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Environment Observer

Environment Observer

National Seminar on Green Environment Theme : Waste Management December 17th - 18th, 2013

Asso. Prof. Lekshmi M. S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST Asst. Prof. Sangeetha S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST Asst. Prof. Jaseela K. H., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST Asst. Prof. Life John, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST Asst. Prof. Remjish R.S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

Organized by

Department of Civil Engineering Toc H Institute of Science & Technology

Arakkunnam, Eranakulam (Dist.)

Environment Observer

December - 2013 Vol.- 16 EDITOR / DIRECTOR
Dr. Mangesh Kashyap

Invitation Price - 250 INR

Society for Environment Education Research And Management (SEERAM) Proceedings of National Seminar on Green Environment Theme : Waste Management

Prof. Lathi Karthi HOD, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

ISSN- 2320- 5997

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The authors are solely responsible for the contents of the papers compiled in this volume. The publishers or editors do not take any responsibility for the same in any manner. Errors, if any, are purely unintentional and readers are requested to communicate such errors to the editors or publishers to avoid discrepancies in future.
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Environment Observer

CHAIR PERSON (Organising Committee) :

Prof. Lathi Karthi , HOD, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST


Mr. Satchidanand Sewalkar, Director, SEERAM Er. P. G. Gopalakrishnan, FIE, IEI Dr. C.G. Nandakumar, Reader, Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT Er. Dr. May Mathew, FIE, Committee Member, IEI Kochi Local Center- Convener Prof.(Dr.) P. Rajeev Kumar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

Asso. Prof . Vasudev R., Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST Asst. Prof. Anju Paul, Dept. of Civil Engineering, TIST

Environment Observer

Industrialization and the exponential population growth have contributed immensely to the buildup of waste in the urban areas this in turn caused a rapid deterioration in the level of sanitation and the general quality of urban life. The streets became choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance regulations. Throughout decades waste management has been a burning issue. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Poorly designed and managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts. It is a matter of great concern that the growth of municipal solid waste in our urban centers has outpaced the population growth in recent years. Municipal Solid Waste in cities is collected by respective municipalities and transported to the designated disposal sites, which are normally low lying areas on the outskirts of the city. The choice of a disposal site is more on what is available than what is suitable. The poorly maintained land fill sites are prone to ground water contamination due to leachate production. Solid waste per person is mounting at an alarming rate due to various reasons. In India generation of Municipal solid waste, hazardous and biomedical wastes have been increasing due to population growth, modified life style and economic development but the waste management responses still adhere to the traditional methods of waste disposal which results in increased expenditure for waste management. Every citizen is now in search of clean air, pure water and a pleasant atmosphere to live in. It is the duty of every citizen to play his part in keeping his premises clean and healthy, inspiring other fellow beings to follow sustainable practices which will make our environment green. In order to emphasis this need of the hour the theme of the National Seminar has been selected as Waste Management. The thrust areas of the seminar are : 01. Sustainable solid waste management. 02. E-waste management. 03. Best practices in construction waste management. 04. Waste water treatment and management. 05. Environmental remediation. 06. Economic dimensions of solid waste management. 07. Sustainable urban planning. 08. Pollution & Health issues. 09. Soil pollution & treatment. 10. Impact of industrialization on the environment. 11. Ground water issues. 12. Renewable & non-renewable energies.

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About 46 full papers covering the respective focus areas were received as part of this seminar. The papers pertaining to the sustainable solid waste management, best practices in construction waste management and waste water treatment and management together contribute to about 50 % of the total papers received. All the papers were technically reviewed by subject experts of the technical committee and recommended for publication in the journal ENVIRONMENT OBSERVER. The objective of this seminar was to provide a platform for academicians, research scholars, technocrats and practicing civil engineers to throw light in the area of waste management, to ignite the young minds by sharing the experiences and to emerge with innovative and feasible solutions which will free our country from the stingy polluted atmosphere to a serene green environment where everybody wishes to dwell. Changes do not happen overnight but each advance helps and we hope this seminar helped to move a little forward in the direction of sustainable waste management.

EDITORIAL BOARD: Prof. Lathi Karthi (Chairman) Asso. Prof. Lekshmi M. S. Asst. Prof. Sangeetha S. Asst. Prof. Jaseela K. H. Asst. Prof. Life John Asst. Prof. Remjish R.S.

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Sr. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Fuzzy Model for Multi-Objective Integrated Solid Waste Management System - Isaac P. George Coconut Builds Up Sustainable Structure - Anju Mary Ealias Economical Utilization of Coir Fibre Dust as Soil Admixture Sanah Rose Sony Waste Foot Printing For Waste Management The Need Of The Hour- Athira Ravi A Review On Bioreactor Landfills- Hema M Polymer Sponge Assisted Bacterial Digestion method for Municipal Solid Waste Management- Geevarghese George Solid Kitchen Waste Management in the High Ranges Anoob Sebastian An Environmentally Sound Method For Organic Degradation Ranjini D S Sustainable Waste Management- Priyadarsi Das Study on Waste Management in Visakhapatnam using RIAM analysisV R Sankar Cheela


1 8 14 19 28 34 43 48 54 63

11 E-Waste Management-The Present Scenario- Anna Donia Palett1 74


12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste as Pavement Material- SavioJohn Bauxite Residue Management- Theja S N Global scenario of utilization of construction and demolition waste Job Thomas, Wilson P.M Construction And Demolition Waste Management- Amrutha Mary. Study on Concrete with Glass Powder- Shilpa Raju Concrete Technology In Sustainable Development- Jithin Thomas Reduction of Construction Wastes through Efficient Jobsite Practices.Abhijith Harikumar 80 87 95 106 112 121 126

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Waste Plastic As A Stabilizing Additive In Stone Mastic Asphalt - K. Akhil A Review On Strength And Fracture Properties Of Post Consumed Waste Plastic Fiber Reinforced Concrete - Asha S

134 140


21 Polishing Domestic Wastewater With Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland - Reenu Lizbeth Roy Recovery Of Nutrient From Waste Water Through Struvite Crystallization - J. S. Sudarsan, The Treatment Of Pulp And Paper Mill Wastewater By Wet Oxidation- Amrutha K Comparative Studies on Bioremediation of Municipal Wastewater Using Macrophytes and Microalgae - Hossein Azarpira, 149

22 23 24

156 164 170

24 25 26 Role of Phytoremediation in Soil Waste Management Aarya Vimal1 Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust into Mine Tailing Based Geopolymer Bricks- Kavya R Varma Use of Industrial and Agricultural Wastes for making Bricks Waste Create Bricks- Mala Pankaj1 180 186 192


27 Cost And Economic Returns of Resource Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in Ernakulam- T.Dhanalakshmi, 198


28 29 30 31 32 33 Double Skin Facade System A Sustainable Strategy for High Rise Buildings- Krishna Priya R

203 209 215 223 230 236

Understanding Acoustic Leak Detection Methods For Water Distribution Systems- Amith Krishnan. M1 Green Walls-Annu Anna Alex Sustainable Planning in Urban Transport for the Developing Cities in India- Basil Basheerudeen Decentralised Membrane Filtration System- Aravind Suresh Energy Demand of Urban Transport Sector in the Developed Cities of India- Basil Basheerudeen1

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35 36 Life Cycle Assessment of Rubber Industries in KeralaMary Dhanya 245


Bioremediation A Green solution for Soil Pollution- Riya Elsa Abraham Treatment of Polluted Soils: Translating Science into Practice Rebecca George 254 261


37 Study on Urban Environment Quality in Visakhapatnam - V R Sankar Cheela1, Basil Basheerudeen2, Resma Vijay3 Impact of Industrial Activities on Heavy Metal Concentrations in Marine Environment of Mangalore- Akshay Gowda K M Impact of Urbanization in Kerala: Case study of Cochin Corporation - Basil Basheerudeen1, Aparna Baiju2 269

38 39

277 283


40 41 Arsenic Contamination In Ground Water - Mithra.P 1, Annie Joy 2 , Dr. A.K. Vasudevan 3 Groundwater Wakeup Asika Johney, Avinash Satheesh, K.Akhil *, Lekshmi M. S.** 290 298


42 43 44 Solar Roadways- Parvathi.S Passive Solar Buildings- Jiya Jaison Sequential Production of Biofuel from Leather Fleshing Waste- Dhanya Muralidharan Scope of Non-Conventional Energy in India- Arjun Murali1 Role of FRP as sustainable construction material - An overview Ramadass S1 304 310 316

45 46

321 326

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Fuzzy Model for Multi-Objective Integrated Solid Waste Management System
Isaac P. George[1], Swarnalatha K.[2]
College of Engineering, Trivandrum [1] [2] Assistant Professor, College of Engineering, Trivandrum Abstract: Rapid urbanization and change in life style has increased the waste load and thereby pollution loads on the urban environment to unmanageable and alarming proportions. This is particularly true for Thiruvananthapuram Corporation in Kerala state, with severe constraints of land availability, dense population, environmental fragility and expectation for management of solid waste relies on an overly centralized approach. Present study focuses on the optimum selection of the treatment and disposal facilities, their capacity planning and waste allocation under uncertainty associated with the long-term planning for solid waste management. The fuzzy model is based on a multi-objective, multi-period system for integrated planning for solid waste management which dynamically locates the facilities and allocates the waste considering fuzzy waste quantity and capacity of waste management facility. The model addresses uncertainty in waste quantity as well as uncertainties in the operating capacities of waste management facilities simultaneously. It was observed that uncertainty in waste quantity will affect the planning for waste treatment and disposal facilities more as compared with the uncertainty in the capacities of the waste management facilities. The relationship between increase in waste quantity and increase in the total cost/risk involved in waste management is found to be nonlinear. Therefore, it is possible that a marginal change in waste quantity could increase the total cost/risk substantially. The information obtained from the analysis of modelling results can be effectively used for understanding the effect of changing the priorities and objectives of planning decisions on facility selections and waste diversions. Key Words: Fuzzy model, integrated soil waste management

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INTRODUCTION The mathematical models can be subjected to rigorous methods of systems analysis for

planning the Integrated Solid Waste Management System (ISWM). The mathematical models provide a systematic means by which the decision-maker can explore the various alternatives in order to identify an optimal management strategy. Fuzzy modeling can be used for addressing the uncertainty involved in the solid waste management planning. The fuzzy modeling is having definite advantage while addressing to the uncertainties involved in the waste quantities and the capacity constraints on treatment and disposal facilities. Also this approach is unique due to the fact that it gives a set of alternatives which are close to the optimal solutions rather than suggesting a unique solution as the optimal solution.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH PAPER Development of fuzzy model for Integrated Solid Waste Management System (ISWMS) in Thiruvanathapuram Corporation Validation of the model


A. Profile of Study Area Thiruvananthapuram Corporation has four constituent units. Solid waste management is done in a decentralized manner within these regions. Constituent units considered are Thiruvananthapuram, Kazhakoottam, Vattiyoorkavu, Nemom.

Fig. 1: GIS mapping of flow network

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B. Selection of Planning Period The planning period of present study is considered to be 17 years divided into four periods. Ist Planning Period(P1) : 2013-2015, IInd Planning Period(P2) : 2015-2020 , IIIrd Planning Period(P3) : 2020-2025, IVth Planning Period(P4) : 2025-2030. C. Collection of Data Population data of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation Estimation of environmental risk Environmental risk=Rp x Rf Where Rp=Receptor population, Rf= Risk factor, Risk factor = 10-4 to 10-6 (May, 2005) D. Formulation of Data in Fuzzy Linear Programming Fuzzy inference process comprises of three parts. Fuzzification of the input variables is to take the inputs and determine the degree via membership functions. Application of fuzzy operator and Ruling with fuzzy operator (AND or OR) and IF THEN ruling. Finally defuzzification, which is the conversion of output data in user identifiable form. The problem is subjected to absolute constraints such as mass balance of waste at each node, capacity constraints of the treatment facility, binary constraints considering the capital investment. E. Design of Model in Matlab TABLE I: INPUT DATA FOR FUZZIFICATION No . Name Solid waste quantity (tones) Change in waste quantity Change in capacity of treatment Planning period (years) Notatio n Members hip Functions SWQ1 SWQ2 SWQ3 SWQ4 LOW HIGH LOW GAMM A HIGH P1 P2 P3 P4 Range of Values 0-1250 900-2500 2200-3750 3000-5100 0-0.5 0.5-1 0-0.5 0.5-1 2 5 5 5 Page 3



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The proposed multi-objective, multi-period model was applied to Thiruvanathapuram Corporation to understand the effect of priority to various objectives on waste allocation to various management alternatives and to study the effect of aspiration level of the decision maker to address the uncertainty in waste generation quantities and the capacities of the waste management facilities. Waste treatment and disposal facilities are simulated in a simplified way in the form of point nodes with only input and output being modelled. The internal process in the facilities is not being modelled in the present study.

TABLE II: OUTPUT DATA FOR DEFUZIFICATION No. Name Total cost (Crores)) Environmenta l risk Treatment plant (TONES) Treatment plant (TONES) Treatment plant (TONES) Treatment plant (TONES) Treatment plant (TONES) Treatment plant (TONES) Notati on TC Members hip Functions LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH MI Range of Values 0-300 250-750 650-1000 0-250 220-660 640-1000 0-150 125-275 275-500 0-150 125-275 275-500 0-150 125-275 275-500 0-375 300-375 625-1000 0-375 300-375 625-1000 24


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A. Choice of Technology The high moisture content, low calorific value, substantially high contents of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in MSW samples indicate that the vegetative fractions of wastes are more suitable for composting to organic manure after separating the reusable and recyclable fractions. The proposition of RDF and pyrolysis & gasification as potential methods for MSW treatment is high, subjected to detailed techno-economic feasibility and sustainability analysis. B. Population and Corresponding Waste Quantity Generation The estimated populations for various constituencies are analyzed. In this study, future quantities of waste generation are estimated based on population forecast and waste generation factor. Per capita average waste generation in Thiruvananthapuram is taken as 0.350 kg/day.

SWQ=PR where P = Population, R = Percapita waste generation, Per capita waste generation=350g

Fig. 2 (a): Solid waste quantity analysis

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Fig. 2 (b): Solid waste quantity analysis

Fig. 2 (c): Solid waste quantity analysis

Fig. 2 (d): Solid waste quantity analysis C. Environmental Risk Analysis The total risk to environment is computed by multiplying the risk factor (10-4) with receptor population in the region.

Fig. 3: Environmental risk analysis SUGGESTIONS & CONCLUSIONS The fuzzy multi-period planning for solid waste management is especially relevant in case of rapidly growing urban centers of developing countries due to great possibility of fluctuating parameters. The multi-period planning model can be a very helpful tool for the decision makers especially for addressing locationallocation problem of waste disposal facilities with fluctuating input parameters. The modeling results could be suitably interpreted for taking an appropriate decision from the set of close to optimal alternatives. Further, the model simulations can give Environment Observer Page 6

valuable information for analyzing the existing waste-management practices, the long-term capacity planning for the citys waste-management system, and the identification of effective policies regarding waste minimization and appropriate management options. It was observed that uncertainty in waste quantity will affect the planning for waste treatment and disposal facilities more as compared with the uncertainty in the capacities of the waste management facilities. The relationship between increase in waste quantity and increase in the total cost/risk involved in waste management is found to be nonlinear. Therefore, it is possible that a marginal change in waste quantity could increase the total cost/risk substantially. The information obtained from the analysis of modeling results can be effectively used for understanding the effect of changing the priorities and objectives of planning decisions on facility selections and waste diversions.


[1]Amitabh Kumar Srivastava a, Arvind K. Nema(2012). Fuzzy Parametric Programming Model for Multi-objective Integrated Solid Waste Management under Uncertainty [2]Chanas, S. (1983). The Use of Fuzzy Parametric Programming in Fuzzy Linear Programming. [3]Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 11, 243251 [4]Ministry of Environment (1999). Environmental Risk of Municipal Non Hazardaous Landfilling and Incineration. Technical Report Summary. Standards Development Branch, Environmental Sciences and Standards Division, Ontario Ministry of the Environment. [5]Mufeed Sharholy, Kafeel Ahmad, Gauhar Mahmood, R.C. Trivedi (2008), Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities [6]Moy, P. (2005). A Health Risk Comparison of Landfill Disposal and Waste to Energy (WTE) Treatment of Municipal Solid Wastes in New York City. MPH thesis, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University.

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Coconut Builds Up Sustainable Structure

Anju Mary Ealias[1], Rajeena A P[2], Sivadutt S[3], Asst. Prof Life John[4]
[1] [2] [3]

B.Tech students, [4] Assistant Professor

Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, CUSAT University e-mail Id:

Abstract: For the environmental and economical benefit, this study focus on generating product using agricultural waste to develop an alternative construction material that will lessen the social and environmental issues. Coconut shell is one of the main contributors of pollution problem as a solid waste. Wastes generated by industrial and agricultural processes have created disposal and management problems which pose serious challenges to efforts towards environmental conservation. The use of coconut shells as partial replacement for conventional aggregates should be encouraged sustainable and environmentally friendly construction material. Concrete using coconut shell aggregates results an acceptable strength required for structural concrete. Consider the suitability of using coconut shells and fiber as substitute for aggregates in developing concrete hollow blocks. This study also determines the suitability of coconut shell ash for use in partial replacement of cement in concrete. Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used as cheap and durable non-structural elements. The use of coconut fibres for the production of board material has a number of advantages; it is a good alternative to wood and helps to prevent deforestation. In addition, there is a trend to produce lightweight and economically profitable materials in building construction field. Usage of natural material has the double advantage of reduction in the cost of construction material and also as a means of disposal of wastes. Key Words: Coconut shell, coconut fibres

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Introduction: The study of coconut shell and coconut fibres as a substitute for construction material is another way of using the gifts of coconut tree. The study of coconut shell and fibres will not only provide new material for construction but also will help the preservation of the environment and can also help the economy. Coconut has a total production of 54 billion nuts per annum in more than 86 countries worldwide. India occupies the premier position in the world with an annual production of 13 billion nuts. Coconut shell accounts for more than 60% of the domestic waste volume. Coconut shell, which is an abundantly available agricultural waste from local coconut industries, presents serious disposal problems for local environment. These wastes can be used as potential material or replacement material in the construction industry. Utilization of coconut shell and fibres as building materials will be an important step to improve sustainability. Objectives: To discuss the use of coconut shells as partial replacement for conventional aggregates. To discuss the suitability of using coconut shells and fiber as substitute for aggregates in developing concrete hollow blocks. To discuss the suitability of coconut shell ash as partial replacement of cement in concrete production. To discuss the use of coconut fibres reinforced composites. To discuss the use of coconut fibres for the production of board material.

Research Methodology: The present study is based on the data adopted by various researchers and published in journals. The result of study by the authors on fibre reinforced concrete with partial replacement of coarse aggregate is also presented here. Use of coconut shell as partial replacement for conventional aggregate Various studies was conducted to investigate the properties of concrete using coconut shells as replacement for coarse aggregate and to assess the potential use of coconut shell concrete as a structural material as well as contribute to knowledge on the use of waste materials in construction. Environment Observer Page 9

The utilization of coconut shell as partial replacement of coarse aggregate will gained importance in the development of light weight concrete. The properties of coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete is examined and the use of coconut shell aggregate in construction is analyzed. Water absorption and moisture content values are comparable to conventional aggregate. Coconut shell exhibit more resistance against abrasion, crushing and impact compared to conventional aggregate. Density of coconut shell is within the range of 550 650 kg/m3 and these are in the specified limits for lightweight aggregate. It is not necessary to treat the coconut shell before use as an aggregate except for water absorption test. The presence of sugar content in the coconut shell, as it is not in a free sugar form, does not affect the strength and setting of concrete. But, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete reduced with increasing percentage of coconut shell replacement. The optimum content of coconut shell for replacement is found to be 10% 20%. From the results, use of coconut shell aggregate concrete as structural lightweight concrete is recommended for low cost constructions. Coconut shell aggregate is a potential construction material and simultaneously reduces the environmental problem of solid waste. As a part of our project, examine the suitability of replacing coconut shell as coarse aggregate for plain concrete and coir reinforced concrete. Coarse aggregate replaced by 10% coconut shell gave more compressive strength than coarse aggregate replaced by 10% coconut shell and 3% coir by the weight of cement. pH test result shows that the concrete remains in alkaline nature. Addition of coconut shell and coir increases the water absorption property. Electrical resistivity is comparable with conventional concrete. Suitability of Using Coconut Shells and Fiber as Substitute for Aggregates in Developing Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB) The main aim of this study to bring out the importance of use of natural products as building material and to find the technical specification of concrete hollow block using coconut shell and fibre as aggregates in order to contribute to the industry in saving the environment and to sustain good product performance. A conventional concrete hollow block was compared to concrete hollow blocks with coconut shells and fibres of the same proportions. Some of the interesting insights of the study are:

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Coconut shells and fibres are applicable as partial substitute as coarse aggregates for concrete hollow blocks. The good indicators of coconut shell and fibres quality as aggregate of concrete hollow blocks are particles, texture and shape, resistance to absorption, crushing and surface moisture, grading, resistance to heating and freezing and light-weight.

Coconut shells and coconut fibres are classified as miscellaneous material used for wall panels and partitions. Physical properties: CHB with coconut and fibres is much darker in color, it have density of 1213.59 kg/m while commercial CHB has a density of 1529 kg/m. Mechanical properties: compressive strength of CHB with coconut and fibres in 28 days of age reached a load capacity 65 KN to 84.99 KN and a stress capacity 3.16 MPa to 4.13 MPa. The average modulus of rupture is 0.40 MPa. The average modulus of elasticity is 2740 MPa. CHB with coconut shell sand fibres have greater modulus of elasticity, lesser moisture content and water absorption than the commercial CHB. Also it can resist freezing gained a large value of load and resist in high degree of temperature.

Suitability of Coconut Shell Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete Production The cost of cement used in concrete works is on the increase and unaffordable, thus the need to find alternative binding materials that can be used solely or in partial replacement of cement. One of the agricultural waste material, coconut shells are collected and burnt in the open air (uncontrolled combustion) for three hours to produce coconut shell ash (CSA), which in turn was used as pozzolana in partial replacement of cement in concrete production. The studies showed that the density of concrete cubes for 10-15% replacement was above 2400 Kg/m3. The average density decrease from 2525.5 Kg/m for OPC to 2314 Kg/m at 30% replacement. The density of cement is higher than that of the CSA. The compressive strength meets the requirement for use in both heavy weight and light weight concreting. CSA meets the requirement for a pozzolana. The setting times increases with increase in the amount of CSA. The initial setting time increases from 1 hr 5 min at 0% replacement to 3 hrs 26 min at 30% replacement while the final setting time increases from 1 hr 26 min at 0% replacement to 4 hrs 22 min at 30% replacement. The pozzolanic activity index decreases with increasing percentage replacement of OPC with CSA. The compressive strength decreases with increasing percentage Environment Observer Page 11
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replacement of OPC with CSA. The optimal 28 days strength for OPC-CSA mix is recorded at 10% replacement is 31.78 N/mm . Use of Coconut Fibres Reinforced Composites Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used as cheap and durable non-structural elements. Coconut fibres are reported as most ductile and energy absorbent material. Coconut fibres have the potential to be used in composites for different purposes. In order to acquire knowledge for designing low-cost safe housing in earthquake prone regions, the basic dynamic features of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC) structural members is investigated. Natural coir fibres having a length of 7.5 cm and a fibre content of 3 % by weight of cement are used to prepare CFRC beams. Coconut rope having a tensile strength of 7.8 MPa and diameter of 1 cm is added as the main reinforcement. The workability of CFRC is a major problem because of the presence of fibres. Damping of cracked CFRC beams increases when the natural frequency decreases. CFRC with coir rope rebars has the potential to be used as main structural members due to its increased damping and ductility. Pouring CFRC into formwork requires special attention, especially to maintain constant cover for the rope. The bearing capacity of CFRC beams with different rope diameters and the effect of knots at different locations along the length of beams are significant. The Use of Coconut Fibres for the Production of Board Material The board material that is made from coconut husk can be used in different areas such as wallboards, frames. Use of coir fibres aimed to prove the feasibility of a new technically efficient and financially competitive method for the production of environmentally safe and high performance construction materials. The potential of the application of a specific technology for the production of high quality coir fibre boards by making use of the specific chemical composition of the coir fibre in particular its high content of lignin. After separation from the coconut, the husk is refined to small particles and short fibres using a simple technique by dry hammer milling, which yields suitable material for conversion into boards by hot pressing. The obtained boards show very good mechanical properties comparable to those of commercial medium density fibreboard (MDF). The thickness, swelling and water absorption of the coconut husk board is lower than for MDF. The density of the Environment Observer Page 12

coconut husk boards (1.3 1.4 g/cm3) is higher than for commercial MDF. The very good performance of the boards produced in this way opens many possibilities for the development of cheap and strong building materials. Suggestions & Conclusions: The study of coconut shell and fibres will not only provide new material for construction but also will help the preservation of the environment and can also help the economy. Using of alternative materials in place of natural aggregate in concrete production makes concrete as sustainable and environmentally friendly construction material. The concrete using coconut shell aggregates satisfies the minimum requirements of concrete. Hollow block using coconut shell and coconut fibers as aggregates in order to contribute to the industry in saving the environment and to sustain good product performance and meet recycling goals. The optimum level of portland cement replacement with coconut shell ash that will still give required compressive strength which meets the requirement for use in both heavy weight and light weight concreting. Coconut fibres reinforced composites have been used as cheap and durable non-structural elements, which is suitable for low-cost safe housing in earthquake prone regions The use of coconut husks for the production of board material method is sustainable and environmentally friendly. It is a good alternative to wood. References:
Daniel Yaw Osei. (2013), Experimental assessment on coconut shells as aggregate in concrete, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, Vol. 2, Issue 5, pp. 07-11. Maninder Kaur, Manpreet Kaur. (2012), A Review on Utilization of Coconut Shell as Coarse Aggregates in Mass Concrete, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 7 Issue 11. Tomas Ucol, Ganiron Jr. (2013), Recycling of Waste Coconut Shells as Substitute for Aggregates in Mix Proportioning of Concrete Hollow Blocks, Wseas Transactions on Environment and Developmen t, Vol. 9, Issue 4, pp. 290-300. Utsev J. T, Taku J. K. (2012), Coconut Shell Ash as Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement in Concrete Production, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research Vol. 1, Issue 8, pp. 86-89. Majid Ali.(2010), Coconut Fibre A Versatile Material and its Applications in Engineering, Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials & Technologies .

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Economical Utilization of Coir Fibre Dust as Soil Admixture

Sanah Rose Sony1, Life John2
1. B.Tech Student, Deprtment of Civil Engineering, TIST 2. Asst. Prof., Deprtment of Civil Engineering, TIST

Abstract Scientists are now focusing more on the use of natural fibres such as bagasse, coir, sisal, jute etc. due to increasing concerns about global warming and depleting petroleum reserves. This has resulted in creation of more awareness about the use of natural fibres based materials mainly composites. Coir Pith, a by-product of the coir industry was initially considered as a waste product. It was leading to pollution problems even causing to fire hazards. It was also causing problems because of its slow decomposition rate.But those exact problems of coir pith can be turned into its advantage. Coir pith, an organic matter, has an excellent water retaining ability which can be put to use in the agriculture industry. Agricultural wastes like coir pith can be used to prepare fibre reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. Composted coir pith has been found to be immensely useful in crop production and compensates for the lack of nutrients in raw coir pith.

In places where water source is scarce, irrigation water can be saved by mixing coir pith in the soil. Not only will it retain enormous quantity of the water supplied, its fibrous nature also provides enough aeration for better root development. Its slow decomposition rate will ensure that it does not have to be replaced frequently thereby reducing cost. Its abundant availability will also ensure its good performance.
Key Words:Coir Pith, Waste Management, Water Conservation.

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Introduction India is one of the leading countries of the world in the cultivation and production of coconuts. In India, particularly from the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and the Union Territories, annually around 14,000 million coconuts are being produced. Coconut, the fruit of cocosnucifers, is largely used for its kernel which a raw material for oil. The spongy pericarp (husk) which is left as a byproduct during the exploitation of coconuts serves as raw material for coir fibre. Coir Pith is the elastic cellular cork like pithy material which forms the non-fibrous tissue of the husk. 50-60% of the total weight of the husk is accounted by this pith. It is extracted from husk either by retting or mechanical methods. In India, around 0.5 million tonnes of coir pith is being produced annually. As the demand for coir and its products is slowly decreasing, other profitable markets have to be found for it. The existing coir industry can be brought to a higher level by the development of new coir products. Environmental Hazards caused by Coir Pith Coir industries are facing great difficulties in the disposal of coir pith. Very often coir pith is heaped as mounds on the way side. Large quantities of coir pith thus stored causes contamination of potable groundwater due to percolation of leachates containing residual phenol from these dumps especially during rainy season. It also acts as an ideal breeding ground for rodents and insects. Coir pith is easily blown by wind due to its light weight thereby creating air pollution. In comparison to other waste materials such as saw dust, rice husk and groundnut shell, coir pith is found to have a higher heat value. Due to its poor combustion properties, high levels of carbon dioxide and smoke are released from coir pith while burning. It also has a very slow decomposition rate. Coir Pith as a Soil Admixture Nowadays, the exact disadvantages of coir pith can be turned into its advantages. Coir Pith has many beneficial characteristics which after proper composting can be used in agriculture as a potentially productive resource. It is also known as coco peat as composted and stabilized coir pith resembles peat and has characteristics similar to that of the most commonly used rooting medium in horticulture, sphagnum peat. It has high moisture retention capacity and it is capable of retaining large amounts of nitrogen and other nutrients.

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Even though all these properties make it an ideal material for use as soil amendment and rooting medium for soil-less plant culture, direct use of raw coir pith is not recommended due to its high C : N ratio and lignin content. Agricultural use of untreated coir pith could lead to microbial immobilization of soil nitrogen and subsequent nitrogen deficiency in plants. But these shortcomings of fresh coir pith can be managed if it is used after composting process.

It can be used as substitute for peat, because it is free of bacteria and most fungal spores, and is sustainably produced without the environmental damage caused by peat mining.Mixed with sand, compost and fertilizer, it makes a good quality potting soil. Coir pith generally has an acidity in the range of pH - 5.5 to 6.5. It is a little on the acidic side for some plants, but many popular plants can tolerate this pH range. Its slow decomposition rate is another factor that been a major advantage for the agriculture and irrigation industry. It would not require any maintenance and only has to be renewed in very long intervals. In places of water scarcity, it helps in irrigation water conservation by improving soil field capacity. In addition to holding water, its fibrous nature will ensure that it holds enough air for the healthy development of the plant and its root. Quality of coir pith is an important issue. With trials, it has been found out that the airiness of coir pith is one of the main factors for a successful crop development in the substrate. But physical conditions can differ. As these conditions are decisive for the airiness of the coir pith it is important to know the facts.

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Airiness of coir pith will be more or less either by coarseness or by age of the material. The older the coir pith the finer it will be. Finer coir pith is less aired and can contain more water than coarse material. While some crops demand a huge amount of water, other crops need a high airiness. Therefore it is important to know the material to start the growth with. Future uses of Coir Pith Low cost, easy availability, low density, acceptable specific properties, ease of separation, biodegradability and recyclable nature of natural fibre has gained it attention as a reinforcement in composites. Agricultural wastes like coir pith can be used for preparing fibre reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. There is a wide scope of commercial utilization of coir and coir dust, either on their own or in combination with other raw materials, to make products like mat and matting, twine and rope, particle board, fertilizer, rubberized coir and applications such as upholstery cushioning, pad and carpet underlay. Coir pith blocks have now found a unique purpose in the aviation sector and its effectiveness is under close evaluation both by the National Institute of Technology and the National Airports Authority of India particularly in table top runways to avert accidents. The process involves filling coir pith blocks around runway edges to provide a cushioning effect for aircrafts in the event of it overshooting the runway.

Coir Pith Blocks Environment Observer Page 17

Conclusion Sunlight, air, water and nutrients are the basic requirements for healthy plant growth. Coir pith is an excellent potting medium and soil conditioner applicable to agricultural crops and an ideal substitute for peat. Soil is mostly unsuitable for production of plants in containers due to the absence of physical properties like aeration, drainage and water holding capacity. Coir pith is a multi-purpose growing medium that provides new opportunities for potting plants production. The fertile growth of plants during the summer season, in dry lands and also at the time of deficiency of minerals in the soil can be avoided using coir pith products. The uses of coir pith are increasing day by day. The way coir pith the waste product was converted into coir pith the multi-tasking material is truly impressive. Following in the path of this example, hopefully more and more waste material will be put to use and help emphasise the importance of the three Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. On our journey to a greener and healthier world, it is necessary to make use of and cherish the various natural and extraordinary things that the good earth provides us. Sustainability should be made maximum use of to remind us of the fact that us that we did not inherit this world from our ancestors, rather we borrowed it from our children. References: Joseph, M. A Study on the Water Retention Characteristics of Soils and its Improvement, A Thesis. 2010. Krishnamoorthi, V.V, Subramanion, K.S, Selvakumar, G and Chinna swami, K.N. Influence of composted coir pith in red soil with sunflower, Proceedings of \Seminar on Utilization of Coir Pith in Agriculture, 20 November at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. pp 159162.1991. Rajarathnam, S and Shashirekha, M. N. Bioconversion and biotransformation of coir pith for economic production of Pleurotusflorida: chemical and biochemical changes in coir pith during the mushroom growth and fructification, World journal of Microbiology and biotechnology, Vol. 23, pp 1107 to 1114.2007.

Ronald Ross. P, Paramanandham. J, Thenmozhi. P, Abbiramy. K. S, and Muthulingam. M. Determination of Physico-Chemical Properties of Coir Pith in relation to particle size suitable for potting medium, International Journal of Research in Environmental ScienceandTechnology, ISSN 2249 9695.

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Waste Foot Printing For Waste Management The Need Of The Hour
Athira Ravi1, Subha V.2
Research Scholar, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, India e-mail 2 Associate Professor, Division of Civil Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, e-mail id:

Abstract: Throughout the time, the amount of waste generated by humans was not worth mentioning due to low population density and low societal levels of the consumption of natural resources. Common waste produced during pre modern era was mainly ashes and human waste, and these were released back into the ground locally, with least environmental impact. Following the onset of industrialization and the sustained urban growth of large population centers, the buildup of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life. The streets became choked with rubbish due to the lack of waste clearance regulations. A lot of solutions arose like land filling, composting, incineration, pyrolisis etc. for handling the problem. But all of these either had an environmental impact or a public protest. There are two aspects for this waste management challenge. One is the social mind set and the second is the technology application. What is happening today is the introduction of new and new techniques for disposal without controlling the social mind set. We are paying electricity bill, water bill, security charge, land tax, income tax etc. Why cant we pay a waste bill based on the impact on environment from the amount of waste generated or have a strict politic decision restricting the quantity of impact of waste on environment or rewards for lower waste impacts? Waste foot printing is one such technique which quantifies the impact of waste generated by an individual. With proper waste foot printing and an apt political decision will solve the waste management problems in the urban and rural areas to a great extend. This paper gives an overview of the waste foot print, methods for calculating the waste foot print especially that of solid waste and some simple ways to reduce the foot print. Key Words: Waste management, Waste foot print Environment Observer Page 19

Introduction: Urbanisation is the movement of people from rural to urban areas. The urbanization trend nowadays and the modern life style have increased the waste load on the earth and thereby polluting the urban environment to uncontrollable and dreadful limits. The existing land fill sites and waste dumping sites are full beyond capacity and under unhygienic conditions leading to pollution of water sources, proliferation of vectors of communicable diseases, foul smell and odors, release of toxic chemicals, unaesthetic feel and ambience etc (R.Varma).In earlier days, municipal wastes, comprised mainly of biodegradable matter, did not create much problem to the community as the quantity of wastes generated was either recycled/reused directly as manure or was within the assimilative capacity of the local environment (R.Varma).The biodegradable wastes of the urban centres were accepted by the suburban rural areas for bio composting in the agricultural areas. With increasing content of plastics and non-biodegradable packaging materials, municipal wastes became increasingly offensive to the farmers and cultivators. As a result, the excessive accumulation of solid wastes in the urban environment poses serious threat not only to the urban areas but also to the rural areas. Now, dealing with waste, is a major challenge in many of the local bodies or government. There are two aspects to the challenge, the social mind set and technology application (R.Varma).The social mind set is a very important aspect to be considered in this challenge. People are having the notion that the government is the authority to dispose whatever waste they are generating. This is very pathetic situation. Only the generators can manage waste. Though there are campaigns and awareness programmes to reduce the waste generation and source reduction, it is very hard to maintain the enthusiasm after the campaigns. In these circumstances we have to think of an alternative which is to be enforced by laws or rewards to reduce the amount of waste generation. A system, which gives the waste impact on earth quantified, just as we take the current bill, water bill etc and an amount to be paid based on the quantity, should be imagined. Or on the other hand the waste generators which are causing low impact should be rewarded or appreciated. There should be clear cut limit for this quantified value based on the locality we live in and its biocapacity to assimilate the waste. Waste foot printing is one such tool which can reach these goals to some extent. This paper gives an introduction to the waste footprint, methodology for its calculation and the ways for reducing the waste footprint. Environment Observer Page 20

Waste foot print: By the waste footprint or the ecological footprint of waste generation, the measurement of biologically productive land like fossil, energy land, forest land, pasture land, built up area etc, to assimilate the generated waste is meant (B.Lexington,2007) Waste footprint can provide the per capita land requirements for waste generation. By calculating the waste footprint, the local authority can determine the land required to assimilate the waste generated in present and future, selection of disposal site and disposal site characteristics, the land fill site design and the importance of recycling of different waste categories in order to reduce the footprint (M. Salequzzaman ,2006). Methodology for calculating the waste foot print: This section explains the calculation of foot print especially the solid waste footprint. In
calculating the ecological footprint for household waste generation, methodology to assess the household ecological footprint, developed by M. Wackernagel et al. can be used. The methodology utilizes the resource consumption and waste generation categories and the land use categories for those consumption and waste generation (M. Salequzzaman ,2006). The land use categories are summarized as (M. Salequzzaman ,2006). Energy Land: The area of forest that would be required to absorb the CO2 emissions resulting from that individuals energy consumption. Crop Land: The area of cropland required to produce the crops that the individual consumes. Pasture Land: The area of grazing land required to produce the necessary animal products. Forest Land: The area of forest required to produce the wood and paper. Sea Space: The area of sea required to produce the marine fish and seafood. Built Area: The area of land required to accommodate housing and infrastructure. To calculate the ecological footprint of waste generation, the generated waste is categorized as paper, plastic, glass, metal and organic waste. The biologically productive land required for this waste generation is calculated by equations and is as follows (M. Salequzzaman ,2006).

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A. Biologically productive land required for paper

( ( )

( )

Where, The energy yield (assumed to be average fossil fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj / 10000 m2-year. Energy intensity of paper is 35 Mj/kg. Waste factor is the percentage of paper consumed.

( ( )

( )

Where, World average yield of round wood is 10000/2.6 m3/hectare. Ratio of round wood needed per unit paper is 1.65/1000. Waste factor is the percentage of paper consumed.

( ) ( )
Where, Energy land required for paper waste get from equation no. (1) Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2. World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare. World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare. Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5 B. Biologically productive land required for plastic

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( ) ( )

Where, The energy yield (assumed to be average fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj/ 10000 m2-year. Energy intensity of plastic is 50 Mj/kg

( ) ( )
Where, Energy land required for plastic waste get from equation no. (4) Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2. World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare. World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare. Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5 C. Biologically productive land required for glass

( ) ( )
Where, The energy yield (assumed to be average fossil fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj / 10000 m2-year. Energy intensity of glass is 15 Mj/kg

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( ) ( )
Where, Energy land required for glass waste get from equation no.(6) Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2. World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare. World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare. Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5

D. Biologically productive land required for metal

( ) ( )
Where, The energy yield (assumed to be average fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj / 10000 m2-year. Energy intensity of metal is 60 Mj/kg

( ) ( )
Where, Energy land required for metal waste get from equation no. (8) Built up land footprint component of waste is 1100m2. World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare. World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare. Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5 E. Biologically productive land required for organic waste (food)

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( ( )

( )

Where, The energy yield (assumed to be average fossil fuel = liquid fossil fuel) is 73000 Mj / 10000 m2-year. Energy intensity of organic waste is 30 Mj/kg The amount of recycling of organic waste is equal to the amount of composting Energy saved from the recycling of organic waste is determined by the following way (M.

Salequzzaman ,2006).
1. Calculating the amount of biogas from the organic waste. 2. Calculating the energy production from that biogas. 3. Calculating the percentage of energy getting from organic waste. 4. 1) Biogas production The amount of biogas (X) generated from total areas is calculated from the relation:

( ( )

) ( )

II) Energy production The expected amount of energy from biogas in total areas is

( )

III) Percentage of energy saved from organic waste

( ) (
Where, Energy land required for organic waste get from equation no. (10)

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World average fossil fuel area of goods is 1324 hectare. World average fossil fuel area of waste is 1196 hectare. Primary biomass equivalence factor for built up area is 3.5 F. Obtaining the total footprint for waste generation The sum of the total land required for different waste categories the biologically productive land required for waste assimilation can be obtained, which means the ecological footprint of waste generation.

Ways to reduce the waste foot print: The section points outs some simple ways to reduce the waste foot print (G. Matthew,1994). Purchase products which require less packaging and materials. Use reusable bags rather than plastic bags. Buy things only to our need Stick on to environment friendly products Reduce Reuse Recycle. Recycle all material possible. Avoid use of disposables and individually wrapped single servings. Compost the food and organic waste. Create awareness among people Dispose the waste generated at the source itself rather than carry to distant places for disposal.

