina, samay, culav

107

Comosta (from "como

how

esta'

you)

are

Cormin (common)
Convida (invite)
Contra (against)
Cortina

(curtain)

(money)
Guar to (room)
Cuerdas (strings)
CuaFta

Cuello

(collar)

Cuenta

(account)

De balde (mousefully)
De buenas (fortunate)
Decir

(for

Deefeto

'

ask")

for
,,

Aabiabi, sabi

..

Tipa,

Biray

.,

Salapi

Solod

Dolos

.,

Pal a ran

,,

Siring

,,

Dilatar (for

delay)

(unlikeness)

1) is gusto

Dispensa (excuse)
Diversion (amusement)
Dulce (sweet candy)

Empezar

(to

commence)

Entra (for "to make love")


Entremes (joke/
Eseuela

(school)

Espejo

igiaSSr-

Esquina
Esta m pa

Fino
Fir me

(corner)

(image]

(fine'

ifor

always)

Fuerza (strength)
Fuerte (strong)
Fusil

(jrun)

caauay

Cauang

,,

De ma las (unfurtunate)

(difference)

patoc,

Baliog
Ihap, isip

.,

Derecho (right)
Descanso (rest;
Despedida (farewell)
Dibujo (drowing)

Matidnan-o ca
Casahiran

..

(defect)

Diferencia

..

..

,.,

hingyap
Casaquihan, carat'an
Uara'y pa lad
Tadong, dayon, catadungan

Pahuuay
Panamilit

Badlis,

,,

Guincalainan, guicaibhau

,,

Pag-ulang, pagpahalavvig

,,

.,

,,
..

,,

,;

.,

Bag.uis

Cangalas
paguara

Pasaylo,

Caliauan,

liaoliao

Matam'is
Pagticang
Pangasaua
Tfao
Liboran
Sa laming

Casongoan
Ladauan

Gamay,

pi li

Agsub,

onob

Gusog

,,

.,

.,

Maousog, mabacod

Luthang


Ganancia (gain)
(grace

Gracia

JOS

tubo

for'Polds,

favor)

,,

Parabul

Gratis (used for "payment'?) Himiidlay

Gusto

(wish)

.,

Caruyag

Hasta

(until)

.,

Tubtub, ngada

Heehura
I

uteres

Jardin

(shape)

,,

Daguay

(interest)

,,

Guinsisiring,

(garden)-

La mesa

,',

(table)

,,

Dulang

Latos

Latigo (whip)

Lava (from
Lavandero,

'"lavar", to

wash)

,,

guinlalanat

Tana' man

Bunac

a (blunderer, laun-

dress)
Licericia, piig (to take leave)

Magburunac

,,

Sarit,

panamilit

Limds (from "limosna", alms),, Calooy, hatag


Limpio (clean)
Mahinis
Dayao
Loa (praise)
Imgar (for ''near" or ''almost)
Dapit, ma
Macetas (flower-pot)
Tinanom, taranman
Maestro (teacher)
Magtordtdo
Manteca (bulter)
Pin a ha gas
Mantel (tablecloth)
Basriig ha dulang
Mantilla (mantilla)
Taong
Masiado (from ^demasiado",
too)
Vraura
Masque (from "por mas que*
,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

,,

although)

Medio (half)

Mi-mo (self-same)
Muchacho { for servant)
Niimero (number)
()

bien (or)

>rde.B

(order)

Paeieneia (patience)
(fdr --debt

Ciitunga, baga

gud

,.

Ngiihao,

,,

Surogtfon

..

,,

,.

Pabyon (from "pabellon")


Pago

Bisan

.,

,.

Oraeion (prayer)
I

,.

lhap

cun,

,,

Birtiy

,'

Pag-ilub

'")
.

6,

Pangadye,
Sugo

Hang

lugiid

pangamuyo

109

(from "pal a tied

Palati

irom

"pra'ctico")

Pane

for

(cloth)

,,

Panolito (handkerchief)

Para

(for,

,,
,,

halt)

Mag-orona
Panapton, puddng
Modongpddong

Basi, ngada, hulat, ocoy, torooc

Parecer (opinion)

,,

Parejo (equal)

,,
,,

Paseada (from 'paseo").


Peligro (danger)
Pensar (for talent)
Perdona (from "perdodar**)
Pero (but)
v

Sagbang
Sanaa, sandag

Lacatlacat
,,

Cata ragman

Tali no
,,

Pasaylo

Cundi

Hauac

Pertina (for "pretina", waist-

band)
Pierde (from "pei'der'' to lost)
Pintar (to paint)

,,,

Pintura (paint)

,,

Plato (plate)

Platito (a little dish)

Pliegues (plaits)

Pobre (poor)

,,

Lupig, uara
Dum-it, dihog
Idirih<5g

Pingan
Lam pay
Lopi

Cablas

,,

Bocboc

Butang

(price)

Pnlit

Preparar (to prepace)


Preso (prissones)

Pag-andam, pagtima

(powder)
Post a (from "apuesta"

Polvo

Precio

bit)

Binilango

Probar (to laste)


Propecto (from "perfecto,"
perfect)

.,

Prueba (proof, evidence)


Principal

(chief,

capital)

Provecho (profit)
Puerta (door)
Pulido (neat)
Puro (pure)
Queja (complainP
Querido (dear)

Que

ver

cfor

,,

;<

to

.,

,,

Muinood
Paacamatood
Lahao, pohonan

Polos

Ganglia an

..

