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EXPERIMENT 1

Title
Aim
Materials
Apparatus
Procedure

Structures of animal cell and plant cell


To study the structures of animal cell and plant cell
Onion, Hydrilla sp leaf, toothpick, distilled water, filter paper, blue methylene solution, iodine solution
Light microscope, cover slips, slides, dropper, razor blade, forceps, scalpels
a. To observe the structure of cheek cells
1. Some cells were scrapped carefully from inside of the cheek using the blunt end of a toothpick.
2. The scrapping was spread onto a clean slide.
3. A drop of blue methylene solution is added to the smear.
4. A cover slip was placed at an angle to the solution on the slide. The cover slip was slide slowly to cover the
specimen without trapping air bubbles.
5. The solution around or on the slide was cleaned up and dried.
6. The cheek cell was examined under a microscope, first on low magnification then on high magnification. The
structure of the cheek cell is drawn and labeled in the space provided.
b. To observe the structure of epidermal cells of an onion
1. An epidermal layer of an onion measuring 1cm X 1cm is peeled of using a ra zor blade and scalpels and stripped
off using forceps.
2. The epidermal onion leaf is mounted onto a clean slide with a drop of water.
3. 2 drops of iodine solution were added to the epidermal onion leaf.
4. A cover slip was placed at an angle to the solution on the slide. The cover slip was slide slowly to cover the
specimen without trapping air bubbles.
5. The solution around or on the slide was cleaned up and dried.

6. The onion cell was examined under a microscope, first on low magnification then on high magnification. The
7.

structure of the onion cell is drawn and labeled in the space provided.
Another slide with Hydrilla sp leaf is prepared and observed.

Observatio
ns

Discussion

1.

2.

3.

4.

Conclusion

1.
2.
3.

What is the effect of iodine solution on the epidermal cells of onion and Hydrilla sp.?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________
What is the function of methylene blue solution in the preparation of the cheek cells slide?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
__________
What will be observed if iodine solution is used to stain cheek cells?
___________________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Based on your observations, state the differences between epidermal cell of onion and cheek cell.
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________
A cell is the ___________________________ of life.
Animal and plant cell have ______________, ________________ and ________________ in common.
Green plant cells have __________________ and ___________________.

EXPERIMENT 2
Title
Movement of substances across a semi permeable membrane
Aim
To study the movement of substances across a semi permeable membrane
Problem
What substances are able to move across a semi permeable membrane?
statement
Hypothesi Molecules which are __________________ than the pores of a Visking tube are able to move across the
s
plasma membrane.
Variables Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
Benedicts solution, 1% starch suspension, iodine solution, 30% glucose solution, Visking tube (25cm), distilled
water, thread.
Apparatu
2 test tubes, 3 beakers, Bunsen burner, wire gauze, tripod stand
s
Techniqu _________ for the presence of starch and glucose with iodine and Benedicts solution respectively
e
Method
1. A Visking tubing is immersed in water until it is soft.
2. One end of the Visking tubing is firmly tightened with thread.
3. The Visking tubing is then filled up with 10 ml of starch solution and 10 ml of glucose solution.The other
end of the Visking tubing is tightened. The colour of the solution in the Visking tubing is recorded.
4. The whole Visking tubing is rinsed with distilled water.
5. The Visking tubing is placed in a beaker of water with 10 ml iodine solution in it (500 ml water + 3 ml
iodine).
6. The experiment is set aside for 30 minutes.
7. After 30 minutes, the Visking tubing is taken from the beaker and placed in a dry beaker.
8. The colour of the solution in the Visking tubing and in the beaker is recorded.
9. The solution in the Visking tubing and solution in the beaker are tested for the presence of reducing
sugar (glucose) by using Benedicts test.
a) 2 ml of the solution to be tested is put into a test tube. 1 ml of the Benedicts reagent is added to it.
b) The test tube is placed in a hot water bath and heated. Any change in colour is recorded.
Results
Test
Iodine test
Benedict test
Discussio
n