Conclusion: Nowadays the greed among the various manufacturing companies and inconsistent demands of the consumer have given way to turning a blind eye to the environment destruction due to waste disposal we bare down upon our finite planet. Moreover people are having a tendency to purchase things not according to the demand. They are not bothered about the waste generation from their own houses and work places. But rather they blame the authorities for not disposing these wastes. The authorities can give a technical solution to disposal. But the actual problem settles or comes under control when we consider where the waste comes from and not simply where it is going. That is, we individuals have to change our mind set. Individuals or households or enterprises should calculate the amount of waste generation and their impact on the Environment Observer Page 26

environment. And this must be compared with the biocapacity of our location in which we lives to assimilate the per capita waste generation. The waste foot printing technique is such a quantitative tool which can assess the individual impact of earth due to the waste generation. Taxation based on waste footprint, or incentives for low waste foot print or restricting the maximum allowable waste footprint in a location by proper regulations, can reduce the waste management problems to a great extend. References:
R. Ajayakumar Varma, Technology options for treatment of municipal solid waste with special reference to Kerala Available online /workshop/techno_2. pdf. B.Lexington (2007) Waste Footprint: Introduction, Available online /2007 /12/ waste footprint-introduction/ M. Salequzzaman (2006). Ecological Footprint of Waste Generation: A Sustainable Tool for Solid Waste Management of Khulna City Corporation of Bangladesh Environmental Science Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh. G. Matthew (1994). Recycling and the Politics of Urban Waste. Earthscan Publications, London

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A Review On Bioreactor Landfills

Hema M1, S Usha2, Lija M Paul3
UG Student, SNGCE, Kadayiruppu. 2 Professor, SNGCE, Kadayiruppu. 3 Associate Professor, SNGCE, Kadayiruppu. email ID :

ABSTRACT Land filling is the most common means of disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), especially in foreign countries. Bioreactor landfills are MSW landfills that provide favourable conditions for microbes to biologically stabilize waste within a relatively short period of time. This is done by leachate recirculation, introduction of additional moisture and enhancing other factor that promote bioactivity. Stabilization occurs in 5 to 10 years as compared to 30 to 100 years in a conventional landfill. During stabilization, waste mass is lost through the production of landfill gas. The resulting landfill mass, consisting of non biodegradable waste (metal, plastic, glass) as well as residual biodegradable materials, will settle, decreasing volume of placed material. Based on waste biodegradation mechanisms, different kinds of bioreactor landfills including anaerobic bioreactors, anaerobic bioreactors and aerobic-anaerobic bioreactors have been constructed and operated worldwide. In an anaerobic bioreactor landfill, moisture is added to the waste and biodegradation occurs in the absence of oxygen and enhances rates of methane production as a biogas fuel. An aerobic bioreactor landfill addition of air and moisture to help promote aerobic activity and waste production. The hybrid technique utilizes both aerobic and anaerobic methods to accelerate waste degradation. The design of bioreactor landfills requires a careful assessment of several engineering issues such as leachate/moisture distribution, waste degradation and gas generation, waste settlement and stability of waste slopes. 1. INTRODUCTION The generation of solid waste has become an increasingly important global issue over the last decade due to the escalating growth in world population and large increase in waste production. This increase in solid waste generation poses numerous questions regarding the Environment Observer Page 28

adequacy of conventional waste management systems and their environmental effects. Landfill disposal is the most commonly used waste management method worldwide. A bioreactor landfill is a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that uses enhanced biochemical processes to transform and stabilize the decomposable organic waste within a short period of time, i.e. typically 5 to 10 years, as compared to the long time, typically 30 to 100 years, required for conventional or 'dry tomb' landfills. Landfill stabilization means that the measurable environmental parameters such as landfill gas constitution, leachate composition etc, remain at steady levels. Based on the biodegradation process, the bioreactor landfills can be classified as anaerobic, aerobic, hybrid and facultative. Bioreactor features may be incorporated into any new landfill design. 2. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL TYPES 2.1. Anaerobic Bioreactor The Anaerobic Bioreactor seeks to accelerate the degradation of waste by optimizing conditions for anaerobic bacteria. In these landfills, a collection of anaerobic bacteria are responsible for the conversion of organic wastes into organic acids and ultimately into methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic conditions develop naturally in nearly all landfills without any intervention. The waste in typical landfills contains between 10 and 25 percent water. Generally, to optimize anaerobic degradation, 35 to 40 percent moisture is required. Moisture is typically added in the form of leachate through a variety of delivery systems. However, the amount of leachate produced at many sites is insufficient to achieve optimal moisture conditions in the waste. Additional sources of moisture such as sewage sludge, storm water, and other nonhazardous liquid wastes may therefore be necessary to increase the leachate available for recirculation. As the moisture content of the waste approaches optimal levels, the rate of waste degradation increases, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of landfill gas produced. Also observed is an increase in the density of the waste. While the rate of gas production in an anaerobic bioreactor can be twice as high as a normal landfill, the duration of gas production is significantly shorter. Because of this accelerated production, gas collection systems at bioreactor landfills must be capable of handling a higher peak volume but need do so for a shorter period of time. 2.2. Aerobic Bioreactor The Aerobic Bioreactor seeks to accelerate waste degradation by optimizing conditions for aerobes. Aerobes are organisms that require oxygen for cellular respiration. Aerobes require Environment Observer Page 29

sufficient water to function just as anaerobes do. However, aerobic organisms can grow more quickly than anaerobes because aerobic respiration is more efficient at generating energy. So, the aerobic degradation can proceed faster than anaerobic degradation. In landfills aerobic activity is promoted through injection of air or oxygen into the waste mass. It is also possible to apply a vacuum to the waste mass and pull air in through a permeable cap. Liquids are typically added through leachate recirculation, with the need for additional sources of moisture even more acute than for anaerobic reactors. The aerobic process does not generate methane. 2.3. Facultative Bioreactor The Facultative Bioreactor combines conventional anaerobic degradation with a mechanism for controlling the high ammonia concentrations that may develop when liquids are added to the landfill. In this system leachate containing elevated levels of ammonia is treated using the biological process of nitrification. The nitrification process converts the ammonia in the leachate to nitrate. The treated leachate is then added to the landfill. Here certain microorganisms including the facultative bacteria can use the nitrate in the absence of oxygen for respiration. This process, called denitrification, can result in the production of nitrogen gas (N2), which effectively removes nitrogen from the system. As with other forms of bioreactor landfills, the facultative bioreactor requires adequate moisture levels to function optimally 3. LANDFILL LEACHATE Leachate is a liquid that has percolated through solid waste and has extracted, dissolved and suspended materials that may include potentially harmful substances. The quantity of leachate seeping from the landfill is proportional to the buildup of leachate within the landfill, alternatively known as leachate mould. It can cause serious problems it can lead to contamination of soil, ground water and surface water if not properly treated. An effective method for the treatment of the leachate is to collect and re-circulate the leachate through the landfill. This increases the landfill's moisture content, which in turn increases the rate of biological degradation of landfill, the biological stability of the landfill and the rate of methane recovery from the landfill. During leachate re-circulation, the leachate is returned to a lined landfill for reinfiltration into the municipal solid waste. This is considered as a method of leachate control because, as the leachate continues to flow through the landfill, it is treated through biological

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process, precipitation and absorption. The different methods of leachate introduction are direct application, spray irrigation, infiltration ponds, subsurface trenches or wells. 4. TECHNOLOGIES OF ENHANCING DEGRADATION Stabilization means that the environmental performance measurement parameters (LFG composition, generation rate and leachate constituent concentrations) remain at steady levels and should not increase in the event of any partial system failures beyond 5 to 10 years of bioreactor process implementation. The effects of the following technologies are evaluated according to these aspects. 4.1. Leachate Re-circulation And Moisture Control Moisture control, including moisture content and movement is essential for landfill operation. Through leachate re-circulation, liquid movement distributes the inocula, minimizes local shortages of nutrients, provides better contact between insoluble substances, soluble nutrients and the microorganisms, dilutes potential toxins and transfers heat. 4.2. Inocula Addition Municipal sewage sludge, animal manure, septic tank sludge and old MSW have been recommended as potential inocula. The addition of sludge to MSW have both positive and negative effects in biodegradation. Leachate re-circulation with pH control and sludge seeding enhances biological stabilization of organic pollutants in the leachate and increases the biogas generation rates over a span of few months rather than years. 4.3. Particle Size The waste shredding could lead to rapid oxygen utilization, increase rate of waste decomposition and lead to early methane production. MSW shredding to particle size in the range of 250 to350 mm produced 32% more methane after 90 days than MSW with 100 to 150 mm particle sizes; and 100 to 150 mm particle sizes produced 16 times as much methane as a finely shredded MSW of less than 25 mm particle size. 4.4. Temperature Control Optimum higher temperatures results in faster rates of gas production and refuse stabilization. In conventional landfills without leachate re-circulation, stabilization occurs at 2530 degrees, whereas in bioreactor landfill, leachate re-circulation increases the temperature and stabilization occurs at35-40 degrees.

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4.5 Lift Design MSW is usually disposed off in 2 or 3 lifts with or without daily covers. Increased MSW compaction reduces the ease with which moisture can move through the waste. Application of daily or intermediate cover of low permeability can lead to horizontal movement of leachate and potential for leachate ponding or side seeps. Hence, though a lift design without a daily cover is suggested, in an actual bioreactor landfill, daily cover is used to improve the access to the landfill, reduce blowing away of waste, reduce odours, reduce the health risks and reduce the potential for landfill fires. 5. WASTE SETTLEMENT After MSW is disposed of in the landfills, the thickness of the waste layer decreases with time because of the biodegradation process. The waste composition and the biodegradation process has great variations throughout the entire mass of the landfill. Hence the landfill settlement follows a non-uniform pattern. Differential settlement of the waste can cause great devastation to ant structure erected on the landfill . It can also lead to problems such as surface ponding, development of cracks and failure of cover system, including tearing of geomembrane and damage of gas collection and drainage pipe. Hence the ability to predict settlement becomes a key issue in the design and construction of landfills. Soil consolidation theory alone cannot be employed for settlement analysis as the biodegradation processes are critical factors affecting landfill settlement. Theoretically, waste decomposition can cause settlement in the order of 30 to 40% of the original landfill depth, and on an average, settlement of about 15 to 20% of the original landfill depth is expected due to waste decomposition. 6. SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS Waste stability is a critical component of bioreactor design. The addition of significant amounts of liquids increases the total weight of the waste mass and affects the structural characteristics of the waste mass. The addition of liquids adds weight to the waste mass but does not contribute to increased shear strength. During liquid recirculation, pore pressures and fluid volumes decrease and waste shear strength changes should be accounted for in the design. Selected shear strength values are needed for the waste, liner system interfaces and subgrade. These values are significant for calculating the factor of safety against failure since they ultimately represent the stabilizing forces of the landfill.

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7. ADVANTAGES OF BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS Enhance the LFG generation rates. Leachate quality and environmental impact. Production of end product that does not need land filling. Overall reduction of landfilling cost. Reduction in leachate treatment capital and operating cost. Reduction in the post closure care and maintenance. Overall reduction of the contaminating life span of landfill.

8. CONCLUSIONS Bioreactor landfills are MSW landfills that provide favourable conditions for microbes to biologically stabilize waste within a relatively short period of time. During stabilization, waste mass is lost through the production of landfill gas. The resulting landfill mass, consisting of non biodegradable waste (metal, plastic, glass) as well as residual biodegradable materials, will settle, decreasing volume of placed material. Leachate re-circulation, inocula addition, control on particle size, proper lift design and temperature control can lead to more rapid waste decomposition, stabilization and settlement. Waste settlement analysis is very critical for the design and operation of bioreactor landfills. The stability of the slopes also plays an important role in the design of bioreactor landfills. The main advantages of the bioreactor landfills include proper treatment of leachate, enhancing the gas production and accelerated waste stabilization. There are some limitations to this technology. The re-circulation of leachate increases the water head on the bottom liner which may enhance the leakage of leachate. Also, the addition of air in aerobic bioreactors increases the chances of fire compared to the conventional landfills, these require more construction and operation costs. There are currently more than three thousand bioreactors in the United States. As compared to many developed countries, the concept of bioreactor landfill operation is still relatively very new to India. Currently, Delhi has a bioreactor landfill that has a capacity of 6000 tons per day 9. REFERENCES
1. Krishna R Reddy (2006), "Geotechnical Aspects Of Bioreactor Landfills", Geoindex, pp79-94. 2. M.Wraith, X.Li and H.Jin (2005), "Bioreactor Landfills: State-Of-The-Art Review", Emirates Journal For Engineering Research, Vol. 10(I), pp 1-14. 3. M.A.Wraith (2003), "Solid Waste Management: New Trends In Landfill Design", Emirates Journal For Engineering Research, Vol. 8(I), pp 61-70.

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Polymer Sponge Assisted Bacterial Digestion method for Municipal Solid Waste Management
Geevarghese George
B. Tech Student, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, CUSAT, Cochin e-mail Id:

Abstract: The major contribution to Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) in India is from Plastics and Organic materials. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate. Organic materials may take up to three weeks for degradation and Plastics may take up to one million years (data from National Solid Waste Association of India). There is no direct process that helps in biological degradation of these waste materials, especially the volume of plastic waste produced such as PET bottles and PE carry bags, when it comes to waste management. This led to the research on biological mechanisms using easily cultivatable bacteria as an aid to biodegrade both polymers and organic materials. The research involves the cultivation of several colonies of bacteria capable of digesting polymers and organic waste; the development of a single/combination of biodegradable polymer system capable of providing required conditions for the growth of the microbes. This system aims to aid the biodegradation of approximately 70% of the total Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) composition in India. This research method

involves the use of a patented technology for the manufacture of micro-pored polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based thin (micro between scale) the sponge outer layers, which and acts the as isolated the medium of separation which the




degradation takes place. Plastic Eating microbes, were developed by a group of 12th grade Environment Observer Page 34

students at Magee Secondary School, British Columbia in 2013. The mechanisms followed by the Plastic Eating microbes were studied and the conditions for growth of the latter type of microbes were provided within the system, which degrades waste contained in the system.
Key Words: Biopolymers, PVA, pHEMA, plastic eating bacteria, waste management,

water absorption, water retraction.


Microorganisms are microscopic organisms of single celled or multi celled structure including bacteria, algae, and fungi. The only microorganism that we are interested in this research paper is a class of microbe called bacteria. They may be defined as a kingdom of prokaryotic microorganisms, i.e. microorganisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus, they are considered vital in recycling nutrients, putrification etc, in short they help sustain life! They are found to inhabit in soil, water, radioactive wastes, plants and animals, they can survive even at the deepest part of earths oceans the Marina Trench. Bacteria may be again classified into Aerobic- that requires oxygen for growth - or Anaerobic-that does not require oxygen for growth- types. These bacterial types are considered capable of degrading both polymers and organic materials by enzyme attack at the chemical bonds, which is utilized in this research. An anaerobic bacterium needs an oxygen scarce environment for their growth and propagation. This may be done in laboratories using Glove box technique in a reducing

medium. But, this research involves the use of a method similar to anaerobic microbial growth used in landfills. In this research, a certain class of aerobic/anaerobic bacteria is cultivated in a system to aid the degradation of major contributors to MSW. The major misconception among environmentalists is that polymer/plastic products are the main contributors to environmental pollution. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that only 13% of the MSW is from plastic products and 60% from organic wastes. It is still unclear to many that plastics can be of Biodegradable or Non-Biodegradable types depending on the degradability of the polymer.

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This research introduces a new technique which makes use of industrial quality biodegradable plastic sponge and predetermined classes of bacterium together to degrade all plastics branded as non-biodegradable. The plastic sponge layer used in this method functions as a water absorber as well as a water retention medium, while providing an environment for the growth of bacteria in it. Biodegradable polymers used to manufacture the sponges break down and lose their initial integrity, depending on the surrounding environment in which the polymer is placed at. They ate considered non-toxic, capable of maintaining good mechanical integrity until degraded, and capable of controlled rates of degradation. These polymers are normally synthesized by ring opening polymerization, while leaving provision for biomedical engineers to tailor the polymer for slow degradation. A typical waste management system in a low- or middle-income country like India includes the following elements: Waste generation and storage Segregation, reuse, and recycling at the household level Primary waste collection and transport to a transfer station or community bin Street sweeping and cleansing of public places Management of the transfer station or community bin Secondary collection and transport to the waste disposal site Waste disposal in landfills.

Open dumping is the most widely practiced method for waste disposal. It can be defined as a land disposal site at which solid wastes are disposed of in a manner that pollute the environment, are susceptible to open burning, and are exposed to the elements, vectors, and scavengers. These practices pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on health and on the environment, which calls for the need of a technologically advanced waste management system for a sustainable future. Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To develop a low cost, customer end product that helps in bacteria aided Environment Observer Page 36

biodegradation. 2. To reduce the complications associated with conventional degradation processes. 3. To develop a new method to minimize the adverse effects on health or the environment due to MSWs. Research Methodology: The concept was developed from scratch with the guidance of our Departmental Head, the required system properties and materials to be used came from previous knowledge from our bachelors courseware and online theoretical literatures. Implementation and Processes Involved: Mechanism of Polymer Degradation: Generally, the adherence of microorganisms on the surface of the plastics followed by the colonization of the exposed surface is the major mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of plastics. The enzymatic attack takes place in the next step - the catalyzation of the hydrolytic cleavage of the polymer substrate degradation into low molecular weight oligomers, dimers and monomers and finally mineralized to humus, CO2 and H2O. The system made using the combination of biodegradable polymer sponges that support microbial growth is subjected to a reduced rate of degradation than that of the waste within it, so that microbial enzymatic action can take place effectively. This new bacteria-based degradation process converts plastic fed into the system to PHA (Polyhydroxyalkanoates) which is easily degradable by known classes of bacteria by the above said mechanism. Occurrence and Screening of Polymer-degrading Microorganisms: The occurrence and biodiversity of polymer degrading microorganisms vary depending on the environment, such as soil, sea, compost, activated sludge, etc.) The clear zone method with agar plates is a widely used technique for screening polymer degraders and analyzing their degradation potential towards a particular polymer. Degradation proceeds by the excretion of enzymes by the microorganisms, which diffuse through the polymer and degrade the polymer into water soluble Environment Observer Page 37

materials. This forms halo zones around the microbial colonies, and confirms the degradation capability of the microbe. It has been reported that 39 bacterial strains of the classes Firmicutes and Proteobacteria can degrade the polymers used to prepare the sponge layers. Anaerobically generated agents such as Ralstonia eutropha, Halomonas or Aerobically generated agents such as Pseudomonas or Azotobacter or Acinetobacter can be cultivated in the system, which facilitates degradation of both plastic and organic wastes in a single enclosed system. Acinetobacter is known to degrade low molecular weight PE based products efficiently over time, while the mechanism for degrading high molecular weight PE products requires further study. Requirements for Bacterial Digestion of Plastics: When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of biodegradability should not just be based on their chemical structure, but also on the basis of their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallanity, storage modulus etc). Regarding microbial and their enzymatic degradation, we will discuss them from two sides: one aspect is based on microbial (enzyme) characteristics and the other is on characteristics of plastics. Microbial characteristics imply distribution and kinds of microorganisms, as well as their growth conditions (such as pH, temperature, moisture content, oxygen, nutrients, etc) and the types of enzymes (intercellular and extracellular enzyme, exo- or endocleavage types.) When a plastic is characterized, their chemical properties, physical properties, both primary and higher order structures should be considered. The surface conditions (surface area, hydrophobic properties) of plastics also influence the biodegradation of plastics by the microbial and enzymatic process Materials for Polymer Sponge System: Water retention and water absorption properties of the polymer sponge helps in the cultivation of bacteria within the capsule. These properties cant be achieved together in a single polymer so right blends of biodegradable polymer concentrations are required for the preparation of the capsule. Environment Observer Page 38

Poly-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA) reinforced with Cloisite (montmorillonite based layered clay) is prepared using in-situ polymerization technique using a patented mechanism. Along with high water retention properties provided by pHEMA, Cloisite adds excellent recyclability, modulus, flame resistance, lower density, and high clarity to the reinforced nanocomposite.

PolyHEMA is found to have high hydrophobicity, but due to the hydrophilic pendant groups it has the tendency to swell and gives high water retention (up to 600%)! A secondary biodegradable polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), is used to form the outer layer of the sponge, which improves water absorbability. Together, pHEMA and PVA performs the task of absorbing and holding the water within the

system to support microbial growth. Product Manufacture, Working and Commercialization: Micro-pored pHEMA reinforced with Cloisite is prepared as a thin sheet and PVA is made to deposit on the surface of pHEMA-Cloisite nanocomposite.

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(Deposition of PVA on pHEMA-Cloisite)

(After Deposition)

It is then taken out of the production line and joined at one end, keeping the other end open for incorporating an air tight sealing mechanism. The product is made available at an estimated market price of Rs 25 for XXXL polymer sponges (Industrial use), Rs 2 for L polymer sponges (Household use) and Rs 1 for S polymer sponges. Waste filled polymer sponges may be picked up from households/industries through government agents on a weekly basis and deposited at a common pit. It is not essential that it should be collected, provided that individuals live in apartments with nearby pits to dump the filled polymer sponge and to ensure proper water.

After collection, it is then subjected to water treatment during dry seasons to make possible the growth of microorganisms in the capsule. Water is absorbed by the sponge through its micropored surface, and facilitates microbial growth.

The intelligent biodegradable polymer system is compounded/modified in such a way that its surface begins to degrade once the MSW in the capsule has reached 80% of the total estimated degradation time. Estimate is calculated on the basis of the size of the volume of the waste and type/mixture of MSW inside the capsule. Scope for this technique can be outlined as follows: Current mechanisms used for waste management involves the concept of reduction at source i.e. reduced consumption of materials and products, followed by direct re-use; Disposal by landfills, that wastes valuable resources both material and energy, and increases the solid waste in the Environment Observer Page 40

environment; and Recycling, that sits somewhere between the latter two methods, whose environmental benefits exceeds the benefits. All these calls for a smart remedial technology, better than all the three mechanisms outlined above. Other material specific processes have also been developed in recent years, which require high capital investment and separate complicated waste segregation procedures. Plastics from different sources may be polluted with organic effluents and require further ancillary systems for cleaning and drying steps. They may also have similar densities which make it more difficult to separate, especially if they are not labeled at source. All these processes involve high cost. Recycling mechanisms used involves a separate step of separation and identification of the polymer and this is done at the consumer end, which may not be reliable always; using chemical identification methods for separation is found to be expensive. Future Developments: Reduction in the rate of polymer sponge degradation to survive several degradation cycles of the MSW. Pretreatment of MSW prior to filling the volume inside the polymer sponge may be used to improve the capability of the microorganisms generated to degrade polymers with no sites for attack, Eg: Polyethylene. Pretreatment may also be used to reduce degradation cycle times. The time required for degradation of the encapsulated MSW can be reduced by the use of other techniques such as light induced or thermo oxidative degradation or modification of MSW chemically prior to encapsulation of the waste. Suggestions & Conclusions: The main advantage of using polymer sponge assisted bacterial digestion method for municipal solid waste management is that

The degradation time can be reduced exponentially compared to the landfill method.

Cost benefits are much higher compared to conventional processes such as incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, hydrogenation etc.

No harmful emissions unlike in the case of incinerators or landfills. Page 41

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No separate identification step is required Process is fast and not labor intensive. No problems encountered if polymers are of same densities or together in a mix.

Clear cut and simple technology.

References: Polymers, the Environment and Sustainable Development, Mcgill Publications Plastics in Environment, by Antony L Andrady Biodegradable Plastics, journal NCBI Waste Composition National Solid Waste Association of India (NSWAI), Plastic Eaters TED Talks, Cultivation of Microbes Isolation of polyethylene plastic degrading-bacteria, Bio Sciences Journal Landfills SAGE Journals, How Stuff Works Environmental Microbes used as plastic eaters Wikipedia, University of Maryland-Lab Instruction Manuals, Wiki How,

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Solid Kitchen Waste Management in the High Ranges

An Experience in Collaboration with Local Self Government Department Anoob Sebastian
Dept. of Civil Engineering Govt. Engineering College Idukki Idukki, Kerala, India e-mail Id:

Abhilash Suryan
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Govt. Engineering College Idukki Idukki, Kerala, India e-mail Id:

Abstract: Food waste is a huge problem globally. The suitable approaches in the management of waste differ between regions. The present paper shares the experience in collaboration between a local self government institution and an academic institution in efficiently managing kitchen waste in the high range region. The pipe compost method was selected as the means of converting the waste into useful manure. The system was installed in 450 households and the feedback from most of the benefactors has been positive and encouraging. Key Words: Kitchen Waste, Pipe Compost, Solid Waste, Manure, Cow Dung, Jaggery Solution.

Introduction: Waste management and disposal is a serious issue requiring urgent attention of not only the administrators but also researchers. Centralized waste disposal had proven to be impractical and unsuccessful in regions with high population density. There is strong opposition to dumping of accumulated waste in many places across Kerala. Dumping of waste in public places, roadsides, rivers and lakes is making serious dents in our track record on public health. Thus effective and efficient disposal of waste is a major concern of authorities as well as responsible citizens. The high range regions require particular attention because of the environmental fragility and the proximity to precious water sources. The present paper discusses the experience of collaboration between an Institution (Government Engineering College Idukki) and a Local Self Government Environment Observer Page 43

Department (Vazhathoppu Grama Panchayath, Idukki) in decentralized disposal of waste generated in the kitchens of households, institution canteens and hotels in the High Range region. Christened Waste is Wealth, the project proposed a method for proper disposal of the solid waste generated in kitchens by converting it into an organic fertilizer at the source itself. The manure generated can be used in the vegetable gardens in the households. The pipe compost method is adopted for the purpose because of the ease of implementation and the low costs involved. The project was implemented in 450 households in Ward 5 of the Panchayat. The project also served to create awareness among the people and the students about the consequences of solid waste pollution in the high range region. Geometry and Details of Equipment:

Fig. 1. Geometry and dimensions of pipe and installation

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The project is simple to implement and is not very expensive. Only two PVC pipes of length 125cm and 20cm diameter are required for a single house. The details and dimensions of the pipes are shown in Fig. 1 Installation and Operation: Two ditches having depth 30cm and diameter 50cm are dug at a distance of about 15cm apart and the pipes are fixed in them. Inclined slits of 5cm width and 45o inclination are cut at the bottom of the pipe to facilitate proper drainage of water from the waste. The pipe is placed centrally in the ditch. The portion of the ditch around the pipe is then filled with broken stones or pebbles. This will facilitate drainage as well as to keep the rats away from the pipe. The pipes are stuck in a foot-deep trench. It should never be covered tightly. Air circulation is necessary for turning the waste into manure that can be taken out by pulling the pipe out of the trench and pushing out the contents.

Fig. 2. Installation of the pipes pipe

Fig. 3. Pouring of kitchen waste into the

Initially only one of the pipes is filled with kitchen waste. Care must be taken to filter out plastics, paper and clothes from the waste. Initially, 400 ml cow-dung solution (or jaggery solution) should be poured into the pipe before putting degradable throwaways such as vegetable waste, fish waste, and leftover food items into the pipe on a daily basis. After one week, the solution should be poured into the pipe again so as to expedite the bacterial decomposition process. The first pipe gets completely filled in a months time. After the first pipe gets Environment Observer Page 45

completely filled, next pipe can be used. Before the second pipe is getting filled, i.e. in about two months, contents of the first pipe will be converted into a good organic fertilizer. The contents may be transferred out of the pipe. The pipe may be reinstalled in the ditch again. The two pipes should always be kept closed to prevent entry of rain water or any other material without our knowledge. Presence of water can adversely affect the process. Bacteria cannot act when there is high water content. Most of the kitchen waste has a good amount of water. Hence water or anything else in liquid form should not be poured into the pipes. The waste gets decomposed only when there is air circulation in the pipes, and the water content remains not more than 50 per cent. For example only the solid waste from fish curry should be deposited in the pipe after separating it from the water contained in it. Special care is taken to install the pipes in soil where proper drainage of water is possible. Rocky places where water might accumulate are avoided. Large solid waste should be cut into smaller pieces before depositing in the pipe. Waste materials such as coconut shells, egg shells, and peels of orange and lemon should be avoided.

Result and Discussion:

Fig. 4. Results

The pipe compost installations were erected in 450 households under the Vazhathoppu Grama Panchayat. After the prescribed period of two months all the households were revisited and the installations were inspected. Feedbacks were collected from the users.

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The result of the project is illustrated in Fig. 4. About 320 users reported that the waste was successfully converted into manure. The process was nearing completion in about 80 houses. The project was reported as a failure in below 50 installations only. In majority of houses where the project reported unsuccessful, it was observed that they had not properly followed the guidelines. Conclusions: A scheme for solid waste management meeting the specific requirements of the high ranges was selected and implemented in the Vazhathoppu Grama Panchayat of Idukki District in Kerala. The project was implemented by collaboration between the Panchayat and the NSS Unit of Govt. Engineering College Idukki. After the prescribed period the sites were inspected and feedbacks collected from the users. Based on the results of the feedbacks the project is a success and the pipe compost method can be extended to other high altitude regions to manage the solid kitchen waste. The project also served the purpose of creating awareness among the people and the students about efficiently managing the waste. Further studies are going on for improving the present system. Acknowledgement: The project had received financial grant from the Vazhathoppu Grama Panchayat, Idukki District, Kerala. Authors express their sense of gratitude to the President and the elected representatives and the officials of Vazhathoppu Grama Panchayat, Idukki and the NSS unit of Govt. Engineering College,Idukki.

References: R. A. Varma, Status of Municipal Solid Waste Generation in Kerala and their Characteristics. R. A. Varma, Technology Options for Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste with Special Reference to Kerala. A Majumder, Rural Solid Waste Management, Issues and Action

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An Environmentally Sound Method For Organic Degradation

Ranjini D S*, Meera Menon, Prof. Lathi Karthi# *PG Students, #Prof. Department of Civil Engineering
TIST, KERALA Email Id:* #

Abstract: Waste can be considered as wealth when properly managed. Improper management of waste is one of the main hindrances of sustainable urban development in India. Thickly populated land areas of urban region restrict the degradation of biodegradable waste similar to that of non biodegradable waste. In a state like Kerala the fragmented landholding possesses serious threat in waste disposal. The disposal of organic wastes from the household, butcher house and hotels and bakery in public roads, rivers, water bodies etc. is considered as an easy method of waste disposal by common people. Conventional methods of disposal of garbage like burning, incineration, landfill, anaerobic composting are hazardous as they produce smoke, carbon dioxide or leech into soil thereby contaminating both soil and ground water. For sustainable urban development alternative techniques replacing conventional ones are appreciated for increasing the efficiency of waste management. A breakthrough for usual method was sort out by the introduction of a new ecofriendly model named Thumburmuzhi Model Aerobic Composting Technique (TMACT). It helps in aerobic composting of biodegradable waste, containing high concentration of nitrogen and can be considered as a new pathway for effective organic waste management in Kerala. Since aerobic method is used, waste degradation occurs instead of waste decay which helps in preventing foul smell and growth of health hazard bacteria. This method of aerobic composting also suits the agro climatic condition of Kerala. The end product of degradation is organic manure which can be used in fields turning the non valuable waste into wealth. In this paper the detailed working of the model used in the study of Thumburmuzhi model shall be dealt with. Keywords: Waste Management, Garbage, Organic Waste, Aerobic Composting, Sustainable Urban Development Environment Observer Page 48

Introduction: The state of Kerala has been categorised as agro climatic by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Due to these prevailing climatic conditions, there exists much difficult situation in handling the non green livestock waste. This non green livestock waste may include mainly kitchen waste, hotel & restaurant waste, butcher house waste, waste from fishery enterprises etc. The difficulty in handling the non green livestock waste along with the periodic monsoon in Kerala has caused a great menace in keeping our Gods own country greener. In our state due to lack of enforcement of legal amendments for proper waste disposal methods the waste management has become an easy task by dumping or disposing them along the road side or water bodies. These mishandling of waste causes air, water and land pollution which could affect the public health. Disposal options include land filling, incineration, ocean disposal and composting. Among these methods, composting produces a marketable end product which can be used as manure. This process decreases the weight, volume and water content of waste and kills pathogens. In such a context waste management in an eco friendly manner becomes the vital need of the hour. Aerobic composting is one such method that could be suggested in our land. Hence, the importance of Thumburmuzhi model using aerobic composting is an effective solution for organic waste decomposition in the state of Kerala. Aerobic composting: Composting is an organised method of producing organic manure by the decomposition of organic waste. Compost is particularly useful as organic manure which contains plant nutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium) as well as micro nutrients which can be utilized for the growth of plants. Composting can be carried out in two ways i.e., aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic composting aerobic micro-organisms oxidise organic compounds to Carbon dioxide, Nitrite and Nitrate. Carbon from organic compounds is used as a source of energy while nitrogen is recycled. Due to exothermic reaction, temperature of the mass rises. In anaerobic decomposition only very small amount of energy is released during the process and the temperature of composting mass does not increase much. The gases evolved are mainly Methane and Carbon dioxide. In addition to the advantage of better odour control, the aerobic composting

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releases more energy with higher temperatures and better drying. Approximately 20 times more energy is released under aerobic conditions than under anaerobic conditions. Thumburmuzhy Model: The Thumboormuzhi Model Aerobic Composting Technique (TMACT) was developed by Francis Xavier, Professor at Thumboormuzhi Cattle Breeding Farm of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Wayand, Pookod. The research was done in Research Farm of Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur and in nearby housing units and farmers yard. The region of Kerala which has agro climatic conditions as stated by ICAR was used as the base for climatic index. Apparatus setup: The following 4 models were chosen for the study of TMACT Wooden bin of 6ft x 6 ft x 6 ft dimension Wooden container model with 2ft x 2ft x 2ft dimension Precast Ferro cement tank of 4ft x 4ft x 4ft dimension Concrete brick tank with air holed side

The models were kept close to farm building for observations. Layering technique: In all the above 4 models the layering of waste was similar. The ambient temperature required for the decomposition of waste is 30 0 C to 35 0 C and humidity required is 70% to 75%. Fresh cow dung in 6 inch thickness was layered would act as bacterial consortium for aerobic composting process. Above this, another 6 inch thickness dry leaves or straw was layered as a source of carbon which aids the growth of bacterial consortium in the form of heat energy. Then the bin is filled with organic waste and kept aside for decomposition. Curing time: Once the installations were filled as mentioned above, they were left undisturbed for curing. The filled installations were cured for a period of 90 days (3 months) irrespective of the periodic climatic conditions in Kerala.

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Compost testing: The Compost after being properly mixed and sampled were tested in the Radiotracer laboratory and other agronomic laboratories of Kerala Agricultural University. Observations: The Ferro cement model provided ease in assembling, dismantling and fixing at location. The brick model (Fig 1) and the wooden bins (Fig 2) even though cheaper have some disadvantages. The wooden bins were not found durable in the open environment as it was susceptible to termite attack and self decay especially in monsoon period. The brick models were permanently fixed type and had the disadvantage in handling and required additional masonry work. In brick installation the handling of feeder materials and taking out of compost required breaking of walls which were labour intensive and also expensive.

Fig 1: Brick Model

Fig 2: Wooden Bin

Another observation noticed was that as the size of bin increased beyond 4 ft x 4 ft x 4 ft there existed a state of non passage of air into the core area which resulted in anaerobic condition. In accordance with the climatic conditions of Kerala with an average ambient temperature of 28 to 32o C, relative humidity of 70 to 80 % and wind speed of 4 to 5 km/hr, precast ferro cement bin of size 4 ft x 4ft x 4ft with airspace and grooves, was found to be working well in all climatic zones utilising the bacterial consortium from cow dung and carbon source from dry leaves, hay, straw and dry paper bits. To prevent the entry of rain water during monsoon temporary roofing was provided. Due to the action of bacterial consortium on organic waste a core temperature of 70o C was obtained inside the bin which prevented the growth of pathogens, breeding of flies and parasites. This temperature had a self limiting cycle after the composting process was over. Environment Observer Page 51

Thus the ferrocement model of size 4 ft x 4 ft x 4 ft was chosen as Thumburmuzhy Model. It contained four pillars with grooves on lateral and medial sides so that it can be easily erected and dismantled (Fig 3). The side bars are 4 cm wide and can be locked in position through the grooves on the four corner stands (Fig 4). The model requires an initial installation amount of Rs. 10,000.

Fig 3: Ferro cement Thumburmuzhy model

Fig 4: Ferro cement corner pillars and side bars dismantled

Temperature dependency across the state: The rate of decomposition of waste was found highly dependent on temperature. It was the major factor which assisted the bacterial consortium to flourish. After reaching the peak temperature of 65 - 70o C, the temperature level retarded to below 40oc and marked the onset of cooling phase. The study on average curing time required for the complete decomposition of waste in Kerala was done by experimenting the model, in district with minimum average temperature and maximum average temperature. In Wayanad where the average ambient temperature is 28oc, it was found that the curing time during monsoon period of Thumburmuzhy compost bin has exceeded upto 120 days. In Trissur and Trivandrum districts during summer season the holding and curing time was found lowered and got the compost within 50 days time. Hence the Thumburmuzhy model was fixed for a curing time of 90 days as an average holding time after analysing the results from various districts. TEST RESULTS Table below illustrates the test result of composition of samples tested in the Radio tracer laboratory of Kerala Agricultural University.

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Test results of sample Type of bin Ferrocement Thumburmuzhy model Wooden bin Concrete Brick model Moisture 7.54 4.56 6.37 pH 6.5 7.1 6.9 N% 1.96 1.68 2.10 P% 0.45 0.70 0.60 K% 0.30 0.35 0.32

Depending on the type of livestock waste the variation in nitrogen level was obtained. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen was 20 to 30 : 1. The percentage of moisture content in compost mixture was lowered to 50 to 60 percentage. The weight of organic waste was reduced to 1/3rd of its initial weight in Thumburmuzhy compost bin within 90 days of time. The ideal pH required for better microbial degradation should be between 6.5 to 8 and that of finished compost should be between 6.8 and 8.9. The pH of compost in Thumburmuzhy model was recorded on an average between 6.5- 7.1 which was in line with the above recommended range. Conclusion: The aerobic composting of organic waste has gained acceptance as an alternative to land filling and incineration. The waste management crisis in the State has already emerged as a single major development issue. Thus alternative ecofriendly and economically affordable models are essential for the sustainable development and a clean environment. From the literature reviews, it was studied that composts are currently utilized in various engineering applications such as landscaping, erosion control and land reclamation. References: Francis, X. (2011). Farm Harms- Living with livestock and withering waste. Key Note address. Procd. National Symposium on Waste Management- Experiences and Strategies,Thrissur, Kerala. India ,30. Mufeed, S., Kafeel A., Gauhar M. and Trivedi, R.C. (2008). Municipal solid waste managem ent in Indian cities A review. Science Direct, Waste Management, 28, 459467.

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Sustainable Waste Management

Priyadarsi Das
B TECH (CIVIL ENGINEERING), GATE, ODISHA IGBC AP Waste has been dealt with through various techniques since it took its origin in an uncontrollable quantity. The immediate solution was minimization of waste. This answer was of course luxurious for a very short span of time. Soon the problem we found out was that minimization of waste lead to severe other problems along the side track. This was no proper way to deal with the issue. With the passage of time man found out a greener way to deal with waste. This method can be called as Sustainable Waste Management. The 3R concept found out has helped us to solve the problem in an eco-friendly way and this is indeed the only practical way that should be applied in this field. Reduce the generation of waste at the very point of origin; reuse the portion of waste that can be put to further use and recycle the proportion of waste for subsequent creation of products is indeed the ultimate and most efficient technique that can hit back the problem effectively.

INTRODUCTION: The term waste refers to unwanted materials which have met their estimated life span and need to be disposed. In the earlier period, up to the time when the amount of waste generated was insignificant, the waste had to undergo disposal in its own natural ways. With the massive growth of urbanization and industrialization, man found the use of various materials in diverse ways thus producing waste in terms of tons. As a result of this, there was no alternative left other than finding a proper technique to channelize the waste produced, failing which the further progress of mankind would have been hampered severely. The process sketched for controlling of this waste started right from the source of its production and lasted up to the time when it would be completely disposed off with minimal effects on health and environment. This entire process is termed as WASTE MANAGEMENT. The following pyramid illustrates the various stages of waste management process according to their order:

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Over 160,000 Metric Tons (MT) of municipal solid waste is generated daily in the country. Per capita waste generation in cities varies from 0.2 kg to 0.6 kg per day depending upon the size of population. This is estimated to increase at 1.33% annually. The total waste quantity generated by the year 2047 is estimated to be about 260 million tons per year. It is estimated that if the waste is not disposed off in a more systematic manner, more than 1,400 km2 of land, which is equivalent to the size of city of Delhi, would be required in the country by the year 2047 for its disposal. The Indian industrial sector generates an estimated 100 million tons/year of non-hazardous solid wastes, with coal ash from thermal power stations accounting for more than 70 million tons/year. Over 8 million tons/year of hazardous waste is generated in India. About 60% of these wastes, i.e., 4.8 million tons/year is estimated to be recyclable and the remaining 3.2 million tons/year is non-recyclable. A key development in waste management is the focus on preventing the production of waste through waste minimization and the re-use of waste materials through recycling. Thus we have to deal with procurement issues, where careful selection of materials, suppliers, process redesign for disassembly and reverse logistics can all reduce the amount of wastes produced or facilitate recycling and re-use. Environment Observer Page 55

TYPES OF WASTES: The various types of wastes can be broadly classified into the following order:












Its the waste that requires a waste management license for treatment, transfer and disposal. The main exempt categories comprise mine, quarry and farm wastes. UNCONTROLLED WASTE:

Uncontrolled waste is a group of waste types that do not fall into either the controlled, special or hazardous waste categories. HOUSEHOLD:

It includes waste from household collection rounds, waste from services such as street sweeping, bulky waste collection, hazardous household waste collection, litter collections, household clinical waste collection and separate garden waste collection, waste from civic amenity sites and wastes separately collected for recycling or composting through bring/drop off schemes and at civic amenity sites. INDUSTRIAL:

Waste from any factory and from any premises occupied by an industry (excluding mines and quarries). COMMERCIAL:

Waste arising from any premises which are used wholly or mainly for trade, business, sport recreation or entertainment, excluding municipal and industrial waste. CLINICAL:

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Its waste consisting wholly or partly of human or animal tissue, blood or other body fluids, excretions, drugs or other pharmaceutical products, swabs or dressings, or syringes, needles or other sharp instruments, being waste which, unless rendered safe, may prove hazardous to any person coming into contact with it; and any waste arising from medical, nursing, dental, veterinary, pharmaceutical or similar practices, investigation, treatment, care, teaching or research, or the collection of blood for transfusion, being waste which may cause infection to any person coming into contact with it. AGRICULTURAL:

Agricultural waste therefore includes a range of waste streams that originate from agricultural or horticultural establishments, for example, agricultural plastics and packaging waste, empty pesticide containers, clinical waste, tires, old machinery and oil. RADIOACTIVE:

Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material. Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment. EXPLOSIVE:

Explosive waste includes any device or material which either is chemically or otherwise energetically unstable, which can produce a sudden expansion of the material and is accompanied by the production of heat or a large change in pressure. Explosive waste includes, but is not limited to, fireworks, commercial explosives, military explosives, homemade explosive devices, small and large ammunition and pressurized gas vessels, and cylinders.





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Business types that frequently use disposable products, such as paper cups and plastic bags, are either restrained from the extensive use of such products or are prohibited from giving them out to costumers for free. For example, the use of disposable cups, plates, bowls (synthetic resins, foil), chopsticks, toothpicks, and plastic tablecloths can be restricted in restaurants and cafeterias. In large shops and in wholesale and retail stores, the provision of disposable bags free of charge can be prohibited. PREVENTING PACKAGING WASTE GENERATION: Reduction of unnecessary packaging materials wasted during transport, storage, handling, and usage can be done. Packaging materials are intended to be replaced with recyclable environmentally friendly materials, as well as packaging instructions (packaging dimensions and packing sequence) that reduce the use of packaging materials. FOOD WASTE REDUCTION:

More than 95% of food waste can be recycled. Businesses can voluntarily run quality certification and damage compensation programs for the purpose of food waste reduction. WASTE CHARGE POLICY: This is the polluter pays principle, the policy obliges the manufacturers and importers of products, materials, and containers that may be hazardous or are difficult to recycle and they have to share the cost of processing the waste.

These are the results that can be achieved by increasing public awareness on garbage separation and by actively collaborating with manufacturers and recyclers for an improved separate disposal system, expanded and advanced recycling facilities, and compulsory recycling scheme.

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REUSE If you can't prevent waste, you can try to get the most out of it by reusing items or giving them to someone else that can reuse them. Reuse means using items as many times as possible, which helps to save resources. For example you can take your unwanted items to local charity shops to be reused by others. REUSE MOBILE PHONE BATTERIES AND TONER CARTRIDGES Mobile phone batteries and toner cartridges can be collected locally and refurbished for reuse. REUSE PLASTIC BAGS AND BOXES Plastic bags and boxes can often be reused for carrying shopping and other items. Why not try and remember to use your bags and boxes again the next time you go shopping? REUSE RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Rechargeable batteries are available from most major electrical stores. These batteries can be recharged and reused numerous times and are good for frequently used appliances. REUSE FURNITURE AND WHITE GOODS A number of organizations collect furniture and white goods items such as Microwaves, Electric Cookers, Sofas & Armchairs, Towels, Crockery, Cutlery, Pots and Pans, Cooking Utensils, Electric Kettles, Basins, pails, dustpans and brushes.



This is an effective recycling system for throwaway electronic appliances and cell phones. Manufacturers and importers of 10 kinds of electronic appliances, including TVs, refrigerators, and washing machines, must abide by the law, which restricts the content of 6 hazardous chemicals including lead, mercury, and cadmium when designing and manufacturing their Environment Observer Page 59

products. In addition, they must modify product designs and material quality to improve recyclability, and must collect and recycle more than a certain percentage of the total amounted released. Manufacturers and importers should provide useful information concerning the material composition of their products and dismantling methods to recyclers. SCRAP AUTOMOBILES RECYCLING:

Automobile manufacturers and importers have to abide by the regulations that limit the content of 4 hazardous chemicals, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, when designing and manufacturing automobiles. Recycling methods and standards appropriate for each step in processing scrap automobiles, including handling scrap automobiles and recycling automobile parts should foster environmentally friendly recycling. In particular, scrapped automobile parts such as anti-freeze solution, which may cause changes in climate and the eco-system, should not be recycled. CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING:

Construction waste can be processed in an environmentally friendly manner. In particular, since asphalt concrete waste can be recycled as a resource with high added value relatively easily, the separation, storage and reuse of asphalt concrete waste to increase the recycling rate to above 50%, corporate and private contractors working on public constructions can use a certain amount of the recycled concrete during the time of construction. RESOURCE RECYCLABILITY EVALUATION:

In order to restrain waste generation and resource consumption, and to reduce the burden on the environment by recycling and retrieving energy from waste, and then processing it in an environmentally friendly manner, the material should be checked during the time of manufacture for recyclability. WASTE-TO-ENERGY: o Facility Expansion and Policy Improvement Converting waste into energy is a powerful solution to the issue of climate change, because it substitutes fossil fuel and restrains methane emissions. Waste-to-energy initiatives, such as the production and development of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) generated from inflammable waste and biogas from organic waste is an attractive solution in the present day scenario. o Low-CO2 Green Village Building Rural farming and fishing communities and small towns have large amounts of potential resources that can be used as energy, including inflammable and organic wastes, forest resources, and by-products from farming and fishing. Environment Observer Page 60


Plastic waste can be processed in the following manner: o We can derive fuel from the plastic waste o Plastic waste can be used for construction of roads o Value added products can be manufactured with improved performance from plastic waste

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Waste is an issue that affects us all. A modernized approach to waste management marks a shift away from thinking about waste as an unwanted burden to seeing it as a valued resource. Sustainability of waste management is the key to providing a continuous and effective service that satisfies the needs of all the stakeholders and end users. Waste management differs for different types of wastes and for wastes in different geographical locations such as urban, rural and hilly areas. While the management of non-hazardous domestic waste is the joint responsibility of the citizens and the local government, the management of commercial, industrial and hazardous waste is the responsibility of the waste generators like commercial establishments, healthcare establishments, industries and the pollution control boards. Sustainable waste management can be achieved through strategic planning, institutional capacity building, fiscal incentives, techno-economically viable technologies, public-private partnerships, community participation and such others.