Hag-id.

.,

,,
r

sari

,,

do'

Tilao,

,,

Putli,

mahamis
lonlon,

sandag,

Sum bong
Hinigugma, pinalanga
Labot

sahid


Quinola

(from colar)

Rabenque ifrom

for

whipe)
(from "recfbir")

Regal o

..

(round)

(present)
^regular)

reins

(from

watch,

clock)

latos

,]

,,

Lipoion,

.,

Iligugma,

,,

Igo.

]\

Orasau

maiidong
hatag, bucad

eocol

"reloj"

liemo (oar)
Renuncio (from "renuneiar",
to renounce)
Keventa (from "reventar"

,,

(1)

Gaod
pagdiuara

Pagdiri,

to

explode)

,,.

(rich)

Rico

Latob,

Oarauat
Paglanat

,,

(claim;

Regular
Relo,

Binachan

-rt'beqiie?',

Recibi

Reclamo
Redondo

Hi

Pagboto

Mangaran

Rugai (from "lugar", spot)


Saco (sack)
Sada (from "(Merra", close)

Caraanan, tuna, uma


Sopot
Locob

gala

(hall)

Say a (skirt)
Seguro (for "probably'')
(Sir, Mister)

YJiior

,,

.,

,,

,,

,,

"talk")

(for

(maintanenee)

Sustento

Tabta (board)
Tachar (for "contempt")
Taza (cup)

Tiempo (time)
Tienda
Tiesp

Toear

(merchandise, store)

'(stiff)

(to

play)

Pagmangno
Himangrao

,,

Pagbuhi.

Bugha

Yiibit,

(i)

See

"JForelgh

Yahdng

,,

Adjao,

,,

Baligya,

.,

O.ingag,

pag-a'gad

iburuhi,

calmhian

ttiig

,.

Pagtonog
Salaming

,,

Lorong,

.,

Buhat

word? neowftrrily adopted

la

tamay

.,

focador (for glass)


Tonto (fool)
Trabajp (work)

TaJapi

Tan\pi,

Mahamoc,. angay
Guinoo

,,

Sirve (from "servir" to serve),,

Suerte

Ruang

in

baligyaan
taddng

palinqui.

pad las

Risnynn". infra.

11]

Tranca

(cross-bar)

Tumba

tumble)
(empty)

for SioJ,

(to

Vacio

Ventana
Vercle

.,

(green)

Vicio

Virtud

"power")

(for

'for

"zurcir" to darn) Pagtabir.p.

And many

other?.

CHINESE

Bochang

Saguindahon
Casaquihan
Galium

.,

(vice)

Zurce

Lungag
Tamboan

(window)

Balabag

Plica n

.,

sow)

(for

(*)

Buisit (unfortunate)

Camsya (for "thank")


Gonggong (foolish)
Lamloc (deer, for fat)
Laotuy (old)
Sya (for eat

WORDS

Cablas

for

Uaray palad

Salamat
Uaray salabotan

Matamboc

.,

Laga's,

Caon

,,

Bag-o

gurang

Sinqui (new;

Tanipua

(excess, present

Uchang

(rich)

Ta'uad, labis

Mangaran
Pa la ran.

.,

Ufsit (fortunate)

..

and some others.


ENGLISH

Halo

halloo;

Miting

Haye
Moning

for

("meeting"

u
v

,,

hike").

"money"Sausau (chaw-chaw
(for

And
bear

At

^liifin

(arithmetic)?"
'

maaram

the}7

Oatirocan

sodoy

..

Paglaeat.

.,

Salapi

..

Pagcion, earaonrm

others

Note.
to

WORDS

Oho

talk

na
in

pivsent,

an ac

among

''^aada

aco

the

students

dyografi. (geography),

mag

it

frequent

an ae ansnritic

ha fit (fifth) greyd (grade)?"


espelin^ (spelling)" Why do not

ca

English?

(*) We do not refer to those Chinese words imported to Philippines with


Chinese object. Such words are to be kept necessarily in Bisayan, because their
equivalent vernacular expressions, either are jost, or never existed.

112

Observation. There are some Tagalog words and consused in Bisayan; but we do not consider their use
as a barbarism, because Tagalog and Bisayan are b>th dialects
of a common tongue, and because such use niay help the
formation of a possible Filipim language.
tructions

FOREIGN CONSTRUCTIONS

Among

others,

construction:

the

"maoroopay

The

use

is

entirely

following

barbarism

is

que lnton",

inf

(this is

in

the

better than

the que (which is Spanish meaning


Spanish and is not necessary in Bisayan, as the mentioned sentence is expressed simply and with
that).