Conclusio
n

Contents of Visking tubing


Initial colour
Clear
Blue

Final colour
Blue black
Blue

Contents of beaker
Initial colour
Brown
Blue

Final colour
Brown
Orange precipitate

1. Based on the results, make an inference on the size of the iodine molecules as compared to starch
molecules.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
__
2. Compare the size of the glucose molecules with the starch molecules.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
__
3. Based on the results of the experiment, briefly explain the need of the breakdown of starch into glucose in
the digestive canal.
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
__
Is the hypothesis accepted or rejected? Give reasons for your answer.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
_

EXPERIMENT 3
Title
Effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells.
Aim
To study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells.
Materials
Fresh chicken blood, 0.15 M sodium chloride solutions, 0.50 M sodium chloride solutions, Distilled water,
Filter paper
Apparatus
Glass slides, Cover slips, Filter papers, Light microscope, Test tubes, Beakers, Dropper
Technique
_____________ and study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on animal cells from
the slides by using microscope
Method
1. 4 slides were labeled as A, B, C and D.
2. A drop of blood was dropped on slide A and covered with a cover slip and is observed under a light
microscope.
3. A drop of distilled water was dropped on slide B and covered with a cover slip. A drop of blood was
put at one side of the cover slip.
4. The slide was observed under a light microscope after the blood was drawn into the water.
5. Steps 3 and 4 were repeated using 0.15 and 0.50M sodium chloride solutions on slide C and D
respectively.
Observation
s
Specimen
A
B
C
D
Shape or
condition of red
blood cell
Drawing of cell

Discussion

1. Which solution is:


a. Isotonic
: _____________________________
b. Hypotonic : _____________________________
c. Hypertonic : _____________________________
2. Name the process in slide B: __________________________
3. Explained the process mentioned in question 2.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________
4. Explain the observation made in slide D.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________

Conclusion

1. Red blood cells in hypotonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon is called as
_________________.
2. Red blood cells in hypertonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon is called as
_________________.

3. Red blood cells in isotonic solution will _____________________.

EXPERIMENT 3
Title
Effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells.
Aim
To study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells.
Materials
Onion bulb, 0.5 M sucrose solutions, 1.0 M sucrose solutions, Distilled water
Apparatu
Light microscope, Glass slides, Cover slips, Razor blade / scalpel, A pair of forceps, Mounting needle
s
Filter papers
Techniqu ______________ and study the effects of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cells from the
e
slides by using microscope.
Method
1. A thin layer of epidermal cell of onion was stripped and mounted on slide A.
2. A drop of distilled water was dropped on it and covered with a cover slip.
3. The slide was examined under a light microscope using low power and then high power.
4. Steps 1 2 was repeated with 0.5 M and 1.0M sucrose solutions on slide B and C respectively.
5. All observations were recorded.
Results
Slide
Shape or condition of the cell
Drawing of the cell
A

Discussio
n

1. Which solution is:


a. Isotonic
: _____________________________
b. Hypotonic : _____________________________
c. Hypertonic : _____________________________
2. Name the process in slide C: __________________________
3. Explained the process mentioned in question 2.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________
4. Explain the observation made in slide A.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________
5. What will happen if cell in slide C is moved to another slide and a drop of water is added on it?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________

Conclusio
n

1. Epidermal cells in hypotonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon is called as


_________________.
2. Epidermal cells in hypertonic solution will _____________________. This phenomenon is called as
_________________.