BIBLIOGRAPHY How to develop a waste management and disposal strategy by CIPS Knowledge Works Being wise with waste: the EUs approach to Waste Management by European Commission Waste management in India by EBTC Environment Observer Page 62

Study on Waste Management in Visakhapatnam using RIAM analysis

V R Sankar Cheela1*, Basil B2, K. Sai Kiran3, N.Sri Harsha3
Assistant Professor, MVGR College of Engineering, Vizianagaram 2 Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 3 Under-Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, MVGR College of Engineering *Author for Correspondence. Tel: +918500897538, E-mail:

Abstract: In the present study, Visakhapatnam dumping yard at marikavalasa was considered as a study area where, municipal solid waste compost yard occupies 95 acres. It is receiving 850-900 tons of waste per day and the height of dump is around 10 15 m above ground level. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation is predicted to be 880 tons/day for the year 2013. Sampling was done in accordance with ASTM D5231-92 ( ASTM 2008). The waste samples were segregated manually onsite with the help of rag pickers present there. Solid waste constitutes 45.75% vegetables & leaves, 6.48% of paper, 4.97% of paper, 6% stone and boulders, 37.32% of ash and fine earth and 3% metal scrap, glass and ceramics. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was conducted through multidisciplinary assessment of the baseline status of the site specific environment for converting open dumping yard into recreational park using RIAM tool. The impact assessment took into consideration the project activities and their interactions with environmental components. Based on the study, secured landfill along with composting was found to be economically, technically and environmentally sustainable.

Keywords: Municipal Solid waste, Environmental Impact Assessment, Sanitary landfill, Composting

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Introduction: Municipal solid waste management in India has been categorized under Item 7(i) as per Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Municipal solid wastes (Management and Handling) rules, 2000 and Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 1991 abet proponents in selecting project sites located in ecologically fragile or Coastal Regions sensibly by considering diverse environmental components into consideration. The setting up of these projects requires an Environmental clearance from the Government of India which is mandated by the EIA notification dated September 14, 2006. Waste disposal is the ultimate phase of the waste management cycle. About 90% of the municipal waste collected by the civic authorities in India is dumped in low-lying areas outside the city/town limits, which have no provision for leachate and gas collection and management. As a result, leachate containing heavy metals finds its way to the underground water, rendering it unfit for drinking. The landfill gas flee into the atmosphere, toting up to greenhouse effect, which otherwise could be used as refuse derived fuel. SWM can be an income generating activity with cost benefits. In the present paper, an attempt was made to understand characteristics of solid waste being generated in the study area and scrutinize a choice of way out available to dispose waste safe and sound recommending the same to reduce distress on developing a policy towards integrated solid waste management. Municipal solid waste of about 42 million metric tonnes is estimated to be generated in Indian cities with a per capita waste generation ranging between 0.2 and 0.6 kg per day which was increased by 1.3% per year due to social, economical and cultural changes. The physical and chemical characteristics examination showed that about 80% of the waste is compostable. Therefore, the improvement of apposite technology for utilization of wastes is essential to curtail adverse impinge on health and environment Study Area Visakhapatnam is also known as City of Destiny, is one of the swiftly emergent metropolitan cities in south India. The city covers the local planning area of 544sq. kms. The Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC) consists of Municipal Corporation of Visakhapatnam, 32 merged villages and Gajuwaka municipality. The population of Environment Observer Page 64

Visakhapatnam as per 2001 census is 9.69 lakhs while that in 2011 is 17.06 lakhs so the growth of population was 79% during 2001 to 2011. The GVMC is concerned with the prime areas of public health, solid waste management including health care waste, sanitation and education. It is active in working with non-governmental and voluntary organizations of all stakeholders in a participatory approach to develop good solid waste management methodologies. Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) The RIAM is tool to analyze the various components and their impacts on each other. The results are presented in both graphically and component wise enabling the end users to analyze and assess the results qualitatively and quantitatively which considerably reduces the time factor in EIA process. Table 1 describes the various assessment criterias considered for the study. TABLE 1: Assessment Criteria Criteria Scale Description Important to national/international interests Important to regional/national interests Important to areas immediately outside the local condition Important only to the local condition No importance Major positive benefit Significant improvement in status quo Improvement in status quo No change/status quo Negative change to status quo Significant negative dis-benefit or change Major dis-benefit or change Permanent

A1: Importance of 4 condition 3 2 1 0 A2: Magnitude of -3 change/effect -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 B1: Permanence 3

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2 1 B2: Reversibility 3 2 1 B3: Cumulative 3 2 1 1. Scoring System

Temporary No change/not applicable Irreversible reversible No change/not applicable Cumulative/synergistic Non-cumulative/single No change/not applicable

The scoring system was adopted based on the multiplicative and additive formulae for various assessment criterias is shown below (A1) X (A2) = AT (B1) + (B2) + (B3) = BT (AT) X (BT) = ES --------- (1) --------- (2) --------- (3)

Where A1, A2 are the individual criteria scores for group A; B1, B2, B3are the individual criteria below scores for group B; AT is the result of multiplication of all group A components scores; BT is the result of summation of all group B components scores; and ES is the environmental score for the condition. The conversion of environmental scores into range bands is shown Table 2. Table 2: Conversion of Environmental Scores to Range Bands Environmental Score +72 To +108 +36 To +71 +19 To +35 +10 To +18 +1 To +9 Environment Observer Range Bands Description of Range Bands +E +D +C +B +A Major Positive Change/Impacts Significant Positive Change/Impacts Moderately Positive Change/Impacts Positive Change/Impacts Slightly Positive Change/Impact Page 66

0 -1 To -9 -10 To -18 -19 To -35 -36 To -71 -72 To -108

N -A -B -C -D -E

No Change/Status Quo/Not Applicable Slightly Negative Change/Impacts Negative Change/Impacts Moderately Negative Change/Impacts Significant Negative Change/Impacts Major Negative Change/Impacts

2. Environmental Components RIAM requires specific assessment components to be defined through a process of scoping, and these environmental components fall into one of four categories, which are defined as follows: Physical/Chemical (PC): Covering all physical and chemical aspects of the environment. Biological/Ecological (BE): Covering all biological aspects of the environment. Sociological/Cultural (SC): Covering all human aspects of environment, along with cultural aspects. Economic/Operational (EO): Qualitatively to identify the economic consequences of environmental change, both temporary and permanent. Various components considered for impact assessment of site suitability for dumping site are represented in the table 3 below Table 3: RIAM components Physical and Chemical components (PC) PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 Construction of the embankment Construction of smaller embankments within the landfill Drainage of the surface soil with direct discharge to the outlet Leaching from the existing landfill into the new landfill Collection of leachate in the bottom of the Landfill Leaching to the groundwater

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PC7 PC8 PC9 PC10

Treatment of the leachate Odours and gaseous emissions Dust Impacts from increased human activity

Biological and ecological components (BE) BE1 BE2 BE3 BE4 BE5 BE6 BE7 BE8 Impacts on biota Damage of habitats Aesthetic impact Littering Effects of the construction of a drainage system along the embankment Effects on ground water Effects from construction of smaller embankments within the landfill Effects of the drainage system at the surface of the filled landfill

Sociological and cultural components (SC) SC1 SC2 SC3 SC4 SC5 SC6 SC7 SC8 Public acceptability Work opportunity Public health Impacts on housing Population growth Dust from landfill affecting nearby housing Public safety Noise from landfill affecting nearby housing

Economical and operational components (EO) EO1 Construction costs of embankment

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EO2 EO3 EO4 EO5 EO6 EO7 EO8 EO9 EO10 EO11 EO12

Construction costs of smaller embankment within the landfill Construction costs of surface drainage System Construction costs for drainage system in the bottom of the landfill Costs for collection of Leachate and pumping Costs of treatment plant Costs for deposition of sludge from treatment Plant Health costs to community Operation and maintenance cost Recycling Traffic Property value loss

Results and Discussion i. Physical Characteristics of MSW

The mean values of the physical constituents of MSW samples collected from Marikavalasa dumpyard are represented in the figure 1 below. Physical characterization of the waste indicated that 45.75% of organic matter waste including vegetables, fruits generated from various socioeconomic zones in the city. 6.48% of paper, 4.97 % of plastic and 0.1% of rubber and glass represent separation and segregation of waste for recycling. 37.32% of fine earth and ash is due to continuous burning of the ash by rag picker to recover the metal and ceramics. The slaughter house at hanumanthavaka in the city contributes major component for the debris. The biomedical waste is collected separately and incinerated at Maridi Incineration unit.

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0 0 37.32 45.75

4.97 0.1 0

6.48 Organic matter 4.97 & cardboard paper plastics

Figure 1: Physical Characteristics of Solid waste sample ii. Chemical characteristics of MSW

The Chemical characteristics of the waste were represented in the Table 4 below. Efficiency of the waste treatment and processing system is determined by the chemical characteristics of the waste. Wet moisture content of MSW was observed between 36.6415.56. Calorific value was found to be low (24991409 kCal/kg) because of the lesser amount of paper and plastic and high quantity of inert material, making it incompatible for incineration

. The concentrations of Zinc

(Zn) and Lead (Pb) for MSW, as shown in Table 4, were within the range of the Indian compost standard of Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules. The basic nature of the waste sample can be attributing to the fact that Khondalite rock formation induces basic nature which is the major rock formation in the dumpyard site. Table 4: Chemical characteristic of the solid waste Property pH Moisture Content, % Carbon content, % Nitrogen content, % Zinc, mg/kg Lead, mg/kg Range 8.261.14 36.6415.56 29.4910.59 1.1050.425 1.5251.375 0.390.31

Calorific value, k.Cal/kg 24991409 Environment Observer Page 70

RIAM Analysis Results a) Option 1: Open dumping Due to unsecured and improper dumping of municipal solid waste without proper processing and pre-treatment creates lot of havoc to the existing environment. No positive impacts are observed in physical and biological conditions. In case of, social conditions work opportunities to the people is one case to be considered as positive while recycling in the case of economic factors. The major impact is on the soil and ground water due to leaching of heavy metals present in the waste. Due anaerobic decomposition of waste, noxious gases like methane are released out, leading to flares. The rag pickers burn the waste to segregate the recyclables leading to accumulated effect on the environment. b) Option 2: Sanitary landfill From physical and chemical characteristics analysis of waste it was observed that 70% of the waste is biodegradable. Impermeable barriers (liners), leachate collection and treatment systems, landfill gas management systems, and cover systems protect the public health and the environment from potential negative impacts of landfills. On the other hand, construction, operation and maintenance costs are major negative impact. Segregation of waste at source and before final disposal should be implemented. Recycling, utilization of gas are economical sources from this option. c) Option 3: Incineration Size reduction and complete sterilization of waste is a positive impact. It is applicable to biomedical waste reducing epidemics. Air pollution due to particulate matter, CO2, SOx and NOx are the most negative impacts. Less percentage Moisture content (<45%), high percentage of Volatile matter (>40%) and inerts (>40%), Calorific value (800-1200 k-cal/kg) are desirable parameters for incineration process. Auxiliary fuel will be required for the waste without the above mentioned parameters. This increases operation and maintenance cost . a) Option 4: Composting This is cost effective process as compared to other options. Biogas and compost produced during anerobic decomposition of waste can be utilized for application onto soil with proper preEnvironment Observer Page 71

treatment. The compost produced. The production of greenhouse gases is reduced. The application of pathogens is one major negative impact biologically. Vermi composting is advanced method developed to reduce the negative impact. RIAM analysis results for the various options such as Open dumping, Sanitary Landfill, Incineration and Composting are given in the Figure 2 given below.



20 ENVIRONMENTAL SCORE 15 10 5 0 (-E) Class 25 20 15 10 5 0 (-E) A CLASS EO SC BC PC EO SC BC PC

20 15 10 5 0 (-E) CLASS EO SC BC PC

20 15 10 5 0 (-E) (-A) C CLASS EO SC BC PC

Conclusions 1. It was observed from the study that open dumping of waste in Visakhapatnam city had more negative effects on soil and ground water due to leaching of heavy metals. 2. The pungent smell due to decomposition waste by the microbes leads to epidemics adversely affecting the people in the nearby locality.

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Figure 2: RIAM analysis output for Open dumping, Sanitary landfill, Incineration, Composting

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3. Incineration is also not suitable as it creates air pollution. The operation conditions and desirable parameters represent that in un economical. 4. From the RIAM analysis it was observed that Sanitary landfill with composting is a better option for disposal of waste as they both show less negative impacts. 5. Vermi composting techniques should be implemented as it is eco-friendly and income generating technology. 6. Construction, operation and maintenance of sanitary land fill involves huge financial requirements. Introduction user-fee for waste collection and management in accordance to socio economic groups so as to enhance better management system. References i. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). (2000). Municipal solid waste (management and handling) rules, The Gazette of India, New Delhi, India. ii. Sapna Sethi, N. C. Kothiyal; Arvind K. Nema; and M. K. Kaushik (2013) Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in Jalandhar City, Punjab, India. J. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste, 17:97-106. iii. Sharholy, M., Ahmad, K., Mahmood, G., and Trivedi, R. C. (2008). Municipal solid waste management in Indian citiesA review. Waste Manage, 28(2), 459467.

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Anna Donia Palett1, Aiswarya S2, PriyaA Jacob3
1. Former BTech Civil Engineering student, School of Civil Engineering, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 2,3. Assistant Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India,,

ABSTRACT With technology advancing, we come across various new products, gadgets, equipments, etc. playing a very important role in our lives. But, we tend to forget what happens to these after a while. This paper reviews the effects of these high tech trash or in other words electronic wastes, e-wastes, waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) on the environment and the pollution caused by the disposal and management of the same. Keywords: e-waste management, environmental pollution, recycling. 1. INTRODUCTION Advances in the field of science and technology brought about industrial revolution in the 18th Century which marked a new erain human civilization. In the 20th Century, the information and communication revolution has brought enormous changes in the way we organize our lives, our economies, industries and institutions. These spectacular developments in modern times have undoubtedly enhanced the quality of our lives. At the same time, these have led to manifold problems including the problem of massive amount of hazardous waste and other wastes generated from electric products. These hazardous and other wastes pose a great threat to the human health and environment. The issue of proper management of wastes, therefore, is critical Environment Observer Page 74

to the protection of livelihood, health and environment. It constitutes a serious challenge to the modern societies and requires coordinated efforts to address it for achieving sustainable development. Todays society demands the usage of electronic equipments like never before. Computers, home appliances and a lot more are a part and parcel of our living. Advancements in the electronic world bring out new products at a constant pace resulting in a very short life time for these products. As the usage of these high tech equipments is increasing so are the wastes of the same. E-Waste or Waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) is a very broad term. It is used to describe any electronic equipment which has reached the end of its useful life. E-waste is often misunderstood to be discarded computers and other IT gadgets but it covers a wider range of equipments, for instance, households give out e-wastes such as vacuum cleaners, coffee machines, irons, toasters, washing machines, dryers, refrigerators, air-conditioners,

communication equipments such as mobiles, telephones, fax machines, copiers, printers, entertainment & consumer electronics which includes televisions, VCR/DVD/CD players, radios, etc, lighting equipments for example fluorescent tubes, sodium lamps etc , electric and electronic tools for instance drills, electric saws, sewing machines, lawn mowers etc, and even toys, leisure, sports and recreational equipments such as electric train sets, coin slot machines, treadmills etc [1]. On a global scale, USA tops the chart on producing E-wastes at 2,124,400 tones per year followed by Germany producing 1,100,000 tones per year. India too plays a significant role in the production of E-waste. In 2012, India recorded E-waste production of about 8,00,000 tones per year. Along with the self production of E-wastes, its estimated that developing countries like China, India and Pakistan receives 50-80% of the E-waste collected from the developed countries. The cheap labor along with the relaxed environmental regulations makes these countries a convenient dumping yard [2].

In Figure 1, all possible E-waste routes and flows and their potential environmental impact are summarized. The chemical composition of E-wastes depends on the type and the age of the electronic object discarded. It is usually predominated by several metal alloys, especially Cu, Al and Fe attached to, covered with or mixed with several plastics or ceramics.

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Figure 1: E-Waste Routes

2. HEALTH HAZARDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF E-WASTE Concerns regarding the safe disposal and management of these wastes have been rising. E-wastes find a several ways to pollute the environment. Though it contains trace amounts of precious metals like gold, silver and palladium, and larger quantities metal and alloys including copper, aluminum and steel, they are seldom recovered. Recycling and recovering demands disassembling of individual components which are complex and time consuming. So they are usually left as trash. Recycling of E-waste poses a great threat to the environment as well as our well being due to the toxic chemicals released by the landfill as time passes. E-waste contains extremely hazardous chemicals which include lead, mercury, cadmium, lead mainly used in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in monitors, tin-lead solders, etc. Lead content entering a human body can harm almost every organ including nervous system, kidneys and reproductive system. Lead is dangerously certain to damage human brains and cause miscarriage in pregnant women. Same way, compounds of Environment Observer Page 76

chromium, such as calcium chromate, chromium trioxide and lead chromate are recognized human carcinogens. Cadmium is classified as toxic with a potential risk of permanent effects on human health. Like lead, cadmium can hoard in the body over time causing lasting impairment to human parts [3]. The chemicals in E-waste eventually pollute the ground water. The landfills containing E-wastes leaches acids and other toxic substances, polluting the soil and seeping down to join the ground water and there by polluting the ground water. The burning of these wastes emits fumes and gases polluting the air. Even the evaporation of metals like mercury is harmful to the environment. Improper recycling and recovery methods can negatively affect the environment. Recycling processes have minimum environmental impact when combined with the application of apposite technology, such as in Japan [4], while, on the contrary, when using the practices followed in developing countries (e.g. child labor, e-waste burning and emission of several pollutants to the air, leachate seepage in underground and surface aquifers etc.) the final environmental benefit-impact balance is not always affirmative. It must be also stressed out that any environmental benefit from recycling vanishes when the waste to be recycled is transported to great distance due to the adverse environmental impact of the energy consumed for its transportation [5], while, recycling, in any case, has smaller ecological footprint than e-waste dumping and burning.

2.1POLLUTANTS IN E-WASTE Pollutants or toxins in e-waste are typically concentrated in circuit boards, batteries, plastics, and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). Givenbelow is a table showing the major pollutants occurring in waste electrical and electronic equipments:

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Table 1: Pollutants and their occurrence in waste electrical and electronic equipment

3. PRESENT SCENARIO Countries like Japan, Switzerland, and Greece etc seem to understand the present call for the apt management of E-wastes. In the Japanese E-waste management system, the consumers are required to pay a certain amount while returning the used electronic equipment. This law with strict penalties has been imposed from 1998 [6]. A basic trait of the Japanese system is the use of the chief disassembly procedure of large parts initially with a more precise and concise method so that they handle the residues in a more proper way. While Japanese have got their E-waste under control, it was the Swiss who were the first ones to come up officially with E-waste management. The country has got two active E-waste recycling systems, one managing the brown electronic equipments (e.g. computers, televisions, radios, etc.), and the other one handling the white electrical equipments (e.g. washing machines, refrigerators, ovens, etc.) [7]. Furthermore, in the Swiss system, the producers are fully responsible for the recycling of their products in an environmentally bearable manner. Other than Japan and Switzerland, we see European Union with a very strict legislation regarding the handling of E-wastes. The European Parliament is based on three axes, the prevention, recycling and re-use of e-waste, so that the amount of the waste electrical and electronic equipments available are reduced [8].

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In India, the Constitution assigns solid waste management as a primary responsibility to the Municipalities under the Twelfth Schedule. The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 were enacted by the Central Government which came into force from 25 September 2000. Some of the guidelines for handling municipal solid wastes provided in the Schedules are relevant for the management of e-waste and can be used as a model in the e-waste recycling and disposal scheme. Under the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008, the Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal Ministry to deal with the transboundary movement of the hazardous wastes and to grant permission for transit of the hazardous wastes through any part of India. The rules and regulations related to E-waste management in India needs quite a lot of improvements as compared with other developing countries.

4. CONCLUSION Today we see that pollution of the environment has reached an appalling level. There is an immediate need to develop strategies and regulations to deal with e-waste and its management. It is important to conduct proper research into the topic to avoid the mistakes made all around the world where regulations were rushed without any research and thus help to build a future where humans can live in harmony with the environment.

1. P. Partheban and S.TamilSelvan, An effective management of E-Waste as a part of Construction materials (2010). 2. Dr. KousarJahanAra Begum.Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Management in India: A Review, pp. 46-57 (2013). 3. Sunil Herat, PhD, Electronic Waste: An Emerging Issue in Solid Waste Management in Australia (2008). 4. H. Aizawa, H. Yoshida and S. I. Sakai, Current results and future perspectives for Japanese recycling of home electrical appliances, Res ConservRecycl. 52, pp. 1399-1410 (2008). 5. Y. Barba-Gutierrez, B. Adenso-Diaz and M. Hopp, An analysis of some environmental consequences of European electrical and electronic waste regulation, Res ConservRecycl.52, pp. 481 495 (2008). 6. R. Widmer, H. Oswald-Krapf, D. Sinha-Khetriwal, M. Schnellmann and H. Boni, Global perspectives on e-waste, Environ Impact Assess Rev. 25, pp. 436-458 (2005). 7. D. Sinha-Khetriwal, P. Kraeuchi and M. Schwaninger, A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India, Environ Impact Assess Rev. 25, pp. 492-504 (2005). 8. R. Hischier, P. Wger and J. Gauglhofer, Does WEEE Recycling make sense from an environmental perspective? The environmental impacts of the Swiss take-back and recycling systems for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), Environ Impact Assess Rev. 25, pp. 525-539,(2005).

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Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste as Pavement Material

SavioJohn[1], Sobin Joseph[2]
B. Tech Student, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam [1] [2] Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Toc H Institute of Science & Technology, Arakkunnam

Abstract Road transportation is undoubtedly the lifeline of the nation and its development is a crucial concern. The need to manage construction and demolition waste (CDW) has led to environmental friendly actions that promote the reuse and recycling of this type of waste and other forms of waste valorization. The main priority is to foment sustainable construction work, which has the advantage of avoiding the deposit of large quantities of construction waste at landfills and greatly reducing the use of borrow material in construction projects. The aim of this paper is to verify the technical viability of using construction waste as material for the base pavement layers of road surfaces.

Keywords Construction and demolition waste, aggregate, engineering properties

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INTRODUCTION Construction and demolition wastes consist of the materials generated during the construction,

renovation and demolition of building and other structures. Construction and demolition waste constitutes one of the largest waste streams in the world. Management of Construction and demolition waste is a major concern due to increasing quantum of demolition rubble, continuing shortage of dumping sites, increase in transportation and disposal cost and above all growing concern about pollution and environmental degradation. The primary objective is to foment the reuse and recycling of this waste and other forms of valorization with a view to contributing to the sustainable development of activities in the construction sector. Large quantum of bricks and masonry arise as waste during demolition. These are generally mixed with concrete, tiles and other construction materials. Concrete appears in two forms in the waste. Structural elements of building have reinforced concrete, while foundations have mass nonreinforced concrete. Metal waste is generated during demolition in the form of pipes, conduits, and light sheet material used in ventilation system, wires and sanitary fitting and as reinforcement in the concrete. Metals are recovered and recycled by re-melting. Timber recovered in good condition from beams, window frames, doors and partition and other fittings can be reused. Even then a large quantity of remaining construction and demolition waste is generally dumped in the landfill sites of our country. Management of such huge quantity of waste puts enormous pressure on solid waste management system. The growing population of our cities and requirement of our land for other uses has reduced the availability of land for waste disposal. It is mainly due to lack of awareness of the recycling techniques in our country that construction and demolition wastes have not been effectively utilized. To effectively use construction and demolition waste in road works, first requirement would be to characterize the material in terms of its physical and engineering properties. The present study deals with the suitability of construction and demolition wastes as a construction material in road works.

TREATMENT PROCESS The first step in the treatment process is to wash the materials manually and mechanically to

eliminate impurities, e.g., plastic, paper, and wood. Then, a track-mounted backhoe excavator with

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hydraulic pincers extracts metal from the waste, thus reducing the original size of the material. Once the material is clean of impurities, the backhoe excavator is fed into an impact mill.

Fig. 1: Production process diagram

This mobile grinding unit consists of a pre-screening unit that separates and stores the material whose diameter is less than 40 mm. The rest of the material is made to undergo a reduction process. This phase of the process guarantees the absence of plasticity in the final product because it eliminates dirt and any extraneous substances. The recycled artificial aggregate is thus composed only of concrete, asphalt, and ceramic. After the grinding process, an electromagnet is used to capture and separate any metal that might have entered the mill. The rest of the material is transported on the conveyor belt to the entry of the mobile screening unit. Here, the material is classified, and the final product obtained is recycled CDW aggregate (0 - 32 mm). The production process is shown in Fig. 1.


The test results relating to engineering properties of construction and demolition waste aggregates

are presented in Table 1.

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Unit weight (C & D aggregates): Loose state (kg/m3) Compacted state (kg/m3) Aggregate crushing value (%) Aggregate impact value (%) Ten percent fines value (C & D waste aggregate representative sample) Soundness (%) 1280 1650 37 33 45 kN 1.6 30% max 50 kN (min) 12% (max) -

The test results relating to engineering properties of powdered construction and demolition waste aggregates are presented in Table 2.
Property Value

Modified Proctor Compaction Test Maximum Dry Density (MDD) (g/cc) Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) (%) Standard Proctor Compaction Test Maximum Dry Density (MDD) (g/cc) Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) (%) Direct Shear Test Angle of internal friction () Cohesion (c) Plasticity Index Permeability (cm/s) 50 6 kN/ sq.m Non Plastic 1.8610-4 1.75 12.5 1.93 10.5


Crushed construction and demolition waste can be utilized as a fill material for construction of embankment. The side slopes of such embankments should be protected against surface erosion. Construction and demolition waste after crushing can be used for sub-grade construction. Mechanically stabilized construction and demolition waste mixture can be used for sub-base layer.

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However, construction and demolition waste has a marginally lower ten per cent fines value and hence it may be used in lower half of sub-base course or for low traffic volume roads on a trial basis. Mechanically stabilized construction and demolition waste mix ( mixture of construction and demolition waste aggregates and construction and demolition waste powder ) admixed with about five per cent of cement can be used for base course construction. Usage of construction and demolition waste for bituminous wearing courses is not advocated.

FIELD STUDY In order to verify the technical viability of using construction wastes as material for the sub-base

of road surfaces, a field study was carried out by Herrador et al., (2012) in Malaga, Spain. They analysed the characteristics of recycled material on a section conditions. The pavement surface sections are shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2: Road surface section made of recycled CDW aggregate (Access road 1) and pavement made of quarry aggregate from a mine (Access road 2)

A. Deflections and ADAR Testing To obtain structural data regarding the surface course, on-site monitoring using the ADAR (highperformance dynamic monitoring) testing method (PPTG ADAR 2004) was performed. In the same way as the conventional plate load test, the ADAR test also provides the load-bearing capacity of road surface material. Even though it resembles the plate load test in so far as parameters and results, it has the following advantages: It is simple and quick to set up at the job site It provides better data collection performance because the system is mobile and installedon a vehicle The ADAR test defines the load-bearing capacity of road surface layers. It verifies whether this parameter meets project specifications and whether it is in accordance with the calculations of the pavement structure. To measure the load-bearing capacity of the pavement, a DYNATEST HWD

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8081 falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is used. This deflectometer is equipped with at least seven geophones located on the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. At least one of these geophones was located below the application point of the load at the centre of the strike plate. The FWD is designed to measure deflections in flexible and rigid pavements. It can calculate the resilient moduli of all pavement structure components and of the underlying soil. The resilient modulus is the parameter used in pavement design and is, thus, correlated with the structural capacity of the pavement under analysis. The deflection measures the resilient response of the material to a given load.

Fig. 3: ADAR test; deflections in CDW aggregate layer

Fig. 4: ADAR test; deflections in quarry aggregate layer

As can be observed from the data, the resulting measurements for CDW were satisfactory. In the case of the recycled CDW aggregate, of the values obtained, most are lower than the theoretical deflection (see Fig. 3). The results show that the performance of the recycled aggregate is significantly better than the natural aggregate (see Fig. 4).

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ECONOMIC ASPECTS The difference in price stems from the fact that the cost of recycled aggregate includes waste

cleaning and management. This is more expensive than blasting with explosives, a budget item that is a necessary part of the cost of natural aggregate. The cost of the mechanical treatment of recycled aggregate is higher than that of natural aggregate because of the fact that the treatment of recycled aggregate requires the use of an electromagnet to capture and separate metal and a blower with an air compressor to eliminate plastics. Furthermore, the wear on the impact plates and bars of the mill is greater because the material treated is abrasive and includes iron (e.g. reinforced concrete). The cost of recycled aggregate is higher than natural aggregate. But it is a good solution for the prevention of wastage of land used as dumping yards, reduction in use of natural quarry aggregates and utilization of construction and demolition wastes.

Construction and demolition waste is a marginal material having some of its strength properties slightly lesser than the specified limits as per IRC/MORTH. However, at the same time, it is nonplastic, permeable and its strength can be improved by stabilization. The load-bearing capacity of the recycled artificial construction and demolition waste aggregate is satisfactory. It performs as well as natural quarry aggregate as long as the recycled construction and demolition waste aggregate is free of impurities and only contains concrete, asphalt, and ceramic material. It is also necessary to provide a greater quantity of water (as compared with natural aggregate) to achieve the desired level of compaction. Hence, construction and demolition waste can be adopted for road construction in different forms.

Brick as Unbound Road Sub-base, Construction Building Materials, Vol - 20,No.8, pp. 578 585.

[1] Chan, D. and Poon, C. S., (2006) Feasible Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates and Crushed Clay [2] Bhise, N.N, Chandra Dinesh, Gupta, R.L and Jain, S.K, (1997) Solid Waste Utilisation An EcoFriendly Solution, Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol 17, No. 3 [3] Nataatmadja, A., and Tan, Y. L, (2001) Resilient Response of Recycled Concrete Road Aggregates , Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol - 127, No.5, pp. 450 453. [4] Sherwood, P.T., (1995) Alternative Materials in Road Construction, Thomas TelfordPublications, London, U.K

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Bauxite Residue Management

Theja S N1, Life John2 1 Abstract:

UG student ; Asst. Prof. Dept of Civil Engineering, TIST

About 3000 million tonnes of bauxite residue are generated globally from alumina refining industries every year. Managing this residue is costly, and the reuse of bauxite residue is becoming an increasingly attractive and sustainable solution to the problem. Using bauxite residue in various applications has the potential for large volume reuse. The best management of the residue includes its proper storage without affecting the environment and the proper reuse of the residue. This seminar discuss the applications of bauxite residue in construction and chemical field, environmental and agronomic applications and metallurgical applications.

Key words : bauxite residue, storage, applications.

1. Introduction: Bauxite residue is the by product of the Bayer process for refining alumina. It is composed of the insoluble fraction of the bauxite ore that remains after extraction of the aluminiumcontaining components. Iron oxides (1030%), titanium dioxide (215%), silicon oxide (520%) and undissolved alumina (020%) make up the residue, together with a wide range of other oxides which will vary according to the initial bauxite source or the region of bauxite deposits. The concentration of iron compounds is quiet high and hence the residue has a red colour which is why it is commonly called as red mud. Bauxite contains trace amounts of metals such as arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel and some naturally-occurring radioactive materials, such as thorium and uranium. Most of these elements remain with the residue after extraction of the alumina. Hence the residue must be stored carefully, otherwise these radio active elements may seep into the ground water thus polluting it. Also the bauxite residue has high alkalinity which causes environmental impacts. There are a number of methods currently employed, including treatment with seawater or carbonation with CO2 to manage this risk.

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Amount of bauxite residue produced by an alumina plant or refinery is dependent on the sources of the bauxite used and secondarily on the extraction condition by the plant. It varies from 0.3 to 2.5 tonnes of residue per tonne of alumina produced. The bauxite used will have a major impact on the characteristics of the residue, its particle size distribution, and behavior of the residue. The coarse fraction ( greater than 100 microns) which is high in quartz content may be separated from the finer silty muds. Sometimes these coarse fractions are given names such as red oxide sand or sand residue or coarse bauxite residue, and fine fractions are called red mud. The coarse fraction is used in road construction, as a base course material and provide a drainage layer under the mud, or as a capping material for residue sites. Coarse fraction is easier to wash, has good drainage characteristics, and has a lower residual caustic content. The red mud is used for construction and chemical applications, environmental and agronomic applications and metallurgical applications. 2. Disposal of bauxite resdidue: After washing, the residue is stored or disposed in special facilities known as Bauxite residue Disposal areas or residue storage areas. The type of disposal employed by alumina refineries varies across the world, depending on factors such as availability of land, technology availability, climatic & geographic conditions, logistics and regulatory requirements. The figure shows the bauxite residue storage area of Ireland.

Fig.1 Bauxite residue storage area, Ireland

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2.1 Dry disposal: After the residue is washed, the residue is filtered to form a dry cake (> 65% solids). Drum filters have been used since the 1930s but there is now increasing use of press filters capable of achieving 70 to 75% solids. The dry residue material is then carried in a truck or conveyor to the storage site and stored without any further treatment. This method uses less land for its storage and also prevents the seeping of residue into groundwater. Further, the rehabilitation and closure costs are greatly reduced and the material is in a more readily usable form. For sites with a constrained space this approach is the best option. 2.2 Mud/Dry stacking or sloped deposition: In this method, the residue is thickened to a slurry of high density (48-55% solids or higher). It is then deposited and allowed to consolidate and is dried before successive layers are deposited. This forms a slope on the deposit, allowing rainwater to run off and minimizes the liquid stored in the disposal area; lowering risk of leakage and improving structural integrity. The water reclaimed from the surface is pumped back to the refinery or plant to recover and recycle the soluble sodium salts. Dry stacked residue is often under-drained to improve the consolidation of the residue and to recover further water for re-use in the refinery. The combination of dry stacking and a well drained deposits give rise to a very stable deposit of residue. 2.3 Lagooning or Ponding: The residue is pumped into land based ponds where naturally impervious layers or sealants minimize the seepage. The residue is deposited as a dilute slurry, with the solids settling and consolidating over time and the surface water collected is returned to the refinery. The design, construction and operation of these storage dams follow guidelines as set out in individual countries and these are checked and maintained regularly. 2.4 Seawater discharge: An early method of bauxite residue disposal in some countries was to transfer the material via pipeline to deep sea locations following treatment to reduce the caustic soda levels. No new refineries are built using this method since 1970.

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3. Utilization of bauxite residue: Hundreds of patents have been issued and many trials have been undertaken on different uses of bauxite residue. The majority of patents filed involves the use of bauxite residue being used in the construction, building or agricultural industries. It is estimated that some two million tonnes is recycled annually for cement production, refractories, soil amelioration and landfill covering. The various applications of bauxite residue is mentioned below: 3.1 Cement Production: The bauxite residue is used in Portland cement production. The Aluminium and iron content in the residue is beneficial to the cement in terms of strength and setting characteristics of cement, but the soda present is detrimental. Replacement of soda with calcia improves its performance as an additive. Iron rich special setting cements with improved strength have been made with upto 50% bauxite residue from Renukoot, India along with bauxite and gypsum. 3.2 Aggregates: Inert aggregate is the major component of concrete and is bound together by the cement. Aggregates consists of wide variety of materials, and are classified as either coarse or fine. In most of its basic form, coarse aggregate is natural gravel or coarser fraction of crushed rock and similarly, fine aggregate is basically native or synthetic sand. There have been many studies on the production of coarse aggregate from bauxite residues, in particular from the finer mud fraction. The bauxite residue is mainly used in manufacture of light weight aggregrates. LWAs are in increasing demand for the production of light weight concretes which is mainly preffered in highrise buildings, particularly in areas of high earthquake risk. They are good insulators and are fire resistant too. LWAs are prepared by calcination of raw materials that contain chemically bound water or carbonate, and form porous granules with low specific gravity and impervious outer surfaces. Bauxite residues can be used as raw material in LWA production because they contain a number of suitable hydroxide minerals like gibbsite, boehmite, goethite and carbonates. The percentage of bauxite residue in the mix could be around 30% with the combination of other materials, and the mixture is calcined at temperatures in the range 1000-1300oC.

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3.3 Sand Substitution: The residue produced from the bauxite deposits of darling ranges of Australia contain high sand fraction, approximately around 50%. This has led to the development of coarse bauxite residue, a viable option for use in cement mix and as a road base material. Coarse bauxite residue has been evaluated as a component of road base. The residue was mixed with fly ash, lime kiln dust and cement to produce a pozzolanic stabilized mixture suitable for the production of an improved base course material for road construction in western Australia. Road construction alone could consume large quantities of residue sand. For example, the construction of the highway connecting Perth to Burnbury (70.5 km dual carriageway construction) alone required 12 million tonnes of sand. The rate of production of the residue of the Alcoas three refineries in Western Australia was approximately 17 million tonnes per annum in the year 2007, so the amount of sand produced was about 8.5 million tonnes per annum. Allowing for about 25% of the sand to be retained for use in the construction of residue storage area, the remaining 6.4 million tonnes per annum of sand production required for the construction of highway potentially consumed 2 years worth of coarse residue production, with the added benefit of reducing the use of natural sand for the construction purpose. 3.4 Bricks production: Mixtures with clay, shale, sand and fly ash have been used for manufacturing bricks. This was studied by various teams of workers and was undertaken using bauxite residue from Jamaica, Sardinia, hungary, and Korea. The presence of high levels of sodium ions will reduce the weathering resistance and durability of the bricks, so the replacement of sodium ions by calcium significantly improves the properties. Bricks are made with a bauxite residue content of above 90% and is used with a firing temperature of about 1000oC. Studies have shown that bricks of comparable quality to commercial clay bricks can be prepared from bauxite residue mixed with natural materials such as clay or shale. Other waste products such as fly ash and coke dust may also be added. Light weight bricks can be manufactured by using other additives such as ferrosilicon and forming agents. The figure shows the steps of brick formation using bauxite residue.

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Fig.2 Brick manufacturing using red mud

Fig. 3 Building at the Jamaica bauxite institute with the bricks made from bauxite residue. 3.5 Geo- polymer formation: Bauxite residue contains a number of aluminium and silicon containing minerals and some soda that could be used for geopolymer formation. Some additional sodium hydroxide may be needed to achieve the necessary dissolution. Other sources of alumina, silica or both may also be needed to achieve the required final composition and properties. Fly ash or steel making slags may be useful in this respect, or it may be necessary to add some amount of clay or sodium silicate.

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3.6 Environment And Agronomic Applications: Modified bauxite residues can be used in waste water treatment. Acidic gases are removed from water by passing it through a bauxite residue slurry. Substantial efforts have also been made in agronomic applications for soil amendment taking into consideration the issues like acidity and phosphorous retention. 3.6.1 Waste Water And Effluent Treatment: Bauxite residue has the ability to absorb undesirable constituents of water such as arsenic and phosphate. It is also used for the treatment of acid mine drainage and is primarily one among the method used for the neutralization of the acid by excess hydroxide, carbonate, aluminate and other buffers, both in soluble and solid states present in the bauxite residue. In the course of neutralization, heavy metals present in acid mine drainage and bauxite residue may precipitate and get adsorb on the surfaces of insoluble metal oxide surfaces already present. The application of bauxite residues to environmental remediation has mostly focused on their high potential for sequestration of metals and metalloids. Two characteristics of bauxite residues contribute to this high sequestration potential: 1) high alkalinity, which favours hydrolysis and precipitation of metals as hydroxides and carbonates, and 2) the large concentration of iron, aluminium and titanium oxides present, which provides surface sites for sorption reactions by metals and metalloids. So areas affected by metal and metalloid contamination are the areas where bauxite residues can be applied. Some of them are listed below: Waste waters and effluents from industrial and municipal facilities. Acid mine drainage (AMD) and acid sulphate soils. Soils contaminated with organic and inorganic toxins.

3.6.2 General soil amendment: The beneficial application of bauxite residues for decontaminating the effluents, acid mine drainage or contaminated soils can also be made use of in agronomic applications. Sandy soils with little or no nutrient or water holding capacity are benefited from the application of bauxite residues. The alkaline nature of bauxite residues can be used to raise the pH of organic soils. Direct

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addition of bauxite residues to soils can be beneficial, for example if the soil is acidic and the addition rate is low. In many cases the phytotoxicity of the bauxite residue need to be reduced in order to function as a soil amendment. 4. Conclusions: The bauxite residue stored on land is currently estimated to be over 2.7 billion tonnes, with an annual growth rate of over 120 million tonnes. This is one of the largest masses of mineral processing residue globally. It is not randomly distributed about the globe in an uncontrolled manner, but predominantly exists in discrete locations at which it is generally well stored and closely controlled. The residue is best managed by reusing it in various fields and proper storage where the impact on the environment and the surrounding community is progressively reduced. References:

Klauber, Markus Grafe and Greg Power, Review of bauxite residue re use options, ,May 2009. Bauxite residue management: Best Practice, April 2013. Improving the sustainability of residue management practices- Alcoa World Alumina Australia.

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Global Scenario Of Utilization Of Construction And Demolition Waste

Job Thomas1 and Wilson P.M. 2

Reader, M.Tech. student

Division of civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India, Pin 682022, e-mail Id:

Abstract: The utilization of construction and demolition waste for future construction is the need of the day. The management of construction waste is important for sustainable development, which is the thrust area of research today. Due to increased environmental concerns, land filling of construction and demotion waste is prohibited in many countries. This paper overviews the scenario of construction and demolition waste management system practiced in various countries. Key Words: C&D waste, management, land filling, utilization

Introduction: In almost every part of the world, construction industry is considered to be the biggest in terms of its consumption of natural resources. The various aspects of civilizations are understood based on the evidences of constructions built by them. Each civilization had a construction history that fostered its growth and quality of life. Initially construction works were accomplished by the muscle of man and beast. Later with mechanization, construction industry achieved a very fast pace contributing significantly to the rapid growth of the society. It resulted in a large scale increase in the quantum of construction. The construction and generation of waste is both sides of the same coin and they cannot be separated. It may not be worthless to mention that it is the improper management of material resources in construction industry that results in the enormous increase in the generation of construction waste all over the world. The quantum of generation of waste in construction can be controlled by appropriate management.

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By developing an appropriate waste management policy, it is possible to improve overall efficiency of the project, which results in economy too. In developed countries, waste management has become a profession and many construction firms associate with companies which excel in C&D waste management. The waste management is also an environmental concern and implementation of standards and law is not far. Hence, it is important to initiate educating and practicing various C&D waste management methods for those who are employed in various levels of construction industry. Waste production scenario All over the world, the growth of construction industry is enormous in the past decade. The pace of generation of C&D waste is also significant. In general, there are two sources for generation of waste materials, namely, bulk generators and retail or small generators. The classification of sources is given in Fig 1. The infrastructure development sector and real estate sector are the bulk generators of waste. Construction and repair of roads, bridges, flyovers etc. are classified under infrastructure development sector. Real estate sector consists of housing, industrial, and commercial building construction, demolition of unauthorized structures etc. Small commercial enterprises and individual house building teams are considered as retail or small generators. The contributors of C&D waste in a project are given in Fig 2. The project activities are to be planned at every stage by every personnel, who are involved, to minimize the overall waste generation.

Construction and Demolition (C&D) Waste

Bulk Generators

Small Generators

Roads Bridges Flyovers Flats Parks Malls

Houses Small Buildings

Fig 1 Sources of C&D waste generators

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Site management

Manufacture r



Procureme nt


Supplier Designer

Fig 2 Contributors of C& D waste in a project Global scenario of waste management On an average 10 to 20 percent of the materials purchased in a construction project is generated as a waste. The environmental impact due to wastes generated at different stages while implementing a project needs serious consideration. This aspect should be considered from the stage of extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing and transportation building products, construction of building and disposal at the end of a buildings useful life (Resource venture, 2005). The stages of the waste generation and its management in connection with construction project are given in Fig 3.
Raw material Extraction Processing Building products manufacturing Transportation Building construction demolition

Environmental impact connected with waste disposal

Fig 3. Stages of waste generation environmental impact

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In this context, it is appropriate to have a bird eye view of the volume of C&D waste generated in different countries. This would help to understand the importance of need of waste management plan. In 2004-05, C&D waste generation was 15.1 million tonnes in Australia, of which 7.6 million tonnes was recycled and 7.5 million tonnes was residual waste used as landfill. In 200607, 16.6 million tonnes of waste was generated from the C&D stream. Further, in 2008-09, 19 million tonnes of C&D waste was generated out of which 10.47 million tonnes were recycled thus yielding natural resource recovery rate of 55 percent from C&D stream (Smith et al., 2012) In United Kingdom, around 101 million tonnes of inert waste materials from construction, demolition and excavation were generated in 2008. In addition to this, 86 million tonnes of waste has been generated by mining and quarrying operations. In spite of sophisticated technologies developed for recycling CD&E waste, it is estimated that over 25 million tonnes a year are disposed of in landfill sites (defra, 2011). About 136 million tonnes of C&D waste was generated in the United States of America during 1996. C&D wastes accounts for about 22 percent of the total waste generated in the country. Out of this, approximately 92 percent of all C&D waste is from demolition and renovation (Franklin Associates, 1998). In Japan, 85 million tons of C&D waste was generated in 2000, of which 85 percent has been recycled or reused. The quantity C&D waste generated was 76 million tonnes in 2005 and a recycling ratio of 0.92 had been achieved. (Shiro Nakajima Building Research Institute, 2009) In Netherlands, more than 15 million tonnes of C&D waste is being produced annually, out of which, 80 percent is concrete and crushed brick wastes. Eighty five percent of this waste is being recycled and reused in road construction or in concrete. (Hendriks and Janssen, 2001) In China, rapid urbanization results in high rate of production of C&D waste. The C&D waste is found to be about 30 to 40 percent of the total waste produced in the country. Recycling rates are also dependant on a variety of factors including maturity of the local recycling industry, landfill and recycling drop-off fees, landfill bans and cost of raw materials (Zhao et al., 2010).