"than")

of

same strength

the

ropay

ini

and more purity and correctness:"maoo-

hiton".

foreign words necessarily adopted in bisayan

But there are many words now in use in Bisayan the


which enriches rather then destroys the language.
We refer to those words that have b3en necessarily imported
from other languages to express ideas not represented by
any word, or whose corresponding words are lost in Bi-

adoption of

sayan

We

do not consider their use as a barbarism, as it is


as such in English,
Spanish, French and
other European languages the adoption of Greek and Latin
We not only do not criticize such adoption in the
words.
Filipino dialects but rather desire and encourage it, because
undoubtedly enable nur dialects to be used in all
it
will
of
scientific and artistic expressions.
kinds
Among the foreign words already adopted, the following
not considered

may

be counted

Dyos (from
the Tagalog

the Bisayan

the Spanish

Bath a la which
Laos which

Dios).
refers

It

to

is

the

true that we have


omni potency, and

to the eternity.
But in view
Dyos derived from the Latin Deus,
from the Greek Zens which means Divinitc, Supreme Begin,
has been so much used in Bisayan, and it represent another phase of the Attribute? of (tocL we think that the said

of

the

fact

that the word

refers

113

word Dyos ought to be adopted in Bisayan, adnp- ting


form to the inflections of our dialect.
Oras (from the Spanish HQRA "hour"). We have

adopt

this

known
avoid

in

the

word,

as

Bisayan.
use

of

there

By

is

its

its

to

no corresponding expr.
adoption we have a way to

reloj, with the

derivative orasan already

used.

Bapor (from the Spanish "vapor" steambot).

It has no
corresponding in Bisayan. We have SACAYAN (boat), but
not include the idea of the "steam."
it does
Papel (from the Spanish "papel"). It has no correspon-

ding in

Bisayan.

The Spanish names of the days of the week, an 1 of the


months of the year, which musrbe written in Bisayan form,
as:
LUNES, MARTES, MYERKOLES, HWEBES, BYERNES, SABADO, DOMINGO, ENERO, PEBRERO, MARSO, ABRIL, MAYO,
JUNYO, HULYO, AGOSTO, SEPTYEMBRE, OKTUBRE, NOBY-

EMBRE, DISYEMBRE.
ARORU" (from the English "arrow-root").

many

others.

plant.

And

APPENDIX

IJ

NOTES ON
BISAYAN RHETORIC AND POETICS
FIGURES OF SPEECH

Simile

even

This

figure

ordinary

ill

m^

is

the most used in Bisayan,

of

conversations.

Examples:

Baga an

1.

Applied
of

the

which

to

dila.

intended to be kept out


like the tongue (dila)

which becomes wet,


always wet in the mouth.
but

rain,
is

nga

na'sirong

person or thing

2.

Canogon pa dao

maopay

si

la

ba'yhon

san imo catindog


maraot an bantog

bayabas nga hi nog,


panit oloron an onod

igpapananglit co

maopay an

(A popular song,)

Where the resemblance is between "maopay si bayhon"


and "maopay an panit'', and also between "maraot an bantog"

and "oloron an

Metaphor.

It

is

onod".
used,

also

especially

in

poetry.

Example:
1.

Cahoyca nga linauaan


lmquid nanauantauan
eun eanan Dyos ca pagbut-an
matopong sa ulasiman.
(A popular song)

sa

Applied to one who is in a high position in life, like


''cahoy nga linanaan", the "lauaan" tree being one of the
tallest

trees.

Allegory.

It

is

also

found

in

Bisayan.

Example:
Ugii nga cahoy

patay

na,

laya

si
si

lauas,

dahon

J18

nanaringsing sin casaquit

namiinga

siu

camatayon
(A popular

Here the
ered (laya
sing
sin

sin

life

body

or

called

is

a dry tree (ugu

na), whose leaves are with-

dahon^, and which sprouted sorrow (nanaringand gave as fruit, the death namiinga

si

casaquit),

camatayon

One

Personification.
sonification

things

(hums)

already dead (patay

cahoy),

n"ga

song^

Bisayan

in

and objects

is

the.

of

most frequent cases of perapplying to


in

the

that consisting

personal

article

si.

Example:
Nagtitinangis si tucmo

cay tiarabut an bagyo.

(A popular song)

Where

the turtle-dove (tucmo)

would lose much


employed instead of si.

expression
is

We

Antithesis.

of

have this

its

is

personifed by

charm

figure

in

if

the

si.

article

The

an

Bisayan.

Example:

Canogon pa dao la tan imo catindog


maopay si bayhon maniot an bantog,

Where ''maopay"
(facp)

and "bantog"

Epigram.

(good)

etc.

and "maraot" (bad), "bayhon"

(fame) are contrasted.

This figure,

in its

modern meaning,

is

used in

Bisayan.

Example:
t-iuinhulat pa an naghinay,

an nagdagmit, uaray.

he

Which literally means: he who went slow was awaited for;


who hastened was not waited for. Its point is equivalent to
"Guinhulat" (was await"naghinay" (went slow) and

that of the English "slow, but sure."


ed

for)

"uaray"

'nagdagmit

1
'

(was

(hastned-

not),

are

contrasted.


Metonymy.

It

ll',<

found

also

is

Bisayan.

in

Example:

An

patay pfalangit, an buhi pacauit.

Literally:
to

the

placed).
for

'

The

dead go

the

let

figure

consists

heaven;

to

bamboo where

"cauit" (a

in

this

Jet

tuba wine

the

the living go
is

ordinarily

word "cauit," container,

the thing contained.

tuba wine/'

Synecdoche.

Example:
Pag arog bin damo nga
Literally

many

mouths.

it
7

'

means:'

Here

buga's

cay

"Prepare

mouths

the.

damo cami nga

much

baba.

because we ar e

riee

(baba) a part,

is

used for

person, the whole.