3. Epidermal cells in isotonic solution will _____________________.

EXPERIMENT 5
Title
Concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a plant
Aim
To ________________ the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a plant
Problem
What is the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of a plant?
statement
Hypothesi When the external solution is isotonic to the cell sap of the plant, there is no net gain in the size of the plant cell
s
Variables Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
Potato, distilled water, filter paper and sucrose solutions with concentration of 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M, 0.5 and
0.6M
Apparatu
Petri dishes, knife, forceps, ruler and cork borer
s
Techniqu ____________ the length of the potato strip with a ruler and _______________ the data
e
Method
1. 7 petri dishes were labeled as A G.
2. Petri dish A was filled with distilled water
3. Each petri dish was filled with different solution according to the table below:
Petri dish
B
C
D
E
F
G
Sucrose solution
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
(M)
4. A cork borer was used to bore 21 potatoes in cylindrical strips. Each strip was cut to a length of 5cm.
5. 3 strips were placed in each petri dish and left for an hour.
6. After an hour, the strips were removed. The potato strips were wiped dry and the length of each strip was
measured.
7. Measurements were recorded.
8. A graph of ELONGATION of potato strip against the CONCENTRATION of sucrose solution was plotted.
Results

Discussio
n

Conclusio
n

Concentratio
Initial length (cm)
Final Length (cm)
Chang
1
2
3
Mean
1
2
3
Mean e
n of sucrose
in
solution
length
(M)
(cm)
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
1. From the graph, state the concentration of sucrose solution which is isotonic to the cell sap of potato cells.
Explain your answers.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________
Is the hypothesis accepted or rejected? Give your comments.
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
______________

EXPERIMENT 6
Title
Effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme amylase on starch
Aim
To study the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme amylase on starch
Problem
What is the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme amylase on starch?
statement
Hypothesis The _________________ the temperature, the ___________________ the rate of enzyme reaction until it
reaches optimum temperature of _____________.
Variables
Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
1 % starch solution, iodine solution, ice, distilled water
Apparatus
5 beakers, 10 test tubes, syringe, glass rod, dropper, white tile, thermometer, Bunsen burner, tripod stand,
wire gauze, stop watch
Technique
___________________ the time taken for complete hydrolysis of starch with a stopwatch.
Method
1. 5 ml of saliva was collected in a beaker after rinsing ones mouth with clean water.
2. 5 ml of distilled water was added into the beaker to dilute the saliva.
3. 5 test tubes were labeled as A, B, C, D and E and each of it were filled with 1 ml of saliva.
4. 5 test tubes were labeled as A1, B1, C1, D1 and E1 and each of it were filled with 1 ml of starch
solution.
5. Test tubes A and A1 were placed in a beaker of ice water at a temperature of 5 0C and left for 10
minutes.
6. A few drops of iodine were dropped separately on a white tile.
7. After 10 minutes, the content of test tube A was poured into A 1 and the temperature of mixture was
maintained at 50C.
8. The mixture was stirred using a glass rod and small amount of mixture was taken out and added to
the iodine drop. Stop watch is started.
9. The change in the color of iodine is observed.
10. The iodine test for test tube A1 is continuously done at an interval of 1 minute for 10 minutes.
11. Time taken when the mixture no longer changed and the color of iodine was recorded.
12. Steps 5 11 were repeated with the pairs of test tubes at different temperature as shown below.
Pair of test tube
B & B1
C & C1
D & D1
E &E1
Temperature (0C)
28
37
45
60
13. All observations were recorded.
14. A graph of rate of reaction (1 / time) against temperature was plotted.
Results
Temperature, 0C

Time taken for the complete


hydrolysis of starch (minutes)

5
28
37
45
60

Discussion

Based on your graph, deduce the effect of temperature on enzyme activity.

Rate of reaction (1/time)

Conclusion

_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_
1. Hypothesis is ___________________.
2. The rate of enzyme reaction _____________ as the temperature ________________ until it reaches
______. After the temperature, the rate of reaction _______________.