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In 2002, 3.3 million tonnes of C&D waste was generated in Canada. Out of the total C&D waste, only 16 percent was reused or recycled. (Canadians Home Builders association-CHABA, 2010) In India C&D waste management has given least priority (TIFAC, 2002) Present practices of waste disposal and related issues Fig.4 illustrates the C&D waste handling practices currently adopted in India and the related issues. The construction industry derives numerous benefits by proper handling of C&D wastes.

Issues Antique value not considered Reduced salvage value Re-usable items sold at discount in market Extra transportation cost Environmental impacts neglected Public resistance No value addition by recycling


Non re-usable items for land filling

Fig.4 C&D waste handling practices and related issues. Indian industry is unable to grab appropriate economic and environmental benefits owing to several reasons which need detailed analysis. Barriers for widespread adoption of waste management system are (Jain, 2012) Lack of awareness in the industry: The main reason for the enormous quantity of waste

generation is the improper handling of material resources. In most cases, the architects, consultants or construction labors neglect the environmental and economical cost aspects of construction wastes. The basic principle of reduce waste is very often neglected by them.

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Lack of interest from the clients: Majority of the clients are interested only in those activities which offer tangible benefits to them. The potential savings in cost by adopting waste

management system is not given due importance. While considering timing to be the most important milestone to be kept with, the feasibility of reuse and recycling are often neglected. Lack of proper training and education: Lack of professional institutions in the country which could significantly raise the awareness among the clients and contractors about the potential economic, social and environmental benefits is yet another barrier in adopting a proper waste management system. Lack of skilled labour: Majority of construction labour involved in the industry is unskilled. Because of this proper waste handling methods are not adopted. This emphasizes the need for development of awareness and skills in the labour. Lack of market competition: Presently, there is lack of competition among the contractors in deriving the potential economic benefits from C&D wastes. The cost savings achieved by a contractor by implementing waste management techniques in a project are not often accounted. Waste reduction and recycling techniques are not widely adopted for this reason. Lack of Government interventions: There is considerable laxity on the part of the Government in promoting waste management techniques. For example, those who make cost savings on account of proper and efficient waste management are not given any incentives. This has to be viewed based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing and minimization of energy utilization. Lack of waste reduction approach by architects: A significant reduction in the quantum of

waste can be achieved by adopting proper design methodology. The role of designers and architects is particularly important in this aspect. Design for deconstruction, adopting principles of modular co-ordination etc. will definitely reduce wastes from the construction industry. Practicing self-regulation is a powerful factor for C&D waste management. In several developed countries, many associations in the building products and materials industry issue guidelines and offer assistance to their member companies to achieve better production and consumption outcomes by minimizing the resource consumption with the motto doing more with less (Jeffrey, 2011)

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The 3R concept These factors promoted governmental agencies to find ways to encourage the reuse and recycling of C&D waste. However prevention is more beneficial than recycling. Identifying potential waste early in the design process decreases waste generated during construction. It is worth to note that if waste is not going to be created, a plan for reuse or recycle is not a requisite. Three strategies in the 3R concept to handle the C&D waste and the related issues are:-

Reduce: Potential wastes can be identified early in the design process itself and measures

should be taken during design stage to minimize the waste that may generate. Waste reduction can be achieved by : 1. Design with standard sizes for all building materials: This helps to avoid waste generation when standard sized materials are cut to unusual lengths. 2. Design spaces to be flexible and adaptable to changing uses: This avoids potential waste generation during remodeling. 3. Design for deconstruction: This would allow high reuse and recycling rates to achieve. The dis-entanglement of systems, materials bolted together instead of glued, a construction and deconstruction blueprint, use of non hazardous materials and highly recyclable materials etc. are a few techniques that can be suggested in this regard. Reuse: This involves identification of waste that can be salvaged for reuse on the current

project or another project or that can be donated. The initial costs for deconstruction services may be offset by returns from salvaged materials or reduced purchasing costs. Some deconstruction services also fetch a tax deduction for materials that are donated in many developed countries. Fig.7 shows a comparison of new and salvaged materials used in construction industry which illustrates the potential cost saving. Recycle: After adopting all the options to prevent waste, salvage and reuse materials, the

next step is to recycle as much of the remaining debris as possible. Recycling saves money by minimising disposal costs. It reduces waste going to the landfill, facilitates a cleaner and safer

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construction site, improves community relations, protects the environment, reduces pollution problems owing to wastes and protects health of construction labour. Methods like demolition by blasting etc were evolved as a result of such negligence or ignorance of 3R concepts. The environmental and economical cost aspects of C&D waste shall be seriously considered before taking a decision for land filling. The 3R concept is vital for a sustainable development. With the increased interest in recycling demolition waste materials, newer demolition procedures have been evolved which preserve building materials which can be reused and allow for the separation of waste materials for recycling. In selective demolition, the valuable materials are removed by hand for reuse or recycling. This procedure is sometimes expanded into complete deconstruction or selective dismantling, where the entire building is taken apart piece by piece (Edge environment Pty Ltd, 2011).

Relative price compared to new (%)


60 New
40 20 salvaged

0 brick wood steel GI sheet aggregate

Fig 5 Relative price of salvaged and new building materials Green building concept Green building or green construction or sustainable building refers to a structure that uses process which is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. The energy efficiency is to be accounted for in every stage, namely, site selection, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and demolition. A green building is the outcome of joint

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efforts of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the clients at all project stages. By adopting green building practices, it is possible to achieve comfort, utility, durability and economy with minimum harm to the environment. Recently newer technologies are being developed day by day to create greener buildings, with the objective to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment. Following are the basic objectives of green building concept (MNRE and ADaRSH, 2012) Reduced energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats, and biodiversity, and reduced soil loss from erosion etc. Reduced air and water pollution Reduced water consumption Limited waste generation due to recycling and reuse Reduced pollution loads Increased user productivity Enhanced image and marketability

A green building concept involves serious consideration of various steps from the design to disposal. The following strategies generally adopted in green building creation are given in Fig 6.

Strategies for green buildings construction

Follow Regional development plans Building bye laws Codes and standards

Adopt Integrated design approach Local materials & technologies Renewable energy technologies Energy efficient technologies

Fig 6 Green building construction strategies

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Measurement and approval Green buildings are being certified based on certain rating program by different agencies. The internationally accepted one is being the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is the green building rating program sponsored by the USGBC. In India, Green buildings are rated by Green Rating for Integrated

Habitat Assessment (GRIHA). It has been developed by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and is endorsed by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings and neighborhoods. LEED is intended to provide building owners and operators a concise framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction, operations and maintenance solutions. The specialty of LEED is that it is an open and transparent process where the technical criteria proposed by USGBC members are publicly reviewed for approval by the almost 20,000 member organizations. LEED awards project one, two or three points for

achieving a 50, 75 or 90 percent recycling rate respectively. A project can also earn one or two points for using salvaged, refurbished or reused materials for 5 or 10 percent of building materials respectively. Summary The maximum effort should be made to reuse and recycle and the waste and to minimize the volume going to landfills. A widespread adoption of proper waste management techniques can save huge amount of money which would otherwise go to landfills. Promoting Green Buildings will definitely mitigate the issues that arise from C&D wastes. References:
Barker, A.V. and Bryson, G.M. (2002). Bioremediation of heavy metals and organic toxicants by composting, Scientific World Journal, 2, 407420. Canadians Home builders association-CHABA (2010) CHBA Policy Position on C&D waste Management and Extended Producer Responsibility Retrieved from:

epr&wastemanagementpolicyposition-mar3-10.pdf on 07.11.2013

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defra, (2011) Waste Data Overview , Department for Environment, food and rural affairs, UK Retrieved from: waste-data-overview.pdf on 07.11.2013 Edge Environment Pty Ltd (2011) Construction and Demolition Waste Guide Recycling and Re-use across Supply Chain, retrieved from /files/resou rces/

0becf84b52b8/files/case-studies.pdf on 20.11.2013 Franklin Associates (1998) Characterization of building -related construction and demolition debris in the united states, Report No. EPA530-R-98-010, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, USA Retrieved from: on 07.11.2013 Hendriks C. F., Janssen G.M.T. (2001) Reuse of construction and demolition wa stes in the Netherlands for road constructions, HERON, 46(2), 109-117 Retrieved from: on 07.11.2013 Jain M., (2012) Economic aspects of construction waste materials in te rm of cost savings- A case of Indian construction industry, International Journal of Scientific Research Publications, 2(10), 1 -7. Jain M., (2012) Economic aspects of construction waste materials in term of cost savings - A case of Indian construction industry, International Journal of Scientific Research Publications, 2(10), 1 -7. Jeffrey C. (2011) Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling - A Literature Review Retrieved from : 26D%20literature%20review.pdf dated 20.11.2013 MNRE and ADaRSH (2012) The Little Book of GRIHA Rating, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, retrieved from on 20.11.2013 Resource Venture (2005) Construction Waste Management Guide, Retrieved from resources/get-started/.../CWM%20Guide.pdfon02.11.0212 Shiro Nakajima Building Research Institute (2009) Thing on going and done in Japan, Retrieved from: on 07.11.2013 Smith K., O'Farrell K, Brindley F. (2012) Waste and recycling in australia 2011, department of sustainability, environment, water, population and communities, Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd , Australia. Retrieved from: on 07.11.2013 TIFAC, E. (2000). Utilization of waste from Construction Industry, Department of Science & Technology New Delhi.Retrieved from: =com_content&view=article&id=710&Itemid=205 on 07.11.2013 Vilas, N. and Guilbetro, B. (2007), Construction and Demolition Waste Management: Current Practices in Asia, Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Solid waste Management, Chennai, India , 97-104. Zhao, W., Leeftink, R. B. and Rotter, V. S. (2010). Evaluation of the econo mic feasibility for the recycling of construction and demolition waste in China: The case of Chongqing. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(6), 377-389. -

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Construction And Demolition Waste Management

Amrutha Mary. A1, Vasudev. R2
1 2 Student, Department of civil Engineering, TocH Institute of Science & Technology

Associate Professor, Department of civil Engineering, TocH Institute of Science & Technology e-mail Id:

Abstract: Nowadays it seems very important to manage different wastes in different parts of the construction industry. The production of waste not only increases the cost of a project but also remain a threat to the environment. Since we are giving more importance to sustainable and environment friendly construction practices, it is very important to consider about the control of waste production during a construction work. The waste produced during a construction can be reduced in the preliminary stage itself with the help of proper design and planning. Likewise the waste produced from the demolition and renovation works can be managed with the help of a 3R ie; reduce, reuse, recycle concept. Hopefully the content of this paper is beneficial for understanding the different ways for a proper waste management in a construction industry.

Key Words: Waste, 3R concept, Waste reuse, recycle

Introduction: Construction and Demolition waste is waste debris formed from the construction and destruction of a building. Nowadays it seems very important to manage different wastes in different parts of the construction industry. Most of the modern counties all over the world set different regulations in order to decrease and also manage the amount of waste in different parts of their industries. However in the construction industry production of waste is unavoidable and no construction site is waste less. The diversion of construction, renovation and demolition (CRD) waste from landfill sites is an issue that has been gaining attention within both the public and private sectors. Surveys have indicated that as much as one third of the 20 million tonnes of solid waste of municipal waste streams is generated by construction, renovation and demolition activities. Many of our landfill

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sites are reaching its capacity. In addition, the illegal dumping and burning of the CRD waste causes land, air and water pollution. The increasing costs of waste disposal are reflected in project costs, as contractors must incorporate anticipated disposal costs in their bid costing. Such realities emphasize the need for initiatives that focus on reducing and diverting as much waste as possible from CRD activities. During the recent years, a new concept regarding the construction management waste has been proposed under the name of 3R concept, which relates to three main concepts of waste management that is reuse, recycle and reduce. Incorporating the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) into construction, renovation and demolition waste management creates a closed-loop manufacturing and purchasing cycle. This significantly reduces the need to extract raw materials, reduces the amount of materials going to landfill sites and reduces the life-cycle costs of buildings and building materials.

Cost Benefit Analysis of the Waste The availability and costs of waste haulage, landfilling, reuse, recycling and refurbishing, and other waste handling alternatives varies from region to region across the world. Accordingly, the economic costs and benefits of implementing recycling and other waste diversion initiatives for CRD waste will vary from region to region as well. A preliminary estimate of the cost effectiveness of a CRD waste diversion is prepared in a worksheet. It will be an iterative process including both the Project Manager and the contractor to identify the most economically viable approach to managing CRD waste. There are some data needed for the cost analysis, such as the cost of the current waste management methods, the cost of implementing a CRD waste diversion program, and the savings and benefits resulting from a recycling of the waste, reuse, and waste reduction programs. Comparison of Expenditures and Savings in the Waste Management: After the collection of all the relevant information and entered in the worksheet, the totals for each category must be

summed and compared. If the total cost of the waste management program including deconstruction, reuse, and recycling, is less than the total savings, then recycling and other waste reduction programs would be cost effective and should be further investigated.

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Further Analysis of the Solid Waste Management Program: If the cost benefit analysis showed that either recycling or other waste reduction programs are feasible, then a more detailed waste management audit and work plan are recommended. The main steps involved in the construction and demolition waste management are: Complete Waste Audit A waste audit should be carried out by the Project Manager or contractor. It is done inorder to identify the types and quantities of waste materials that will be produced during the project. The audit process includes assembling and reviewing background information, site visits to identify material types and to calculate the quantity of materials that will be generated. The audit should identify the presence of any reusable fixtures or materials and such items should be inventoried and included in the waste audit summary information. Development Waste Diversion Work plan The waste diversion work plan is a plan of action which is prepared on the bases of the audit results. The work plan identifies the opportunities and actions that will divert materials from disposal. The focus of the work plan should be on identifying reuse opportunities first, recycling opportunities second and finally disposal options if required. The waste diversion work plan should include:

list of materials which is identified for reuse from the waste audit and potential diversion options and a summary of the weight and volume of materials that can be diverted to reuse

list of materials identified as recyclable and potential diversion options for each of these materials including a description of the market outlet which shows the name, location, contacts, type of operation and a summary of the weight and volume of materials that can be diverted to recycling;

Expected costs associated with handling and storage on-site (e.g. bin rent costs), transportation costs (delivery to market or disposal unit), tipping fees and potential revenues from the sales of materials

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Reuse of the construction and demolition waste

Reuse initiatives should be given the highest priority, as the reuse of the materials makes the most efficient use of natural resources and also results in a better economic benefit. Proper planning before commencement of the project will facilitate the identification of reuse options. Reuse of Construction and demolition wastes and building materials can include a range of activities available to the project proponents and contractors such as:

Reuse materials on-site in rebuild stage of the project (e.g. doors, raised flooring, demountable drywall partions, using masonry as backfill).

Separate and reuse materials that can be used for another off-site project (e.g. cabinetry, acoustical tiles, doors etc.).

Separate building materials for donation or sale (e.g. acoustical tiles and suspended tracking system are sold to reuse centre who then sell them to contractors renovating a local business).

Careful removal and handling of reusable building materials and equipment typically require additional labour time than would traditional "tear out" and removal retrofits. The additional project time and impact on labour costs for the reuse material removal needs to be outlined and included in the diversion work plan.

Recycling of the construction and demolition waste The waste diversion work plan should identify materials for which local recycling options exist. When contacting and identifying potential recyclers, it is important to itemize the following:

the type and condition of the materials to be diverted; the volume and weight of the materials; on site storage and handling limitations; and the expected construction, renovation and demolition schedule.

Recycling markets for construction and demolition wastes typically fall into one of two categories, they are: single material outlets or full-service or mixed recycling outlets. Single material outlets accept a single or limited range of materials which require source separation on the job site. Source separation on the job site improves the quality of material to be sent for recycling. Source

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separation requires extra storage area, plus greater awareness on the part of job site workers. Examples of single material recycling outlets includes: scrap metal companies, wood waste recycling; drywall recycling concrete/aggregate companies. The goals of waste diversion work should be noted or pointed in any agreement with a haulage firm. The agreement should specify the list of materials that are to be recycled, a price schedule, pickup requirements, and documentation of recycling.

Hazardous Wastes
By definition, Construction and Demolition wastes do not include hazardous materials. Even though there are chances of presence of materials that are hazardous or that contain hazardous materials in CRD wastes. These include the waste such as fluorescent light tubes that contain mercury vapour, which contaminate the soil and surroundings; paints that contain lead; fluorescent light ballasts containing PCB's; lead sound barriers; ceiling tiles with asbestos and air conditioning units with ozone depleting substances. These materials require special and careful handling and disposal. Monitoring and Reporting Each project should include a brief measurement report after the completion of the project, including the following information:

a summary about the weight and volume of the materials that were actually generated throughout the project

a summary of the weight and volume of the materials that were reused, and recycled after the project

a summary of the costs and savings related to the waste management including labour costs, and shipping and disposal costs and savings

a comparison of projected diversion percentages from the rates predicted in the waste audit; the condition of the reusable and recyclable materials upon shipping and receiving; a summary of problems incurred and potential solutions; and

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Conclusion: The effective waste management can be done by reducing the production of waste by means of proper planning and monitoring of the construction work. The materials that can be reused or recycled should be separated from the waste at the demolition stage. Introduction of proper rules and regulations for proper waste disposal will also help in the waste management. Proper training and Awareness should be given to the workmen and public about the impact of waste in our environment and the need of a green environment.

References: Hamid A (2013), Implementing 3R Concept in Construction Waste Management at

Construction Site, Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences

Daniela Dietz Viana, Carlos Torres Formoso, Waste in construction : a systematic literature review on empirical studies

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Study on Concrete with Glass Powder

Shilpa Raju , Dr. Rajeev Kumar P
Department of civil engineering, Toc H Institute of science & Technology, Arakkunnam, Ernakulam, Kerala e-mail Id: Abstract: The global warming is caused by the emission of green house gases, such as CO2, to the atmosphere. Among the greenhouse gases, CO2 contributes about 65% of global warming. The global cement industry contributes about 7% of greenhouse gas emission to the earths atmosphere. Consequently efforts have been made in the concrete industry to use waste materials as partial replacement of coarse or fine aggregates and cement. Waste glass is one materials when ground to a very fine powder shows pozzolanic properties which can be used as a partial replacement for cement in concrete. In this paper, an attempt has been made to find out the strength of concrete containing waste glass powder as a partial replacement of cement for concrete. Cement replacement by glass powder in the range 5% to 40% increment of 5% has been studied. It was tested for compressive strength and flexural strength at the age of 7, 28 and 90 days and compared with those of conventional concrete. Results showed that replacement of 20% cement by glass powder was found to have higher strength. Also alkalinity test was done to find out resistance to corrosion. Key Words: Concrete, Glass Powder, Strength, Alkalinity test, Global warming. Introduction: Concrete is one of the worlds most used construction material due to its versatility, durability and economy. India uses about 7.3 million cubic meters of ready-mixed concrete each year. It finds application in highways, streets, bridges, high-rise buildings, dams etc. (Meenakshi and Ilangovan, 2011). Green house gas like CO2 leads to global warming and it contributes to about 65% of global warming. The global cement industry emits about 7% of green house gas to the atmosphere. To

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reduce this environmental impact alternative binders are introduced to make concrete (Vijayakumar et al., 2013). Glass is an amorphous material with high silica content making it potentially pozzolanic when particle size is less than 75m. The main problem in using crushed glass as aggregate in Portland cement concrete are expansion and cracking caused by the glass aggregate due to alkali silica reaction. Due to its silica content ground glass is considered a pozzolanic material and as such can exhibit properties similar to other pozzolanic material. In this study, finely powdered waste glasses are used as a partial replacement of cement in concrete and compared it with conventional concrete. Concrete mixtures were prepared with different proportions of glass powder ranging from 5 to 40% with an increment of 5% and tested for compressive strength after 7, 28 and 90 days of curing (Dhanaraj and Kesav, 2013). Material and methods: Cement: The cement used in this study was 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) confirming to IS 8112-1989. Fine aggregate: Locally available sand confirming to zone II with specific gravity 2.62 was used. The testing of sand was done as per Indian Standard Specification IS: 383-1970. Coarse aggregate: Coarse aggregate used was 20mm and down size and specific gravity 2.93. Testing was done as per Indian Standard Specification IS: 383-1970. Glass: Waste glass available locally was collected and made into glass powder. Glass waste is very hard material. Before adding glass powder in the concrete it has to be powdered to desired size. 1. Chemical composition Table 1. Chemical composition of cementing materials (Bajad et al., 2011) Composition (% by mass)/ property Silica (SiO2) Alumina (Al2O3) Iron oxide (Fe2O3) Calcium oxide (CaO) Magnesium oxide (MgO) Sodium oxide (Na2O) Cement 20.2 4.7 3.0 61.9 2.6 0.19 Glass powder 72.5 0.4 0.2 9.7 3.3 13.7

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Potassium oxide (K2O) Sulphur trioxide (SO3) Loss of ignition Fineness % passing (sieve size) Unit weight,Kg/m3 Specific gravity

0.82 3.9 1.9 97.4(45 m) 3150 3.15

0.1 0.36 80 (45 m) 2579 2.58

The particle size distribution of the glass powder and cement are shown in figure 1. 2. Sieve analysis

Fig.1. Particle Size Distributions of Cementitious Materials (Bajad et al., 2011) Mix design: The concrete mix without glass powder was proportioned as per Indian Standard Specifications IS: 10262-1982. Mix design was done for M20 grade of concrete. The mixture was prepared with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The mix proportion of materials is 1:2.35:4.47 as per IS 10262-2009. Then natural fine aggregate was used. Nine different mixes (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, M8, M9) were prepared at cement replacement levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40% in concrete. To impart workability to the mix, a superplasticiser was used with a dos age of 2% by weight of cement. Casting and Testing: The 150 mm concrete cubes were cast for compressive strength and 150 x150x 700 mm beams were cast for flexural strength according to the mix proportion and by replacing cement with glass powder (GP) in different proportion.

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1. Strength test: Using a compression testing machine (CTM) of capacity 2000KN in accordance with the provisions of the Indian Standard specification IS: 516-1959, strength of specimens were tested at 7, 28 and 90 days (Bajad et al., 2011). 2. Workability test: Workability is the property of freshly mixed concrete that determines the ease with which it can be properly mixed, placed, consolidated and finished without segregation. Workability depends on water content, aggregate cementitious content and age and can be modified by adding chemical admixtures. The workability of fresh concrete was measured by means of the conventional slump test as per IS: 1199-1989. Before the fresh concrete was cast into moulds, the slump value of the fresh concrete was measured using slump cone (Bajad et al., 2011). 3. Alkalinity test: For conducting the alkalinity test specimen are taken out from curing tank after 28 days of curing. Then oven dry the specimens at 105C for 24 hours. The dry specimens are cooled to room temperature. Mortar was separated from the concrete by breaking down the dry specimen. Then the mortar is grinded into powder form. The powdered mortar is sieved in 150. 10 gm of mortar is taken and it is diluted in 50ml distilled water and stirred it completely. Then immerse the pH meter into the solution and pH value of the solution is noted. The general pH value of the solution and the level of inducing corrosion in the concrete were noted (Vijayakumar et al., 2013).

Fig.2. Alkalinity test on glass powder added concrete (Web Ref. 1) Test Results Test results are presented graphically and in tubular forms and have been discussed under different categories. Workability Table 2 and Figure 2 shows the results of workability of concrete with cement replacement by glass

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powder in various percentages ranging from 5% to 40% in increments of 5% (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%). Table 2. Overall result of slump of concrete (Bajad et al., 2011) Percentage replacement of Slump Percentage increase or decrease cement by glass powder (mm) with respect to reference mix 0(Ref.mix) 100 05 94 -6 10 91 -9 15 88 -12 20 82 -18 25 76 -24 30 73 -27 35 72 -28 40 66 -34

Mix Designation M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9

From table 2 and figure 3 we can conclude that workability of concrete decreases as the glass content increases.

Fig.3. Variation of slump of concrete with cement replacement by glass powder (Bajad et al., 2011) Strength tests

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1. Compressive Strength Table 3.Overall results of development of compressive strength in concrete with age (Bajad et al., 2011) Compressive strength, MPa Age, days 0% 5% GP 10% GP 15% GP 20% GP 25% GP 30% GP 35% GP 40% GP GP 7 21.05 22.28 23.27 24.86 27.30 23.72 17.62 16.04 12.93 28 27.05 28.58 29.77 31.56 33.50 30.52 24.22 22.44 19.03 90 27.33 28.87 30.08 31.85 33.86 30.82 24.44 22.72 19.25 The table gives the results of test conducted on hardened concrete with 0-40% glass powder for 7, 28 and 90 days. From table 4 and figure 4, the results shows that the compressive strength increases with increasing curing time. It seems the compressive strength obtained for concrete with 20% replacement by glass powder showed a higher value by 30%, 24%, 24% compared to control concrete for 7 days, 28 days and 90 days respectively.

Fig.4. Variation of compressive strength development in concrete (Bajad et al., 2011)

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2. Flexural Strength Table 4. Overall results of development of flexural strength in concrete with age. (Bajad et al., 2011) Flexural strength, MPa Age, days 0% 5% GP 10% GP 15% GP 20% GP 25% GP 30% GP 35% GP 40% GP GP 7 2.40 2.45 2.78 2.85 3.05 2.90 2.82 2.42 2.32 28 3.50 3.62 3.78 3.95 4.17 4.00 3.90 3.57 3.41 90 3.60 3.64 3.82 4.00 4.21 4.05 3.92 3.60 3.45 Table 4 and figure 5 shows the result of variation of flexural strength of concrete with cement replacement by glass powder for 7, 28 and 90 days. It seems flexural strength of concrete with 20% cement replacement by glass powder showed a higher value by 27%, 20%, 17% compared to control concrete for 7 days, 28 days and 90 days respectively.

Fig.5. Variation of flexural strength development in concrete with age (Bajad et al., 2011) 3. Alkalinity test Table 5.The alkalinity test values for glass powder added concrete (Vijayakumar et al., 2013) % Replacement of Glass powder in concrete pH Value 0 12.6 10 12.7 20 12.46 30 12.67 40 12.98

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The pH value observed from the alkalinity test showed that the specimen tested found to be more alkaline and hence more resistant towards corrosion. Discussion on Test Results Workability As the glass content increases (i.e. cement content decreased) workability decreases. As there is a reduction in fineness modulus of cementatious material, quantity of cement paste available is less for providing lubricating effect per unit surface area of aggregate. Therefore, there is a restrain on the mobility. Strength As the percentage of replacement of cement with glass powder increases strength increases up to 20% and beyond that it decreases. The highest percentage increase in the compressive strength was about 30% and flexural strength was about 22% at 20% replacement level. The increase in strength up to 20% replacement of cement by glass powder may be due to the pozzolanic reaction of glass powder due to high silica content. Also it effectively fills the voids and gives a dense concrete microstructure. However, beyond 20%, the dilution effect takes over and the strength starts to drop. Thus it can be concluded that 20% was the optimum level for replacement of cement with glass powder (Bajad and Modhera, 2010). The strength improvement at early curing ages was slow due to pore filling effect. Later waste glass powder on hydration liberates sufficient amount of lime for starting the secondary pozzolanic reaction leading to more quantity of C-S-H gel getting formed (Nathan and Narayanan, 2008). Conclusions Based on experimental observations, the following conclusions are drawn: As the percentage of glass powder increases the workability decreases. Use of super plasticizer was found to be necessary to maintain workability with restricted water cement ratio. Compressive strength increases with increase in percentage of glass powder upto 20% replacement and beyond 20% strength decreases.

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Flexural strength also increases with increase in percentage of glass powder upto 20% replacement and beyond 20% strength drops down. Considering the strength criteria, the replacement of cement by glass powder is feasible. Therefore we can conclude that the utilization of waste glass powder in concrete as cement replacement is possible.

Very finely ground glass has been shown to be excellent filler and may have sufficient pozzolonic properties to serve as partial cement replacement, the effect of ASR appear to be reduced with finer glass particles, with replacement level.

Bajad, M. N. and Modhera, C.D. (2010). Experimental Investigations in Developing Concrete Containing Waste Glass Powder As Pozzolana., Journal of information, knowledge and research in civil engineering , 1(1), 32-37. Bajad, M. N., Modhera, C.D. and Desai, A. K. (2011). Effect of glass on strength of concrete subjected to sulphate attack., International Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Development, 1(2), 1-13. Dhanaraj, M. P. and Keshav, K. S.(2013). Experimental Investigation Of Waste Glass Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete ., International Journal Of Advanced Technology In Civil Engineering, 2(1), 2231 5721. Meenakshi, S.S. and Ilangovan, R. (2011). Performance of copper slag and ferrous slag as partial replacement of sand in concrete., International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, 1(4), 918-926. Nathan, S. and Narayanan, N., (2008). "Influence of a fine glass powder on cement hydration: comparison to fly ash and modeling the degree of hydration," Cement and Concrete Research, 38, 429-436. Vijayakumar, G., Vishaliny, H. and Govindarajulu, D. (2013). Studies on Glass Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete Production., International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering , 3(2), 153-157. Shetty M.S., (2006). "Concrete Technology Theory and Practice" S.Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi. Web References: 1.

IS 383(1970) Indian Standard Specification For Coarse And Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources For Concrete. IS 516(1959) Methods of test for strength of concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS 10262(2007), Indian Standard Concrete Mix Proportioning- Guidelines. IS 1199(1959), Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

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Concrete Technology In Sustainable Development

Jithin Thomas A
B-Tech student, Civil Engg. Thejus Engineering College Vellarakkad , Thrissur Dist. Kerala e-mail Id:


Efforts to correct the results of past transgressions as well as to balance economic development against legitimate concerns of conservation are pervading almost all aspects of life, including the construction industry. Concrete, being the most widely used material worldwide, is a natural target for conservation of natural resources. The cement industry is a major producer of greenhouse gases and energy user. Recent research has led to the point where numerous byproducts of industrial processes with pozzolanic properties can be substituted partially for cement, such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. Also other recycled materials are finding increased application in concrete production. For example, recycled concrete has been used successfully in numerous projects, and crushed waste glass is now available as a valuable source of aggregate, since the problem of alkali-silicate reaction has been solved. The key to commercial success is beneficiation, i.e. the targeted utilization of specific properties of the recycled material, which adds value to the end product

KEYWORDS : Fly Ash, Recycled Aggregate

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INTRODUCTION : The concept of a sustainable development in the field of engineering offers several

possibilities for utilization of the recycled solid waste materials. This paper deals with the properties of cementitious composites (concrete and mortar) based on recycled materials and the specific problems for their production technology and application. The main goal of the performed study was to find out how to achieve more sustainable concrete using different recycled aggregate types, such as, demolished concrete, crushed bricks, etc. Also, part of the report included the details about the possible applications of supplementary mineral materials such as rice husk ash, slag, fly ash etc. The acquired experience in this field and a possible practical application of such composites are also presented in the paper . OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH PAPER : 1. To discuss the possibilities of various materials to be used as an effective cement substitute. 2. To discuss the use of recycled aggregate in concrete mix. THE ROLE OF THE CONCRETE INDUSTRY : Worldwide, the cement industry produced about 1.4 billion tons in 1995, which caused the emission of as much Carbon die oxide gas as 300 million automobiles accounting for almost 7% of the total world production of Carbon die oxide. Concrete is the most widely used material worldwide. Our industry has a responsibility and societal duty to make a contribution towards sustainable development that is commensurate with its size. There are two major opportunities to achieve such a goal that shall be addressed here. As portland cement production is known to require large amounts of energy and is responsible for the release of greenhouse gases, any effort to reduce the cement content in concrete will be beneficial. The other possibility is to substitute recycled materials for aggregate or reinforcement. This includes the recycling of concrete itself. By one estimate, the concrete industry is currently consuming 8 billion tons of natural material each year. Any efforts to reduce such dependence of virgin materials will therefore be a contribution towards sustainable development. CEMENT SUBSTITUTES : Cement is the key component of concrete that binds the other components together and gives the composite its strength. A considerable amount of work has been reported in the literature on how to use waste products of combustion or industrial processes as supplementary cementitious

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materials. Because of their cementitious or pozzolanic properties these can serve as partial cement replacement. Ideally, the development of such materials serves three separate purposes simultaneously. On the one hand, waste byproducts have an inherent negative value, as they require disposal, typically in landfills, subject to tipping fees that can be substantial. When used in concrete, the materials value increases considerably. The fundamental challenge for the researcher is to identify waste materials with inherent properties that lend themselves to beneficiation. Below, a few examples shall be mentioned. Fly ash is the byproduct of coal burning power plants and is known to have excellent pozzolanic properties. Its use in the concrete industry has a long and successful tradition. However, in terms of the ratio of fly ash utilized to fly ash produced, there remains considerable room for improvement. For example, of the 60 million tons of ash produced in 1995 in the U.S., only 8.1 million tons were utilized. India beneficiated only 2 million of the 57 million tons produced there in the same year. The use of fly ash as partial cement replacement is not without its challenges. There are limits as to how much of the cement may be replaced. 20% is an often mentioned and easily achieved goal. Malhotra has shown that as much of 60% cement replacement by American Society for Testing and Materials Class F fly ash is feasible. Recent research has shown that it is possible to replace 100% of the cement with chemically self-activated fly ash. However, the activators proposed so far either need to be added in unreasonable amounts or are relatively expensive. A major point of concern is the generally slow strength development of fly ash concretes. However, in construction practice, high early strength is important only for some projects. In many others, such as those involving mass concrete, slow strength development may even be an advantage, as it generates lower heat of hydration rates. Another potential problem is quality control, because the exact properties of the fly ash may change from batch to batch, depending on the source material. Fly ash has been found to effectively and economically reduce the risk of ASR (AlkaliSilica Reaction). Under certain conditions, this problem can result in accelerated concrete deterioration. The inclusion of fly ash in suspect concrete mix designs containing unclean and deleterious aggregates has been found effective in mitigating the effects of ASR and is historically the most common method employed .

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RECYCLED AGGREGATE : Aggregate constitutes approximately 70% of concrete volume. Worldwide, this amounts to billions of tons of crushed stone, gravel, and sand that need to be mined, processed, and transported. In some parts of the country, suitable gravel pits and sources of construction grade sand are depleting, while the opening of new sources requires time-consuming environmental impact statements. The substitute material that comes to mind first is recycled concrete. Construction debris and demolition waste constitute 23% to 33% of municipal solid waste, and demolished concrete contributes the largest share of this waste material. The use of recycled concrete poses many interesting research problems. The fines and dust produced during demolition and crushing, together with the pore structure of old concrete, increase the water absorption, which has to be considered in the mix design. Dredged material is a further important example that is being evaluated for use in concrete. One of the most pressing problems confronting most major seaports of the world is the need for dredging in order to keep the shipping lanes open. Until recently, the dredged material was simply disposed of in the open ocean. But since it may be highly contaminated, national legislation and international agreements are now prohibiting such practice. The material consists mostly of clays and silts, much of it highly contaminated with oils, heavy metals, Printed Circuits Boards and other toxic substances. A major research project is currently underway at Columbia University to search for a beneficiation technology that renders the toxic components harmless. When we look into the Indian scenario, there is high demand of infrastructural facilities like houses, hospitals, roads etc. in India and large quantities of construction materials for creating these facilities are needed. The planning Commission allocated approximately 50% of capital outlay for infrastructure development in successive 10th & 11th five year plans. Rapid infrastructural development such highways, airports etc. and growing demand for housing has led to scarcity & rise in cost of construction materials. Most of waste materials produced by demolished structures disposed off by dumping them as land fill. Dumping of wastes on land is causing shortage of dumping place in urban areas. Therefore, it is necessary to start recycling and re-use of demolition concrete waste to save environment, cost and energy. Realising the future & national importance of recycled aggregate concrete in construction, Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), Ghaziabad had taken up a pilot R&D project Environment Observer Page 124

on Recycling and Reuse of Demolition and Construction Wastes in Concrete for Low Rise and Low Cost Buildings in mid nineties with the aim of developing techniques/ methodologies for use recycled aggregate concrete in construction. CONCLUSIONS : The concrete industry is a major contributor to air pollution and user of natural resources. As such it bears a special responsibility to make a contribution towards sustainable development that is commensurate with its size. It can do so by pursuing three goals: 1. Searching for cement production technologies that are less energy-intensive and cause

less air pollution. Since such technologies will not be available in the foreseeable future, the more realistic approach is to reduce the need for Portland cement, primarily by increased use of supplementary cementitious materials, especially waste materials. 2. Replacing concrete ingredients by recycled materials, such as recycled concrete or waste glass. 3. Through careful concrete mix design and prudent choice of admixtures, improve the

durability of structures such that they need to be replaced less frequently.

REFERENCES : ASME/Bureau of Mines Investigative Program on Vitrification of Residue from Municipal Waste Combustion Systems, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Report CRTD-24, 1993.

Malhotra, V.M., Role of Supplementary Cementing Materials in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions, in Concrete Technology for a Sustainable Development in the 21st Century, O.E. Gjorv and K. Sakai, eds., E&FN Spon, London, 2000.

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Reduction of Construction Wastes through Efficient Jobsite Practices.

Abhijith Harikumar, UG Student, Karunya University, Sreejith M H, UG Student, Karunya University, Priya A.Jacob, Assistant Professor, Karunya University,

Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar, as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble. Construction waste may contain lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances. Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors and the construction industry. Since considerable variability exists between construction sites, there is much opportunity for reducing this waste. Government or local authorities often make rules about how much waste should be sorted before it is hauled away to landfills or other waste treatment facilities. Some hazardous materials may not be moved, before the authorities have ascertained that safety guidelines and restrictions have been followed. Hence proper management of waste materials from construction sites has now become very crucial. This paper discusses about the commonly seen construction waste materials. A detailed study is made on the methods by which these construction waste materials can be recycled, reused or even disposed, so that proper management of construction materials is ensured. Proper construction waste management can help in prioritizing reduction of building-related wastes through efficient jobsite practices.

KEYWORDS: Construction waste management, Plasterboard, Waste treatment, Efficient jobsite practices

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Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar, as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble. Construction waste may contain lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances. Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors and the construction industry. Since considerable variability exists between construction sites, there is much opportunity for reducing this waste. Certain components of construction waste such as plasterboard are hazardous once landfilled. Plasterboard is broken down in landfill conditions releasing hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas. There is the potential to recycle many elements of construction waste. Often roll-off containers are used to transport the waste. Rubble can be crushed and reused in construction projects. Waste wood can also be recovered and recycled. Government or local authorities often make rules about how much waste should be sorted before it is hauled away to landfills or other waste treatment facilities. Some hazardous materials may not be moved, before the authorities have ascertained that safety guidelines and restrictions have been followed. Among their concerns would be the proper handling and disposal of such toxic elements as lead, asbestos or radioactive materials. Characteristics This category of waste is complex due to the different types of building materials being used but in general may comprise the following materials : Major components : Cement concrete Bricks Cement plaster Steel (from RCC, door/window frames, roofing support, railings of staircase etc.) Rubble Stone (marble, granite, sand stone) Timber/wood (especially demolition of old buildings)

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Minor components : Conduits (iron, plastic) Pipes (GI, iron, plastic) Management Strategy for Construction Waste When determining management strategies for construction waste, the Government's objectives are to: Reduce waste generation, maximise reusing and recycling, reduce the intake of mixed construction waste at landfills. The overall strategy involves the maintenance of a well-managed public filling programme with sufficient facilities and access. But given the high level of waste generation, the emphasis is also being placed on producers. This involves the Government encouraging the industry to: Sort mixed construction waste and not just dispose of it in a single place, reuse and recycle as far as possible, design better and construct more efficiently to minimise waste. Utilisation of Waste from Construction Industry Indian Construction Industry is highly employment intensive and accounts for approximately 50% of the capital outlay in successive 5-Year Plans of our country. The Projected investment in this industrial sector continues to show a growing trend. Construction activity leads to generation of solid wastes, which include sand, gravel, concrete, stone, bricks, wood, metal, glass, plastic, paper etc. The management of construction and demolition waste is a major concern for town planners due to the increasing quantum of demolitions rubble, continuing shortage of dumping sites, increase in transportation and disposal cost and above all growing concern about pollution and environmental deterioration. Central Pollution Control Board has estimated current quantum of solid waste generation in India to the tune of 48 million tons per annum of which waste from Construction Industry accounts for 25%. Management of such high quantum of waste puts enormous pressure on solid waste management system. Construction waste is bulky and heavy and is mostly unsuitable for disposal by incineration or composting. The growing population in the country and requirement of land for other uses has reduced the availability of land for waste disposal. Re-utilization or recycling is an important strategy for management of such waste. Apart from mounting problems of waste management, other reasons which support adoption of reuse/ recycling strategy are- reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits and reduced environmental impact. Above all, the fast depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregate has necessitated the use of

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recycling/ re-use technology, in order to be able to conserve the conventional natural aggregate for other important works. Considerable research has been carried out in U.S.A, Japan, U.K, France, Germany, Denmark etc. for recycling concrete, masonry & bricks, bituminous and other constituents of waste from Construction Industry. These studies have demonstrated possibility of using construction waste to substitute new materials of recycling. In view of significant role of recycled construction material and technology in the development of urban infrastructure, Technology, Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) has commissioned a techno-market survey on Utilization of waste from Construction Industry. The focus of the present study is housing /building sector and road construction segment. Waste is generated at different stages of construction process. Waste during construction activity relates to excessive cement mix or concrete left after work is over, rejection/ demolition caused due to change in design or wrong workmanship etc. Estimated waste generation during construction is 40 to 60 Kg. per sq. m. Similarly, waste generation during renovation/ repair work is estimated to be 40 to 50 kg/sq. m. The highest contribution to waste generation is due to demolition of buildings. Demolition of Pucca and Semi-Pucca buildings, on an average generates 500 & 300 kg/ sq.m. Of waste respectively. Concrete appears in two forms in the waste. Structural elements of building have reinforced concrete, while foundations have mass non-reinforced concrete. Excavations produce topsoil, clay, sand, and gravel. This may be either re-used as filler at the same site after completion of excavation work or moved to another site.

Large quantum of bricks and masonry arise as waste during demolition. These are generally mixed with cement, mortar or lime. Stone arises during excavations or by demolition of old buildings. Metal waste is generated during demolition in the form of pipes, conduits, and light sheet material used in ventilation system, wires, and sanitary fittings and as reinforcement in the concrete. Metals are recovered and recycled by re-melting. Timber recovered in good condition from beams, window frames, doors, partitions and other fittings is reused. However, wood used in construction is often treated with chemicals to prevent Termite infestation and warrants special care during disposal. Other problems associated to wood waste are inclusion of jointing, nails, screws and fixings. Bituminous material arises from Road planning, water proofing compounds, Breaking and digging of Roads for services and utilities. Other miscellaneous materials that arise as waste include glass, plastic material, paper, etc. The total quantum of waste from construction industry is estimated to be 12 to 14.7 million tons per annum. Quantity of different constituents of waste that

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arise from Construction Industry in India are estimated as follows:

Quantity Generated in million Tons p.a. (Range) 4.20 to 5.14 3.60 to 4.40 2.40 to 3.67 0.60 to 0.73 0.25 to 0.30 0.25 to 0.30 0.10 to 0.15

Constituent Soil, Sand & gravel Bricks & Masonry Concrete Metals Bitumen Wood Others

Rebuilding C&D waste recycling efforts in India

In India nearly 50% of Construction & Demolition waste is being re-used and recycled, while the remainder is mostly landfilled. Professor Sadhan Ghosh explains why the management of this material is becoming a major concern for town planners, and challenges of increasing awareness about recycling. In India it's common practice for large Construction and Demolition (C&D) projects to pile waste in the road, resulting in traffic congestion. C&D waste from individual households finds its way into nearby municipal bins and waste storage depots making the municipal waste heavy, and degrading its quality for treatments such as composting or energy recovery. The Indian construction industry is highly labour intensive and has accounted for approximately 50% of the country's capital outlay in successive Five Year Plans, and projected investment continues to show a growing trend. Out of 48 million tonnes of solid waste generated in India, C&D waste makes up 25% annually. Rapid economic growth leading to urbanisation and industrialisation is generating waste, which is adversely effecting the environment. The percentage of India's population living in cities and urban areas increased from 14% at the time of independence to 27.8%. Projections for building material requirement by the housing sector indicate a shortage of aggregates to the extent of about 55,000 million m3. An additional 750 million m3 of aggregates would be required to achieve the targets of the road sector. There is also a huge demand for aggregates in the housing and road sectors, but there is a significant gap in demand and supply. Estimated waste generation during construction is 40 kg per m2 to 60 kg per m2. Similarly, waste generation during renovation and repair work is estimated to be 40 kg per m2 to 50 kg per m2. The

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highest contribution to waste generation comes from the demolition of buildings. Demolition of pucca (permanent) and semi-pucca buildings, on average generates between 300kg per m2 and 500 kg per m2 of waste, respectively. The presence of C&D waste and other inert matters makes up almost one third of the total MSW on an average, but so far no notable development has taken place for using this in an organised manner. At present, private contractors remove this waste to privately owned, low-lying land for a price, or more commonly, dump it in an unauthorised manner along roads or other public land. Recycled roads in Kolkata A Case Study In Kolkata the recycling of bituminous material is carried out using hot or cold mixing techniques either on site, or at a central asphalt mixing plant. It offers benefits including reduced use of asphalt, energy savings and a reduction in aggregate requirements. Cold in-situ recycling is done by pulverising chunks of road material to a certain depth, mixing in cement, bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen and compacting. This recycling process is best suited to roads with light traffic. For hot in-situ recycling, the upper layer of the road is pre-heated and the asphalt is loosened by milling devices. It is mixed together with a recycling agent and the mixture is spread along the road and compacted. Both practices are widespread in Kolkata. Reusing materials Some materials can be reused. For example, doors and windows in good, resalable condition might substitute for new products, or be donated and or sold for use on another project a form of beneficial reuse. Materials and products which cannot efficiently and effectively be eliminated, minimized or reused ultimately are collected, and unless managed, will probably be disposed at the lowest cost. In many areas of the country, disposal fees at solid waste landfills are substantially higher than the cost of separation and recovery, including the disposal cost for residues. Disposal Being predominantly inert in nature, construction and demolition waste does not create chemical or biochemical pollution. Hence maximum effort should be made to reuse and recycle them. The material can be used for filling/leveling of low-lying areas. In the industrialised countries, special landfills are sometimes created for inert waste, which are normally located in abandoned mines and quarries. The same can be attempted in our country also for cities, which are located near open

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mining quarries or mines where normally sand is used as the filling material. However, proper sampling of the material for its physical and chemical characteristics has to be done for evaluating its use under the given circumstances. Emerging issues In an era of increasing energy prices, construction and demolition waste will be more widely recognized as a recoverable resource. Technology and attendant regulations may promote improvements in the diversion of wastes from the landfill and increasingly toward energy generation and recycling of materials. Organic materials such as wood and plant wastes will increasingly be recognized as important components of biofuel feedstock in the generation of socalled green power. Building product manufacturers will continue to look for and find opportunities to reclaim their used products, and to increase and promote their use of recycled materials into new and improved products. Industrial recycling equipment manufacturers are investing in development of improved machinery which has potential to revolutionize the efficient sorting and diversion of waste. Industrial shredders reduce physical volume and produce particles of consistent dimension, allowing efficient mechanical separation. Industrial air separation technology allows efficient segregation of materials with differing mass characteristics, thus separating small pieces of wood and plastic from metal and aggregate. Our role There are a number of ways in which we can help to solve the problem of construction waste. Most of this waste is generated because people are not aware of proper waste management, or even that they should produce less waste. Construction companies can reduce waste through: More careful purchasing and design, including the use of more advanced and less wasteful technologies. Managing raw materials more effectively. Providing education and training to their workforces.