Apostrophe.

We

have

aUo

it

in

Bisayan

Example:

mga cahatas'an
adin may pinas'an
nga palad con diri mabaui

Ohoy mga

langit

tabangi, buligui

an ini
nonontan dao ada

sinin quinabuhi
(A.

Heavens,
something; if this fate
suffers
doubtedly affect the life.

altitudes,

Literally:

is

popular song)
help

protect,

not

averted,

it

this

will

Exclamation.
Example:
jPastilan bididay,

bididay

ca

man

la

nga nacacalucmay sinin hunahunal...


jaya'o pag saquita! jayao pagbidoa,
cay mag titinangis canugon san luha!...
(A popular song)
Intel rogation.

Example:
M~ga langit,

mga

lanjzit:

ihain dao dapit an saquk?...

who
un-

120

man:
panomdoman.

sa calibutan uara'y
sabali sa

(A popular song)

Hyberbole.

It

is

frequent

Bisayan.

in

Examples:

Macapanas

1.

(Man

buquid.

hiii

able

level

to

mountain)

Macasagpo hin baha. (Man able

2.

2.

Cun

totoo, intoy

pag biling

la

to

suspend a flood)

nga imo tinguha

anay silot

nga

may

boa.

(A popular song)
Literally:

young

If

of

fruit

your love

cocoa nut)

the old cocoa nut fruit


a

look

true,

is

which hns

when

it

for

"3ilot"

(a

bua" (the bulb of


old enough to be used as

is

seed).

Climax.
Example:
i

nanaringsing sin masaquit',


namucga sin camatayon.
Irony.

Example:

jCamaopay

mo!

uaray

ea

gud

pag tuman ban

imo

polong.
Literally:

How

good

are

you!

you did not keep

word.

Asyndeton.
Example:

Ohoy mga

langit

mga cahatas'an

tabangi, buligui, inin

may

pinas'an,

(A popular song)
Repetition.

etc.

your

.121

Examples:
1.

Diri co cay yubit -din co cay dayao


pamahonpahon mo baga may parayao, etc

(A popular song)
2.

Pastilan, hididay bididay ca man


nga nacacaliicmay
hunahuna,

la

sin in

etc.

(A popular song)

Concatenation.

Example:

Pastilan ca curi cacuri capinan


capin ca mabido san bido sa dughan,
dughan co pagilobilob calauasan,
lavas co napono pono casaquitan.

(A popular song)

PROSE
Of the three universal important ioims in prose, I. e., desnarration, and exposition nothing in general needs

cription,

be observed.
LETTERS

At

present,

Bisayan

in

tion,

one

prose

of

is

forms

the

that

most

belonging

to

generally employed
the

class of

narra-

the letter.

Nothing special needs be observed about letters, at pretimes, apart from their external forms and the tendency to innovation prominently shown in them more than
sent

anywhere else, by frequent barbarisms.


As to the external forms of the Bisayan
to

be observed that a routinary introduction

versally

consisting

followed.
in

We

refer

to

the following ideas

the

is

ordinary

letters, it

almost

is

uni-

introduction

and order: "This

letter

has

no other purpose'
as

me"

to

4)

And

after

on

goes

"I

in

122

2) "but to ask

am

in

how you are"

3)

"because

good health".

ft

such, an invariable introduction, the writer


paragraph apart; ''And I shall add that", etc.

Example:

Uaray
nga

ragft

calooy

sa

lain nga tuyo him ngti aeon surat cundi an damo


pangomosta co ha imo, cay can aco in ipaquiana,
Dyos maopay.

Ngan iso-onod co

liuat.

etc.

generally adopted. We do not


more than fifty per cent of the hitters written in our Bisayan commence with these or equivalent ideas and in the some other.

This

As
entire

introduction

the

is

hesitate

state

to

the

to

that

barbarisms,

they

are

employed thruout the

letter.

On

heading

the

it

usually

is

Tacloban,
instead

written:

de Oct U ore de 1908.

of:

Taeloban, ica 2 han Octubre han 1908.

On

introduction

the

Br.

it

ordinarily

appears
.......

or

Sra.

D.*

Mi estimado amigo:
or

Muy
The body

of

estimada Sefiora:
the

letter is usually

as follows:

Uaray lain nga objeto hini nga aeon surat, sino an


damo-nga mga pangomosta ha iyo ngatamln, cay cun cami
in iyo ipaquiana. calooy sa
Dyos,
uaray and man
n5a

novedad

123

Y de consiguiente, tatay, isusunod co liuat: con uaray too


inconvenientc, gvsto co cunta comada pag vacation; pero
como guinadvertir mo man

aco

ban

nacadi

procurar aco hin pag obtener anay han

amn

mag
por eso

nga

ca

titulo,

nga diri aoo na a trever pag guican mientras diri


macacarauat hau imn contestation nga pag hatag
bin permiso, bisan oun sohra y hasta gud an aeon mga
descos pag visita ha iy.
paca

ini

aco

etc.

porcne fohms
Of the three main

classes

poetry,

of

epic,

lyric

and

one preserved iff Bisayan


The dramatic form is found
in the form of popular songs.
at present mainly in the translations of Tagalog and Spanish
dramas, usually employed as plays on the Patron's days in

dramatic,

the

lyric

is

the

only

the towns.
VERSIFICATION

Rhythm and rhyme


The rhyme

is

are

observed in Bisayan poems.

perfect

not so

as

that of

the

Spanish

Consonant words or with similar sounding endings


are employed in Bisayan.
Kinds ofmetei. There are two kinds of meter most

verses.

used in Bisayan poetry: verses of six verses of eight syllables.


and verges of twelve syllables divided in two fragments of
six syllables

each.