EXPERIMENT 7
Title
Effect of pH on the enzyme activity
Aim
To study the effect of pH on the enzyme activity
Problem
What is the effect of pH on the enzyme activity
statement
Hypothesis
Pepsin works best in acidic medium
Variables
Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
Albumen suspension, 1% pepsin solution, 0.1M hydrochloric acid, 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution, pH
paper, distilled water
Apparatus
Test tube, syringe, thermometer, stopwatch, beaker, Bunsen burner tripod stand, filter funnel, wire gauze
Technique
Observing and recording the change in the content of test tubes
Method
1. 5ml of albumin suspension was poured into each test tube, P, Q and R.
2. The following solutions were added into each test tube.
Test tube
Solution
P
1 ml hydrochloric acid + 1 ml pepsin solution
Q
1 ml sodium hydroxide + 1 ml pepsin solution
R
1 ml distilled water + 1 ml pepsin solution
3. A piece of pH paper was dipped into each test tube. The pH value was recorded.
4. All test tubes were placed into a beaker of water bath at 37 0C for 20 minutes.
5. The change in the content of the test tube was observed and recorded.
Results
Test tube
P
Q
R
Discussion

Conclusion

pH
3
9
7

Observation after 20 minutes

1. Why were the test tubes placed in a beaker containing water at 37 0C for 20 minutes?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________
2. What is the effect of pepsin on albumen?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________
3. State the most favourable pH value for pepsin activity.
__________________
Hypothesis is _________________________.
Pepsin is most active in __________________ condition.

EXPERIMENT 8
Title
Effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of biochemical reaction.
Aim
To study the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of biochemical reaction.
Problem
What is the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of biochemical reaction?
statement
Hypothesi The _________________ the enzyme concentration, the ______________________ the rate of biochemical
s
reaction until it reaches a ___________________.
Variables Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
1% starch solution, iodine solution, distilled water
Apparatu
Beakers, test tubes, syringe, dropper, glass rod, white tile, thermometer, wire gauze, Bunsen burner, tripod
s
stand, stopwatch
Techniqu Test for the presence of starch using iodine test
e
Record the time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to be completed with a stopwatch
Method
1. Six test tubes were labeled as A, B, C, D, E and F.
2. Each test tube was filled different volumes of saliva and distilled water as given.
3. A few drops of iodine dropped separately on a white tile.
4. 4 ml of starch solution was poured into test tube A.
5. The stop watch was started and a small amount of the withdrawn using a dropper and added to a drop of
iodine on the white tile immediately.
6. The color change in iodine was observed.
7. The iodine test was carried out at an interval of 30 seconds until there was no more color change in the
iodine.
8. The time taken when the mixture no longer changed the color of iodine was recorded.
9. Steps 4 8 were repeated for test tubes B, C, D, E and F.
10. All observations were recorded.
11. A graph of RATE OF REACTION against ENZYME CONCENTRATION was plotted.
Results
Test tube
A
B
C
D
E
F
Enzyme concentration (%)
Time taken for breakdown of
starch (minutes)
Rate of reaction, (1/time)
Discussio
n

1. Which test tube shows the highest rate of reaction?


________________________________________________________________________________
2. Which test tube shows the lowest rate of reaction?
________________________________________________________________________________
3. What is the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of biochemical reaction?

_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_________________
Conclusio
n

Hypothesis is ____________________.
The _________________ the enzyme concentration, the ______________________ the rate of biochemical
reaction until it reaches a ___________________.

EXPERIMENT 9
Title
Stages of mitosis
Aim
To prepare and observe the slide of an onion root tip to identify the stages of mitosis.
Materials
Root of an onion bulb, toothpicks, acetic orsein stain, filter paper
Apparatus
Scalpel, beaker, razor blade, watch-glass, slides, cover slips, light microscope, mounted pin
Technique
Observe the prepared slides using a light microscope and draw.
Method
1. An onion was suspended over the water in a beaker for few days until roots were grown.
2. A scalpel was used to cut off 20mm from the root of the onion.
3. The root was placed on a piece of filter paper and 5mm of the root tip was cut.
4. The root tip was placed in a watch-glass containing acetic orsein stain.
5. The root tip was warmed for 5 minutes.
6. The root tip was then removed and put on a slide with a drop of acetic orsein stain.
7. The tissues of the root tip were broken up using a mounted pin.
8. A cover slip was placed over the broken tissues.
9. A cover slip was covered with a piece of filter paper and pressed down with the thumb.
10. The squashed root tip was observed under a light microscope.
11. Various stages of mitosis were identified and drawn in sequence.

