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Architectural Design lecture 7aaa Software architecture The design process for identifying the sub-systems making up a system

em and the framework for sub-system control and communication is architectural design. The output of this design process is a description of the software architecture. Architecture - The overall structure of the software and the ways in which that structure provides conceptual integrity for a system. !S"A#$a% &hy Architecture' Architectural design An early stage of the system design process. (epresents the link between specification and design processes. )ften carried out in parallel with some specification activities. *t involves identifying ma+or system components and their communications. The architecture of a packing robot control system Architectural abstraction Architecture in the small is concerned with the architecture of individual programs. At this level, we are concerned with the way that an individual program is decomposed into components. Architecture in the large is concerned with the architecture of comple- enterprise systems that include other systems, programs, and program components. These enterprise systems are distributed over different computers, which may be owned and managed by different companies. Advantages of e-plicit architecture Stakeholder communication Architecture may be used as a focus of discussion by system stakeholders.

System analysis .eans that analysis of whether the system can meet its non-functional re/uirements is possible.

0arge-scale reuse The architecture may be reusable across a range of systems 1roduct-line architectures may be developed.

Architectural representations Simple, informal block diagrams showing entities and relationships are the most fre/uently used method for documenting software architectures. 2se of architectural models As a way of facilitating discussion about the system design A high-level architectural view of a system is useful for communication with system stakeholders and pro+ect planning because it is not cluttered with detail. Stakeholders can relate to it and understand an abstract view of the system. They can then discuss the system as a whole without being confused by detail.

As a way of documenting an architecture that has been designed The aim here is to produce a complete system model that shows the different components in a system, their interfaces and their connections.

Architectural design decisions Architectural design is a creative process so the process differs depending on the type of system being developed. Architectural design decisions *s there a generic application architecture that can be used' "ow will the system be distributed' &hat architectural styles are appropriate' &hat approach will be used to structure the system' "ow will the system be decomposed into modules' &hat control strategy should be used' "ow will the architectural design be evaluated' "ow should the architecture be documented' Architecture reuse

Systems in the same domain often have similar architectures that reflect domain concepts. Application product lines are built around a core architecture with variants that satisfy particular customer re/uirements. The architecture of a system may be designed around one of more architectural patterns or styles. These capture the essence of an architecture and can be instantiated in different ways. Discussed later in this lecture.

Architecture and system characteristics 1erformance 0ocali3e critical operations and minimi3e communications. 2se large rather than fine-grain components.

Security Safety 0ocali3e safety-critical features in a small number of sub-systems. 2se a layered architecture with critical assets in the inner layers.

Availability *nclude redundant components and mechanisms for fault tolerance.

.aintainability 2se fine-grain, replaceable components.

Architectural views &hat views or perspectives are useful when designing and documenting a system4s architecture' &hat notations should be used for describing architectural models' 5ach architectural model only shows one view or perspective of the system. *t might show how a system is decomposed into modules, how the run-time processes interact or the different ways in which system components are

distributed across a network. 6or both design and documentation, you usually need to present multiple views of the software architecture. 7 8 9 view model of software architecture A logical view, which shows the key abstractions in the system as ob+ects or ob+ect classes. A process view, which shows how, at run-time, the system is composed of interacting processes. A development view, which shows how the software is decomposed for development. A physical view, which shows the system hardware and how software components are distributed across the processors in the system. All the view above related through a user view :89; Architectural patterns 1atterns are a means of representing, sharing and reusing knowledge. An architectural pattern is a styli3ed description of good design practice, which has been tried and tested in different environments. 1atterns should include information about when they are and when the are not useful. 1atterns may be represented using tabular and graphical descriptions. Architectural Styles Data-centered architectures Data flow architectures <all and return architectures 0ayered architectures Data centered architecture one component is centered and all the other components fre/uently using this component independently

Set of stand-alone servers which provide specific services such as printing, data management, etc. Set of clients which call on these services.

=etwork which allows clients to access servers. A client>server architecture for a film library Data 6low architecture 6unctional transformations process their inputs to produce outputs. .ay be referred to as a pipe and filter model :as in 2=*? shell;. @ariants of this approach are very common. &hen transformations are se/uential, this is a batch se/uential model which is e-tensively used in data processing systems. =ot really suitable for interactive systems. Data 6low Architecture <A00 (5T2(= .)D50 Call Return Architecture *n this e-ample of a call-return model, the .ain 1rocedure can directly call any or all of the procedures at the ne-t level of abstractionA 1rocedure 9, 1rocedure B, 1rocedure C, and 1rocedure 7. 1rocedure 9, in turn, can call any or all of the procedures at the level of abstraction below it :i.e., 1rocedure 9.9, 1rocedure 9.B and 1rocedure 9.C;, and so forth. The actual call se/uences may take place in various combinations. Typically the control eventually returns to the .ain 1rocedure.

*n this e-ample of a call-return model, the .ain 1rocedure can directly call any or all of the procedures at the ne-t level of abstractionA 1rocedure 9, 1rocedure B, 1rocedure C, and 1rocedure 7. 1rocedure 9, in turn, can call any or all of the procedures at the level of abstraction below it :i.e., 1rocedure 9.9, 1rocedure 9.B and 1rocedure 9.C;, and so forth. The actual call se/uences may take place in various combinations. Typically the control eventually returns to the .ain 1rocedure. 0ayered architecture 2sed to model the interfacing of sub-systems.

)rgani3es the system into a set of layers :or abstract machines; each of which provide a set of services. Supports the incremental development of sub-systems in different layers. &hen a layer interface changes, only the ad+acent layer is affected. "owever, often artificial to structure systems in this way. 0ayered Architecture A generic layered architecture The architecture of the 0*DSES system 0ayered information system architecture The architecture of the ."<-1.S Analy3ing Architectural Design 9. <ollect scenarios. B. 5licit re/uirements, constraints, and environment description. C. Describe the architectural stylesFpatterns that have been chosen to address the scenarios and re/uirementsA G module view G process view G data flow view 7. 5valuate /uality attributes by considered each attribute in isolation. $. *dentify the sensitivity of /uality attributes to various architectural attributes for a specific architectural style. H. <riti/ue candidate architectures :developed in step C; using the sensitivity analysis conducted in step $.

An Architectural Design .ethod Iey points A software architecture is a description of how a software system is organi3ed.

Architectural design decisions include decisions on the type of application, the distribution of the system, the architectural styles to be used. Architectures may be documented from several different perspectives or views such as a conceptual view, a logical view, a process view, and a development view. Architectural patterns are a means of reusing knowledge about generic system architectures. They describe the architecture, e-plain when it may be used and describe its advantages and disadvantages.