Examples:
Verses of six syllables:

^Hain

ca na. punay?...

cadi na pa nam bo
tarn bo

liaua

basi

m ad alia y,

si

casbo;

hum a lay hay

124

im'n saquit, bido

nga asay t ion ay


san casingeasing
Verges

syllables:

eight

of

co.

Aeo mi sugadsugad
san banua nga tarotanglad,
bisan cun diin italad

mabubahi cun may palad.


Verses of twelve

syllables:

Togon co sa imo, mahal nga inogay


di ca gad padara
san damo nga sangcay;
an paglacat nimo gabay magmahinay,
nga diri hatocso, lumiscad san latay.

Note.
of

The

verses

of

odd

verses

not being

the

six,

As seen

Combinations.
combination:*

The
the

verses

even

verses

The
verses

verses

six

syllables

rhymed.

of

really

verses

preceding examples the

the

in

are

rhymed.

following:

being

of

syllables

eight

grouped

are

syllables

are

in

grouped

four verses,

also

in

four

rhymed.

all

The
rhvLlU'd

the

are

twelve

verses

of

twelve syllables

are

also

grouped

in four

VrlSi-<.

COLLECTION
OFSOME BISAYAN SONG
N(.)i;-:--ln

Posed

in

the

transcribing the following song, we shall use, the orthography pro<>i


the fi"i page oi thtt book, using only three rowela: a, i, p.

lM't'-

MORAL POETRY
nanay, '. tatay dl Ico babayuati
kay dam*> nga dogu an akon naotag
kun pag-iisipon an .siyain ka bolan
ga pag-in6koy ko sa lean nanay Wyan.
31

m led sa imo, mahal~a inogay:


god padara san damo g" sangkay;
an patdakat nimo gabay mag mahinay,
ga dirt kfttokso, lomiskad san latay.

di ka

125

Kamakaroroyag sa mata pagkit'on


sinin mag-asawa ga waray sin limbog,
kon daw naabot na ira kamatayon
naboka an langit basi nira sodlon.

Ayaw

gani kahihilig

ayaw karirikandikan,
kay
di

di

man bagyo

man

an

toig,

kikild an bolan.

PHILOSOPHIC POSPK
Mga bito6n sa lagit
may mapawa, may maigitgit,

Sogad god ak6 san gam6t


ga rrailaiom sa kotkot,
kon kaiian Dyos j fl^'boot
malabaw aki -.an bdiot

con sa tawo igpanallit,

may

maiiptiy,

Kahoy ka

may
*,a

inasakit.

linawaan

Diri ba fiko np<?sirijr,


"
indayon, paghai.'nari
ky bagin kite. kapadg~n
liarayA an borogk&larb

nanawantawan,
kon kannn Dyos ka pagbot'an
matop6g sa olasiman.
sa bokid

Di ko ginkakaiorok'au

an

salapi, rn

Guita bolat pit an naghinay


an nag dagmit, warty.

bolawan;

hay ko ginkikinahagltn
maopay ga ginawian.

Waray
bas' ia

hlnl balos bayad


an boot longayad

LOVE FOETin
Anbato bantilis naibas, nakile>t
sa tor6 san t6big sa darodaginot
kasigkasfg pa ba an diri hom6mok
sa g6gma san tawo kon sa tarin6not.

Pastilan ka kori, ka kor igakapin


may pag kasakit sinin kas^ku-si^
igpapanrtglir ko sa <-ba ga borij
bisan pang toon may ffkapoa bllln.

Di ba sadto anay imo akO 6iJsK


sa wala g~a kamdt, todl6 tamoylgkig";
baman it6 niyan df ka na nasiplat,
-.an6 an sola ko sa imo nab6hat?.
(

Hain ka na ponay,
kadi na yjUMJO bo
tambo madaliay,
iiawa si kas'bo.
bAsi homamiyhay
in in sakit bido

san

Ay tfftnay
na kas.gkasig ko.

HV. a-

domdora og sa honahona,
makori i]/kod. makori ihigda:

An

sakit sa

-,ihog'id sa ian~it? ,-.itamod sa

A bad

Dyos; ko,

maonan'o dao

tona?

...

Tigiig, aba Tigtig,


an akon sigsig"."
o...yl.i kon logarigbn,
kondi kanan taklobaimn.

At*

ioll

la!....

Pastil&ii kakori, ka kori kapinan


kapin kamabido san bido sa doghan;
doghaw kopag-i;ob, ilob k&)nwasan,
lawas ko ga pon6 pom? kas;kitan

Akon

iglilibft /i
;

doghaH
bamau he banig ig motVg

inin kasakit sa

sakit ga magtiti 16gag*.