Observatio
ns

Discussion

1. Write in sequence the various stages of mitosis.


________________________________________________________________________________
2. State the features that help you identify the following stages.
a. Metaphase : __________________________________________________________________
b. Anaphase : __________________________________________________________________
c. Telophase : __________________________________________________________________

Conclusion

Mitosis is
_______________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
________

EXPERIMENT 10
Title
Energy value in food samples
Aim
To determine the energy value in food samples
Problem
Which food sample has a higher energy value?
statement
Hypothesis
_______________________ has a higher energy value than __________________________.
Variables
Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
Fresh cashew nuts, white bread, matches, distilled water, plasticine
Apparatus
Boiling tube, thermometer, long pin, electronic weighing machine, measuring cylinder
Technique
Measuring initial and final temperatures of water using a thermometer.
Method
1. One fresh cashew nut was weighed and the mass was recorded.
2. 1 boiling tube was filled with 20ml of distilled water.
3. The apparatus of the experiment was set up as shown in the
diagram.
4. The initial temperature of the water was recorded.
5. The cashew nut was burned and put as near as possible to the
bottom of the boiling tube.
6. The water was stirred.
7. The temperature of the water was read and recorded when the
cashew nut has stopped burning.
8. The energy value of the cashew nut was calculated.

9. Steps 1 8 were repeated using white bread.


Results
Food sample
Initial temperature of water (0C)
Final temperature of water (0C)
Difference in temperature (0C)
Mass of water (g)
Mass of nut (g)
Energy value (Jg-1 0C-1)

Cashew nut

White bread

Discussion

1. State precautions needed when carrying out this experiment.


a. ______________________________________________________________________________
_
b. ______________________________________________________________________________
_
c. ______________________________________________________________________________
_
2. Does the mass of the nut affect its energy value?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
____________
3. How can we apply the knowledge of the energy value in our daily lives?
_______________________________________________________________________________
___

Conclusion

Hypothesis is _______________________.
_______________________ has a higher energy value than __________________________.

EXPERIMENT 11
Title
Aim
Materials
Apparatus
Method

Nutrient content in different food sample


To determine the nutrient content in different food sample
Benedicts solution, dilute hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate powder, starch suspension, Millons reagent, filter paper,
distilled water, grape juice, potato, carrot juice, peanuts, bread, cooking oil, boiled egg white, sucrose solution
Test tubes, test tube holders, beaker, measuring cylinder (5ml), white tile, wire gauze, mortar and pestle
1. Food test on various samples were carried out.
2. Observations made were recorded.

Observation

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Discussion

1.
2.

3.

4.

Experiment
A. Test for reducing sugar
1 ml of grape juice and 1ml of Benedicts solution is put
in a test tube.
The mixture is heated in a water bath.
Change in mixture is recorded.
Steps 1-3 are repeated using carrot juice, boiled egg
white and sucrose solution.

Food sample
Grape juice

E. Test for non reducing sugar


1 ml of sucrose solution and a few drops of dilute
hydrochloric acid in a test tube.
The mixture is heated in a water bath for 3 minutes.
The mixture is cooled under running water.
Sodium bicarbonate is added till there is no
effervescence.
Benedicts test is carried out.
Steps 1-5 are repeated using boiled egg white and
bread.
H. Test for starch
A few drops of iodine solution is put on a piece of
bread.
Step 1 is repeated using potato and groundnut.
K. Test for protein
A few drops of Millons reagent are added to groundnut
suspension.
The mixture is heated in a water bath.
Change in mixture is observed.
Steps 1-5 are repeated using boiled egg white, potato
and bread.

Sucrose solution

O. Test for lipid


A few pieces of crushed groundnuts were pressed to a
piece of filter paper.
The filter paper was left to dry.
The filter paper was held against the light.
The translucent mark was noted.
Steps 1-4 were repeated using cooking oil, grape juice
and crushed potato.