When renovating our own home, it is important to: Work with our renovation contractor to minimise generation of construction waste. Record how much waste we are producing, so that we can appreciate the problem and the cost of waste disposal. Separate inert and non-inert materials for recycling/disposal as appropriate.

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Give our renovation contractor clear instructions on the separation and removal of construction waste. Arrange with recyclers for the collection of recyclable waste.

We should also remember to ensure that waste is disposed of legally, so we can all benefit from a clean environment. Conclusions

1. The idea of reusing the waste material is very exciting and encouraging specially when it will be helpful in minimizing destruction of earths crust and green forest cover by virtue of reduced mining. 2. By suitable recycling and reuse, these waste materials will not contribute to waste loads at dumping and disposal sites. 3. Construction industry can contribute towards its commitment to protection of environment by encouraging use of recycled concrete stones and bricks. 4. Durability aspects of recycled building materials should be further examined in great details. 5. There is enough scope for further research on this topic which will further contribute towards saving of earth and its resources. References 1. Advanced Construction & Demolition Waste Management for Florida Builders, Center for Construction 2. Building Deconstruction and Material Reuse in Washington, D.C., HUD. 3. A Builder's Guide to Reuse & Recycling, Alameda County. 4. Construction &Demolition Recycling magazine 5. Characterization of Building Related Construction & Demolition Debris in the United States. 6. Deconstruction Training Manual; Waste Management Reuse & Recycling at Mather Field, CIWMB. 7. Guide for Construction Waste Management Plan and Specifications, Lake County.

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Waste Plastic As A Stabilizing Additive In Stone Mastic Asphalt

K. Akhil1, Liz Maria Joseph2 Assoc. Professor Vasudev.R3
1. BTech Student, Department of Civil Engineering 2. BTech Student, Department of Civil Engineering 3. Assoc. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering

ABSTRACT Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) is a type of surface course for heavy traffic roads which has high coarse aggregate content that interlocks to form a stone skeleton that resists permanent deformation. The stone skeleton is filled with a mastic of bitumen and filler to which fibres are added to provide adequate stability of bitumen and to prevent drainage of binder during transport and placement. When polymers are added to SMA to improve the performance, it is termed as Polymer Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt. As Polymer Modified SMA mixture is costly as compared to other conventional mixes, waste plastics in shredded form are utilized as substitute for costly additives. Various tests were conducted to check the performance of Stone Mastic Asphalt when waste plastics are added in shredded forms. Keywords: Plastic Stone Mastic Asphalt, Polymer Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt, Shredded Waste

INTRODUCTION The quantum of plastic waste in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is increasing due to increase in population, urbanization, development activities and changes in life style, which leading widespread littering on the landscape. Thus disposal of waste plastic is a menace and become a serious problem globally due to their non-biodegradability and anaesthetic view. Several studies have proven the health hazard caused by improper disposal of plastic waste. The health hazard includes reproductive problems in human and animal, genital abnormalities etc. But present life style a complete ban on the use of plastic cannot be put, although the waste plastic

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taking the face of devil for the present and future generation. We cannot ban use of plastic but we can reuse the plastic waste. Plastic is a very versatile material. Due to the industrial revolution, and its large scale production plastic seemed to be a cheaper and effective raw material. Today, every vital sector of the economy starting from agriculture to packaging, automobile, electronics, electrical, building construction, communication sectors has been virtually revolutionized by the applications of plastics. The plastic wastes could be used in road construction and the field tests withstood the stress and proved that plastic wastes used after proper processing as an additive would enhance the life of the roads and also solve environmental problems. Since 1960s, Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) pavement surfaces have been used successfully in Germany on heavy traffic roads. In recognition of its excellent performance a national standard was set in Germany in 1984. Since then, because of its excellent performance characteristics, the use of SMA increased in popularity amongst the road authorities and asphalt industry. Stone Mastic Asphalt is a gap graded bituminous mixture containing a high proportion of coarse aggregate and filler. It has low air voids with high levels of macro texture when laid, resulting in a waterproof layer with good surface drainage. Stabilizing additives are needed in the mastic which is rich in binder content to prevent the binder from draining down from the mix. Polymers and fibres are the commonly used stabilizing additives in SMA. Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this seminar is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of waste plastics were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The results show that the addition of waste plastics has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way. PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS OF STABILIZED SMA MIXTURES An optimum asphalt content of 6.63% as found from Marshal control mix design (by weight of total mix) was used in preparing all other plastic modified mixes to maintain consistency throughout the study.

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MATERIALS: Aggregates Bitumen Plastic Filler The following steps were performed for the formulation of compacted specimens: Graded aggregates were heated at 160-170C in an oven and waste plastic in shredded form varying from 5%-12% at an increment of 1% was added into hot aggregates before mixing an optimum binder content. The bitumen was heated up to 160C in an oven. The combination of plastic coated aggregates, filler and binder was mixed uniformly. The specimens formulated were then compacted at 135C using Marshal apparatus.


A series of tests were carried out on plastic coated aggregates such as the Impact Test, Los Angeles Abrasion Test, Stripping Test, Water Absorption Test and Soundness Test. The results were recorded.

Table 4: Comparison of Physical Properties of Aggregates with Plastic Coated Aggregates Property Impact Value (%) Abrasion Value (%) Ordinary Aggregates 16 20 After hours Stripping Value (%) Water Absorption Value (%) Soundness Value (%) 2 0 24 0 0.4 5 72 2 96 5 2 0 Plastic Coated Aggregates 14 16 After hours 24 0 Nil Nil 72 0 96 0

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MARSHALL TEST Five specimens were prepared for each percentage of plastic and kept in water immersion for 35 min at 60C. The loading was applied to the specimen at a rate of 50.8 mm/min till the specimen fails. The maximum load at which the specimen fails was taken as the Stability. During the loading, an attached dial gauge measures the specimens plastic flow. The variation of Marshall properties with percentage plastic and the variation of Marshall properties with percentage bitumen are recorded. Table 5: Design Parameters for Various Plastic Contents % Plastic 0 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Stability (kN) 10.25 13.92 14.12 14.84 15.64 16.82 15.98 14.96 Flow (mm) 4.19 4.05 4.15 3.97 3.8 3.56 3.4 3.2 Bulk Density (kg/m3) 2447 2457 2463 2476 2492 2505 2548 2572 Air Void (%) 4.2 4.18 4.08 3.92 3.78 3.29 3.12 2.94

he Marshall stability value of SMA with 10% waste plastic is 16.82 kN and the percentage increase in stability value has been found to be 64% as compared to the mix without plastic. This was attributed due to the enhanced interlock of aggregates. Beyond 10% plastic content the stability decreases and the flow increases. This is related to the decrease in interlocking offered by binder and plastic coated aggregate particles. Density is increasing with plastic content. The air voids decreased for all plastic content due to the filling property attributed by plastic coating. MOISTURE SENSITIVITY TEST The test was carried out to find the water susceptibility of SMA mixtures. The difference in the stability loss of SMA mixtures with and without plastic is determined by immersing the six Marshall samples for each plastic content in the water bath at 60C. The stability values for three samples from each mixture were obtained after 35 minutes of water immersion and the remaining samples were tested after 24 hours of water immersion. The results were recorded.

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TRI-AXIAL TEST This test measures the shear strength of test mix and its results give better information for the prediction of field performance. The tests were carried out on cylindrical specimens 100 mm in diameter and 150 mm in height. Sixty tri-axial samples were prepared with and without plastic content at varying confining pressures of 0.25 kg/cm2, 0.5 kg/cm2, 0.75 kg/cm2 and 1 kg/cm2. Each test was repeated thrice and average values were taken to represent Mohr-Coulomb envelope. The strength parameters c and corresponding to with and without plastic content are obtained from Mohr-Coulomb envelope. SPLIT TENSILE TEST Although SMA is not nearly as strong in tension as it is in compression, SMA tensile strength is important in pavement applications. Tensile strength is typically used as a SMA performance measure for pavements because it effectively stimulates tensile stresses at bottom of the SMA surface course as it is subjected to loading. These stresses are typically the controlling structural design stresses. It is difficult to directly measure the tensile strength because of secondary stresses induced by gripping a specimen so that it may be pulled apart. Therefore, tensile stresses are typically measured indirectly by a splitting tensile test. The results indicate that tensile strength is increased, while the percentage loss in tensile strength is decreased for both testing temperature (i.e., increase the adhesion between aggregate and asphalt which leads to a decrease in the stripping of SMA). Tensile strength for stabilised mixtures is slightly higher than for conventional mixtures. It can be seen that the plastic modified SMA mix improves the resistance to moisture susceptibility of the bitumen mixtures. COMPRESSION STRENGTH TEST A set of 40 specimens were prepared to determine compressive strength values and divided into two groups similar to those for split tensile test but tested with a deformation rate of 3.2 mm/min. Then the compressive strength and index in retained strength were calculated.

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CONCLUSIONS Based on this study of utilisation of shredded plastic in SMA mixtures, the following findings were made: The Marshall stability value of stabilised SMA was found to be 17 kN, which is higher than the prescribed value of 6.2 kN and percentage increase in stability value has been found to be 64% as compared to conventional mix. The flow value of SMA with 10% plastic was found to be 3.56 mm which is in the range of the prescribed value (2 to 4 mm) for as the flow value of the conventional mix is 4.19 mm. Retained stability of SMA increases in plastic content upto 10% and the percentage increase in retained stability as compared to conventional mix was found to be 16%. Tri-axial test results show that stabilised SMA has 44% higher cohesion and 29% decrease in angle of shearing resistance than the conventional mixes. 14% increase in the index to retained compressive strength of stabilised mix than the conventional mix. This indicates that the stabilised SMA mix has good strength under soaking. Results indicated that flexible pavement with high performance and durability can be obtained with 10% plastic content.

Bindu C.S, Waste Plastics as a Stabilizing Additive in Stone Mastic Asphalt, International Journal of Engineering And Technology, Vol. 2, 2010 Taher Baghaee Moghaddam, Dynamic Propertied of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Containing Waste Plastic Bottles, Construction And Building Material, Vol. 34,September 2012 Celaleddin E Sengul, Evaluation Of SBS Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavement, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 41, April 2013

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A Review On Strength And Fracture Properties Of Post Consumed Waste Plastic Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Asha S. PG Student Asso. Prof. Manju P.M. Asst. Prof. Joone Joy
(Department of Civil Engineering )
Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering e-mail Id:

Abstract: This research paper seeks to optimize the benefits of using post consumed waste PET bottles in the fiber form in concrete (WPFRC).The post consumed waste mineral water plastic bottles are shredded into fibers of specific size and shape. Several design concrete mixes with different percentages (0 % to 3 %) of waste plastic fibers for two aspect ratios, are casted into desire shape and size as per requirement of the tests. Each specimen was cured for 28 days. The workability (slump, compaction factor), compression, split tension and flexural tests were carried out. The results are compared with control concrete. The improvement in mechanical properties of concrete was observed. The behavior of WPFRC depending on sizes of fibers is resulted in this paper. Key Words: Solid Waste, PET Fibers, Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Strengths

1. INTRODUCTION The building trades are great contributors to environmental degradation, more than automobiles and other renowned polluting activities, but builders in the last years have made great strides in reducing the environmental impact of the construction process. In the context of a growing interest towards innovative materials recycling and sustainable buildings, particular attention is receiving the experimentation and the study of concrete. Several waste materials, like, e.g., recycled plastics, glass, cellulose, tire cords, and wood and carpet fibers, exhibit

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extreme versatility, light weight, durability, resistance to chemicals, excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties. Such properties can be usefully exploited to build-up innovative and sustainable composite materials. Concrete is a versatile material for civil engineering construction. It is clear that the post consumed PET bottles in fiber form can be used to improve the mechanical properties of concrete. The fibers developed thorough recycling process are costly thats why the fibers are simply shredded to required shape and size. The present paper reports the investigation of effect of the addition of various volume fraction of PET fibers on behaviour of cement based matrix. The compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength behaviour of concrete is discussed. The PET fibers inclusion in concrete is an innovative material that can be promote in construction field. 2. EFFECT OF FIBERS IN CONCRETE Fibers are usually used in concrete to control cracking due to plastic shrinkage and to drying shrinkage. They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water. Some types of fibers produce greater impact, abrasion, and shatterresistance in concrete. Generally fibers do not increase the flexural strength of concrete, and so cannot replace momentresisting or structural steel reinforcement. Indeed, some fibers actually reduce the strength of concrete.The aspect ratio (l/d) is calculated by dividing fiber length (l) by its diameter (d). Fibers with a non-circular cross section use an equivalent diameter for the calculation of aspect ratio. If the fiber's modulus of elasticity is higher than the matrix (concrete or mortar binder), they help to carry the load by increasing the tensile strength of the material. Increasing the aspect ratio of the fiber usually segments the flexural strength and toughness of the matrix. Some recent research indicated that using fibers in concrete has limited effect on the impact resistance of the materials. This finding is very important since traditionally, people think that ductility increases when concrete is reinforced with fibers. The results also indicated that the use of micro fibers offers better impact resistance to that of longer fibers. 3. STUDY ON PET BOTTLES Polyethylene terephthalate , commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. The term polyethylene terephthalate is a source of confusion

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because this substance, PET, does not contain polyethylene. PET consists of polymerized units of the monomer ethylene terephthalate, with repeating C10H8O4 units. PET bottles are characterized by high strength, low weight, and low permeability of gases (mainly CO 2) as well as by their aesthetic appearance (good light transmittance, smooth surface). 4. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME 4.1.Materials Used Portland Pozzolana Cement (Fly Ash based) was used in this experimentation conforming to IS: 1489-1991 (Part I). The physical properties of used cement are as follows - Fineness (90 micron sieve) = 2.7 %, Normal consistency = 32 %, Initial setting time = 210 minute, Final setting time = 330 minute, Soundness (Le-Chat.) = 1.5 mm and 28 days compressive strength = 50.7 MPa. Locally available natural sand from river was used as fine aggregate. The sand was having specific gravity 2.53, water absorption 1.2 %, bulk density 1718.52 Kg/cu.m, fineness modulus 2.65, silt content 0.61% and conformed to grading zone- II as per IS: 383-1970. The crushed stone aggregates were collected from the local query. The maximum sizes of aggregates were 20 mm and 10 mm and tested as per IS: 383-1970 and 2386-1963 (Part I, II and III) specifications. 4.2. Water : Potable water was used for mixing and curing of specimens throughout the experimentation. 4.3. Super Plasticizer : To impart additional workability a super plasticizer AC-PLAST-BV-M4 was used. It is concrete plasticizer with less than 0.05 % chloride content and conforms to IS: 9103-1999. The super plasticizer was added 0.6 % by weight of cement to all mixes. 4.4. Plastic Fibers: The post consumed PET mineral water bottles of single brand were collected from local restaurants. The fibers were cut after removing the neck and bottom of the bottle. The length of fibers was kept 25 mm and the breadth was 1 mm and 2 mm. The aspect ratio (AR) of waste plastic fibers were 35 (AR-35) and 50 (AR-50).The plastic fibers used were having specific

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gravity 1.34, water absorption 0.00 %. The different fractions for two aspect ratios were used in this experimentation. 5. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY 5.1.Concrete Mix Based on the trial mixes for different proportion of ingredients the final design mix was prepared for M30 grade of concrete as per IS 10262:2009.The concrete mix proportions of 1:1.42:3.55 (Combined) with water cement ratio 0.48 was selected. The plastic fibers were added into dry mix of concrete in the percentages of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 3.0% by weight of cement. The different specimens as per requirements of tests were casted. These specimens were tested after 28 days of curing. In each category there were three specimens tested and average value is reported in the form of graphs. 5.2. Properties of Green Concrete The workability of green concrete is determined with the help of slump cone test and compaction factor test for each percentage of plastic fibers. These tests were carried out at every batch of the concrete and average value is reported. 5.3.Specimen Dimensions And Different Tests The compressive strength specimens of dimensions 150x150x150 mm were casted with different percentages of PET fibers. Similarly tensile strength specimens of dimensions 150 mm (dia.) x 300 mm and flexural strength specimens of dimensions 100x100x500 mm were casted. The concrete filled moulds were vibrated on table vibrator. The compressive strength and flexural strength specimens were tested under compression testing machine and universal testing machine respectively as per IS 516-1959. The flexural test specimens were tested for two points loading with 400 mm span. The indirect tension test (Brazilian test) was conducted on tensile strength specimens under compression testing machine as per IS 5816-1970. 6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The results of fresh and hardened normal concrete (0 % fibers) are shown in tables. The behaviour of properties of WPFRC reported in the form of graphs.

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6.1.Workability and Dry Density The following table 3 shows the results of workability (Slump and Compaction factor test) and dry density of normal concrete for M30 grade. The figures show the behaviour of fresh WPFRC and the dry density of WPFRC. Table 1: Slump, Compaction Factor and Dry Density of Normal Concrete % Fibers 0 Slump (mm) 67 Compaction Factor 0.877 Dry Density (KN/cu.m) 25.382

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Table 2: Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength in MPa

% Fibers 0

Compressive Strength 41.19

Strengths (MPa) Tensile Strength Flexural Strength 3.48 4.99

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7. DISCUSSIONS OF RESULTS All the tests were conducted on green and hardened concrete as per relevant standards. The results were obtained experimentally after 28 days of curing of each specimen. The results of fiber reinforced concrete are compared with the normal concrete. 8. WORKABILITY 8.1.Slump and Compaction Factor Fibers Slump (mm) AR 35 0 1 3 57 32 67 39 22 0.86 0.78 AR 50 Compaction Factor AR 35 0.877 0.82 0.723 AR 50 Dry Density (KN/cu.m) AR 35 25.382 25.36 25.19 25.21 25.09 AR 50

The workability of green concrete was measured in terms of slump and compaction factor. From the values of slump and compaction factor it can be observed that the workability decreases when the fiber % increases. Table 3: Slump, Compaction Factor and Dry Density of WPFRC 9. STRENGTHS Table 4: Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength in MPa

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10. CONCLUSIONS The major conclusions based on the results obtained in the experiments are as follows. The maximum percentage increase in compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexure strength at 1% of fiber content were 5.26 %, 15.47% and 17.32 % for aspect ratio 35 and 7.35%, 24.91% and 24.105% for aspect ratio 50 respectively over control concrete (0% fibers). It can be observed from test results that improvement in strengths was higher for aspect ratio 50. It was found that normal concrete specimens were suddenly broken into two pieces at ultimate strength but WPFRC specimens did not suddenly broken.The behavior of WPFRC was found ductile due inclusion of fibers. The significant improvements in strengths were observed with inclusion of plastic fibers in concrete. The optimum strength was observed at 1% of fiber content for all type of strengths.

% Fibers Compressive Strength AR 35 0 1 3 42.96 31.70 41.19 42.96 33.19 AR 50

Strengths ( MPa ) Tensile Strength AR 35 3.48 3.87 2.58 4.13 2.83 5.71 3.89 AR 50 Flexural Strength AR 35 4.99 6.00 4.17 AR 50

From this experimental investigation, the composites would appear to be low-cost materials which would help to resolve some solid waste problems and preventing environment pollution.

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11. REFERENCES T. Ochi, S. Okubo, K. Fukui (2007), Development of recycled PET fibre and its application as concrete reinforcing fiber, Cement and Concrete Composites 29, 448-455 Ms K. Ramadevi, Ms R. Manju (2012), Experimental investigation on the properties of concrete with Plastic PET (bottle) fibers as fine aggregates, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Volume 2 Issue 6, 42-46 Venu Malagavelli, Rao P.N. (2010), Effect of non bio degradable waste in concrete slabs, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering Volume 1 No 3 , 449-457 Fernando Fraternali, Vincenzo Ciancia, Rosaria Chechile, Gianvittorio Rizzano, Liciano Feo, Loredana Incarnato (2011), Experimental study of the thermomechanical properties of recycled PET fiber-reinforced concrete, Composit Structures 93, 2368-2374 Rafat Siddique, Jamal Khatib, Inderpreet Kaur (2008), Use of recycled plastic in concrete: A review, Waste Management 28, 1835-1852 IS: 2386-1963, Indian standards code of practice for methods of test for Aggregate for concrete, Bureau of Indian Standard Institution, New Delhi. IS: 383-1970, Indian standards specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 10262:2009, Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

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Polishing Domestic Wastewater With Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland

Reenu Lizbeth Roy 1,J. S. Sudarsan2 ,V. T. Deeptha3,

MTech, Environmental Engineering Student, 2,3 Assistant Professors, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM University,Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District,Chennai,India,

Abstract: Wetlands are ecosystems that occur where water conditions are intermediate between uplands and deep-water aquatic systems. The water quality improvement ability of natural wetland systems has been recognised for more than 25 years and during this period, the use of engineered wetlands has evolved from a research concept to an accepted pollution control technology. Engineered wetland systems are treatment technologies that mimic natural wetland systems and these treatment techniques were incorporated as components of waste water treatment systems. Two general types of shallow vegetated ecosystems are being used for water quality treatment: (1) free water surface (surface flow) and (2) subsurface flow (vegetated submerged bed) systems. This paper reviews treatment wetland performance for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Nitrogen, and Phosphorus and discusses the organic loading removal efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetlands. In this study the plants used were typha latifolia and phragmites australis. The pollutant removal mechanism was also reviewed. Pollutant removal is highly dependent on hydraulic loading and influent concentration and by the action of internal plant communities and microorganisms, water depth, and hydraulic efficiency.

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The engineered wetland system achieved desirable removal efficiencies of 77.89% for BOD, 62.02% for COD, 79.76% for TSS, 37.20% for N and 75% for P. The wastewater that was used for the treatment efficiency analysis was taken from the sewage treatment plant in SRM university campus. The analysis was done on a lab scale model developed using a PVC tub with a size of 130X50X40 cm and a slight slope of (<1%) between inlet and outlet zones. This technology acts as a natural and low cost treatment facility for domestic wastewater and is now adopted in our university (SRM University) campus. Key Words: Constructed wetlands, Wastewater, Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis.

Introduction: The demand for water is growing exponentially. The steadily increasing demand for

food and manufactured goods, the pressure on limited freshwater resources is rapidly becoming unsustainable due to the growth of world population. The search for alternate water resources is more critical than ever. But the reality is that wastewater reuse and seawater desalination are currently the only significant alternatives to address this challenge. Constructed wetland technology helps communities make use of every drop of water that is available for reuse. For small settlements constructed wetlands is a good alternative and is becoming popular in many countries. Constructed wetlands can be used for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of municipal or domestic wastewaters, storm water, agricultural and industrial wastewaters such as landfill leachate, petrochemicals, food wastes, pulp and paper and mining, usually combined with an adequate pre-treatment (Kadlec, et al, 2000).Constructed wetlands are classified on the basis of vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free floating) and hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow). Subsurface flow wetlands are further classified according to flow direction (vertical and horizontal). Among various types of Constructed wetlands Horizontal subsurface flow type is common. (Padma Vasudevan, et al, 2011). These systems are commonly used to treat domestic and municipal waste waters. In vertical flow constructed wetland, wastewater is pumped in large batches to the bed and allowed to percolate through the media. A new batch is fed only after all the water has drained from the bed.

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Horizontal constructed flow wetlands consists of a bed media, usually gravel or soil, sealed by an impermeable layer and planted with wetland vegetation. Wastewater is fed at inlet and flows through porous media under the surface of bed down a small gradient at floor level until it reaches outlet zone, where it is collected. In media, pollutants are removed by microbial degradation and chemical and physical processes in a network of aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic zones,its aerobic zones being restricted to the surface and areas adjacent to roots where oxygen leaks to substrates (Cooper P F, et al, 1996).Most important role of plants in Horizontal flow constructed wetland is provision of hydraulic pathways through media to maintain hydraulic conductivity. The choice of plants is an important issue in CWS, as they must survive the potential effects of the wastewater and its variability. The most widely used plants are Phragmites australis( common reed) and typha spp. (cattails) (Vymazhal, 2005). The present study aimed at treatment wetland performance for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen, and phosphorus and discusses the organic loading removal efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The pollutant removal mechanism was also reviewed. A Horizontal subsurface flow unit was developed and was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Wetland site The experimental pilot units were located at the civil engineering department of the SRM University, kattankulathur Campus. The domestic wastewater was collected from the sewage treatment plant in the university and is discharged into the wetland site after primary treatment. The study was done for several trails in lab scale units continuously for one year. Wastewater sampling and analysis The sewage to be treated and reused in the campus was subjected to characteristic study. The following parameters were determined based on standard methods (APHA 1998): Biochemical oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand, Total suspended solids, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorous. The analysis was done immediately after sample collection, and it was tested for above said parameters.Waste water samples were taken

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using a gouge from the depth 10cm. The samples were stored in polyethylene plastic bottles, transported to the laboratory on the same day and stored in the dark at 4 0C until making the experimental procedure.(K. Cavusoglu et. al 2010) Constructed wetland unit The prototype model was designed based on the design manuals of EPA and CPCB. The dimension of the constructed wetland was 130X 50X40 cm with a slope of 0.01 (1%). The design is as per Darcys law. The wetland model of cross section 0.65m2 has been designed with hydraulic loading of 20 litres and average flow of 2.8 m3/d .The aspect ratio (length to width ratio) is taken as 2.6: 1(<3%). The retention time provided is 24, 48 and 72 hrs. The effluent yield is approximately 12 litres. The wetland media consisted of a gravel bed underlain by an impermeable layer. The bed was filled to a height of 25cm with coarse rock, medium gravel, fine gravel, gravelly sand and coarse sand. The top portion of the wetland unit was filled with local sandy clay loam soil to support vegetation. Plant material Phragmites australis and typha spp. (wetland plant species) were used in the study. The plants were collected from a nearby lake and planted in the wetland unit. They increase the residence time of water by reducing velocity, and increase sedimentation of the suspended particles. They also add oxygen and provide a physical site for microbial bioremediation. The plants have been used to remove suspended solids, nutrients, heavy metals, toxic organic compounds and bacteria. (M Deepak etal, 2012.) These plants were transplanted from this site to the wetland unit. Plants that were used in the lab scale units were apparently well established in their place of origin. The vegetation was planted by hand. Maintanence The systems were inspected on a weekly basis concerning the overall functioning. Major attention was given to the inlet flow, which was checked twice a week, as clogging may occur due to the presence of suspended solids. Results and Discussion :

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The efficiency of the lab unit subjected to designed hydraulic conditions was monitored through their operation and characteristics of wastewater collected from the inflow and outflow of the unit for several months and several trails were done with the retention time of 24,48, and 72 hours. The mean average values of reduction efficiencies were taken for discussions. In the first day of wastewater application after 24 hours of contact time in the lab scale pilot unit the outflow water showed subsequent reduction of COD, BOD, TSS, N and P. The reduction percentages were increased as the contact time was increase to 48 and 72 hours. The mean average reduction efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, N, P during several trails are shown in figure 1. Figure 1 shows the overall reduction efficiency and it was found that reduction efficiency are high with contact time and the characteristic values are also showing considerable variations.
300 Parameter values( mg/l) 250 200 150 100 50 0 BOD COD TSS N P Raw 190 258 257 43 8 24hrs 67 134 111 33 5 48hrs 42 98 52 27 2 72hrs 21 54 14 20 2

Fig 1-Variation in parameters of raw sewage in lab scale wetland unit planted with Phragmites australis and typha latifolia. BOD-Biochemical oxygen demand, CODChemical oxygen demand, TSS-Total suspended solids, N- Total Nitrogen, P-Total Phosphorous. Fig 2 discusses the reduction efficiency of the lab scale unit which is a horizontal

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subsurface flow constructed wetland. The reduction percentages are clearly indicated in the following the graph. The unit showed considerable reduction for various parameters at different time intervals. Residence time of 24hrs, 48hrs and 72 hrs were considered in the study. The reductions attained for BOD were from 64 to 88%, COD 48 to 79%, TSS 56 to 90%, for N 23 to 53% and for P 37 to 75%. Constructed Wetlands with subsurface horizontal flow usually provide high removal of organic matter (BOD and COD) and suspended solids but lower nutrient removal (Vymazhal, 2005; Kadlec et al, 2000). The constructed wetland set up developed has proven good capacities for BOD and COD removals. Nitrification is influenced in a planted wetland by the oxygen concentration of the media, which is bringing in subsurface flow wetland by the plant roots and by its transfer at the interface atmosphere bed surface. Indirectly the plant types used could influence oxygen transfer in the sand media, which can have impact on nitrification.

Removal effeciency of CW

80 70 % reduction 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 BOD COD TSS N P 24hrs 64.73 48.06 56.8 23.25 37.5 48hrs 77.89 62.02 79.76 37.2 75 72hrs 88.94 79.06 94.55 53.48 75

Fig 2- Removal efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland lab scale unit at 24,

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48 and 72 hrs planted with phragmites australis and typha latifolia. 4. Conclusion The engineered wetland system achieved desirable removal efficiencies of 77.89% for BOD, 62.02% for COD, 79.76% for TSS, 37.20% for N and 75% for P. The wastewater that was used for the treatment efficiency analysis was taken from the sewage treatment plant in SRM university campus and based on this study it is proposed to develop a large scale unit in the campus for treating campus wastewater. If it is properly designed and maintained it will act as an effective tertiary treatment technology for domestic wastewater treatment with low operation and maintenance cost comparing to the normal Sewage treatment Plant (STP) in practice. References:
Cristina S.C. Calheiros, Antonio O.S.S. Rangel, Paula M.L. Castro 2007. Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater: Water research , 41 :1790 1798 . Cooper P F, Job G D, Green M B & Shutes R B E, 1996, Reed beds and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment( WRC Publications, Medmenham,UK) EPA Manual, 1993, Subsurface constructed wetlands

for wastewater treatment. EPA 832-R-93-008

Kadlec , R.H, Knight, R.L.,Vymazal, J., Brix,H, Cooper, P, Haberi,R., 2000. Constructed wetlands for pollution control-processes, performance, No.8.IWA, publishing , London,UK Kadlec R H & Wallace S D, 2008, Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA) Kultigin Cavusoglu, Kursad Yapar, Kadir Kinalioglu, Zafer Turkmen, Kursat Cavusoglu and Emine Yalcin 2010. Protective role of Ginkgo biloba on petroleum wastewater-induced toxicity in Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae) root tip cells: Journal of Environmental Biology, 31: 319-324 M. Deepak, J. S. Sudarasan, V. T. Deeptha, G. Baskar 2012. Low cost Dairy Wastewater Treatment using constructed wetland. Journal of institution of public health engineers:Vol 3 page. 55-60 Schnoor, J.L., L.A.Licht,S.C. McCutcheon, N.L. Wolfe and L.H. Carreira 1995. Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants: Environ. Sci. Technol., 29: 318A -323A Stephen E. Mbuligwe, 2005, Comparative treatment of dye -rich wastewater in engineered wetland systems (EWSs) vegetated with different plants 2004. Water Research, 39 :271 280. Susarla, S., V.F. Medina and S.C. McCutcheon 2002. Phytoremediation: An ecological solution to organic chemical contamination: Ecol. Engineering, 18, 647-658. Vymazal J, 2005 , Constructed wetlands with horizontal sub surface flow and hybrid systems for wastewater treatment, Ecol Engg, 25, 478-490 treatment, water 2 , 530-549. Vymazal J, 2010 ,Constructed wetlands for wastewater design and operation. IWA Scientific and Technical report

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Recovery Of Nutrient From Waste Water Through Struvite Crystallization

J. S. Sudarsan, Aswin Menon & Chandrayee Purkhayastha
Assistant Professors, Department of Civil, SRM University, Kancheepuram District, Chennai. B.Tech, Civil Engineering Student, SRM University,Kancheepuram District, Chennai,India E-mailId :

Discharge of untreated domestic wastewater is a problematic issue. It causes root burning, eutrophication and results in the formation of crystalline deposits in wastewater treatment plants. Domestic wastewater is recognized as nutrient rich water. Various treatment methods have been adopted in various industries throughout the globe. But the major disadvantages among all these plants are cost inefficiency and non-feasibility. Also in most treatment plants, the nutrient value of the waste water is not utilised. In this case study, waste water from the treatment plant in SRM University, Chennai was studied and through a series of chemical processes, a value added nutrient called struvite was obtained, which is a slow releasing fertilizer. This was achieved using a Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal Batch Reactor (MSMPRBR). When compared to the conventional methods, it was found that the MSMSPRBR is an effective substitute due to its low cost and high efficiency. In this study, we had to deal with raw waste water that had been collected from the treatment plant of SRM University as well as artificial waste water. The main objective of using artificial waste water is to obtain the pure struvite crystal from it so that it can be used to form the precipitate and obtain useful nutrients from the raw waste water.

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Introduction A major constituent of wastewater is struvite. Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexa-hydrate

(MgNH4PO4.6H20) is more commonly known as struvite. It is slowly soluble in neutral water. Formation of Struvite Struvite precipitates spontaneously in wastewater treatment environments with high concentrations of soluble phosphorus and ammonium. Additional essential conditions are low concentration of suspended solids and pH above 7.5 [3]. Normally municipal wastewater tend to be rich in ammonium, but deficient in magnesium, so supplementation of magnesium is required and this helps to increase solution pH. Struvite crystals can grow significantly in 3 hours. Natural aging with phosphate precipitation can be obtained in a few days with a different percentage of struvite. The struvite production rate depends upon the concentration of struvite and mixing intensity in the reactor [5]. The source of waste water is SRM University sewage treatment plant. The waste water coming for treatment is mainly from the University hostel toilets, bathrooms and kitchens. From the experiments conducted on the collected samples of raw wastewater from SRM treatment plant, the two main constituents of wastewater are found to be Nitrogen and Phosphorus [2]. Nitrogen in domestic wastewater consists of approximately 60% to 70% Ammonia-Nitrogen (mostly derived from urea) and 30% to 40% Organic Nitrogen [6]. Total phosphorous typically ranges between 4 and 8 mg per litre. Major sources of phosphorous includes, fertilizers, detergents, human and animal wastes etc. It is usually present in one of the three forms; Orthophosphate, Polyphosphate and organically bound phosphorus.

Objectives of research paper 1. To design an isothermal lab scale struvite reactor 2. To demonstrate a strategy to maintain semi-continuous controlled struvite crystallization using a lab scale reactor 3. To establish a relation between pH and amount of crystallization Research Methodology The present case study was formulated based on existing literature references and secondary literature materials in the form of papers and journals available in websites and reference books.

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Struvite precipitates spontaneously in wastewater treatment environments with high concentrations of soluble phosphorous and ammonium. Additional essential conditions are low concentration of suspended solids and pH above 7.5. Additionally magnesium was supplied to increase pH. To increase the production rate of struvite, a chelating agent EDTA was added to dissolve most of the precipitate into solution [8]. Method
DESIGN OF BATCH REACTOR A Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal Batch Reactor (MSMPRTR) [1], [4] of 12 litres volume made of clear Perspex was used. The reactor is cylinder of diameter 200 mm and a height of 250 mm with a conical base. The height of conical part of the reactor is 100 mm. A cylindrical aeration tank of diameter 100 mm andheight 200 mm was installed in the middle of the reactor for aeration of waste water. The lower part of the reactor acts as settling zone of struvite and an outlet was provided for the removal of sludge and crystals. Another outlet was provided in the upper part for removal of excess waste-water. A mechanical operated mixer was installed in the middle of the reactor of capacity of 33 rpm. Due to vibrations, mixing is achieved by aeration pump of capacity 5 litres/minute.

FIGURE: -MSMPRBR Schematic sketch

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PREPARATION OF ARTIFICIAL WASTE WATER AND FORMATION OF STRUVITE Lab-scale artificial waste water was prepared in order to obtain a comparative study of the raw waste-water. Artificial waste water was prepared by the mixing of tap water, ammonium chloride and potassium di hydrogen phosphate in the ratio 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5 and 1.5 : 1. The pH of the solution was adjusted between 7.5 and 8, and kept for room temperature for 8 to 10 hours to minimise the effect of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+. The magnesium solution, 20 % and 30 %, was prepared using MgCl2.6H2O salt. The pH was adjusted to 7.5 8.0. A series of batch tests and jar tests were conducted to identify the optimum pH and the best ratio of reactant at which maximum precipitation occurred. From the primary test it is concluded that maximum turbidity in the solution was observed with 1:1 ratio at pH 10. Purity of struvite was checked by dissolving it in 5N HCl solution. Maximum pH was between 9 - 9.5. 83% phosphate and 16% ammonia were removed along with struvite. The maximum spontaneous precipitation was observed at a range of pH 9 10. Also by varying the concentration of synthetic solution, the maximum and minimum pH was obtained. This is known as the operating zone of crystallization also called the meta-stable zone of crystallization. This zone, here, was observed in the range of pH 8.5 10.After repeated experiments the exact pH value for maximum precipitation was observed as 9.2. A Small scale lab test of struvite crystallization was conducted in the MSMPRBR.8 litre of artificial waste water was taken, whose pH was increased at the rate of 5 litres per minute, till the required pH. 2 litres 30 % MgCl2 solution was added at the rate of 7.5 ml per minute and mixed using air pump. The HRT of the reactor was maintained for about 5 hours, after which the solution was kept for 24 hours for formation [7]. Pure struvite formed was sieved using 45 o 63 m ASTM standard sieves. 1 g of parent struvite seedwas added to the raw waste water and experiments were carried out. It was mixed uniformly using air pump. Air was used to obtain the optimum pH and the experiment was conducted within the metastable zone.

The pH of the waste water was increased to 9.2 from its actual pH of 6.5. Following this, 1.5 litres of 30% MgCl2 solution was mixed with the raw waste water and when precipitation starts the pH

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falls down to the range of 8.7 to 8.9. This addition of MgCl2 also affects the TDS concentration and it increases at the rate of 4323 4467 mg/l. The BOD and COD concentration of the solution decreases and are found in the range of 74 6.53 mg/l and 176 - 204 mg/l. After the precipitation of struvite, it was found that the concentration of calcium sharply decreases whereas the magnesium concentration sharply increases. The concentration of total hardness and magnesium hardness sharply increases, whereas that of calcium hardness decreases. The phosphate concentration declines sharply and about 95% of it was recovered. The ammonia concentration declines sharply and about 91% of it was recovered Taking into account the feasibility of the reactor, about 3.22 0.15 gram per eight litres of pure struvite (79 83 %) was obtained. Also, the fertilizing potential of struvite was tested and observed that there was an increase in the fresh and dry weight of broad bean plant at different stages.

10 9 8 7 6


5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Number of batch experiments

influent effluent

Table: pH of mixed wastewater in each batch experiment

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TDS of mixed waste water ()mg/l

4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Number of batch experiments

influent effluent

Table: TDS of mixed wastewater in each batch experiment

3.5 3.4 3.3

gram per eight litre

3.2 3.1 3 2.9 2.8 2.7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 gm of struvite ppt

number of batch experiment

Table: struvite precipitate obtained in each batch experiment

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84 83 82 81

purity (%)

80 79 78 77 76 75 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 purity in %

number of batch experiment

Table: Purity of struvite precipitate obtained in each batch experiment

Conclusion This paper mainly focusses on struvite crystallization and investigation of struvite growth kinetics. A 10 litre capacity Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal Batch Reactor (MSMPRBR) was designed to perform the experiment. The maximum precipitation was observed at a pH range of 9.0 - 10 and reactant ratio of 1:1:1. The metastable zone was observed in pH range of 8.5 10. The amount of struvite precipitate from 8 litres of mixed wastewater was found to be 3.22 0.15 grams. The purity of struvite crystals were found in the range of 79 83 %. The remaining 21 17 % was other complexes which affect the purity of struvite. The fertilizing potential of struvite was also confirmed by observing an increase in the fresh and dry unit weight of broad bean plant at different stages of growth.

References 1. Adnan, A.Koch, F.A and Mavinic, D.S (2003), Pilot-scale study of phosphorous recovery through struvite crystallization-II: Applying in reactor saturation ratio as a process control parameters, Journal of Environment Engineering Science, Vol.2,

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473-483. 2. J.E Lee, M.M. Rahman, C.S, Ra (2009). Dose effect of Mg and PO4 source on the composition of swine manure, Journal of Hazardous materials, Vol.169, 801-804 3. K. Ohlinger, T.Young, E.Scroeder (1998), Predicting struvite formation in digestion, Water Resources, Vol. 32, 3607-3614 4. K. Ohlinger, T.Young, E.Scroeder (2000), Postdigestion struvite precipitation using fluidized bed reactor, Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 126 (4), 361-368. 5. M.I Ali, Struvite crystallization in fed-batch pilot scale and description of solution chemistry of struvite, chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol 85(A3) , 344356. 6. Md. Imtiaj Ali (2005, Struvite crystallization from nutrient rich wastewater, Ph.D Thesis, James cook University, Australia. 7. J.W Mullin (1993), crystallization, 3rd Butterworth-Heinemann publication, Ispwich, UK. 8. P.Battistoni, P. Pavan, M. Prisciandaro, F. Cechi (2000), Struvite crystallization: a feasible way to fix phosphorous in anaerobic supernatant, Water Resource, Vol. 34, 3033-3041.

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The Treatment Of Pulp And Paper Mill Wastewater By Wet Oxidation


Amrutha K,2Annie Joy

B-tech student, 2Asst.Prof. Toc H institute of Science and Technology Email id:,

In India a number of small, medium, and large pulp and paper mills exists which are producing a wide variety of paper products. In pulp and paper mills large quantity of water required for the processing and subsequent bleaching. Most of the pulp and paper manufacturing units are not equipped with proper waste water management system. The waste water generation is more, since the increase in paper production is expected due to ongoing and future development activities. Therefore a sustainable wastewater treatment system needs to be developed to meet the discharge standards prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. One of the solution for the treatment of waste water in pulp and paper mill is the wet oxidation. Wet oxidation is an effective method to degrade persistent organic or inorganic impurities present in industrial waste water. The process utilizes severe oxidation conditions to achieve the efficient degradation of pollutants. This seminar report mainly deals with the wet oxidation treatment for pulp and paper mill effluent. Keywords: Pulp and paper mill effluent, Wet oxidation, Persistent compounds

Pulp and paper industries use tons of water during wood processing and paper making. The water becomes contaminated as it removes toxic and hazardous organic chemicals from the wood material which may eventually be released into freshwater ecosystems. Their toxic nature is derived from the presence of several naturally occurring and xenobiotic compounds which are formed and released during various stages of papermaking. Environmental conservation drive and policies to produce less toxic wastewater before discharging into the ecosystem have compelled wood and paper industries to treat their wastewater to meet acceptable standards before discharging or recycling it in the process.

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Many waste water treatment methods are already developed and are in use. Most of these conventional methods are incapable of effectively removing all organic pollutants. Biological treatment is very effective for many industrial pollutants. However, waste waters produced by paper mills contains organic that are nonbiodegradable or toxic and are found in high concentrations therefore making biological treatment not very effective. Therefore, the search for an intensified, efficient and better technology development to treat paper mill waste water has been a major concern throughout the world. Wet oxidation (WO) is a hydrothermal process which takes place under high temperature (125 3200c) and pressure (0.5 20 MPa) in the presence of a source of oxygen. Several homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts have been used for the WO reaction.The oxidation reaction is exothermic. So it can generate sufficient heat for maintaining the desired temperature during the reaction provided the waste stream has enough chemical oxygen demand (>10,000 mg/l). Even under lower operating conditions if a suitable catalyst is added to the reaction system the process can show similar level of degradation. Homogeneous catalysts require a post treatment to be separated and recycled, while heterogeneous catalysts can be separated easily after the reaction from the resulting effluent. This report mainly deals with the suitability of the WO process for the treatment of pulp and paper mill waste water.