Pastilan, bididay, bididay

ka

man

ga nakakalokmay sinin honahona:


aydo pag sakita, ayao pag bid6a,
kay mag tltinangis kan6gon san lsha.

la

na, kadt no, kadto nn sornnga


pag bi**gtn iMrga ROgaaa
ayaw gad pag hig'yap sin sogad sa
a^ay tigohaa rr a'tpay ga ayhoa

Kadto

ka

It

>

>

r.a

126

Han nakadio ka ha lawdwn


akon ka gintinan-awon
bapit ko ikaw karawton

Kon boot ka mnngas-iwa


inin baras pag pisia,
di kt gani makapisi

pag toraw na

gan

la

o)

ha haras

I.

M doghm

pah.'nb>n

palonbon.

diri

Kon nag-iim6t ka san imo kamathom

Kon J'lw ha ktrigkn >n


tobig ka ga irin6mon
dahon pahonboii,
diri

kam aba ys ay

sail imo paaiayhon,


an to 316, an bihok, panapton
asay s">mira~ maopay mi nakon.

san pag

bls'an la

k >n

nakon

Hiar'i ak'>

Kon bag* kaboy


pat ay ba, lava

si

si

dahon

kasakit
sin kamak'iyoii

aaiuy^kig

namoga

siil

Kap'atan ka tnig an akon paghigyap

nika-lto ka hi
akon ka gintitinan-aw
harapit ako mat6naw
sa

dako

p.muw

Kon baga ako

taro

si

na sa pag kaillo
maopay si alima~o
kay may pag kalonol6no

too.V.v

pag kahidlaw

ji

Mga lagit, mga lagit,


duv dapit an sakit?

;,hiin

An6

ga ni loroy
kamasakit, kam ikapoy,
an lawa-i soga 1 sin kahoy
ga ginhah irohar6poy

B
did to

ini

>hi
la

pa an b.it6"ga pinamon akan


katlkag an k*rokayakan

Pa^tlUa ka k>ri

s.*n

pag-lglrtkan

in l.iy "

hinahayaan,
gabaydaw lti k >un inin kalalawdan
u diri tomoliw inin pagsarakyan
ii

it ij*a si

>

Katldan ka tuigga akon kahidlaw


sogad ka sin tobtg nakon ika6ha\v

pag-imasisirigsa [me, biuorak.

Han

magnawa

magsakaysakay 8a bora
og didto ako hidagaa
sa kamTgawAnga tnna

lavras

wa kali bo can

sabAli sa

waray

panom

...

man

Ionian

Sin pag kirn imT;aw sinin kakorolpon


waray god nabantad bis oaaVga dahon
his an mga, tamsi sahid mibido >:i

jsay pa ha an tiwo, di aipan gihipon?.

Hin6gay na

intoy, siton pakalipag


kinarokanhi sinln am >n 1>j~*T
opayda kon hiro iton imo bayhon
maamog ka daw la sintn bautog nanion

sin

1 i

SUNDRY
Adlo na
liiiinoy.'j

oli mi,

si

adlhv>

mi bokid,

Indayon,

tay waray pa

tob.lg..

kon

ko kahadlok
gaha
pag oonloton kd
pa

-'

di

hi rot sin

iton

imo

dila

Ak6 magtotoon

ii
nonay ga kftwayanon
malubaylobay ha*l oon
i

lt6n
~j.

id

imo bnba

aagyiylnakan

sitdn

lbmon

b w a

ko aanabwan
toa

a n

imo di kc< poporoion


na mabfl*6g, dfrl ko tototliio

6 vnai

nagiilinj kal ba l.
hi hawak royokdoy6kon,

wi nagyayabora

diri

mm maioto, diri ko bo

di
di

Ano man in akon kon diin ka kidta,


mo la pag dad-on an tobig, kalayo
mo mam binoiu in] ga lawas ko

tinmobo

si

inday kos6g sun amuv ko.

127
An an s man nimo mandig

An6 man

in RtBbn kon <liin ba hanoy


pagdad-on an tobtg, an kahoy
n a lawas ko gA makalwlo >y
tlnmobo kan tatay, kan nanay ga ir6y

ginsisinolod

sail

kand

an taraninan nakikil g
gin

ktiy

bobowad sun baktin.

c.Ano ba, Dyo^ ko. an nakakasogad,


an isda sa d igi,t ~l nagkakai6pal?...
iano bi, Dyos ko. ini ga nador6y,
tain katamsihan"^ nagkakalagoy?.

Am Dot daw

an imo pamAlod pagkasadaguna,


bagA nagkokori an akon ginhawa.

Kanogon pa daw la fan imo katindog


maopay si baylion, marAot an bantog:
igpapanaglit ko, bayabas g"a hinog,
ma6pay an pAnit, oloron an on6d.

la

Dlri ko kay y6bit, diri ko kay dayaw


pamahonpAhon mo bagA may parayaw:

Aydw gad bin tamay, ayAw gad hin yobit


kay magsAma man la inin aton panit;
an aton logArig ginkakalainan,
kay diri mag-osA inin aton garan.
Busa, bayAi, bayAi,
bayAi ayAw baliki,
bisan dabon sin kamoti

nda maorAn

dampog

na* ~>dt6han
bisan la inin pagAnod
dor6yog tipaiiAwod

si

mo

di

mabobobi kami

AbA

Busa, bayAi, balitaw,

dinbi.

Lolay, abA Lolay

baybay
kon igkita ka sin away
dalagan, ayaw papAtay
ligid ligid sinin

ayAw gad tood kay tiaw


ini ga akon pagbolaw
igj-apahaoli gahaw.