Ground nut

Observation

Carrot juice
Egg white
Sucrose solution

Bread

Egg white

Bread
Potato
Ground nut
Ground nut
Bread
Potato
Egg white

Cooking oil
Grape juice
Potato

What is the end product obtained when carrying out Benedicts test? : _______________________________
Explain the chemical process involved in the production of end product in question 1.
____________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
To test non reducing sugar, why must the food sample be heated with dilute hydrochloric acid?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
What is the function of sodium bicarbonate in the test of non reducing sugar?
_________________________________________________________________________________________

5.

Conclusion

Why must the test of reducing sugar be carried out before the test for non reducing sugar is done?
___________________________________________________________________________________
Different food sample have ___________________________.

EXPERIMENT 12
Title
Vitamin C content in fruit juices
Aim
To determine the vitamin C content in fruit juices
Problem
Which fruit juice has highest vitamin C content?
statement
Hypothesis
______________________ has highest vitamin C content than _________________ and
__________________.
Variables
Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
0.1% ascorbic acid solution, DCPIP solution, lemon juice, pineapple juice and papaya juice
Apparatus
Specimen tubes, syringes, measuring cylinder
Technique
Recording the amount of ascorbic acid solution used and calculating the percentage and concentration of
vitamin C
Method
1. Four specimen tubes were labeled as A, B, C and D.
2. 1 ml of DCPIP solution was placed in each specimen tube.
3. A syringe was filled with 5ml of ascorbic acid solution.
4. The needle of the syringe was immersed in DCPIP solution.
5. The ascorbic acid solution was added drop by drop to the DCPIP solution and the tube was
shaken slowly.
6. The amount of ascorbic acid solution used to turn the DCPIP solution colorless was recorded.
7. Steps 2-6 were repeated using lemon juice, pineapple juice and papaya juice.
8. The percentage and concentration of vitamin C in the three types of juices were calculated.

Results
Solution

Initial volume
(ml)

Final volume
(ml)

Volume used
(ml)

Percentage of
vitamin C (%)

Concentration
of vitamin C
(mg cm-3)

Ascorbic acid
Lemon juice
Pineapple
juice
Papaya juice
Discussion

1. What reaction causes the DCPIP solution to change color?


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________
2. When the ascorbic acid solution or the fruit juice is added to the DCPIP solution, the tube containing
the solution cannot be shaken vigorously. Why is this so?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________
3. Predict the results obtained if the fruit juice is prepared a day before the experiment.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________

4. What is the relationship between the content of the vitamin C in fruit juice with the volume of fruit juice
required to turn the DCPIP solution colorless?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________
Conclusion
The hypothesis is _______________________.
______________________ has highest vitamin C content than _________________ and
__________________.
EXPERIMENT 13
Title
Digestion of starch
Aim
To study the digestion of starch
Problem
How does salivary amylase act on starch?
statement
Hypothesis
Salivary amylase digests starch to reducing sugar.
Variables
Constant
: _______________________________
Manipulated : _______________________________
Responding : _______________________________
Materials
1% starch suspension, Benedicts solution, iodine solution, saliva and distilled water
Apparatus
Test tubes, beakers, measuring cylinder (5ml), test tube holder, Bunsen burner, tripod stand and wire
gauze
Method
1. 2 ml of saliva is collected in a beaker and diluted with 2ml of distilled water.
2. 1 ml of diluted saliva was poured into a test tube. The presence of starch was tested.
3. 1 ml of diluted saliva was poured into another test tube. The presence of reducing sugar was tested.
4. Steps 2-3 was repeated using starch suspension.
5. Three test tubes were labeled as A, B and C.
6. 1 ml of saliva was put into test tube A and C and 1ml of distilled water was put into test tube B.
7. Test tube C was heated in a beaker of boiling water for 5 minutes.
8. 5ml of starch suspension was added into each test tube.
9. All the test tubes were immersed in a water bath of 37 0C for 3m minutes.
10. After 30 minutes, an iodine test and a Benedicts test were carried out on the content in test tubes A,
B and C. all results were recorded.
Observatio
ns
Graph
Discussion
Conclusion