Waste water generation

The schematic representation of paper making process and source of waste water is shown in fig. 1.

Wood preparation for pulping

Solid, BOD, color

Chip digester and liquor evaporator

High strength BOD, reduced sulfer compounds, AOX, VOCs

Post pulping process

High amount waste water including SS and BOD

BOD, color, chlorinated compounds, AOX, VOCs

Paper making and coating

Solid, BOD, color,acetone Fig. 1 Schematic representation of paper making process and source of waste water (Source:

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Wastewaters from pulp and paper mill are discharged at a rate of 20250 m3/t of ADP (air dried pulp). Pulping and bleaching sections are considered the sources of two most polluted streams in a pulp and paper mill. Pulping is the initial stage and the source of the most pollutant of this industry. In this process, wood chips as raw material are treated to remove lignin and improve fibers for papermaking. Bleaching is the last step of the process, which aims to whiten and brighten the pulp. Tabe 1 shows fresh water requirements and waste water quantities from pulp and paper mill. The wastewater from the pulping process is highly alkaline and intensely colored due to the presence of lingo-cellulosic compounds. Wastewater from bleaching sessions generally contains adsorbable organic halides (AOX), lignin and other cellulosic compounds. Formation of these compounds is directly proportional to consumption of chlorine or chlorine based bleaching agents . Some of the chlorinated compounds known to impart toxicity are: di, tri, tetra chlorophenols, chloroguaiacols, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD) and furans (TCDF). These compounds are recalcitrant to degradation and tend to persist in nature. They are thus known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Since some of the contaminants in pulp and paper industry effluents are nonbiodegradable, conventional biological treatment processes are not sufficient for treatment. The extent of toxicity, total organic carbon (TOC) and color removal by conventional biological treatment vary depending on the pulping process used. The conventional treatment for Indian pulp and paper mills include primary treatment and secondary aerobic biological system. Some of the mills have adopted anaerobic system also. It has been observed that the secondary effluent still contains color and high level of chlorinated organic compounds (AOX) that impart toxicity to the wastewater. In order to meet increasingly stringent discharge limits, pulp and paper mills are forced to adopt technologically advanced treatment systems such as wet oxidation. Whole processes of this industry are very energy and water intensive in terms of the fresh water utilization. Table.1 Fresh water requirements and wastewater quantities Source: Operation Pulping Bleaching Total water requirement / wastewater generation %of total water/wastewater Quantity of fresh water, m3/ton 21.7 11.0 91.9 35.6 Waste water generation m3/ton 27.0 16.2 72.7 59.4

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Water treatment by wet oxidation

Wet oxidation can be defined as the process through which organic contaminants, in liquid or solid form, are extracted into water where they come into contact with an oxidant under conditions that promote their rapid destruction. A simple diagram of a general wet oxidation flow-scheme can be seen in Figure2. The waste is pumped through a high-pressure pump; this can be a standard reciprocating diaphragm pump for liquids or a more exotic high pressure pump for slurries. The oxygen for oxidation is supplied by either air or pure oxygen and in this general flow scheme an air compressor is shown. The air is combined with the liquid andthey pass through a feed/effluent (F/E) heat exchanger (HX) where the fluid is heated to near reaction temperatures. The two phase fluid then flows into the bubble reactor where the exothermic reaction takes place. The usual retention time in the reactor is 1 hour. The oxidized effluent and off-gas then pass through the hot side of the F/E HX to be cooled while simultaneously heating the influent. Auxiliary heaters and coolers are also employed (not shown). Depending on material of construction constraints, steam balance desires, or other factors, separate heat exchangers rather than an F/E HX have been used. After cooling, the wet oxidized effluent then passes through a pressure control valve that controls the pressure on the WAO system. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. The liquid is discharged, typically to conventional biological treatment facilities for final treatment. The gas is usually vented to some form ofthermal oxidation such as a boiler or a dedicated flare header.

Fig.2 General WAO Process Flow Diagram Generally two types of wet oxidation processes: catalytic WO and non-catalytic WO. Catalytic wet oxidation need post treatment to remove the catalysts. Copper based homogeneous as well as heterogeneous catalysts have shown their efficiency for WO process performed at mild operating

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conditions. The main advantage of non- catalytic process is that there is no post treatment is required to eliminate catalysts, but need much temperature and pressure considerations. Many studies are there aiming for the treatment of pulp and paper mill waste water by WO process. The summaries of selected studies are given in table 3. Table. 3 Summary of selected studies on WO of pulp and paper mill wastewater4

S.No 1.

Substrate Evaporate and membrane concentrate from thermo chemical pulp and paper mill

Catalysts used CuSO4,Cu/Co/Bi-C, Fe/Mn-C,Cu/Co/BiAl,Fe/Mn-Al

Reaction condition Tem.130-2000C, oxygen partial pressure 1 MPa

Major result Upto 80% COD and TOC removal achieved


Pulp and paper waste liquor

CuO,CuOMnO2,MnO2,Pd Tem.140-1900C, oxygen O,CuO/PdO,MnO2,PdO partial pressure 0.5MPa

Upto 85 % COD removal was achieved


Thermo mechanical pulping circulation water

Non catalytic

Tem.120-1700C, oxygen partial pressure 0.51.5MPa Tem.110-1700C, total pressure 0.85MPa

A max. 95-97% removal of LWEs could be achieved


Pre-treated diluted black liquor

CuSO4,CuO/C,CuO/CeO2 ,CuO/MnO2

Around 90% of COD was removed

Diluted black liquor


Tem.115-1500C, total pressure 0.6MPa Tem.150-1800C, total pressure 1.5MPa

Ca.77%COD reduction


Diluted/undiluted black liquor

Solid wasted containing iron oxide

Ca.30%COD reduction


Diluted black liquor


Tem.130-1700C, total pressure 0.95MPa

Ca.51%COD reduction and biodegradability was enhanced to 0.6.

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WO is a promising method for enhancing the biodegradability of pulp and paper mill wastewater by degrading complete compounds like lignin from the wastewater into biologically active compound. There is catalytic and non-catalytic wet oxidation. Homogeneous CuSO4 was also proved to be good oxidation catalyst for the reaction performed at milder overcome the difficulty in recovering the catalyst, heterogeneous catalysts are encouraged because such catalysts are not susceptible to the loss of their identity under thermal conditions as well as the particles are stronger enough to tolerate vigorous agitation during the oxidation reaction. During WO treatment, extent of oxidation pollutants is restricted mainly due to the accumulation of the lower molecular weight carboxylic acids which are biodegradable at moderate temperatures (below 2000c) and can be used as a carbon source in biological treatment processes. Though the coagulation followed by WO process reduce significant COD and color from the wastewater and the safe disposal of sludge may be a major concern for the treatment plant operation.

1. Akolekar D B, Bhargava S K, Shirgaonkar I, and Prasad J (2002), Catalytic wet oxidation: an environmental solution for organic pollutant removal from paper and pulp industrial waste liquor,Journal of Applied Catalyst A: General, vol. 236, pp. 255-262. 2. AnuragGarg, Narayana V VV S S, ParmeshChaudhary and Shri Chand (2004), Treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent, Journal of scientific and industrial research, vol. 63, pp. 667-671. 3. Bahar K. Ince, ZeynepCetecioglu and OrhanInce (2011), Pollution Prevention in the Pulp and Paper Industries, Environmental Management in Practice, Dr. ElzbietaBroniewicz (Ed.), pp 223-246. 4. Garg A (2012), Wet oxidation: A promising option for the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater,Journal of institute of engineers India series A, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 137-141. 5. Harada Y, Yamasaki K (1994), Treatment of wastewater and sludge by a catalytic wet oxidation process Desalination, vol. 98, pp 27-39. 6. Mishra V S, Mahajani V V, Joshi J B (1995), Wet air Oxidation, Ind. Eng. Chem., vol.34, pp. 2-48. 7. Tewari P K, Batra B S, Balakrishnan M (2009), Efficient water use in industries: Cases from the Indian agro-based pulp and paper mills, Journal of Enviromental Management, vol. 90, pp. 265275.

8. Verenich S, Laari A, Kallas J (2000), Wet oxidation of concentrated wastewaters of paper mills for
water cycle closing Journal of Waste Management, vol.20, pp. 287-293.

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Comparative Studies on Bioremediation of Municipal Wastewater Using Macrophytes and Microalgae Hossein Azarpira1*, Pejman Behdarvand2 , Kondiram Dhumal1 & Gorakh Pondhe1
1 2

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Pune, Pune-07-India

Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University,Ahvaz, Iran * E-mail of the corresponding author:

Abstract Global demand for quality of water is ever increasing and there is a big gap between supply and demand of portable water. The wastewater treatment is one of the most important technologies to fulfill the requirement of drinking and irrigation water including its domestic use. The present study was attempted on wastewater treatment of Pune Municipal Corporation using the green and eco-friendly method of phytoremediation with aquatic macrophytes as Azolla and Lemna. Similar investigation was also conducted using phycoremediation with cyanophycae members such as





Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Pune (MS), India. The goal of this study was the removal of toxic substances and contaminants from wastewater. The results revealed that the aquatic macrophytes and BGA members were equally efficient to purify the wastewater and to reduce BOD, COD and Cl- up to 98 %. But Lemna and

Oscillatoria, both were the best candidates for treatment of municipal wastewater, which
can be recommended for commercial level treatment. Key words: Introduction Bioremediation, macrophytes, microalgae, wastewater

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Population growth, urbanization and industrialization have led to rapid degradation of the environment and public health due to improper sewage disposal, especially in developing countries. Conventional solutions are inappropriate and expensive because the

infrastructure and skilled labor are lacking (Fonkou et al. 2002). Development of aquatic plants-based wastewater treatment systems is now recognized as suitable

alternative to cost-effectively and safely treat sewage. The scientific bases and technical feasibility of this eco-technology are well established (Dar et al. 2011). Regular

monitoring of these contaminating routes and their effective action plan has to be evolved for better control of water pollution (Goel 2006). The role of aquatic macrophytes

such as Lemna, Azolla, Eichhornia, Wolffia and Pistia is well documented (Priya et al. 2012). In present investigation emphasis was given on most popular and efficient macrophytes such as Azolla and Lemna for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Phycoremediation is the use of micro or macroalgae for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants, including nutrients and toxic chemicals from wastewater (Mulbry et al. 2008, Olguin 2003). Its main applications are nutrient removal from municipal

wastewater and nutrients as well as xenobiotic compounds removal with the aid of algae- based biosorbents (Sharma and Khan 2013). The current study was conducted to assess the pollution load carried by municipal drains into the water bodies and its treatment with Oscillotaria and Nostoc. A comparison was made to find out the plants and algal species with best reduction efficiency. Materials and methods

Collection of wastewater samples

The sewage water samples were collected from STP at Bopodi (Pune) and brought to the laboratories in plastic cans for determination of physic-chemical characteristics.

Collection of plants

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The selected plants like Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor were collected from aquatic pond at Ganesh Khind Garden and stabilized for 4-5 days under laboratory conditions.

Collection of algae
The selected blue green algae such as Oscillotaria and Nostoc were collected from Mula river at Rajive Gandhi bridge, Aundh. These were cultured in lab and pure culture was used along with BG11 medium.

Analysis of physic-chemical parameters

Pre and post treatment analysis of wastewater was carried out for determination of (BOD, COD and Cl-) using standard methods (APHA, AWWA, WEF, 2005).

Experimental set up Phytoremediation

Factorial arrangement with randomized complete block design with three replications was used to conduct the experiments at Department of Environmental Science, University of Pune, India. Treatments included P0: no plant, P1: Azolla pinnata and P2:


minor and ratios for dilution of wastewater with distilled water were as follows: R0:
wastewater, R1: (3:1), R2: (1:1) and R3: (1:3). The wastewater after dilution was mixed with 5 g each of Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor separately in each treatment.

Randomized complete block design with triplicates was used for conducting the

experiments for the duration of 25 days under uniform laboratory conditions. A1/A2 represents Nostoc and Oscillatoria, while wastewater without medium and algae represents control. The wastewater was mixed with 50 to 250 ml BG11 medium and inoculated

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with 0.5 g of each algae (Nostoc and Oscillatoria) separately in the corresponding treatment.

Statistical analysis
The results of pyto and phycoremediation were analyzed statistically by using MSTATC computer software applying Duncans multiple range test. Results and discussion BOD The interaction effect between different plant species and dilution ratios revealed that highest BOD (342.3 mg/L) was recorded in 100 % wastewater and no plant species. However BOD values were drastically reduced in presence of Lemna (2.7 mg/L) and

Azolla (3.9 mg/L) in the dilution ratios 1:3 (Table 1). Biochemical oxygen demand
increases due to biodegradation of organic materials and exerts oxygen tension in water body (Abida 2008). The oxygen consumed during microbial utilization of organics indicates BOD value. Dar et al. (2011) reported reduction in BOD using water hyacinth. They further noted that dilution of wastewater was having maximum reduction as compare to 100 % concentration in which plants can not performed well. Results of present study corroborates with above findings. Priya et al. (2012) and Fonkou et al. (2002) showed about 90 % decrease in BOD by using Lemna for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The analysis of data (Table 2) revealed that combination of wastewater and algae had significant effect on BOD during phycoremediation. Maximum reduction (98 %) was recorded in presence of Oscillotaria and it was followed by Nostoc (96 %) as compare to control. The level of toxicity of wastewater is indicated by high BOD which was reduced by using Nostoc species. Results of present study are in agreement with

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Gannpathy Selvam et al. (2011) who reported more than 53 % reduction in BOD of distillery effluent after 30 days with Nostoc species. The reduction in BOD using cyanobacteria like Oscillotaria, Nostac, Phormidium, Microcystis etc was also reported by several workers. Sharma et al. (2003) and Vijayakumar et al. (2005) also recorded reduction in BOD for different types of effluents using algal cultures. COD The interactions effect of dilution in presence of both the aquatic plants indicated considerable decrease in COD at 1:3 dilution ratios with Lemna (6.3 mg/L) and Azolla (14 mg/L) as compare to 100 % municipal wastewater and no plant species (753.3 mg/L) (Table 1). Highly significant reduction in COD was noted by using different macrophytes and dilution ratios by Ozengin and Elmaci (2007) and Nzabuheraheza et al. (2012). They further explained that Lemna was having highest potential to lower down COD as compare to other plants. The results of present investigation corroborate with above finding. We have also noted that Lemna was performing better than Azolla. Results shown in (Table 2) indicated significant reduction in COD of wastewater by 98.5 and 95 % in presence of







concentration of wastewater at final stage. Our results are inconformity with Chandra et al. (2004) who also recorded 94.6 % reduction in COD of tannery effluent using

Nostoc species. This clearly indicates significant role of microalgae in removal of toxic
material and improving the different physic-chemical characteristics. Similar observation was reported by Ahmad et al. (2013) during comparative study of phycoremediation of sewage water using various species of algae like Chlorella, Spirogyra etc and they reported 98.27 % reduction in COD. Sharma and Khan (2013) recorded substantial

removal of COD (90 %) using Chlorella and Nostoc species without adverse effect on

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their growth rate. Elumalai et al. (2013) observed considerable reduction in COD by using Chlorella and Scenedesmus. Chlorides The interactions of dilution ratio and plants together revealed that highest Cl- (952.3 mg/L) was in absence of plants and without dilution. However it was greatly reduced (10.1 mg/L) in presence of Lemna and 75 % dilution which was followed by Azolla (11.7 mg/L) (Table 1). The chloride content in wastewater dropped down to lowest level by using highest dilution (75 %) in presence of both the plants but Lemna was superior to Azolla in phytoremediation. El-Kheir et al. (2007) studied the assessment of Lemna in wastewater and reported reduction in chlorides up to 21 %. The reduction in Cl- content was also reported by Elumalai et al. (2013). According to Tripathi and Upadaya (2003) there was high Cl- content in dairy effluent which was brought to the minimum level with aquatic macrophytes. The results of present investigation are in conformity with above reports. The data recorded in Table 2 clearly shown that Cl- were reduced to the maximum level by 98.6 % in presence of Oscillotaria and by 95.2 % with Nostoc over control at final stage of treatment. The optimum performance by both the algal species was reported in lowest concentration of wastewater. Elumalai et al. (2013) observed very

high reduction in Cl- of effluents from textile industry using Chlorella, Synedesmus and consortium. More than 90 % reduction in Cl- was also noted with Nostoc by Chandra et al. (2004) during the treatment of tannery effluents. Ahmad et al. (2013) reported very high reduction in Clusing







phycoremediation of sewage water. The reduction in Cl- is contributed to their uptake by algal species as they have good potential for biabsorption of ClSummary and conclusion

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From the significant findings of present study following conclusions have emerged out, 1) the pollution load and contaminants in municipal wastewater are effectively removed by phyto and phycoremediation, 2) Azolla and Lemna were more efficient than Oscillotaria and Nostoc to reduce BOD, COD and Cl- from wastewater, 3) Amongst the plants and algae used,










phycoremediation which can be recommended for large scale treatments.

Table. 1. Effect of plant species and dilution on BOD, COD and Cl - of municipal wastewater Treatme nt P0R0 P0R1 P0R2 P0R3 P1R0 P1R1 P1R2 P1R3 P2R0 P2R1 P2R2 P2R3 BOD (mg/L) Initial 357.0a 261.0b 177.0c 79.00d 357.0a 261.0b 177.0c 79.00d 357.0a 261.0b 177.0c 79.00d Final 342.3a 257.0b 169.0c 65.0e 141.0d 64.3d 19.7g 3.9hi 167.0c 50.3f 12.0gh 2.7i COD Initial 788.0a 591.0b 390.0c 213.0d 788.0a 591.0b 390.0c 213.0d 788.0a 591.0b 390.0c 213.0d (mg/L) Final 753.3a 574.0b 381.0c 204.3e 408.0c 127.0f 39.3g 14.0g 345.0d 98.0f 23.7g 6.3g Cl- (mg/L) Initial 971.7a 739.0b 486.3c 232.0d 971.7a 739.0b 486.3c 232.0d 971.7a 739.0b 486.3c 232.0d Final 952.3a 712.2b 477.6c 227.3e 501.0c 154.1f 52.2h 11.7i 433.6d 111.0g 43.1hi 10.1i

Means with different letters are significantly different at P=0.05, using Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

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Table 2. Effect of blue green algae on BOD, COD and Cl- of municipal wastewater Treatme nt Control A1 C1 A1 C2 A1 C3 A1 C4 A1 C5 A2 C1 A2 C2 A2 C3 A2 C4 A2 C5 BOD (mg/L) Initial 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a 357.7a Final 430.3a 146.3b 124.0c 54.7f 17.0h 30.7g 145.7b 112.0d 66.0e 29.0g 5.7i COD (mg/L) Initial 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a 787.3a Final 845.3a 376.0b 286.3d 111.0g 67.7h 38.7i 353.7c 209.0e 133.3f 35.0i 12.3j ClInitial 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a 983.0a (mg/L) Final 972.0a 464.7b 348.3d 130.3g 71.3h 46.7i 438.3c 307.0e 151.3f 48.7i 14.0j

Means with different letters are significantly different at P=0.05, using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Acknowledgment The authors are thankful to Head Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Pune, Pune-7 for providing research facilities. References Abida, B. and Harikrishna. (2008). Study on the quality of the water in some treams of Cauvery River. J. Chem. 5: 377-384. Ahmad, F., Khan, A.U. and Yasar, A. (2013). Comparative phycoremediation of sewage water by various species of algae. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences. 50: 131-139.

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APHA, AWWA, WEF, 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21th ed. American Public Health Association, American Water Works

Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, U.S.A. Chandra, R., Pandey, P.K. and Srivastava, A. (2004). Comparative toxicological evaluation of untreated and treated tannery effluent with Nostoc muscorum L. (Algal assay) and microtox bioassay. J. Environ Monit and Assess. 95: 287-294. Dar, S.H., Kumawat, D.M. Singh, N. and Wani, K.A. (2011). Sewage treatment

potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Res. J. Environ. Sci. 5: 377-385. El-Kheir, W.A., Smail, G., El-Nour, F.A., Tawfik, T. and Hammad, D. (2007).

Assessment of the efficiency of duckweed (Lemna gibba) wastewater treatment. Inter. J.

Agric and Biol. 9: 681-687.

Elumalai,S., Saravanan, G.K., Ramganesh, S., akthivel, R. and Prakasam, V. (2013). Phycoremediation of textile dye industrial effluent from tirupur district, Tamil Nadu, India.

International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries. 3: 31-37.

Fonkou, T., Agendia, P., Kengne, I., Akoa, A. and Nya. J. (2002). Potential of

water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in domestic sewage treatment with macrophytic lagoon system in Cameroon. Proceedings of International Symposium on Environmental Pollution Control and Waste Management, 709-714. Ganapathy, S.G., Baskaran, R. and Mohan, P.M. (2011). Microbial diversity and bioremediation of distilleries effluent. J.Res.Biol. 1: 153-162. Goel, P.K. (2006). Water pollution causes effects and control. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi. Mulbry, W., Kondrad, S., Pizarro, C. and Kebede-Westhead, E. (2008). Treatment

of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure neutirents using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 8137-42.

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Nzabuheraheza, F.D., Katima, J.H.Y., Njau, K.N.,

Kayombo, S.

and Niyigena, N.A.

(2012). Wastewater treatment for pollution control. Rwanda. J. Health Sci. 1: 1-7. Olguin, E. J. (2003). Phycoremediation: key issues for cost-effective nutrient removal processes. Biotechnol. Adv. 22: 81-91. Ozengin, N. and A. Elmaci. 2007. Performance of duckweed (Lemna minor l) on different types of wastewater treatment. J. Environ Biol. 28: 307-314. Priya, A., Avishek, K. and Pathak, G. (2012). Assessing the potentials of Lemna

minor in the treatment of domestic wastewater at pilot scale. Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 184: 4301-4307.
Sharma, G.K. and Khan, S.A. (2013). Bioremediation of sewage wastewater using selective algae for manure production. International Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management. 4: 573-580. Sharma, K., Lakshmi, N. Venugopalan, K. Mehta, P. Maheshwari, A. and Bapura,

S. (2003). X ray diffraction between cyanobacterial and dairy effluent. Curr Sci. 85: 1330-1334. Tripathi, B.D. and Upadhyay, A.R. (2003). Dairy effluent polishing by aquatic

macrophytes. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 143: 377-385. Vijayakumar, S., Thajuddin, N. and Manoharan. C. (2005). Role of cyanobacteria in

the treatment of dye industry effluent. Pollut Res. 24: 79-84.

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Environmental Remediation.

Role of Phytoremediation in Soil Waste Management

Aarya Vimal1, Aardra.K.A2 , Arun.N.R3, Dr P. R. Kumar4
1M-Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering ,Toc-H Institute of Science and Technology, Arakkunnam, Kerala 2B-Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering, Kadayiruppu ,Kerala 3Asst.Professor, Department of Civil Engineering ,LBS College of Engineering, Kasaragod, Kerala 4 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Toc-H Institute of Science and Technology, Arakkunnam, Kerala

Abstract: Phytoremediation is an environment friendly remediation technique using plants to remove, destroy or sequester hazardous contaminants from various media like soil, water and air. The plants used in this technique must have a considerable capacity of metal absorption, its accumulation and strength to decrease treatment time. Both organic and inorganic contaminants can be removed using this process by several mechanisms. It can be applied over large areas, it is cost effective, and the soil does not undergo significant damage. However, the restoration of a contaminated site by phytoremediation requires a long time since the remediation depends on the growth and biological cycles of the plant. Although it is cheaper, it requires technical strategy as well as expert project designers. Nowadays, researches are being conducted in the field of phytoremediation efficiency enhancer methods.

Keywords : Phytoremediation, Contaminants


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Global industrialization and rapid increase in human population in the twentieth century, resulted in heavy metal contamination of soil, water and air, which has created various uncompromising and fatal effects on humans and the stability of the ecosystem. Organic contaminants are biodegradable, whereas heavy metals are non degradable and are biologically magnified through the food chain. Certain plants have the property to absorb these toxic metals and help to clean up them from soils and such plants are termed as hyper accumulators. These plants are capable of accumulating heavy metals into their roots and leaves and thus, reducing their concentrations in the soil. Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly, safe and cheap technique to eliminate the pollutants. Heavy metal contamination Soil contamination is mainly caused due to the disposal of municipal wastage, which are either dumped on roadsides or used as landfills or dumped into rivers. Other sources can include uncontrolled application of pesticides, fungicides and fertilizers (Jadia, 2009). All plants have the ability to accumulate essential metals (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Se, V and Zn) from the soil solution. When concentrations of the metals inside the plant cells increase above threshold levels, it can cause direct toxicity by damaging cell structure. Phytoremediation Phytoremediation may be defined as the use of plants to remove , destroy or sequester heavy metal contaminants from various media like soil, water and air. Phytoremediation consists of the Greek word phyto which refers to plant, and the Latin suffix remedium which means to cure or restore. The main reason for the use of this technique was to collect the contaminants from the media and turn them into easily extractable form. Such a process has been used to clean up heavy metals, pesticides, xenobiotic and organic compounds, toxic aromatic pollutants and acid mine drainage. Phytoremediation of toxic metals from the contaminated soil basically involves the inactivation of these metals in soils. It works effectively if the soil has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. Phytoremediation refers to the natural ability of certain plants called hyper accumulators to accumulate and degrade harmful contaminants in soils. Many plants such as mustard plants, alpine pennycress, pigweed etc have proven to be clean, cost effective and ecofriendly technology, to reduce the heavy metal contamination in soil.

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Reason for take up of heavy metals by plants To grow and complete life cycle, plants require micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cu and Mo along with essential macronutrients (N,P,K,S,Ca and Mg). Plants have their own mechanisms to take up, translocate and store these nutrients [Fig.1]. In addition, certain sensitive mechanisms maintain the concentration of metal ions in the cells within the physiological range (Jankaite, 2005). In general, the uptake mechanism is selective as far as ions are concerned. The specialty of hypreaccumulator plants do not only accumulate high levels of essential micronutrients, but can also absorb significant amounts of non-essential metals, such as Cd (Mudgal., 2008)

Fig.1. Uptake of metals by plant roots Plant selection Plants are selected according to the levels of the contaminants of concern. The vegetation must be fast growing and hardy, easy to plant and maintain, utilizes a large quantity of water by evapotranspiration and transforms the contaminants to non-toxic or less toxic products. In temperate climates, phreatophytes (eg. hybrid poplar, willow, cottonwood, aspen) are often selected because of their fast growth, a deep rooting ability down to the surface of groundwater and large transpiration rate. Hybrid poplar was selected for the terrestrial species and pondweed, arrowroot, and coontail were selected for the aquatic species. At petrochemical sites, other trees(mulberry, apple, and osage orange) have been selected for their ability to release flavoids and phenolics ). Grasses are often planted in tandem with trees at sites with organic contaminants or as the primary remediation method. They provide a tremendous amount of fine roots in the surface soil which is effective at binding and transforming hydrophobic contaminants. Grasses are often planted between rows of trees to provide for soil stabilization and protection against wind-blown dust that can move contaminants off-site. Legumes such as alfalfa, alsike clover, and peas can be used to restore

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nitrogen to poor soils. Fescue, rye, and reed canary grass have been used successfully at several sites, especially those contaminated with petrochemical wastes. The grasses are harvested periodically and disposed to compost or burned. Hydrophobic contaminants do not translocate appreciably, so the top portion of grasses are not contaminated. The system achieves phytoremediation via rhizosphere processes and absorption to roots. Techniques in phytoremediation Techniques of phytoremediation include phytoextraction, phytofiltration, phytostabilization, phytovolatilization, phytodegradation, rhizodegradation, and phytodesalination. Phytoextraction Phytoextraction is the uptake of contaminants from soil by plant roots and their translocation to and accumulation in shoots. Metal translocation to shoots is an important biochemical process which is required in an effective phytoextraction. Phytoextraction offers significant cost advantages over alternative schemes of soil excavation and treatment or disposal. Phytofiltration Phytofiltration is the removal of pollutants from contaminated surface waters or waste waters by plants. It may be rhizofiltration (use of plant roots) or blastofiltration (use of seedlings) or caulofiltration (use of excised plant shoots). In phytofiltration, the contaminants are absorbed or adsorbed and thus their movement to underground waters in minimized. Phytostabilisation Phytostabilization is the use of certain plants for stabilization of contaminants in contaminated soils. This technique is used to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of pollutants in the environment, thus preventing their movement to groundwater or their entry into the food chain. Plants can reduce the concentration of heavy metals in soil through absorption by roots, precipitation, complexation or metal valence reduction in rhizosphere. Phytostabilization limits the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and minimizes their leaching into underground waters. However, this is not a permanent solution because the heavy metals remain in soil; only their movement is limited. Phytovolatilization

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It is the uptake of pollutants from soil by plants, their conversion to volatile form and subsequent release into the atmosphere. This can be used for the organic pollutants and some heavy metals like mercury and selenium. Phytovolatilization is the most controversial of phytoremediation technologies; it does not remove the pollutant completely but only transfers it from one form to another and into a different medium. Phytodegradation It is the degradation of organic pollutants by plants with the help of enzymes such as dehalogenase and oxygenase. Plants can accumulate organic xenobiotics from polluted environments and detoxify them through their metabolic activities. Phytodegradation is limited to the removal of organic pollutants only because heavy metals are non-biodegradable. Rhizodegradation Rhizodegradation refers to the breakdown of organic pollutants in the soil by microorganisms in the rhizosphere (extends about 1mm around the root and is under the influence of plant). The main reason for the enhanced degradation of pollutants in the rhizosphere is the increase in the number and metabolic activities of the microbes. Plants can stimulate microbial activity about 10-100 times higher in the rhizosphere by the secretion of exudates containing carbohydrates, amino acids, flavonoids. The release of nutrients containing exudates by plant roots provides carbon and nitrogen sources to the soil microbes and creates a nutrient rich environment in which microbial activity is stimulated. Phytodesalination It refers to the use of halophytic plants for removal of salts from salt-affected soils in order to enable them for supporting normal plant growth. Advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation Advantages Less expensive Aesthetically pleasing No maintenance is required once instituted Solar driven technology Soil does not undergo significant damages

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Green technology

Disadvantages Limited to sites with lower contaminant concentrations Food chain could be adversely effected by the degradation of chemicals Restricted to sites with contamination as deep as the roots of plants being used Requires a long treatment time since it depends on the growth and biological cycles of plant.

Conclusion Environmental pollution is one of the major problem that we face today. It is our duty to join our hands and put forth effort to conserve our mother nature. Phytoremediation is a green, eco-friendly and solar driven technology to reduce the contamination level in soil. It is a cost effective method that can be adopted to reduce the contamination of soil and water. Different type of plants can be used for different type of pollutants. Several researches have been carried out to study the effectiveness of plants in reducing the level of contaminants in soil. Researches are being carried out to enable plants for hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and also transgenic plants could be developed to secrete certain materials which could solubilize elements of interest. Plants have a prominent role in this system, and the entire accompanying techniques are for higher and faster bioaccumulation of contaminants in plant tissues. References
Hazrat A ., Ezzat K ., and Muhammad A S ., Phytoremediation of heavy metals concepts and application , Chemosphere , Volume 91 , May 2013 Jankaite A ., Vaseravicius S ., Heavy metals in plants: phytoremediation: plants used to r emediate heavy metal pollution, Journal of environmental engineering and land management, Volume 13, August 2005 Jadia C D ., Fulekar M H ., Phytoremediation of heavy metals : recent techniques, African Journal of Biotechnology,Volume 8, March 2009 Mudgal A ., Mudgal N ., Mudgal V ., Heavy metals in plants : Phytoremediation : plants used to remediate heavy metal pollution, Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, Volume 7, July 2008

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Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust into Mine Tailing - Based Geopolymer Bricks
Kavya R Varma1, Asst. Prof. Sangeetha S2
1. B. Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, TIST 2. Asst.Prof., Department of Civil Engineering, TIST Abstract: Copper mine tailings are used for the production of eco - friendly bricks based on Geopolymerization technology. This paper studies the feasibility of enhancing the physical and mechanical properties and the durability of copper mine tailings based geopolymer bricks with cement kiln dust (CKD). The effects of CKD content, sodium hydroxide concentration, and initial water content on unconfined compressive strength, water absorption, and weight and strength losses after immersion in water are studied. Geopolymerization, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are used to investigate the micro/nanostructure and the elemental and phase composition of Geopolymer brick specimens. The results show significant improvement of unconfined compressive stress and durability when cement kiln dust is used.

Key Words: Mine tailings (MT), geopolymer bricks, cement kiln dust (CKD), Geopolymerization.

Introduction: Global warming is the most challenging problem in the 21st century and the need for sustainable development due to the diminishing natural resources have urged recycling and reuse of wastes. Each year, significant amount of waste is generated from mining and const ruction industry. The huge amount of mine tailings from mining operations has led to growing concerns about their ecological and environmental impacts such as occupation of large areas of land, generation of windblown dust, and contamination of surface and underground water. The massive demand from housing industry due to population explosion has entailed the need for sustainable building materials especially bricks. Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a by - product collected from cement kiln exhaust gases in the OPC manufacturing process. To produce OPC, calcium carbonate and clay are ground, mixed and

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calcined by heating at very high temperatures. During this process, which is called a kiln process, calcium silicate is produced and dust, called CKD, is generated. In current practice, CKD is collected and then landfilled or fed back into the kiln process for further calcination. CKD contains very fine particles of clinker, un-reacted or partially calcined raw minerals, and fuel ash. Silica and calcium compounds constitute a major portion of CKD and minor amount of alumina and other types of metals such as Fe, K, Mg, and Na are also present. Due to the presence of Ca, Na and K, CKDs natural pH is alkaline. CKD imposes costs to cement plants due to material loss, usage of energy for collecting and reprocessing, and landfilling.

Fig 1: Cement Kiln Dust (Source:

Significant amounts of Mine Tailings (MT) are generated every year from mineral processing of ore. These are transported in slurry form to large impoundments, the disposal of which occupies large area of land. Storage of mine tailings in impoundments has major disadvantages including failure of the impoundment dam, surface erosion and dust generation, and release of heavy metals due to acid mine drainage. The technology called Geopolymerization can be used to stabilize mine tailings so that they can be used as construction material. This paper studies the enhancement of the physical and mechanical properties and the durability of MT - based Geopolymer bricks by adding a small amount of CKD. Addition of CKD also reduces the required amount of NaOH and makes the production of MT - based Geopolymer bricks more economical. The effects of CKD content and other factors on the unconfined compressive strength (UCS), water absorption, and durability of MT - based geopolymer bricks at different conditions are also studied in this paper.


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Geopolymerization is the reaction undergone by aluminosilicates in a highly concentrated alkali hydroxide or silicate solution, forming a very stable material called Geopolymer having amorphous polymeric structures with interconnected SiOAl bonds. Geopolymer not only provides performance comparable to OPC in many applications, but also shows additional advantages such as rapid development of mechanical strength, high acid resistance, no/low alkali - silica reaction (ASR) related expansion, excellent adherence to aggregates, immobilization of toxic and hazardous materials and significantly reduced greenhouse emissions. These characteristics have made Geopolymer an ideal material for sustainable development.

Geopolymer Bricks Conventional production of bricks utilizes clay and shale as source material and requires high temperature kiln firing which is not required in the case of geopolymer bricks. The characteristic of copper tailing bricks are: density 1.8 gm/cm3, water absorption 17.7% and compressive strength 260 kg/cm2 .

Fig 2: Geopolymer Bricks

(Source: )

Materials The materials used in this investigation include copper MT, CKD, reagent grade 98% NaOH, and de-ionized water. MT consists mainly of silica and alumina with substantial amount of calcium and iron. In contrast, calcite constitutes the major component of CKD and silica and alumina are the minor components. The mean particle sizes of MT and CKD are respectively around 120 m and 36.2m with 91.3% and 36.0% particles passing No. 200 (75 m) sieve, indicating that CKD is much finer than MT. The specific gravity of the MT and CKD particles is respectively 2.83 and 3.15. The MT particles have irregular shapes and the fine particles are attached to the surface of the coarse particles. The CKD particles are very fine (finer than 20 m) and have irregular shapes. The

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EDX analysis results also indicate that Ca is the major constituent of CKD and there are substantial amount of Si, Al and Mg in CKD.

Preparation of Geopolymer Brick Samples and Experimental Study For the preparation of MT - based Geopolymer specimens, CKD was first dry mixed with MT at a specified content, 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. Then the NaOH solution was slowly added to the mixture while mixing. The resulted paste was placed in the Harvard miniature compaction cylindrical moulds of 33.4 mm diameter and 72.5 mm height. Minor compaction was carried out. The compacted specimens were then compressed at a specified forming pressure for about 10 min. After the compression, the specimens were de - moulded and placed uncovered in an oven for curing at 90 C for 7 days before tested. Before testing, the specimens were left in room temperature for 6 hrs. The specimens were prepared respectively at 12%, 16%, and 20% water contents with corresponding forming pressures of 25, 0.5, and 0 MPa. Six specimens were prepared for each preparation condition; three were used for dry UCS tests and the rest were soaked in water for water absorption and durability tests. Results and Discussion The effects of adding CKD in MT Based Geopolymer bricks are discussed below. Macro - Scale Properties The figure given below shows the Dry relationship between UCS and CKD content for Geopolymer brick specimens prepared with 16% initial water content and cured at 90 C for 7 days: (a) 10 M NaOH concentration and (b) 15 M NaOH concentration.

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Fig 3: Dry and wet UCS vs. CKD content for Geopolymer brick specimens
(Source: Saeed Ahmari, Lianyang Zhang Utilization of cement kiln dust to enhance mine tailing based geopolymer bricks; Construction and Building Materials Vol 40 (2013) pp 1002-1011)

The dry UCS significantly increases with higher CKD content at both 10 and 15 M NaOH concentrations. Addition of 10% CKD at 10 and 15 M NaOH concentrations respectively results in about 200% and 90% increase in UCS. The 10% CKD added specimen at 10 M NaOH exhibits higher strength than the no CKD added one at 15 M NaOH, meaning that more than 30% NaOH can be saved by adding 10% CKD. This will further reduce the cost of MT - based Geopolymer bricks. The results, in fact, indicate the durability in an alkaline solution since after immersion of the brick specimens, the water turns into an alkaline solution due to the release of un - reacted Ca and Na. Thus, enhancing the degree of Geopolymerization by adding CKD improves the durability of the CKD - added specimens. At higher initial water content, the CKD is more likely to hydrate and contribute to the strength. Since CKD is much finer than MT, higher initial water content is required to reach the same level of consistency when CKD is used.

Addition of more CKD results in less weight loss for the MT - based Geopolymer bricks. This is possibly because of the formation of more durable Geopolymer after the incorporation of Ca. Formation of denser microstructure, charge - balancing effect of Ca, less affinity of Ca than Na to ion exchange, and formation of Ca - based products such as CaCO3 are the main reasons for enhanced durability.

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Advantages and Disadvantages The advantages of adding CKD includes reduction in air, land and water pollution decrease initial and final setting times, increases strength, pore refinement, energy efficient manufacturing process, cost effective, durability and availability. The disadvantages are reduction in workability, more water is required for mixing and also inhalation of CKD may cause lung disease. Conclusions Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions can be drawn: Addition of CKD results in significant improvement of the physical and mechanical properties and the durability of MT-based geopolymer bricks. Adding 10% CKD to MT at 10 M NaOH can lead to UCS higher than that at 15 M NaOH without CKD. The addition of CKD decreases the loss of weight and UCS of specimens after immersion in water. The silica and alumina from the CKD provide additional source of alumino - silicates and contribute to the formation of geopolymer gel. Addition of CKD to MT elevates the alkalinity and improves the dissolution of silica and alumina in MT for geopolymer formation. Ca from the added CKD can act as a charge balancing cation and be integrated into the geopolymer network. Addition of CKD helps formation of CaCO3, which coexists with the geopolymer gel. Due to its low solubility in water and alkaline solution, the formation of CaCO3 contributes to the durability of MT - based Geopolymer bricks. CKD particles are very fine and can act as filler in the pores and consequently result in a denser structure. References F, Pacheco-Torgal., J, Castro-Gomes., S, Jalali.(2008), Investigations of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder: strength and microstructure, Construction and Building Materials. Vol 22, pp. 2212-2219 Saeed Ahmari., Lianyang Zhang.(2012), Production of eco-friendly bricks from copper mine tailings through Geopolymerization, Construction and Building Materials. Vol 29, pp. 323-331 Saeed Ahmari, Lianyang Zhang.(2013), Utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) to enhance mine tailings - based geopolymer bricks, Construction and Building Materials. Vol 40, pp.1002-1011

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Use of Industrial and Agricultural Wastes for making Bricks Waste Create Bricks
Mala Pankaj1, Sangeetha S2 1. B. Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, TIST 2. Asst. Prof., Department of Civil Engineering, TIST

Abstract: Industrial and agricultural solid wastes are getting accumulated day by day. This has resulted in an increased environmental concern. Recycling of such wastes as a sustainable construction material appears to be viable solution not only to pollution problem but also an economical option to design green buildings. In view of utilization of industrial and agricultural waste material for developing sustainable construction materials, this paper reviews various waste materials in different compositions that were added to the raw material at different levels to develop waste-create bricks (WCB). Various physico-mechanical and thermal properties of the bricks incorporating different waste materials are examined. Use of WCB can provide a potential sustainable solution. Key Words: Waste Create Bricks (WCB), sustainable construction materials Introduction: Brick is one of the oldest manufactured building materials in the world. It is one of the most demanding masonry units. It has a wide range of products, with its unlimited assortment of patterns, textures and colours. Bricks can be of the common burnt clay bricks or concrete bricks. The increase in the popularity of using environmental friendly, low cost and lightweight construction materials in building industry has lead to the need of investigating how this can be achieved by benefiting to the environment as well as maintaining the material requirements affirmed in the standards. The volume of waste from daily activities, production and the industry continues to increase rapidly to meet the demands of the growing population. Therefore, alternative methods to manage and utilize these wastes have to be determined. Many researchers have tried to

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incorporate wastes into bricks to assist the production of normal and lightweight bricks. The utilization of these wastes reduces the negative effects of their disposal. The common waste materials used for this purpose include paper sludge, flyash, textile mill sludge, processed waste tea, natural fibers, cotton waste, kraft pulp, petroleum effluent treatment plant sludge, welding flux slag, etc. this paper reviews a few of these waste which can be used to develop waste create bricks. Development of Waste Create Bricks: Using Paper Sludge and Palm Oil Fuel Ash in concrete bricks Recycling paper and combustion of palm oil waste will produce wastes such as paper sludge and palm oil fuel ash, which generally have no other places to go, except landfill. POFA is obtained from burning of palm oil husk and shell. Investigations suggest that POFA has pozzolanic properties. These ashes are grey in colour and contains high amount of silica thus has high potentials to serve as cement replacement. The obtained paper sludge was disintegrated using mortar mixer for 30 minutes and sieved through 2.36 mm openings. POFA collected from palm oil mill, was dried in an oven at 105 5 C for 24 hrs, followed by grounding in a modified Los Angeles abrasion machine, so that the percent passing 600 m openings is 50%. Different mixes were prepared using varying proportions of cement, POFA and sludge. The cement content was decreased from 90% to 50% at the same time both POFA and sludge were increased by 5%. Cement and POFA are considered as cementitious materials. Cubes of nominal size 70 mm were casted and cured. Compression test and water absorption tests were done on the prepared samples. It was found that compressive strength decreases as the percentage of sludge was increased. Even though, highest compressive strength of 26.0 N/mm2 at 28 days was for M1 mix, M4 mix which contains 20% sludge and POFA was observed to gain strength of up to 8.89 N/mm2. Thus, in addition to fulfilling strength requirements, M4 mix provides an opportunity of utilizing high amount of both paper sludge and POFA. Water absorption capacity of the paper sludge-POFA bricks was found to be 39.6%. This is relatively high when compared with normal concrete. This is mainly due to its high cellulose content.