Makadi kami maoli


Hilagicag kitA, hilagkaj
sinin palawan ga pankag
kay bagin, idAy, makArag
do loktan sinin alamag.

sa balAy ga

bisan la

maoli kay logarigon

An di ko iginkinanta (*)
an kabasolAn onina

Makadi kami maoli,


maoli ga bagA diri,
naghibiawil pagani
san ka maopay ^an gawi

An

sinorambi

mawarAy b6gbog

si

kahoy

may

di

baliko,

magsarAma

may

balisa

An akon pagkinantAhon (*)


bAyad san akon kinA^n
bisan la ak6 togboy6n

di ko iginpinolog

an kabasoiAn in akon:
si kahoy di mag toropog
may baliko. mav matado

Ir a diri oraorahon.

Nag sisirom na daw inin kakorolpon


latandi) f:i tamsi sa kAhoy na bapon
kitA man an taw o ga may jrip domdom,
m&oli sa balay

(#)

g~a

kalogarigun

Derived from the Spanish -cantar"

(to sing)

12S

NOTES OX
FILIPINO DIALECTOLOGY

beyond any question that mast of the Filipino


derived from a common origin: the Malay tongue.
For this reason many Bisayan words are exactly the
same in other Filipino dialects, and many others bear some
differences, thus always showing a com mo
local dialectal
It

is

dialects are

origin.

The following

lists

are

short

WORDS EXACTLY THE SAME


(*) I

IN

collections

such

of

BISAYAN AND IN TAGAI.OG

Amihan. -North wind

Anino. --Shadow
A ,
g t
Apo. -Grandson, grand- A w*e-~Wiiph
daughter
ttav -IA ilv
Apog.-Linie
t,:j'

Auak.-son, daughter

Asawa.-Wife

Baboy.--Pig

Basa.To read
Bata. -Child
Bat6.- : Stoue
Bawi.--To recover

Ako.

A*aw.--T" Bnatsch
AK1H.--A

words.

put

little

Baga. Hea-hot
B4ga.aa, lik
Baga.--Luug

Bantilis.-A kind of rock

.-

igut

Boka.-Open, untied
Boluis.-Open
Bok6.--Knot
Bohok.--Hair

Bayabas.-Guava

Bagon. To raise
Bantay.-Watcli

Awu)

Bayad.--Pay
Bayaw -Brother-in-law

Bogii.-- Fruit

K
Ivabi^. rull

rjCjL
>? hoy. -Tree,
Ka
r.

t;.v,i,
timber,
>.

wood

Kawavan.--lJ3.mb00
mil-..T
*,>
To know
Kuala.
Koha.- -Take

Daeat Sea

Dalf. --Quick

Dixhon.-Leave

Dila.-Tongue

r,,

-.

T
T
kolag.--Insufficient
.

Kota.-Wall

n
Dog6.
-Blood
,

Ik^^Tl^^ou
(*)

We

use

this bOOk, as an
Hui
in Tarfalog.

**-**?

In6n,-Drink

4heee li.-ts the orthography proposed


orthography practical y the BMtt

in

mm

i.*

we employ only there rowells;

a,

i,

<>.

in

the
being

first

page of
used

much

129

Ilaba-gat.-West

Hagdau. Staircase
Hqyop. -Animal

Labis.-- Excess

Lakbay.-- Go over
Lagaw. Fly

Latrit.-- Heaven,

skv

Hilaw. -Unripe
Hfnav.-*Slow

Hi nog. -Ripe
H6gas.--Wash

Liway. Saliva
L>kod.--Back
Li in a\ Five
Liwanag. -Clearness

Lalaki.-Male

Lokso.-- Jump

Loha.-Tear
Lora. Spit
Loto. Cooked

M
Manok. --Chicken
Matd.~Eve

MHtanib6k.-FMt

Nipa. Nipa

Nipis. -Thinness

Nosnos.To rub

Ogat.--Vein.

Opa. --Payment
O tag. --Debt

Owak. -Haven
Owav. Vine

Ma v. --There

i*,

etc.

Mava.--A kink

of bird

01o.--Head

Oo.-Ycs

Pakpak. -Applause with Patog.-To place over Pi Htf an. -Plate


palms
Pito.Seven
Pavog.Umbrella
Pait --Bitterness
Pokpok.-To beat
Puvpay.--Fan
hand
of
the
Palad.-Palm
Pili.--A tree so called Pola.-Red
Patay.-Kill
Posod. -Navel
Pili.-To select
Pat i. Also, with

s
8*. 'To, at, from, on, etc.

Saway. To

S aba w.-- Broth

Sawsaw.--To wasli

Sakay. -To embark


SakitL-Sikness

Siko. Elbow

correct

Sagfg. -Banana

Si.4ba.--T0 adore
Sili. Peper

Salo. Receive

Sivi. He,

Taas. II eight

Tabas.-To cut
Tad tad. -To prick
Tasris.-To weep
Taiif.--To sew

she

Timog. South
Tiy an. -Belly
Tol-a.--A wine
T<big.--\Vreat
T<>bo. -Sugar

cane

w
Wall

Light

Siyam. Nine
Soka.--To vomit
Sogay.Horn
Solog. Forward
Souod.-Folow
Son og. --Fire

Tobo,

Profit,

to

Tohod. Knee
Tohog. To string
Ton6g. Sound
Twad. To face

dawn wan Is

grow

*30

WOIIDS WITH SOME DIALECTAL DIFFERENCES


Differences in the vowels

i,

o.

B ISA VAN

TaOAI.O'

ENGLISH

Akon

my, mine

Aslom

Akin
A miu
Asim

A ton

At in

our

Anion

A/6|>
Hi : o<

ill

Bokog
Bog&s
Bogat
Bolad
Bogol

Kan-on
Kaon

our
acidity

A tip

roof

Bitiiin

star

Bikig
Bi^as
Eigat
Bilad

fish-bone, bone
rice

weight
sun

to

Bi'Jf

deal

Kan in

cooked

Kain

to eat

rice

Katol

Kati

to

Damn

Da mi

amount, much

Dat6^

DftM
Dikit
Dilim

to

5or6t

Uilit

slice

Hal.ol

Ha'Ui

to

Harok
Hated

llalik

kins,

liatid

to

accompany

to

borrow

I)ok6t

Dolom
<

II

or urn

luomon
I

toll

Pawod

Hiram
I

tmmiii

I I

in

Mi*
Pawid

itching

itch,

arrive

to adhere, adhered

dark

weave
to

potable

kiss

water

Mack
neck

weaved njpa

SahiSandal

floor

Saudis

Tak6p

TakJfp

cover
plantation

Sal6>>

Tanim

Tanom
Tarom

Tallin

Tin. Ink

Tnndofc

Tilldng

Jindij!

Tonok

[]

to

lean

edge of a sword, etc


a kind
of banana
to stand
thorn


Differences

in

i;u
A,

/?,

/,

r,

d,

t,

BISAYAN

TAGALOQ

ENGLISH

Adlaw

Anns

S n

Aram

Alain

Wisdom

1>>aa

Baro

Bslay
Ba!o

Bahay

Balon

Baon

Bamhibo

Balahibo

Bari

Bali

Bolan

Bwan

Kagod

Kayud

B *<>

day

Chemise
House
Widow, widower
Proviaien
Feather,

dawn

Kalot

Katnot

To break
Moon, month
To scrath
To scratch

Kam6

Kayo

You

Kolo
Dalan
Daraga
D'^

Kuku

Nail

Paan

Path, road

Dalaga
Ligo
Hindi
Hari

Young girl
To bath
Not

M^haba

Long
Deep

l>iri^
1

ladi

Haiaba
Halarom
llarayo
Hijeda

Malalim
Mai ay o
Higa

Lakat

Hog
Lakad

Laworf
Mahfnis

Malinis

Xaraok
Napolo

Lamok
Sampu

Parabol

Palaboy

Ir6g

Kino-

Far

To lay down
Nose
To walk
Ocean

I. siot

Clean
Mosquito

Ten
Favor, grace

Writ

Pilit

To

Poro

Palo

Island

Roag

I.

wag
Sahod

Broad

Salod

K a la pat

To

force

receive

Pigeon
Pants

Sara pa ti
Sarowal

Salawal

Sira

Sila

Si ran

Silag

They
To appear

Sirog

Silog

Beneath

Sodlay
Sorat
Sorok

Rnklay

Comb

Snlat

Letter

Sulc.k

Corner

Taliga

Taiga
Talog
Tulo
Tulog
Toptog

TarojJ

Toro
Torog
Toktok
Differences in

BI1AYAN

lie

accent,

and

Eur

plant

Drop
To sleep
To sound,

to play

in the separation of the syllables.

TAGALOG

ENGLISH

BAilk

Balfk

to

come back

Kofau

Kuha

to

take

Gaod

sister-in-law

Lft6u

Gaod
Hfpag
Laon

Sabiy

S.ibay

Hipa-g

Tawa

Tawa

Kab-it

Kabft
Kaniao

Kam-aw
Kan -on

oar
old, ancient
simultaneous
laugh
connected
a dih

Kanin

cooked
so

Sab-it

Kwifl
Gabf
Saba
8a bit

Tan -aw

Tan aw

to look

Tig-a
Tnl-id

Tig*s

hardness

Twid

straight

Koan
Gab-i

Sab -a

Transformation from a to

rice

and so

evening, bight
a kind of
to

o,

and viceversa

Ala poop
Kainot

Alapaap

clond, fog

Kamay

Doha

Palawa

hand
two

llabol)o

Mababa

8ok6J

Sukat

measure

To 16

Tatlo

three

Anim

six

A pat
Utak

four

)n<Mii

<>pac

Otok

banana

hook

low

brain

133

VM ~
PAG

i:;tj

p u.

14 DAY USE
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED

LOAN
This book

due on the

DEPT.

date stamped below, or


on the date to which renewed.
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.
is

5Jul6

last

PM

fcz

M ayftl

/rpb
oy^m
jot

iffl

*->', 1*77/

vt^t

3 1977

:U
SECT WK.IJ0V

4i5^4
REC'D LD

ffcg

fe'7/

131983 28

nFC19'64-9flM

S*^ K>
%

*M
**v

Mt CIB.K0V

LD

6 77

21A-50n?-12,'00

(B6221sl0)476B

68

General Library
University of California
Berkeley

LEYLIBRARIES
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