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There is about 26.1% decrease in the overall unit weight of the paper sludge - POFA brick and this is relatively quite significant. This will be advantageous in masonry partition works for high rise buildings where substantial amount of cost can be saved through weight reduction. Therefore, bricks fabricated by incorporating 20% paper sludge and 20% POFA into cement provide adequate compressive strength, tolerable water absorption, thereby depicting significant potentialities to serve as masonry unit elements. Use of Textile Mill Sludge in Burnt Clay Bricks Textile mill uses large amount of fresh water for wet operations such as bleaching, dyeing etc. The wastewater generated from these processes is treated in Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) by adding chemicals such as Alum, Ferric chloride etc. to remove traces of cotton and dyes. During this sludge gets accumulated in the primary and secondary clarifiers. Sludge generated in ETPs is not only troublesome to that industry but also affects the environment adversely. The usual disposal practice is Landfilling. Initially bricks are prepared by using 40% red soil, 40% white soil and 20% black soil by weight. Combination of these soils is called base material. Later, this base material is replaced with textile mill sludge starting from (95% base material and 5% textile mill sludge) up to (65% base material and 35% textile mill sludge). For casting of bricks, 70 mm x 70 mm x 70 mm moulds are used. After casting, bricks are air dried in shade for two days and then dried in sunlight for the next four days. Sun dried bricks are kept in muffle furnace for varying temperatures (600 C, 700 C and 800 C) and varying baking periods (8 hrs. 16 hrs. and 24 hrs.). Bricks are allowed to cool down completely and were then used for compressive strength determinations as per IS 3495 (Part-I) 1992. Water absorption tests were also done on these bricks. Textile mill contains about 30% of organic material; this will get burnt at temperatures greater than 550 C. Due to this there is weight loss and reduction in density as sludge percentage in the bricks increases. Compressive strength goes on reducing as percentage of sludge increases in bricks. As per the IS code classification of the bricks, minimum compressive strength requirement is 3.5N/mm2.Without compromising the compressive strength of 3.5N/mm2, the maximum percentage of sludge which can be added is 15% by weight. Firing temperature of 800 C and

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firing period of 24 hrs gives good results in terms of compressive strength with same percentage of sludge. Percent water absorption of bricks increases as sludge percentage increases. Increase in firing temperatures and firing period also increases water absorption of bricks as more voids are created. Water absorption should be less than 20%. This requirement is satisfied with maximum sludge content of 15%. Maximum water absorption of 42% is observed is with sludge content of 35% at all temperatures and firing period combinations. Therefore, use of 15% textile mill sludge in making burnt clay bricks is recommended and it will increase the bulk usage of sludge in building bricks, thus eliminating the problem of ultimate disposal i.e. landfilling. Use of Petroleum Effluent Treatment Plant Sludge Hazardous sludge containing a high amount of hydrocarbons and several traces of metals are generated in petroleum oil effluent treatment plants. The sludge often contains 7 10% hydrocarbon oil (very high in comparison to the permissible limit 3% for safe disposal by land filling) and so land filling is not a safe option for disposal. The partial replacement of raw materials of masonry bricks with this sludge was investigated. The hydrocarbons in sludge burn and provide about 5% of the fuel requirement for brick making. For making such bricks soil, sand, and sludge were mixed in the ratio of 1: 0.12: 0.46. Water present in the sludge was sufficient and no additional water is required. The mixture was homogenized and rectangular bricks were made. The firing temperature ranges from 1,000 to 1,100C. The compressive strength of these bricks was found to be about 16 N/mm 2 and water absorption was around 10.4%. Thus bricks prepared by replacing about 30% of the raw materials (clay, sand, and water) with the sludge were found to conform to the Indian Standard Specification for common burnt clay building bricks. By doing so there is a reduction in the requirement of process water and fuel. Use of cotton waste and Lime Stone Powder Waste The majority of cotton wastes (CW) and limestone powder wastes (LPW) are abandoned, and they cause certain serious environmental problems and health hazards. Potential use of CW and LPW combinations for producing a new low cost and lightweight composite as a building material was investigated.

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Cotton wastes are residual or secondary wastes of lint in the cotton production. These are generated from the mechanical processing of raw cotton in the spinning process. LPW is produced during quarrying operations. Bricks were made with various levels of CW, LPW, and small amount of cement as binder and water. During the preparation process, in order to allow homogeneous mixing of CW with LPW, a treatment process was undertaken that cleans the wastes from oil and causes CW diffusing in the mixture. Since the cotton wastes are of higher volume content the replacement ratios between CW and LPW are taken as volumetric. In the mixing process of samples, LPW, CW and cement contents were placed in a concrete mixer and mixed for 1 min. It was observed that CW has been uniformly scattered within the mixes. In order to obtain more homogeneous mixes, the water was sprayed by air pump onto the mixes while the mixer is turning. Another 3 min of mixing was conducted. The fresh mixes were then fed into the steel moulds. The prepared bricks were then tested for compressive strength and water adsorption. The strength decreases with increase in the replacement level of CW. For 30% CW replacement (LC-30 mix), compressive strength obtained is about 7 N/mm2. Therefore, the LC30 mix may be used for the structural applications such as masonry units whereas the LC-40 (40% replacement) mixes may be used for the non-structural applications. These bricks are about 60% lighter than the conventional concrete bricks and they behave similar to widely used autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). Results and discussion: The utilization of these wastes in bricks usually has positive effects on the properties, although the decrease in performance in certain aspects has also been observed. The positive effects such as lightweight bricks with improved shrinkage, porosity, thermal properties and strength can be obtained by incorporating the recycled wastes. Graph 1 shows the compressive strength of bricks incorporating the four waste materials. It has been found that highest compressive strength among the four is for the bricks developed using petroleum effluent treatment plant sludge.

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Compressive strength ( N/mm2)

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
Paper sludge Textile mill and POFA sludge Cotton Waste and LPW Petroleum Effluent Treatment Plant Sludge

Water Absorption (%)

Compressive strength of different WCB

Water absorption of different WBC

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Paper sludge Textile mill and POFA sludge Petroleum Cotton Effluent Waste and Treatment LPW Plant Sludge

Waste material

Waste material

Graph: 1

Graph: 2

Graph 2 shows water absorption of different bricks. Maximum water absorption is for bricks developed using paper sludge and POFA. Conclusion: It has been found that use of these wastes has lead to development of light weighted bricks with low thermal conductivity. Some of WCBs has advantage in manufacturing process such as in saving fuel etc. These light weight bricks can be effectively used for non structural parts of high rise building. Thus various WCB gives an economical option to design the green building. Reference: S.P. Raut , R.V. Ralegaonkar , S.A. Mandavgane; Development of sustainable construction material using industrial and agricultural solid waste: A review of waste-create bricks, Construction and Building Materials, vol 25 (2011) ,pp 40374042. Mangesh V. Madurwar, Rahul V. Ralegaonkar , Sachin A. Mandavgane, Application of agrowaste for sustainable construction materials: A review, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 38 (2013), pp 872878.

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Economic Dimensions Of Solid Waste Management

Cost And Economic Returns of Resource Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in Ernakulam
Associate Professor, Matha College of Technology, N.Paravur, Ernakulam E-mail:

Abstract Reduction, reuse and recycling of waste are very efficient way of waste management. These techniques not only reduce the waste production, but also initiate reuse of the materials considered waste. Waste reaching the landfills is also reduced by a great quantity by practicing salvaging of resource from waste. The potential of recovery of waste material in Ernakulam is: paper -1001.55 tonnes, plastic-200.29 tonnes, metal-200.29 tonnes and glass-300.40 tonnes from households/3 months in all the municipalities and the Corporation. This results in an average earnings of Rs.204.80 lakhs during the reference period. Waste bought and sold by the dealers generates a profit margin of more than 20%. Similarly, on an average the rag pickers collect waste from streets are plastic Rs.11/kg/day, paper Rs.5/kg/day, metals Rs. 18/kg/week and glass Rs.13/kg/week. The waste collected is sold to retail and whole sales. The scrap merchants segregate all types of waste and send it for recycling units to Edayar (Iron & Steel Recyling Units), Perumbavoor (Plastic Recycling Units), Mettur, Salem (Iron & Steel Recycling Units), etc. The organic waste recovery rate in Cochin Corporation is 39 per cent. Households in the Cochin Corporation segregate the organic wastes which are collected and transported by the Corporation workers to Brahmapuram processing plant. It shows that Ernakulam has the potential of producing 137.475 tonnes of compost per day. It could earn revenue of Rs.6,87,375/- per day through organic waste recovery. The disposal of plastic waste along with the municipal solid waste is the main problem for the urban local bodies. Recycling of plastic waste can resolve the issue. The study shows that Ernakulam generated 18.49 tonnes of plastic waste per day. It has the potential of producing brick/tiles from plastic waste and can earn revenue of Rs.28,40,064/- per day. This recyclable activities can minimize any harmful impact on environment especially to reduce the sand mining.

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Some of the households in Ernakulam district produce biogas from kitchen waste. The replacement value of biogas for LPG is worked out to be Rs.3024/- per household per annum. Unfortunately, in Ernakulam the municipalities are not involved in waste recycling activity. The resource recovery practice is privately aided by community recycling units distributed within and outside the city. These units have been able to generate a demand resulting in employment opportunity for many as rag pickers. The waste is also recovered from the household level by the retail and whole sale units within the city. These small chains of activities are good source of resources recovery in the city. But the fact that large quantities of resources are lying unutilized in the landfills. The enhancement of separation can not only serve economic and social goals but also allows more effective use of the residual organic and inert wastes to achieve maximum recycling. Key Word: Municipal solid waste, resource recovery, cost benefit.

Introduction Nearly all human activities leave behind some kind of waste. The activities like residential, commercial, institutional, industrial etc. generate waste of different types in different quantities. In recent years, the quantity of waste generated by these activities has reached a significant proportion and its disposal has become an increasingly difficult problem. In most of the Indian cities waste is collected and transported to landfills for final disposal. An efficient management practice considers not only environmental safe disposal of waste but also salvaging of those materials from waste that could be used in one form or the other. The process of salvaging materials from waste is called resource recovery from waste. Resource recovery from waste is an important method of waste reduction process. Given the existence of well-established informal and private sector systems of waste trading, it might seem that a city like Ernakulam is in no need of any intervention to support waste reduction. It should be remembered, however, that Ernakulam, like so many of the thousands of cities in the developing world, is under great pressures of modernization and change. It is a city that is officially unaware of its traditions of waste recycling. Even though the municipalities have a relatively small amount of waste to deal with daily, they are not able to handle that efficiently. Against this background this paper aims to analysis the potential of resource recovery from Municipal Solid Waste with cost benefit. Objectives of Research paper To study the potential of recovery of waste material in the study area (Ernakulam). To analyze the profit margin generated by waste dealers. To evaluate the organic waste recovery from municipal solid waste. To assess the impact of biogas plant using organic kitchen waste as a feed material.

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Research Methodology The secondary data were collected from Cochin Corporation and Kalamassery, Aluva, Angamaly, Paravur, Thiruppunithura, Perumbavoor, Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam municipalities. The primary data were collected from 25 units comprising of retail and whole sale dealers from different parts of the city. This information is used to arrive at average generation of recoverable waste from households in each municipality and the Corporation. The average renewable waste generated per month is multiplied by the household data for each municipality and the Corporation to get an estimated amount of resource recovered from waste. Resource recovery rate of organic waste and its cost benefits are calculated based on the information collected from Cochin Corporation. Data collected from 30 households who were using biogas plants with kitchen waste as feeding materials relate to Kalamassery municipality. Results and discussions The potential of recovery of waste material in Ernakulam is: paper -1001.55 tonnes, plastic-200.29 tonnes, metal-200.29 tonnes and glass-300.40 tonnes from households/3 months in all the municipalities and the Corporation. This results in an average earnings of Rs.206.17 lakhs during the reference period. Waste bought and sold by the dealers generates a profit margin of more than 20%. Similarly, on an average the rag pickers collect waste from streets are plastic Rs.11/kg/day, paper Rs.5/kg/day, metals Rs. 18/kg/week and glass Rs.13/kg/week. The waste collected is sold to retail and whole sales. Most of the metal items include containers, utensils and parts of machines which are usually sold for reuse. Other than reuse these are transported to other states for recycling purpose. The scrap merchants segregate all types of waste and send it for recycling units to Edayar (Iron & Steel Recyling Units), Perumbavoor (Plastic Recycling Units), Mettur, Salem (Iron & Steel Recycling Units), etc. Since solid waste management involves the entire population, full cooperation from the public is to be ensured. Public awareness is essential to accept their role in terms of following the rules meticulously and payment of necessary taxes and service charges. Along with that public should

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initiate waste reduction at source. Though there are lot of activities in India in the field of source reduction, an important such activities are production of compost and biogas. The organic waste recovery rate in Cochin Corporation is 39 per cent. It produces compost with an average of 45-50 tonnes per day. The compost will be marketed at the rate of Rs.5/kg. Thus the organic waste recovery earns Rs.2,25,000 to Rs.2,50,000 per day. It shows that Ernakulam has the potential of producing 137.475 tonnes of compost per day. It can earn revenue of Rs.6,87,375/- per day through organic waste recovery. The disposal of plastic waste along with the municipal solid waste is the main problem for the urban local bodies. Recycling of plastic waste can resolve the issue. The study shows that Ernakulam generated 18.49 tonnes of plastic waste per day. It has the potential of producing brick/tiles from plastic waste and can earn revenue of Rs.28,40.064/- per day. It is experienced that bricks made from plastic waste improves the life of building and particularly the requirement of materials like sand, cement and aggregates is very much less when compared to other construction. This recyclable activities can minimize any harmful impact on environment especially to reduce the sand mining. Some of the households in Ernakulam district produce biogas from kitchen waste. The replacement value of biogas for LPG is worked out to be Rs.3024/- per household per annum. Biogas plants provide several benefits. Organic waste is the most significant source of biofeed. By using kitchen waste as feed materials for biogas, 56.67% of the respondents get biogas only up to 1 hour. The study reveals that up to 50% savings in LPG is possible by using biogas. However, households did not have any clear idea on this as no measurement has been done or observations on this aspect. Cleanliness in the kitchen and environmental upgradation is an important benefit of biogas production. The user households have a positive feeling of realization of these benefits. More than 63% have reported that the biogas has reduced fuel expenses and 20% of the respondents reported that it reduced environmental pollution. Biogas is definitely an advantage as far as women are concerned. Female sex is more sensitive in operating of biogas than males. Forty percent of the biogas plant owners are very satisfied and 26.67%, satisfied. But 33.33% are dissatisfied about the performance of biogas plants. The reasons for dissatisfaction are due to inadequate waste quantity and thus reduce gas generation. This apart, society enjoys certain benefits in terms of environmental upgradation i.e. cleanliness in the absence of littered solid waste here and there, conservation of land, water and air to maintain ecological balance etc. Suggestions and Conclusions The problems related to solid waste can be reduced to a great extent if a proper management system is practiced. An efficient management system not only takes into consideration environmentally safe disposal, but also salvaging of resources from waste. The reduction, reuse and recycling of waste are very efficient way of waste management. These techniques not only reduce the waste production, but also initiate reuse of the materials considered waste. Waste reaching the landfills is also reduced by a great quantity by practicing salvaging of resource from waste.

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Unfortunately, in Ernakulam the municipalities are not involved in waste recycling activity. The resource recovery practice is privately aided by community recycling units distributed within and outside the city. These units have been able to generate a demand resulting in employment opportunity for many as rag pickers. The waste is also recovered from the household level by the retail and whole sale units within the city. These small chains of activities are good source of resources recovery in the city. But the fact that large quantities of resources are lying unutilized in the landfills. Cochin Corporation took the initiative in separation of the organic waste and process into manure. A few households in Ernakulam segregate the organic waste and process them into manure and energy by using vermicompost and biogas technology. The enhancement of separation can not only serve economic and social goals but also allows more effective use of the residual organic and inert wastes to achieve maximum recycling.

References 1. UNEP, 2005, Solid Waste Management, Compiled by CalRecovery, Inc for United Nations Environment Programme. (, p.558 2. Tchobanoglous G., 2003, Solid Waste Management in Environmental Engineering, (Ed. Salvato J.A., Nemerow N.L. and Agardy F.J), 5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New Jersey. 3. Furedy, C., 1990, Social Aspects of Solid Waste Recovery in Asian Cities, Environmental Sanitation Review, No. 30. Bangkok: Environmental Sanitation Information Centre. 4. World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987, Our Common Future, Oxford University press, Oxford.

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Sustainable Urban Planning

Double Skin Facade System A Sustainable Strategy for High Rise Buildings
Krishna Priya R1, Christy Paul2
1. B.Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, TIST 2. Asst. Prof. . Department of Civil Engineering, TIST Abstract: Double Skin Facade systems are employed increasingly in high profile buildings, designed by famous Architects, using acclaimed engineering consultants, and being touted as an exemplary green building strategy. A Double Skin Facade is optimally one of the best options in managing the interaction between the outdoors and the internal spaces. Demands for energy savings, thermal and visual comfort and a high-tech image for new building envelops can be met with a Double Skin Facade (DSF), which is widely encouraged, proposed and increasingly designed by architects. DSF represents an additional skin on the outside wall of the building with the idea of reducing building energy demand. This skin can be either opaque or transparent, and it depends on the architectural concept of designed building .Recently, it has received much attention as opposed to the more typically glazed curtain wall. The design of DSF involves decisions on geometric parameters, glass selection, ventilation strategy, shading, day lighting, aesthetics, wind loads, and maintenance and cleaning cost expectations. Implementation of DSF in both new and existing buildings has seen broad application in recent years. If properly designed, they create a buffer zone between the internal and external environment, thus reducing the cooling and heating loads. There are several parameters that influence the design and performance of a building. But the building location and climate should be the most important considerations while designing a DSF. Applying ventilated DSF with controlled shading device system would be an efficient and sustainable method for regulating the internal atmosphere of buildings. Keywords: Double Skin Facade, energy conservation, ventilation, stack effect.

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Introduction: Modern movement in architecture has resulted in a large number of high rise buildings with glazed facades which increases the energy load of the buildings. Demands for energy savings, thermal and visual comfort and a high-tech image for new building envelops can be met with a Double Skin Facade (DSF), which is widely encouraged, proposed and increasingly designed by architects. A Double Skin Facade is optimally one of the best options in managing the interaction between the outdoors and the internal spaces. Regardless of the facade type, functional performance goals for any type of facade are similar, primarily separating the indoor from the outdoor environments, blocking adverse external environmental effects and maintaining internal comfort conditions with minimum energy consumption. Double skin envelops are successful in controlling thermal building performance since they create a buffer zone between the internal and external environment. Reduction in energy consumption is directly related to improved thermal performance since lower heating and cooling loads improve energy efficiency. Objectives: 1. To discuss the concept and structure of Double Skin Facade System. 2. To discuss the energy efficiency of Double Skin Facade in summer and in winter. 3. To discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Double Skin Facade. Concept of Double Skin Facade System: According to the source book of the Belgium Building Research Institute [BBRI], (2002), An active facade is a facade covering one or several storeys constructed with multiple glazed skins. The skin can be air tightened or not. In this kind of facade, the air cavity situated between the skins is naturally or mechanically ventilated. The air cavity ventilation may vary with time. Devices and systems are generally integrated in order to improve the indoor climate with active or passive techniques. Most of the time such systems are managed in semi automatic way via control systems. Structure of Double Skin Facade system: The Belgium Building Research Institute describes the structure/layers of a Double Skin Facade System as the following: An exterior glazing which is usually a hardened single glazing. This exterior facade can be fully glazed.

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An insulating interior double glazing unit. This could be clear, low-thermal emissive coating (which makes a significant contribution to the thermal quality of insulating glass) or solar control glazing. Generally, this layer is not completely glazed.

The air cavity between the two panes- The width of the cavity can be varying as a function of the applied concept between 200mm to more than 2m. This width influences the way that the facade is maintained.

The air cavity between the two panes can be totally natural, fan supported or mechanically ventilated. The five common ventilation modes are outdoor air curtain, indoor curtain, air supply, air exhaust and buffer zone.

Automatically controlled solar shading is integrated inside the cavity for protective reasons.

Section of a Double Skin Facade Types of Double Skin Facades: Based on the type or geometry of the cavity, DSF are classified into: Box Window type: In this case horizontal and vertical partitioning divide the facade into smaller and independent boxes. Shaft Box type: In this case, a set of box window elements are placed in the facade. These elements are connected via vertical shafts situated in the facade. These shafts ensure an increased stack effect. Corridor facade: Horizontal partitioning is realized for acoustical, fire security or ventilation reasons.

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Multi storey double skin facade: In this case, no horizontal or vertical partitioning exists between the two skins. The air cavity ventilation is realized via large openings near the floor and the roof of the building.

Energy efficiency of Double Skin Facade system: While several studies have been conducted to prove the energy efficiency of DSFs, nothing conclusive has been stated. However, most believe that the DSF system can provide greater thermal insulation due to the outer skin both in winter and in summer. Stack ventilation is where air is driven through the building by vertical pressure differences developed by thermal buoyancy. The warm air inside the building is less dense than cooler air outside, and thus will try to escape from openings high up in the building envelope while cooler denser air will enter openings lower down. The process will continue if the air entering the building is continuously heated, typically by casual or solar gains. During summer, the air in the cavity does away with the heat through stack effect keeping the temperature of the inner skin lower. Thus, the conduction, convection, and radiation from the inner pane to the occupied space reduces and less heat is transferred from the outside to the inside. These results in less energy required to cool the space. Shading devices contained in the air cavity such as horizontal blinds can also be used to control of solar heat gain. These devices can be fixed or operable units that are controlled by the occupant or by sensors within the building. Venting is critical to prevent overheating during summer periods. When the air is continuously flowing through both inlets and outlets on the inner skin, the temperature can be reduced up to 5.5oC.

DSF in summer

DSF in winter

During the winter season, in a naturally ventilated DSF, the closed cavity functions as a thermal buffer zone which reduces heat losses and enables passive thermal gain from solar radiation. In a mechanically ventilated system, the air is preheated in the cavity and through the Air

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Handling Unit (AHU) supplied in the building. Thus, by using DSFs buildings can capitalize on passive use of air currents over mechanical means of air-conditioning, thereby reducing the energy consumption of the building. Day lighting is another area where DSFs can minimize energy consumption. With its increased glazing coverage, DSFs can improve the access to natural sunlight in the day which is far better than artificial lighting. Solar shading devices can minimize excessive glare and heat during peak heat periods. DSFs also assist in night time ventilation. Advantages of DSF: 1. Lower construction cost compared to solutions that can be provided by the use of electrochromic, thermochromic, or photochromic panes.
2. Acoustic Insulation: Reduced internal noise levels inside an office building can be

achieved by reducing both the transmission from room to room (internal noise pollution) and the transmission from outdoor sources
3. Thermal Insulation: The DSF can provide greater thermal insulation due to the outer skin

both in winter and in summer. 4. Energy savings and reduced environmental impacts: By obviating a mechanical air supply, electricity costs for air supply can be reduced. Providing low solar factor and low U value minimises cooling load of adjacent spaces. 5. Reduction of the wind pressure effects: The DSFs around high rise building can serve to reduce the effects of wind pressure. 6. Transparency Architectural design: Transparency in architecture has always been desirable 7. Natural ventilation: One of the main advantages of the Double Skin Facade systems is that they can allow natural (or fan supported) ventilation. 8. Fire Escape: The glazed space of a double skin facade may be used as a fire escape. 9. Low U-value and g-value: The two main advantages of the double skin facades are the low thermal transmission (U-value) and the low solar heat gain coefficient (g-value). Disadvantages of DSF:

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1. Higher Construction Costs: DSFs are significantly more expensive to install than a conventional curtain wall systems. This is mainly due to the engineering costs (mechanical and structural), the amount of special glass required, and the unfamiliarity of people with these systems thus leading to higher installation costs. 2. Reduction of rentable office space: The width of the intermediate cavity of a DSF can vary from 20 cm to several meters. This, results to the loss of useful space. 3. Additional maintenance and operational costs: Comparing the Double Skin and Single Skin type of facade, the Double skin type has higher cost regarding construction, cleaning, operating, inspection, servicing, and maintenance. 4. Overheating problems: If the DSF system is not properly designed, it is possible that the temperature of the air inside the cavity is going to increase overheating the interior space. 5. Increased weight of the structure: As it is expected the additional skin increases the weight of the construction which increases the cost. 6. Acoustic Insulation: it is possible that sound transmission problems (room to room or floor to floor) can take place if the facade is not properly designed. Conclusions: 1. DSF is one of the best options in managing the interaction between the outdoors and the internal spaces of buildings. 2. It maintains internal comfort conditions with minimum energy consumption 3. DSFs are systems that highly depend on the outdoor conditions since they allow outside conditions to influence the indoor climate. 4. Due to the additional skin, a thermal buffer zone is formed reduces heat losses in winter. During summer, the warm air in the cavity is exhausted through the opening in the upper part by stack effect which reduces solar radiation heat gains. 5. Double Skin Facade has to be designed for a certain building location and facade orientation otherwise; the performance of the system will not be satisfactory. Reference:
Alibaba, H.Z., Ozdeniz, M.B, (2011), Thermal Comfort of Multiple Skin Facades in warm climate offices, Scientific Research and Essays, Vol. 6(19), pp.4065-4078. Arons, D, Properties and Applications of Double Skin Building Facades, MSc Thesis in Building Technology (MIT), USA, 2000. Harrison ., Boake, (2003) ,Tectonics of the Environmental Skin, 2003.

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Understanding Acoustic Leak Detection Methods For Water Distribution Systems

Amith Krishnan. M1, Asst. Prof. Rinu Mary Varghese2
1B.Tech Student, 2- Asst. Prof. Dept. of Civil Engineering TIST, Arakunnam e-mail Id:

Abstract: The water industry worldwide is facing challenges of water and revenue losses. Leakage can range from a drip to a major gusher from a burst pipe. Acoustic leak-detection techniques are proven to be effective and have been widely used in water-distribution systems for several decades. This paper discusses the different acoustic leak detection equipments used. These include listening devices, leak noise correlators and tethered hydrophone system. The working of different acoustic devices and the factors influencing the effectiveness of acoustic methods have been briefly explained in this paper. Acoustic devices detect the sound of water escaping the pipe or the vibrations induced by leaking water from the pipes. A general idea about leak sounds and factors on which these leak sounds depend are also discussed in this study. Other major topics that are presented includes pinpointing, difficulties with plastic pipes, in pipe measurements. The study mainly emphasizes on the working and background of different acoustic leak detection systems.

Key Words: Leak detection, Acoustic leak devices, water leak surveys.

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Introduction: WATER distribution system is a network of pipelines that distribute water to the consumers. These systems are designed to adequately satisfy the water requirements of domestic, commercial, industrial and fire fighting purposes. A major portion of water is lost during the process of water supply. Around 20 30 percentage of production is lost during supplying. Water losses are mainly due to leakage, metering errors, public usage such as fire-fighting and pipe flushing. Old or poorly constructed pipelines, inadequate corrosion protection, poorly maintained valves and mechanical damage are some of the factors contributing to leakage. Leakage can also occur in different parts of the distribution system such as the valves, joints, distribution pipes etc. In fact, many leaks continue below the surface for long periods of time and remain undetected. When water is lost after treatment, but before delivered for the intended use, then money and energy is wasted. Leaks are also a threat to public health risk. Thus leak detection in water distribution system is very necessary. There are various methods for detecting water distribution system leaks. Acoustic equipments can be commonly used to detect leaks. These devices detect the sound of water escaping the pipe or the vibrations induced by leaking water from the pipes. Usually the acoustic devices includes pinpoint listening devices, geophones and noise correlators etc. Without a leak detection program, leaks may only be found when they become visible at the surface, or when major infrastructure collapses. Detecting leaks is only the first step in eliminating leakage. Leak repair is the more costly step in the process. In water leak detection, acoustic techniques have proven to be effective and are widely used in water distribution systems. Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To discuss the different acoustic leak detection devices. 2. To give an overview on method of acoustic leak detection and in pipe measurements. 3. To discuss the effectiveness of this method under different circumstances.

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Research Methodology: This research paper is a work, based on published international journals and other theoretical literature available in the library and on the websites. Leak Detection Equipments: Detection equipments usually includes listening rods, aquaphones and geophones (ground microphones), which can be either of mechanical or electronic type. These devices use mechanisms or sensitive materials such as piezoelectric elements to detect leak-induced sound or vibration. Now a days, electronic devices have signal amplifiers and noise filters to make the leak signal more clearer in order to exactly pinpoint the location of the leak. Leak noise correlators are microprocessor-based devices that pinpoint leaks automatically based on the cross-correlation method. These devices are portable. In this method of leak detection, acoustic leak signals can be measured with vibration sensors or by keeping hydrophones at two pipe contact points usually fire hydrants or valves that enclose the location of the suspected leak. Leak signals will be transmitted from the sensors to the correlator wirelessly. There is a time lag between the measured acoustic leak signals. The location of the leak can be found out based on an algebraic relationship between the time lag, distance between the sensors, and the velocity of propagation of sound waves in the distribution pipe. The distance between sensors can be measured on site or can be read from distribution system maps. Propagation velocities of sound waves vary for various pipe types and sizes. These velocities can be measured easily on site using suitable devices. Overview of Acoustic Leak Detection Technique Acoustic leak detection equipment can detect the sound or vibration induced by water escaping from pipes under pressure. When water leaks from a pressurized pipe, it will create a sound that travels through the pipe wall, the water column, and even to the ground surface. Hydrophones along with other surface listening devices amplifies the leak signal and utilize noise filters to detect leak noises transmitted through the pipelines. The listening devices can be placed on the ground surface, or can be used to penetrate the soil and get closer to the leak source buried further underground. Hence, for a long length of pipeline, it would be necessary to have an idea of the location of the leak. Inspecting the full length of pipe without having an idea of the

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location is not practically possible. Further, soil is not a good acoustic medium and in many cases the acoustic activity associated with a leak does not propagate to the ground surface. The acoustic leak signal will travel through both the pipe wall and the water column in the pipeline. Accelerometers are sensors which can be mounted on the surface that measure the vibration induced into the pressurized pipe wall by the leak noise. By measuring the vibration at two or more locations, the source of vibration can be found out. Usually vibration sensors or accelerometers are attached to fire hydrants, valves or other contact points with the pipe.

Small leak on cast iron water main. In-pipe Measurements Inside the pipeline, the intensity of sound waves reduce because of material intrinsic absorption. The leak signals has low frequency contents and highly attenuates in plastic pipes. Attenuation increases with diameter of the pipe. Thus the distance between the sensors and the quality of the sensor are of great importance. Larger diameters and more flexible pipes tend to attenuate higher frequencies. The velocity of propagation of sound waves in water pipes depends on the pipe material or the elasticity modulus and the ratio between diameter and wall thickness. Thus in larger diameters and more flexible pipes will attenuate at higher frequencies. Accordingly, low-frequency signals will be more dominant. This effect makes leak signals susceptible to interference from low frequency vibrations, e.g., from pumps and road traffic.

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Effectiveness of Acoustic Methods The effectiveness of acoustic leak-detection methods will depend on several factors including pipe size, type, and depth, soil type and water table level, leak type and size, system pressure, sensitivity, frequency range of the equipment and interfering noise from the surroundings. The pipe material and diameter affects the predominant frequencies of leak signals the larger the diameter and the less rigid the pipe material, the lower the predominant frequencies. This effect makes leak signals susceptible to interference from low-frequency vibrations, e.g., from pumps and road traffic. The pipe material and diameter significantly effects in the pipe measurements. For example, leak signal travel farthest in metal pipes and are attenuated greatly in plastic ones. The larger the diameter of the pipe the greater the attenuation, and makes it difficult to find the location of the leak. The strength of leak signals at the ground surface is influenced significantly by the soil type and the water table level. Leak sounds are more audible on sandy soils than on clayey ones, and on an asphalt or concrete surface than on grass. Leak signals are muffled or covered if the pipe is below the water table level. The loudness of a leak heard depends upon the size of the leak, water pressure, and depth of the pipe. Hard, dry materials like asphalt, concrete, rock, and compacted soil transmit sounds better than wet clay, sand, or loose soil. The sounds travel further on iron and steel pipes than on PVC pipes or Poly pipes.

Water Leak Pinpointing.

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Conclusions: 1. The leaks in water pipelines can be acoustically detected through measurements taken inside the pipes using a hydrophone, aquaphone, geophones, or a leak noise correlator. 2. This technique of leak detection in water pipelines is difficult in plastic pipes when compared to that of metal pipes mainly due to the difference in acoustic characters between the pipes. 3. The pipe material and diameter significantly effects the pipe measurements and the effectiveness of this method of leak detection. 4. When the length of the water distribution pipelines are large, it is not practically possible to use the listening sticks or ground microphones. In such cases leak noise correlators can be used efficiently. References: Khulief Y. A. ; Khalifa A. ; Mansour Ben R. ; and M. A. Habib , (2012), Acoustic Detection of Leaks in Water Pipelines Using Measurements inside Pipe, Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice ,Vol 3; Pg : 47-54. AWWA, Water audits and leak detection, Manual of Water Supply Practices No. M36, 1990. Hunaidi, O. Detecting Leaks in Water-Distribution Pipes, Concrete Technology update No 40, Canada, 2000. Mutikanga Harrison E. , Sharma Saroj K. , and Vairavamoorthy Kalanithy.,(2013) Methods and Tools for Managing Losses in Water Distribution Systems , Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management , Vol 139; Pg: 166-174.

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Green Walls
Annu Anna Alex
Asst. Prof. Rinu Mary Varghese Toc H Institute of Science and Technology, Kerala e-mail Id:

Abstract Urban development posses multiple problems, including environmental pollution, reduction in biodiversity, and the disappearance of the natural environment. Man-made environments and structures consume a large amount of natural resources through their extensive use of energy and materials. With growing concern about the various environmental issues and the need for a greener environment, there is an increasing interest in using green walls as a part of a sustainable strategy for the urban environment. Green wall also known as living walls refers to vegetation that grows directly onto a buildings faade or to vegetation that is grown on a separate structural system that can be freestanding and adjacent or attached to the wall. This emerging technology can contribute significant environmental, economical and social benefits to our built environment. Green walls offer benefits including aesthetics improvements, improved air quality, increasing the thermal performance of the building, reduction of noise pollution, increasing urban biodiversity and urban food production and improvement of health and well-being. This paper introduces the technology and discusses the benefits that the green wall can offer to a built environment. It also describes the current methods of implementing green walls and points out some elements that should be considered for their successful implementation.

Keywords: Green wall, living wall, vertical gardens.

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Introduction Man-made actions have a great impact on the ecosystem. It has caused disruptive and damaging effects, through the creation of artificial landscapes, the generation of energy, the construction of buildings and excavations. Today, the magnitude of the disruption of ecosystems and our pressure on natural environments is greater than ever. From the environmental viewpoint, buildings account for nearly half of all energy consumption and raw material use around the globe. Sustainable architecture is an architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy and development space. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to conserve energy and ecology in the design of built environment. With the growing concern about destruction and declination of ecosystem due to buildings, there has been increasing interest in using green walls as part of a sustainable strategy for the urban environment. A green or living wall is an emerging technology that integrates vegetation into the built environment. Green wall is an important addition to any building, home or office, and acts as a natural air filter, reduces noise and greatly improves the aesthetics of the building. It can also manage storm water runoff as well as insulates the building throughout the year.

Objectives of Paper: 1. To introduce green wall and it evolution from earlier concepts. 2. To discuss the methods of implementing green wall and the elements that should be considered for its successful implementation. 3. To discuss the benefits of a green wall.


The present study is largely a library work, based on published official secondary data and theoretical literature available in the library and on the websites.

History of Green Walls The concept of green walls is an ancient one. One of the best examples in architectural history is the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven ancient wonders of the world.

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Techniques similar in style and effect to green walls that were extensively used before include espalier, turf houses and earth shelters. Espalier, the system of training plants to twine into a latticework, is nearly as old as human civilization. The latticework the plant is adhered to reduces the strain and encourages an upright habit thats necessary where space is limited. Earth shelters and turf houses are defined by their use of existing or built-up masses of earth as protective insulation around a building. These houses are commonly built into existing hillsides with at least a 15-18 layer of soil and plants encasing one or more of the walls and roof.

Fig. 1: Espalier

Fig. 2: Turf Houses

(Source : Green Walls Green walls are sometimes called living green walls, green faades, bio walls or vertical vegetation. The term refers to vegetation that grows directly onto a buildings faade or to vegetation that is grown on a separate structural system that can be freestanding and adjacent or attached to the wall. The idea for living green walls was first patented by Stanley Hart White in 1938, however it is Patrick Blancs name that resounds through the industry. After creating one of the most famous green walls at the Musee du Quai Branly in Paris, he was designated the godfather of the vegetal wall, sparking a revolution in sustainable architecture.

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Types of Green Walls

1. Climbing Facades The easiest way to introduce a green wall is to use simple climbing (or trailing) plants. Plants are established in the ground or in suitable troughs at the base of the wall to be covered. A framework is then attached to the wall for the plants to climb-up to provide the wall with its green covering. To aid the climbing process on buildings a number of systems exist such as wire mesh frames, trellises and steel cables. Ivy plants grow easily and can attach themselves to walls and the side of building with minimal additional intervention. Another easy way to introduce a living green wall is to plant on the top and allow growth to trail down. This is particularly effective in small enclosed areas and even on internal walls.

Fig. 3: Climbing Facades (Source: 2. Modular Living Walls Though the systems used for modular living walls are usually more sophisticated than climbing faades, aesthetics and functionality offered by the modular living walls is much more than that offered by the climbing facades. There are two main techniques (though hybrid solutions do exist). a. Hydroponic System (Soil less)] This technique takes advantage of the fact that plants do not require soil to grow. Soil simply provides mechanic root support for the plant and it is only water (along with the minerals stored in the soil) that is required (in addition to light and carbon dioxide from the air). Hydroponic systems are generally grown on pre-constructed panels prior to vertical installation using a specialist growing medium as root support. When ready the panels are

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transported to site and attached to a framework on the side of the wall/structure to be covered. Once installed plants will continue to grow and further cover the structure. b. Substrate/ Soil Based System In this system moulded troughs or containers are built on or attached to existing walls. Planting is supported by soil-based substrates; utilizing a lightweight combination of recycled materials containing the right balance of nutrients with a free-draining medium.

Fig. 4: Modular Living Walls (Source : Elements of a Green Wall 1. Orientation Plants grown at the top of a wall will have different light, air movement and moisture conditions than those located near the bottom or lower parts of the wall. It is important to understand the orientation, the microclimatic conditions as well as the amount of light required for plant survival, especially in indoor conditions which may require supplementary light. 2. Plant Selection Plant selection will depend on a number of related factors. A key factor will be the location of the green wall with regard to temperature, light levels and exposure to the elements. The function of the wall will also determine the type of plants required. Walls designed to improve air quality shall have species that absorb dust and toxins. It is also beneficial to select plants that require similar levels of irrigation to reduce the complexity of the irrigation system required. 3. Irrigation A reliable irrigation system is essential for a successful long-term installation. The irrigation systems used will vary from basic timer controlled dripper lines to computer

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controlled systems with automatic moisture monitoring, leakage detection and pressure regulation. Location and the plant species used will determine level of irrigation required and any additional nutrient supply. 4. Maintenance The maintenance of a green wall is a key factor in its success. The level of maintenance will include need for plant pruning, feeding and replacement. Some systems will also need monitoring to ensure structural elements remain secure and do not deteriorate, e.g. correct tension in wire-rope systems. Benefits of a Green Wall 1. Aesthetic Improvements Green walls improve the aesthetics of the building. They can also serve to create privacy and a sense of enclosure while limiting the negative psychological effects associated with property demarcation. 2. Reduction of the Urban Heat Island Effect The lack of vegetation in dense urban environments coupled with the heat reflected off hard surfaces of both high rise buildings and streets and paving contributes to higher temperatures within cities. In warmer temperatures, when a building envelope is covered with vegetation, the surrounding air temperature can be decreased, which not only leads to energy savings for cooling building interiors, but also lowers UHI. 3. Improved Air Quality Many interior living walls are built to improve indoor air quality. Through bio-filtration, carbon dioxide (CO2) and harmful toxins such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are absorbed through both the plants and planting medium as indoor air is drawn through the living wall.

Fig 5: Biofilteration by Living walls(Source :

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4. Improved Energy Efficiency Green walls can reduce the temperature fluctuations at a wall's surface from a range of 10-60C (50-140F) to range of 5-30C (41-86F), in turn limiting the movement of heat between building walls. They also help to lower the air temperature around intake valves, which means HVAC units will require less energy to cool air before being circulated around a building. 5. Protection of Building Temperature fluctuations over a building's lifetime can be damaging to organic construction materials in building faades. Green walls provide an additional layer of exterior insulation and thereby limit thermal fluctuations. Green walls protect exterior finishes and masonry from UV radiation and rain. They can also increase the seal or air tightness of doors, windows, and cladding by decreasing the effect of wind pressure. 6. Noise Reduction The vegetated surface provided by strategic urban greenery such as green walls and roofs will block high frequency sounds, and when constructed with a substrate or growing medium support can also block low-frequency noises. 7. Property Value The installation of living green walls, either inside or outside, secures LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) points for low water usage and efficient irrigation, which can help companies show their dedication to sustainable and eco-friendly solutions. This in turn helps to increase a propertys value by giving a positive perception of a modern building. 8. Increased Biodiversity and Urban Food Production Green walls can help mitigate loss of biodiversity due to the effects of urbanization. They help sustain a variety of plants, pollinators and invertebrates, and provide habitat and nesting places for various bird species. Green walls offer the opportunity for urban agriculture, such as vertical gardens of small fruits, vegetables, and herbs.

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9. Improved Health and Well-Being Buildings that feature and promote access to vegetation have been documented as having a greater positive human health impact than those without. Urban environments have a profound impact on our physical and mental wellness. Greenery softens this hard environment, acting as a tonic to ease stress and fatigue. 10. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Several water-recycling systems can be applied to green walls. These systems pump grey water through a green wall, which then passes through filters, gravel, and marine plants. Treated water is then sent to a grey water holding tank for household or irrigation use or released into the public water treatment system. Conclusion Green walls are a key component of living architecture and they will become increasingly important fixtures in our cities in the years to come. Green wall technologies provide a wide range of options for designers who are interested in using the building envelope to accomplish multiple objectives and to provide new free standing design features on the interior and exterior of buildings. Due to the many positive benefits of living walls, they are gaining interest from designers as a new building technology that can help improve our urban environment as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Living walls are a new green way to address climate change and an emerging technology that offers a new way to green the built environment. References 1. Jacklyn Johnston & John Newton, Building Green, A guide to using plants on roofs, walls and pavements, 2004. 2. Hart Farrell Hedberg, Vertiscaping, A Comprehensive Guide to Living Walls, Green Screens and Related Technologies, 2008. 3. Green Over Grey Living Walls, 4. Green Wall,

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Sustainable Planning in Urban Transport for the Developing Cities in India

Basil Basheerudeen1, Chinnu Gopakumar2, Hashifa Razak 3
2 1

Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay; mail Post Graduate, TocH Institute of Science and Technology; mail ID: 3 Post Graduate, Gnamani College of Engineering, Namakkal; mail

Abstract: The pace of urbanization continues to be rapidly in India, one of the emerging urban economies in the world. Rapid urbanization has generated corresponding increase in the demand for travel as seen in the sharp rise in ownership of private vehicles. As a result, the problem of congestion and its consequences in the form of travel delays, loss of productivity, deterioration in the quality of air, noise pollution and mounting number of road fatalities are the debilitating downsides of life in the urban areas. Although circumstances differ across cities in India, certain basic trends which determine transport demand such as substantial increase in urban population, household incomes, and industrial and commercial activities are the same. These changes have exacerbated the demand for transport a demand that most Indian cities have been unable to meet. The main reason for this is the prevailing imbalance in modal split besides inadequate transport infrastructure and its suboptimal use. However, transport infrastructure development has not kept pace with the increase in travel demand. On the other hand, the share of public transport vehicles has declined in the same period. Economic efficiency of cities and well-being of urban inhabitants are directly influenced by mobility or the lack of it. It seeks to reduce travel demand by encouraging better integration of land use and transport planning. The study focuses on the need to move people not vehicles and ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable access for the growing number of city residents. The emphasis is on encouraging greater use of public transport, establishing effective regulatory, institutional and enforcement mechanisms. Keywords: Sustainable Transport, Urbanization, Pollution

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Introduction The burgeoning urban population of India is engaging in a variety of economic activities in rapidly expanding the cities, which are encountering fast escalations in the urban travel demand. Between 1951 and 2011, the urban population has quadrupled, from 62.4 million to 377.1 million, and its proportion has increased from 17.3% to 31.16%The number of million-plus cities in India has increased more than four times over the last three decades from 12 in 1981 to 53 in 2011 (Table 1). Million-plus cities together have a population of 160.7 million and account for 43% of total urban population of the country. Transport sector accounts for a share of 6.4% in Indias Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Travel Demand The level of urban travel demand in India is increasing substantially over the years. The increased travel demand has resulted in rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles in the cities. In the six major metropolises of India, growth in motor vehicles has outpaced population growth. The contributing factors increase in population, mobility rate, that is, the average number of trips per person per day and increase in trip length due to an increase in the physical expansion of the city.
1. Vehicular Growth and Road Length

A majority of motor vehicles in India are concentrated in urban centres and it is alarming to note that 32% of these vehicles are plying in metropolitan cities alone, which constitute just around 11% of the total population (Fig.1). Between 1951 and 2004, motor vehicle population grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of close to 11% compared to CAGR of 3.6% in the total road length, with National Highway segment increasing by a mere 2.3%. The growth of vehicular traffic on roads has been far greater than the growth in road network; as a result the main arteries face capacity saturation as shown in Table.1.

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Percentage Growth

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Growth Rate of Population & 13.94 Vehicles in Tier I cities

9.1 10.48 6.78 1.96 2.81 1.5 1.44 2.24 2.19 7.75 3.36 1.99 1.89

Population Vehicle Tier I Cities

Fig.1.Growth Rate of Population and Vehicles in Metropolitan Cities

Table.2.Decadal Growth of Population and Vehicles

2. Trip Rate and Trip length

An increase in per capita trip making and trip lengths are characterised by increase in population, motor vehicle growth, increased income, industrial and commercial activities. The trip rate in urban India is continuously increasing over the years (Table.2.). For example, in Delhi, the average number of trips per person per day has increased from 0.49 during 1969 to 1.10 during 2001. Average daily trip lengths for metro cities are over 8 km. All other developing cities are at 6 kms or less (Fig.2). There is also a change in the pattern of trip distribution; more and more trips are being made in urban areas for work, followed by education.

Trip Length (Kms)

Trip Length in Kms 15 10 5 0

Modal Split The largest share of the vehicular fleet in the metropolises comprises of two-wheelers, driving the unprecedented growth of motor vehicle population in the developing cities of India (Fig.4). Cities with better public transport systems, especially those with rail based mass transit systemsKolkata

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and Mumbaishow a relatively lower share of two-wheelers and total registered vehicles (Fig.5.). The increase in two wheeler population can be attributed by increased income level prompt the trip makers to privatise the cheapest available mode of transport. It provides flexibility in travel time, reduced delays, less space for parking etc.

Fig.4. Share of Two wheelers with respect to total Fig.5. Modal share with respect to size of cities vehicle population in Metropolis Public Transport and Non-Motorised Transport It has been noticed that the reliance on public transport vehicles is declining, with a corresponding rise in the dependence on personal motor vehicles. For example, in Delhi, while the number of personal vehicles per 1000 population has expanded about 3 times (between 1981 and 2001), the number of buses per 1000 population has increased only 2.3 times. In actual practice the number of buses on the roads is far less as buses more than eight years old are not allowed to ply on the city roads. Further, the share of public transport vehicles in the total vehicle fleet in India has been declining whereas the share of buses in the total motor vehicle fleet was 11 per cent in 1951; it came down to only 1.1 per cent in 2001(Table.4). Non-motorized transport seems to have lost its earlier importance in the larger metropolises. Statistics show that the share of bicycle trips out of the total trips in Delhi has declined from 17 per cent in 1981 to 7 per cent in 1994. This is perhaps due to increasing trip lengths and the increasing affordability of motorized personal vehicles. Another factor is that non-motorized modes are exposed to greater risk of accidents as they share a common right of way with motorized vehicles.

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Table.4. Share of Public Transport Buses in Total Vehicle Population

Environmental Pollution The total registered vehicle fleet in India is 112 million in 2010. Of the passenger transport Two wheelers are major in number due to their cost,ease of use, fuel efficiency etc. (Fig.6).Air pollution from motor vehicle in cities especially in developing countries has been a major source of urban air pollution. A drastic increase in the number of vehicles has resulted in a significant increase in the emission load of various pollutants. Vehicles in major metropolitan cities are estimated to account for 70% of CO, 50% of HC, 30-40% of NOx, 30%of SPM and 10% of SO2 of the total pollution load of these cities, of which two-thirds is contributed by two wheelers alone (Fig.7).

Fig.6. Vehicle Emissions in India, 2010

Fig.7. Mode share of vehicles in India, 2010

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Sustainable Transport Sustainable mobility can bring out ecological, economic and social development. The need for focusing on the practice of increasing the efficiency with which transportation system use resources such as energy, water and materials while reducing impact on human health and environment through better design, construction, operation and maintenance is of utmost importance for increasing transportation sustainability (Fig.8). Strategies for increasing transportation sustainability include demand management, operations management, pricing policies, vehicle technology improvements, clean fuels, and integrated land use and transportation planning.

Fig.8. Ridership in pphpd based on Mode of transport on a single lane traffic corridor The ultimate aim of sustainable transport is to bring forth integration of transport systems aided by urban infrastructure in order to achieve reduced carbon emission urban environment. The key measures for achieving sustainability in urban transportation can be as follows:
Actions Avoid Plan Need of the travel Strategies Integrated Land Use Planning Smart Logistics Mode shift to Non-Motorized and Public Transport Public Transport Integration Transport Demand management Shift to alternative fuels Speed Limits, Eco-Driving


Environmentally friendly modes Energy efficiency of transport modes


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The studies proves that for every extra one million people in a developing city an extra 3.5 to 4 million public transport trips per day are generated. Considering the population growth in most Indian cities, the urban transport infrastructure thus needs to be increased manifold in the decade or so, if the gap in the demand and supply has to be eliminated. Public transport systems have not been able to keep pace with the rapid and substantial increases in demand over the past few decades. The city cannot afford to cater only to the private cars and two-wheelers and that without public transport cities would be even less viable. Sustainable strategies are those that simultaneously help reduce traffic congestion, pollution, accidents and consumer costs, increase mobility options for non-drivers, and encourage more efficient utilization of land use patterns. References i. Dr. Sudarsanam Padam, Urbanization and Urban Transport in India: The Sketch for a Policy Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune, India (2006). ii. Dr. Purnima Parida, Environmental Concerns of Urban Transport and NMT as Sustainable Transport Initiative in India, Central Institute of Road Transport, New Delhi, India (2010). iii. Mary Tahir,Tahir Hussain and Mushir Ali; Transport Sector and Air Quality in Metro Cities: A Case Study of Delhi; International Journal of Geology, Earth & Environmental Sciences (2012). iv. Road Transport Year Book (2005-2009), Ministry of Shipping,Road Transport & Highways (MoRT&H), Government of India.

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Decentralised Membrane Filtration System

Aravind Suresh
B.Tech. student Division of civil Engineering, TKM college of Engineering, Kollam, Kerala, India, Pin 691009 e-mail Id:


Decentralized drinking-water systems are an important element in the process of reaching the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often deficient or nonexistent in developing and transition countries. Most water-quality problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A range of decentralized systems is available to counter these problems, including thermal or UV methods, physical removal and chemical treatment. Membrane systems are attractive since they provide an absolute barrier for pathogens and remove turbidity, thus increasing the palatability of the water. The costs of membrane have decreased rapidly during the last decades and therefore membrane systems have alsobecome within reach for application in low-cost applications. Some membrane systems rely on gravity as a driving force, thereby avoiding the use of pumps and electricity. On the basis of the present literature data, no small-scale systems could be identified which meet all the requirements for successful implementation. Furthermore, in the available literature the performance of highly fouling water types has not been reported.

Global assessments by the WHO and UNICEF show that a large proportion of the worlds population does not have access to adequate or microbiologically safe sources of water for drinking and other essential purposes at the beginning of 2000, one-sixth of the worlds population (1.1 billion people) were without access to adequate water supplies. Target 10, described in the Seventh Millennium Development Goal states that by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation should be halved compared to 1990. Considerable

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progress has been achieved in reaching these goals. According to the most recent sources, the percentage of people using drinking water from adequate sources increased from 71% in 1990 to 80% in 2004. However, a large effort is still necessary to reach this goal by 2015. Centralized water treatment and distribution may be feasible for densely populated settlements of Developing

Countries given their economies of scale, and already exists in most cities and towns. In rural areas of Developing Countries, investments for centralized systems are often unaffordable given the remote locations and lack of financial resources. In the rare cases where centralized systems are installed, the system often fails due to unprofessional maintenance and management. Tap water from a supply network and a central water treatment facility is therefore generally unavailable in rural areas. Typically, water is accessed individually from surface water, groundwater or rainwater, with no source protection or water disinfection before consumption. Decentralized approaches to supplying water are already applied in many parts of developing and transition countries. These decentralized solutions cover both quality and quantity problems and include the direct use of alternative water sources (ground- or rainwater), household water treatment systems, dual tap water treatment and distribution as well as delivery and sales of treated water. Despite their popularity in some cases, these installations often have an informal character and are rarely accepted or supported by local governments. Regional differences occur in their implementation due to the local socio-cultural, economic and political situation. However, some general situations can be identified in which these technologies are being or may be applied. The major Decentralized methods of water Treatment are: 1. Pond Systems 2. Constructed Wetlands 3. Phyto remediation methods 4. Sand filtration techniques 5. Membrane processes Membrane processes is the best water quality rendering method among these due to its compatibility with the ecosystem and efficiency.

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MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY In general, membrane processes are characterized by the use of a semi-permeable film (membrane) and a driving force. The driving force can be a difference in pressure, concentration, temperature or electric potential. Most membrane processes are pressure-driven and are commonly referred to as membrane filtration processes. In water treatment, however, electrically driven (electro dialysis) and thermally driven processes (e.g. membrane distillation) are also used. As regards to the production of drinking water, it is important to assess membrane technologies in relation to water-borne contaminants. The pore size of ultra filtration membranes is small enough to ensure high log-removal of all kinds of microbiological hazards such as Cryptosporidia, Giardia and total bacterial counts. Microfiltration is also claimed to have these properties, but some doubts have recently arisen with respect to bacterial retention by these membranes. Substantial virus removal can be attained with UF membranes since the size of viruses is in the range of 30300nm. Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis can be used to remove inorganic contaminants from water. Most NF membranes are effective in removing bivalent ions , but RO membranes are required for monovalentions. For example, desalination of seawater or brackish water is currently performed with RO membranes. In comparison to conventional water treatment, the water can be treated in one stage without chemicals or utilities, while the treatment footprint is relatively small. The developments in the membrane technology field during the last decades resulted in a significant decrease of membrane costs and energy requirements. In addition, membrane systems are built in a modular form which enables easy adaptation of process scale.

Fig. Particle separation for different membrane processes

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The same industrial-grade membranes used in large-scale water treatment plants around the globe. They were developed for residential and small commercial/industrial applications. These systems are being increasingly used in Countries to improve the quality of available tap or groundwater. Many of the Countries produce import or provide services involving membrane-based systems. Small-scale systems also employ similar membrane processes as for large-scale applications. Many of these systems were initially developed for emergency water supply, but systems are also available that are specifically designed for remote areas in many Countries. The literature presents systematic data on these kinds of systems.

Most commercially available membrane systems use reverse osmosis membranes as a key element of water treatment. In general, RO-based water treatment is a multi-stage process that includes pre-treatment and post-treatment. Typical pre-treatment stages include sediment filters or micro filters and activated carbon. Post-treatment stages used in the system also include activated carbon filters. Such systems are normally installed to purify tap water from a centralized supply and can be placed under a sink. They work without an electricity supply, the necessary pressure being provided by the feed tap water in the system. The maintenance of the system in most cases requires the replacement of pre- and postfilters once in 618 months, while membrane lifetime is 23 years. The price of the system varies according to the flow rate in the range from US$ 200 to 700 Their annual operation costs are approx. US$ 85135.Being designed to treat tap water, most systems also have limitations with respect to the allowable feed water quality. In general, these kinds of multiple-stage RO systems are complex and relatively expensive installations that require service and replacement of parts and a defined source water quality. So their application in many countries is not realistic even if they are widely used and accepted. However, these systems can be increasingly found on the market in for secondary treatment of tap water.

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As pointed out above most water-quality problems are due to pathogens, which are completely retained by ultra filtration membranes . Moreover, these membranes require significantly lower pressures than RO membranes, due to the latters higher resistance and because RO generates an osmotic pressure which counteracts the water transport through the membrane. Nevertheless, systems based on ultra filtration technology are not used widely for treating household drinking water. Some technologies are available on the market, and some of them also have a pre-treatment stage and hollow-fiber membrane modules.

Ceramic microfiltration is among the few membrane technologies applied and recommended by the WHO. Most ceramic MF membranes are available in the form of monoliths or hollow cylindrical tubes and have a nominal pore size of around 0.2 mm. Due to its pore size, such filters provide complete protection from bacteria, but only partial protection from viruses (size range of 30300 nm). Filters produced and distributed are normally in the form of pots (e.g. clay pots) and their pore size is larger, normally reaching 0.63.0 mm. As filterable bacteria range well below 0.6 mm size exclusion alone in principle cannot provide a complete disinfection with this kind of filter

A huge effort is required in order to reach the drinking water objectives set out in the Millennium Development Goals, and so far a centralized treatment approach has not been very successful in this respect. In rural areas, problems occur because the entire population is not connected to a water supply system. Moreover, available central systems are often not maintained properly and fall into disrepair. Urban areas face high population growth rates in many areas, especially in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In many cases, informal settlements appear which are not or only partially provided with safe drinking water. Even in urban areas where a water supply is available, the quality of the tap water is often unreliable, and decentralized systems are being installed by those who can afford it.

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In order to cope with insufficient water quantity, groundwater wells are installed by the population or rainwater is harvested. In both cases, the water quality is very dependent on the local conditions, so that the water is not safe to drink in all cases. A range of decentralized systems is available to cope with water quality problems.

REFERENCES Abbaszadegan, M., Hasan, M.N., Gerba, C.P., Roessler, P.F., Wilson, B.R., Kuennen, R., Van Dellen, E., 1997. The disinfection efficacy of a point-of-use water treatment system against bacterial, viral and protozoan waterborne pathogens. Water Research 31 (3), 574582. Meenakshi, Maheshwari, R.C., 2006. Fluoride in drinking water and its removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials 137 (1),456463. Gadgil, A., 1998. Drinking water in developing countries. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 23, 253286.

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Energy Demand of Urban Transport Sector in the Developed Cities of India

Basil Basheerudeen1, Remjish R S2, Arun Venugopalan3

Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay; mail

Assistant Professor, TocH Institute of Science and Technology; mail


Assistant Engineer, Local Self Government Department; mail ID:

Abstract: As India begins to urbanise more rapidly, it will need to act soon since the historical development of transport systems tends to hardwire cities for decades. Economic development is closely linked to urbanisation, the future trajectory of energy use will be closely linked to the types of urban centres we build Urban form clearly has a large impact on the trajectory and the embedded DNA of the city can be an important factor affecting future energy use. The transport sector is the worlds most important consumer of petroleum products, where majority of fuel consumption comes from road transport. The total transport demand for the developing cities is determined by population count, urban form, availability of infrastructure, and existing regulatory framework through governance. Scenarios that look at vehicle/energy use and emissions worldwide find that the sudden growth in vehicle use has resulted in traffic congestion, fuel use and CO2 emissions, and in deteriorating air quality. However the energy demand (consumed) by the transport sector in a city is determined by the following factors such as mode of transport, number of trips made per day, average length of the trip and speed of travel. The studies shows that the urban form and transport systems can have a large impact on the trajectory of energy use especially true for sprawled metropolitan cities like Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai etc. Keywords: Mobility, Energy Demand, Modal Split

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Introduction: In developing countries, urban centres are the major users of natural resources ranging from water and energy to land and food. Transport is the fastest growing energy sub sector as it is the second largest consumer of commercial energy (Fig.1) and ranks first in the consumptionof petroleum energy, 98% of the petroleum product in theform of petrol and diesel. Usage of petroleum energy in transport grew at 1.3 % during 1971-1981; it has grown at 6-7% annually during 1991-1999, and the transport energydemand has grown at 1.2 times the GDP growth rate. The usage ishigh due to the alarming increase in travel demand and growth of vehicles.Road transport is the backbone of economic development of India and meets about 75 percentof transport demand.The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that the transport sector produced emissions of 6.5 gigatonnes (Gt) CO2, or 23 percent of world energy-related CO2 (Fig.2).

Fig.1.Global CO2 emissions from Fuel Combustion by sector

Fig.2.Green House Ga Emissions by Transport Sector Mode wise in 2005

Urbanisation and Motor Vehicle Growth The country is growing rapidly with 32% population residing in urban areas and this is expected to increase to 40% by 2030 (Fig.3).As the proportion of the population living in urban areas increases, the demand for motor vehicles also rises in proportions.Motorisation in urban India is growing faster than the population; automobile ownership growth rates are of the order of 1520% per

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annum in most cities (Fig.4)During the 25 year period ended in 2005, the vehicle population in India has increased by about 15 times, from 5.36 to 81.5 million vehicles, whereas the population has increased just by 1.7 times.Although higher vehicle ownership is a consequence of increasing affluence it is also driven by urban structure and the need for private motorised mobility in the absence of good-quality public transport infrastructure.The increased use of private means of transportation is a major factor directly linked to energy use and environmental quality.

Population in Millions

10 0

Tier I CITIES 1981 1991

Vehicle Population in millions 5 0

Population Growth (19812005) 20

Vehicle Population Growth


Tier I Cities 1991 2001


Fig.3. Growth of Urban Population Mobility and Modal Split

Fig.4. Growth of Motor Vehicle Population

Road-based passenger mobility in India has increased tremendously over the years. From 1950-51 to 2000-01, passenger mobility increased from 36 billion passenger-kilometres (BPKm) to 3079 BPKm due to more than 30-fold increase in annual distance travelled by the people and a 2.84-fold rise in population(Fig.3).
Mobility through Public and Private
Passenger Kms in Billions 80 60 40 20 0 Public Public Private Private Public Private
Mumbai Chennai

Modal Split of Passenger Vehicles


Tier I Cities

Chennai Kolkata Delhi Mumbai 0% 50% 100%


2001 Year








Fig.3. Passenger Kms for Public & Private Modes

Fig.4. Modal Split of Passenger Vehicles

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It is interesting to know that between 1980-81 and 2000-01, in light of a 50% population growth, motorized mobility by road in India has risen by 425% (from 585 to 3079 BPKm). Analysis of per capita mobility (i.e., passenger-kilometres per capita; PKm/cap) data shows that the average annual distance travelled by the people quadruples in every two decades. Although large proportion of mobility need is still catered by the buses, there is a rapid increase in reliance on automobiles particularly during recent years (Fig.4). For example, during 1990s, per capita mobility by twowheelers, auto-rickshaws and cars increased by 124%, 130% and 97% respectively against the corresponding increase of 60% for buses. Due to this, mobility share of private- and para-transit modes increased from 19.4% in 1990-91 to 24.3% in 2000-01. Environmental Pollution 1. Vehicular Emissions As the number of vehicles continues to grow and the consequent congestion increases, vehicles are now becoming the main source of air pollution in urban India. A drastic increase in the number of vehicles has resulted in a significant increase in the emission load of various pollutants (Fig.5). Vehicles in major metropolitan cities are estimated to account for 70% of CO, 50% of HC, 30-40% of NOx, 30%of SPM and 10% of SO2 of the total pollution load of these cities, of which two-thirds is contributed by two wheelers alone (Fig.6).
Pollution Load in MT/day, 2002
Share of Polluntants in % 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Tier I Cities CO NOx HC PM

Fig.5. Fuel Consumption per day in Cities

Fig.6. Vehicle Emission loads in MT /day

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2. Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions: Road transport accounts for about three-fourths of the CO2 emissions in the sector. Road transportrelated CO2 emissions in the 23 million-plus cities have increased from 4,568 MT in 1981 to 15,288 MT in 2005, an increase of 4.2% per annum. The increase in emissions is due to increases in road travel and also consumer choices in vehiclesin terms of heavier, higher specification vehicles (which tend to emit higher carbon emissions)(Fig.7).

Fig.7.Passenger Km travelled with respect to each mode for 1 ton of CO2 emission The per capita CO2 emissions in Bangalore have increased significantly due to increase in road traffic volume (vehicle-km) which was nearly four times. The data reveal that performance of cities like Kolkata and Mumbai is better in comparison to others. The CO2 performance (carbon intensity of mobility) of Bangalore and Hyderabad in terms of PKm is decreasing rapidly over years. Mumbai is showing continuous decrease in carbon intensity since 1981, however, the rate of decrease has reduced significantly between 2001 and 2005 as shown in Table.1.There is a declining trend for all the cities (except Delhi) mainly due to the shift to improving technologies. Table.1.Carbon Emissions and Intensities from Urban Transport Carbon Emissions (tCO2/year) 1981 914 1273 430 260 429 1991 1042 2029 395 477 555 2001 1103 3071 635 706 1172 2005 1245 3525 749 927 1326 Carbon Intensities (kgCO2/capita/year) 1981 110.9 222.1 46.8 60.7 146.8 1991 82.7 241 35.8 87.9 134.4 2001 67.4 240 48 109.9 206.1 2005 66.3 234.7 52.7 133.2 204.0

Cities Mumbai Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore

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Energy Demand Generally, energy demand for passenger transport increases with increasing urbanization. This is due to growing population, increased incomes and the availability of better infrastructure resulting in increased demand for motorized transport. Another factor that influences is the lack or inadequacy of mass transit. This, in turn, increases energy demand because of the dominant use of personalized transport which has a higher energy consumption norm on a per person basis. 1. Energy Intensity In the transportation sector, energy intensity (MJ/PKM) or (MJ/person/year) measures the travel intensity of a mode or an individual. Among various modes of transport, cars are the most energy intensive, consuming 1.27 MJ (petrol vehicle) or 2.2 times more energy than a two wheeler, to move one passenger for one km. Energy intensity of a bus is about 0.3 MJ/PKM. Mass transit (electric trains) is the least energy intensive of all modes (0.02 MJ/PKM) (Table 2). Table.2. Energy Intensity of Transport Modes
Occup -ancy (PPV) Fuel Type (MJ/PKM) Petrol Diesel CNG Table.3. Energy Intensity of Transport Type


2W (2 stroke) 2W (2 stroke) Auto(2 stroke) Auto(2 stroke) Car Bus

1.5 1.5 1.75 1.75 2.5 50

0.55 0.45 0.98 0.78 1.27 0.2 0.3

Cities in India have varied public transport modes such as urban metro or mass transit systems; buses on fixed routes and also from point-to-point routes (Omni); taxis; and three-wheeler vehicles. Public transportation consumes significantly lower energy than private transport. Energy use per PKM varies between 0.26 and 0.38 MJ/PKM for public transportation. energy consumed for

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personal travel increased by 8 percent per annum during 19812005 with two wheelers and cars mostly accounting for it. The total energy used by two wheelers grew the most of any passenger mode during the study period (about 9%). The combined use of energy consumption by these three modes of transport was 89 PJ in 2005 (Table.3). Table.5 and Table 6. shows energy intensity of mobility as well as transport energy intensity across major developed metropolitan cities. Mobility energy intensity is the amount of energy associated with movement of people from one point and another point. On the other hand, transport energy intensity is given by per capita annual energy consumption by passenger transport. In the addition, the table provides information on individual citys share, mega city-wise, in total energy consumption as well as India as a whole. Table.5. Transport Energy Share for Metropolis Energy Share in million plus cities (%) 1981 13.9 16.5 5.8 3.8 6 1991 13.5 26 4.9 4.8 7.7 2001 8.5 23.7 4.5 5.5 9.1 2005 8.1 23 4.9 6.1 8.7 Energy Share in India Total (%) 1981 7.8 9.2 3.2 2.1 3.3 1991 3.7 7.7 1.3 1.3 2.1 2001 2 5.6 1.2 1.3 2.1 2005 1.9 5.3 1.1 1.4 2

Cities Mumbai Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore

Table.6. Transport Energy Indicators for Metropolis Mobility Energy Intensity (MJ/KM) 1981 Mumbai Delhi Kolkata Chennai Bangalore 0.54 0.39 0.51 0.49 0.39 1991 0.53 0.39 0.38 0.46 0.38 2001 0.47 0.42 0.38 0.42 0.40 2005 0.45 0.44 0.41 0.41 0.39 1981 0.73 0.92 0.26 0.34 0.66 Transport Energy Intensity (GJ/capita/year) 1991 1.11 3.2 0.47 0.92 1.94 2001 0.92 3.27 0.65 1.5 2.8 2005 0.9 3.2 0.72 1.81 2.78


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As per the estimates, Delhi consumed about 23% of the total energy consumed by all the mega cities and Bangalore came distant second at about 8.7% share. The mobility energy intensity in urban India has been remarkably stable and in some cases decreasing which indicates that mobility intensity is not becoming less energy-intensive across cities. 2. Estimation of Energy Demand A study report by the McKinsey Global Institute (Energy Productivity Opportunities, May 2007) derives the demand for fuel based on the vehicle kilometres travelled and on the average fuel economy. Similarly, a World Bank report (Bose, 2007) uses a comprehensive analytical framework to assess energy used by the transportation network based on the activity, modal share and the energy intensity. The model estimates total energy consumption based on the varying transport modes in use within a city that for mass transit and non-mass transit.

The total energy consumption of a city is thus:

TE x = PDE TE x equals the total energy consumption for a city x P is the total number of persons using a transport mode D is the average annual distance travelled per capita E is per capita energy consumption by transport mode

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Conclusions Rapid increase in travel demand and increasing reliance on road transport has serious implications for environment. Transport sector is the major cause of air pollution in urban areas and contributes significantly to major environmental challenges both at local as well as global levels. Scenarios that look at vehicle/energy use and emissions find that the sudden growth in vehicle use has resulted in traffic congestion, fuel use and CO2 emissions, and in deteriorating air quality. The forecasts show that if current trends continue, motor vehicles will double, fuel use and CO2 emissions will triple, and pollution will rise exponentially by the year 2020.To bring up an efficiency gain measure, it would be suggested to assure a public transport system that enables the reduction of use of private vehicles for daily commutes only if reliability, access, and comfort improve The combination of public transport, cycling and walking and their integration into a single, overall transport system makes a city more livable than one that relies almost exclusively on private automobiles.

References: i. Sanjay Kumar Singh; The demand for road-based passenger mobility in India:1950-2030 and relevance for developing and developed countries; EJTIR (2006) ii. Pranav Raghav Sood; Air Pollution Through Vehicular Emissions in Urban India and Preventive Measures; International Conference on Environment, Energy and Biotechnology; Singapore (2012) iii. International Energy Agency (IEA); The Energy and Research Institute (TERI)

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Pollution & Health Issues.

Life Cycle Assessment of Rubber Industries in Kerala
Mary Dhanya
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, TIST, e-mail Id: Abstract: India is one among the top ten rubber producing countries. Kerala is one of the leading rubber plantation state in India . Raw material products from natural rubber processing sector provide huge benefits to human beings as they are exploited to manufacture many kinds of important rubber goods. Rubber has a wide variety of commercial applications in the civil industry such as flooring for pavements, athletic fields and industrial facilities, acoustic barriers, rail crossings etc. Despite the numerous benefits that are rendered to the modernization of this world by natural rubber, the consequence of natural rubber processing has yet provide a serious problem due to its highly polluted effluents. The environmental damages generated from this sector could become big issues. Natural rubber processing sector consumes large volumes of water and energy and uses large amount of chemicals as well as other utilities. It also discharges massive amounts of wastes and effluents. The most common environmental issues are wastewater containing chemicals and smell, hazardous waste, noise, thermal emission etc. In order to reduce the damage in the environment, waste abatement and management, in natural rubber processing sector should be handled properly. In this paper, Life cycle of four forms of rubber, namely, crumb rubber, crepe rubber, latex concentrate and sheet rubber were assessed .Since the production of these rubber forms is an energy intensive process, and contributes to several environmental problems , the opportunities to reduce energy, material inputs and environmental impacts at each stage of the cycle is also evaluated . Key Words: LCA, Crumb rubber, Crepe rubber, Latex Concentrate

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Introduction: Rubber (NR) is made from the substance known as latex, a milk-like fluid that is obtained from the sap of the rubber tree, officially called Hevea Brasiliensis. The bark of this tree is incised, allowing the latex to drip into a small cup fixed to the tree trunk. At plantation, the preferred method of recovering the latex is by acid coagulation. Natural rubber has very good mechanical properties , i.e. tensile strength and elongation, elasticity and resilience etc .Rubber has a wide variety of commercial applications in the civil industry. .India is one among the top ten rubber producing countries. Kerala state is a leading rubber plantation state in India.. Raw material products from natural rubber processing sector provide huge benefits to human beings as they are exploited to manufacture many kinds of important rubber goods. However, environmental damages generated from this sector could become big issues. Natural rubber processing sector consumes large volumes of water and energy and uses large amount of chemicals as well as other utilities. It also discharges massive amounts of wastes and effluents. The most common environmental issues are wastewater containing chemicals and smell, hazardous waste, noise and thermal emissions. The environmental issues caused due to processing of various forms of natural rubber and due to discharge of effluents are not given the importance that it requires. This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and concern about the extent of impacts it has on our environment. Objectives of Research Paper:

1. To analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of crumb crepe rubber ,latex concentrate and sheet rubber by life cycle assessment 2. To evaluate the opportunities to reduce energy, material input and environmental impacts associated with the production of rubber forms. Research Methodology: Life Cycle Assessment of various rubber industries was done analytically, based on survey, the data collected from rubber industries ,the laboratory test of rubber effluent and by the technique of analysis (EIA matrix method).

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Life Cycle Assessment in General: Life Cycle Assessment is a supports decision making tool by supplying information on the environmental impacts of products and services and helps to identifies and measure both direct and indirect environmental , energy and resource impacts associated with a product or process. The four main phases of Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) are:1.Goal and scope -the functional unit, which defines what precisely is being studied and quantifies the service delivered by the product system, providing a reference to which the inputs and outputs can, the system boundaries etc. 2.Life Cycle Inventory(LCI)-LCI which provides information about all inputs and outputs in the form of elementary flow to and from the environment from all the unit processes involved in the study. 3.Life Cycle Impact Assessment- This phase of LCA is aimed at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results. 4.Life Cycle Interpretation- Life Cycle Interpretation is a systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment. LCA of Rubber Forms (i)Life Cycle Inventory Various rubber industries (Crumb Rubber ,Crepe rubber, sheet rubber and Latex Concentrate )was visited and data and effluent(waste water)were collected and the process of various rubber forms were studied. Analysis of data: a. Crumb rubber Industries Table 1: Input & Output data for one tone of Crumb rubber

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OUTPUT Block rubber BOD COD



Cup lump





Electricity Water Labour & staffs Formic acid

130 27000

units litres

390 500

mg/l mg/l











TS Oil Grease &




a. Creep rubber Industries Table 2: Input & Output data for one tone of Creep rubber and latex concentrate INPUT Field latex DRC (36.9%) Water Ammonia DAHP Lauric acid QUANTITY 2970 995 890 17 41.4 0.3 UNITS litres kg Litres Litres Kg Kg OUTPUT DRC(60%) Skim pH BOD COD TSS QUANTITY 1000 48 2 5550 9450 1006 UNITS kg kg mg/l mg/l mg/l

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Ammonia gas 7.59 Ammonium Laurate Conc.H2SO4 Electricity 1.0 460 0.28

Kg Kg


7250 8256

mg/l mg/l

Kg units

Sulphides Oil & Grease

92 29

mg/l mg/l

(ii)Life Cycle Impact Assessment From the effluent analysis carried out, it was found that the various parameters tested are way above the standard limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Wastewater discharged from rubber processing contains high level of BOD & COD, high concentration of ammonia, high level of sulphate, intensive odour, solids etc. The figure below shows the comparison of effluents from various rubber industries with CPCB Standards.

25 21 20 15 10 10 5 0 7777 5.2 5 4.7 4.8 3.9 2.5 3.1 0.3 6.7 3.35 3.4 1 1 4.5 13.35 10 10 10

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 21 7 0.25 12 9.8


30 25

12.335 9.1 6 0.03 5.67 2.1 2.335 0.1



pH COD (x BOD (x TDS (x TSS (x O & G NJAVALIL CPCB STANDARDS 10^3) PERIYAR 10^3) 10^3) 10^3)

Fig:1 Comparison of effluent from crumb rubber Fig:2 Comparison of effluent from latex & Industries with CPCB Standards Crepe rubber industries with CPCB Stds.

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30 25 20 15 10 5 5 5 0 7

26 23 16 15.5


15.48 12.8 10 8.4 4.78 2.1 1.2 0.1

0.25 pH COD (x ARAKKUNAM 10^3)


BOD (x TDS (x TSS (x O&G PIRAVOM CPCB STANDARDS 10^3) 10^3) 10^3)

Fig:3 Comparison of effluent from sheet rubber industries with CPCB Standards As per the survey conducted & data collected ,the Environmentally and Socially Responsible Product Assessment rating for crumb, creep ,latex concentrate & sheet rubber forms were done considering the nine elements of environment & social concern such as raw materials, energy consumption, water consumption, solid waste, waste water, air emissions, social concern ,health problem and employment. Table 3: Environmentally and Socially Responsible Product Assessments rating for crumb,creep, and sheet rubber(Based on EIA matrix method)
Life cycle stages-crumb Collection Total rating 22/36 Life cycle stages-Creep Collection Total rating 22/36 Sheet rubber Collection &Screening Coagulation Milling Drying Pressing Pakaging Disposal TOTAL 10/36 19/36 32/36 32/36 31/36 21/36 167/252 Coagulation Milling Drying Pressing Pakaging Disposal TOTAL 10/26 19/36 30/36 32/36 32/36 24/36 169/252 Coagulation Rolling Drying Packaging Disposal TOTAL 12/36 23/36 26/36 32/36 25/36 135/216 Total rating 17/36

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Table 4: Environmentally and Socially Responsible Product Assessments for latex concentrate
Life cycle stagesLatex Conc.

Total rating
25/36 25/36 18/36 22/36

Collection Screening Coagulation Processing &Storing Disposal TOTAL

28/36 118/180

(iii)Life Cycle Interpretation The process of rubber forms is an energy intensive process. In addition to the raw material, various chemicals, large quantity of energy such as water, electricity etc. were used . Based on EIA Matrix method, the Environmentally and Socially Responsible Product Assessments rating for crumb, creep, sheet rubber and latex concentrate shows the emissions of various poisonous gas, the discharge of effluent which contains high level of BOD, COD, solids.etc. MEASURES TO REDUCE INPUT LOSS AND ENERGY: 1. Check the field latex collecting step to minimize leaking of field latex. 2. Repair or replace centrifuge machine to improve centrifugation efficiency and electrical energy can be reduced to 10-20%. 3. In the crepe and crumb units, in which field coagulum is processed, if the raw scrap rubber is properly soaked and primary dirt removal is done by scrap-washer, the quantity of water consumed in milling can be reduced to 5-10%. 4. In the crumb units, wastewater from final milling can be collected separately from the effluent of the other milling section and can be used either for soaking the scrap rubber ,which is clean and the amount of reduction can be upto 25% of the total water consumption. 5. In centrifuge machine bowl, washing is done at the interval of 3-4 hours to remove the sludge. About 0.5% rubber is lost during this washing step. To reduce loss, washing step can be done at

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two stages. The first washing which is more concentrated may be segregated and collected in a separate tank and coagulated for recovery of the rubber lost during washing. This will result in reduction of pollution load in the effluent. 6.The quantity of acid used for coagulation of the latex, especially skim latex kit after centrifugation stage is generally found to be higher than the actual requirement. Hence, it is suggested that proper acid concentration applied and sufficient coagulation time should be provided to obtain more or less clear liquid after complete coagulation. 7. The skim latex, if de-ammoniated before coagulation, acid requirement can be reduced 10% and the ammonia concentration in effluent may also be reduced. 8. The transportation of the field latex by mild steel bowlers adds rust to latex. A coating of epoxy is very effective to eliminate rust contamination of latex. 9. A simple partitioning of the coagulation tank using wooden planks will be very effective instead of cutting the coagulum to size by a knife as in tradition. This saves labour involved and the blocks are of uniform size, which produces uniform edged laces at milling. 10. In centrifugation unit the scrum water contains about 1% rubber which is usually coagulated using sulphuric acid. The addition of ammonia in the field as well as in the factory prior to centrifugation results in high usage of acid for skimming and causes many problems in final treatment of effluent. To get the most effective latex formulation and chemical dosing at field, before skim coagulation, the de-ammonisation of effluent helps to reduce usage of sulphuric acid. 11. In all latex concentrate factories the scrum water from latex, centrifuge wash water and bowler wash is discharged as one stream. The segregation of these streams can help to reduce final treatment cost and possibility of recycling of the wash water with a little treatment for selected uses. Energy consumption can also be done by using the uniform edged laces which reduces the milling needs. In the dryer tower the internal partitioning and systematic passing of hot air from chamber to chamber improved the drying efficiency.

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The rubber industry is an economically and socially significant industry in India and presently India is the third largest rubber producer in the world. Environmental situation in rubber production varies according to the nature of each industry. The rubber industry consumes large volumes of water, uses chemicals and other utilities and produces enormous amounts of wastes and effluent. Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways is a serious concern as they contain highly toxic substances which if not treated properly can cause havoc to not only environment but also to humans. With a new global trend towards a sustainable development, the rubber industry needs to a evaluate the opportunities to reduce energy, material inputs and environmental impacts at each stage and also has to focus on cleaner production technology, waste minimization, utilization of waste, resource recovery and recycling of water . References: Birdie G.S and Birdie J.S, Water supply and sanitary Engineering, Dhanput Rai & Sons, New Delhi,1998. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCIA), Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCIA), Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) S.K.Garg, Environmental engineering (Vol.II) Sewage Disposal and Air Pollution Engineering,22nd edition, Khanna Publication, New Delhi,2001. S.C. Rangwala, K.S. Rangwala and P.S.Rangwala, Water supply and sanitary Engineering, Charotar publishing house, Anand, 2005. Waste Abatement and Management in Natural Rubber Processing Sector, Asian Institute of Technology, School of Environment, Resources and Development, April 2007 IS 3025 : 1993 Guinee J. B. . 2002. Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment: Operation Guide to the ISO standard. Kluwer Academic Publishers

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Soil Pollution & Treatment

Bioremediation A Green solution for Soil Pollution

Riya Elsa Abraham and 2Annie Joy


M.Tech Student,2Assistant Professor Toc H Institute of Science and Technology Email , ABSTRACT The quality of life on Earth is linked inextricably to the overall quality of the environment. It is very difficult to define soil quality, as soil composition can vary from place to place. The major functions of a soil are generally recognized to include the ability to protect water and air quality, the ability to sustain plant and animal productivity, and the ability to promote human health. The release of contaminants into the environment by human activities has increased enormously over the past several decades. Soil pollution has recently been attracting considerable public attention since the magnitude of the problem in our soils calls for immediate action. In the last few years, disquiet among ordinary people has grown and the public is now strongly demanding clean-up measures to be urgently introduced. In this context, governmental recognition of the accumulating hazards has resulted in legislative restrictions on uncontrolled discharges of wastes and actions mandating environmental restoration of hazardous waste sites. This recent environmental awareness has highlighted the need for new technologies for the treatment of these wastes. Bioremediation is a general concept that includes all those processes and actions that take place in order to biotransform an environment, already altered by contaminants, to its original status. Bioremediation uses primarily microorganisms or microbial processes to degrade and transform environmental contaminants into harmless or less toxic forms. It is being considered as a green technology for the remediation of polluted sites.

Key Words: Bioremediation, environment, soil

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Introduction: Population expansion, ever increasing sophistication of industries and intensified agriculture has over-whelmed the self cleaning capacity of environment which resulted in the release of complex toxic effluents into the environment. This has also brought about a growing pressure on our natural resources i.e. air, water and land resources. Wide spread pollution has caused vast areas of land to become non-arable and hazardous for wildlife and human population. A continuous search for new biological forms to manage the associated problems has thrown light to the process of bioremediation. Bioremediation is an attractive and successful cleaning technique to recover contaminated soil and thus to rehabilitate areas damaged through ecosystem mismanagement. The potential of soils for bioremediation of contaminants is based on the large number of microorganisms present in the terrestrial habitat and the wide range of mechanisms shown by them. It can be successful by integrating proper utilization of natural or modified microbial capabilities with appropriate engineering designs. Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To discuss the mechanism of bioremediation 2. To discuss the different bioremediation techniques and the agents used 3. To discuss the points in favour of and against bioremediation Research Methodology: The study is largely a library work, based on published official secondary data and theoretical literature available in the library and on the websites. Bioremediation mechanism: Bioremediation is a microorganism (fungi, yeast, bacteria and their enzymes) mediated transformation or degradation of contaminants into non hazardous or less-hazardous substances. It operates through microbial activity to sequester, extract or degrade hazardous waste present in the soil.(i) Degradation means that microorganisms decompose the pollutants to harmless natural products such as CO2 and H2O or other non toxic naturally occurring compounds.(ii) Sequestration means that the pollutant is trapped or changed in a way that makes it non toxic or unavailable to biological systems.(iii) Removal means that while pollutant is not necessarily degraded, microbes physically remove it from the soil, so it can be collected and disposed.

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While transforming the contaminants microbes gain energy and raw materials for their multiplication and maintenance. Based on the mechanism by which they gain energy they are categorized into three: Reductant electron donor Aerobic respiration Organic substrates (benzene, toluene, phenol) NH4 Fe2+ S 2 Anaerobic respiration Organic substrates (benzene, toluene, phenol, trichloroethylene) Organic substrates (benzene, trichloroethylene) H2 H2 Fermentation Organic substrates Organic compounds Table 1:Metabolism modes. Agents of bioremediation: Commonly used microrganisms or bioremediators to destroy the pollutants present in the contaminated site falls in the following categories. a. Aerobic bacteria: Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Sphingomonas degrade pesticides and hydrocarbons. b. Anaerobic bacteria: Dehalococcoides bacteria degrade ethylene and ethane Organic compounds CH4, CO2 SO42CO2 S2-, H2O H2O, CH4 NO3 N2, CO2, H2O, ClO2 O2 O2 NO2,NO3, H2O Fe3+ SO4 O2 CO2, H2O Oxidant electron acceptor End products


S2-, CO2, H2O, Cl-

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c. Ligninolytic fungi: White rot fungus Phanaerochaete chrysosporium degrade diverse range of toxic environmental pollutants d. Methylotrophs: The initial enzyme in the pathway for aerobic degradation, methane monooxygenase is active against chlorinated aliphatic trichloroethylene and 1,2dichloroethane. e. Yeasts: Microbial biomass derived from Candida utilis has the ability to accumulate metal ions and radionuclides from the environment. f. Genetically modified organisms: Deincoccus radiodurans is a radioactive resistant bacteria which has been used to digest toluene and ionic mercury from radioactive nuclear wastes. Bioremediation technologies: On the basis of removal and transportation of wastes for treatment there are basically two methods: (i) In situ Bioremediation: It involves the treatment of contaminated material at the same site through the supply of oxygen and nutrients by circulating aqueous solutions to stimulate the naturally occurring bacteria to degrade organic contaminants. Types of In situ Bioremediation are: a. Intrinsic bioremediation: It relies on the natural processes to degrade contaminants without altering the current conditions or adding amendants. b. Engineered in situ bioremediation: This approach introduces certain microorganisms to the site of contamination to accelerate the contamination process by enhancing the physico-chemical conditions to encourage the growth of microorganisms. (ii)Ex situ bioremediation involves the complete removal of contaminated material from one site and its transfer to another site where it is treated using biological agents. Depending upon the state of the contaminant to be removed, ex situ bioremediation can be classified as: a. Solid phase system: It includes organic wastes such as leaves, animal manures, agricultural wastes and domestic and industrial wastes, sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes. 1. Land farming: Tilling and soil amendment techniques are used to encourage the growth of beneficial microorganisms in contaminated area.

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2. Composting: The technique involves combining contaminated soil with nonhazardous organic amendants such as manure or agricultural wastes. Organic materials supports the development of a rich microbial population 3. Biopiles: Here excavated soils are mixed with soil amendments and placed on a treatment area that includes leachate collection systems and some form of aeration. b.Slurry-phase Bioremediation: Contaminated soil is combined with water and other additives in a bioreactor and mixed to keep the microorganism in contact with the contaminants in the soil. Nutrients and oxygen are added and conditions in the bioreactor are controlled to create optimum environment for the microorganisms to degrade the contaminants. 1. Bioventing: It is the process of supplying optimum amount of oxygen and nutrients through wells to the contaminated soil to stimulate the indigenous bacteria. It generally focus on the vadose or unsaturated zone of soil. 2. Biosparging: It forces compressed air below the water table to increase ground water concentrations and enhance the rate of biological degradation. 3. Bioslurping: Bioslurping combines elements of bioventing and vacuum-enhanced pumping of free-product to recover free-product from the groundwater and soil, and to bioremediate soils. 4. Bioaugmentation: Bioaugmentation is the practice of adding actively growing, specialized microbial strains into a microbial community to promote the ability of the microbial community to respond to process fluctuations or to degrade certain compounds, resulting in improved treatment. 5. Bioreactors: A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment. Advantages of bioremediation: It relies on the microbes that occur naturally in the soil and pose no threat to environment and people living in that area. The process can be carried out on site without causing disruption of normal activities and threats to human and environment during transportation. The method can be employed in areas which cannot be easily reached without excavation.

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Bioremediation can prove to be less expensive than other technologies that are used for clean-up of hazardous waste. The technique eliminates the need to transport quantities of waste off site and potential threats to human health and environment that can arise during transportation. The complete destruction of target pollutants is possible instead of transferring contaminants from one environmental medium to another. This eliminates the chance of future liability associated with treatment and disposal of contaminated material.

The residues for the treatment are harmless products like carbon dioxide, water and cell biomass. The process has greater public acceptance and it can be coupled with other physical or chemical treatment methods.

Limitations of bioremediation: While additives are added to enhance the functioning of one particular bacterium, fungi or any other microorganisms it may be disruptive to other organisms inhabiting the same environment when done in situ. If genetically modified organisms are released into the environment, after a certain point of time it becomes difficult to remove them. The process is labor intensive and can take several months for the remediation to achieve acceptable levels. It is also capable of causing far more damage than the actual pollution itself. Bioremediation is limited to those compounds that are biodegradable. Not all compounds are susceptible to rapid and complete degradation. Biological processes are highly specific. Important site factors required for success include the presence of metabolically capable microbial population, suitable environmental growth conditions and appropriate levels of nutrients and contaminanats. Research is needed to develop and engineer bioremediation technologies that are appropriate for sites with complex mixtures of contaminants that are not evenly dispersed in the environment.

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Conclusion: Bioremediation is not a panacea but rather a natural process that offers a greener and economical clean-up technique than conventional methods. It is indeed in the process of paving a way to greener pastures. It addresses multiphasic, heterogeneous environments and so successful bioremediation is dependent on an interdisciplinary approach involving disciplines such as microbiology, engineering, ecology, geology and chemistry. The complexity encountered in the type and extent of contamination and the social and legal issues relevant to contaminated sites necessitate an inter disciplinary approach. Despite its limitations, the future of bioremediation appears bright as the advances in the diverse disciples are accelerating. Reference: Sonal Bhatnagar and Reeta Kumari, (2013), Bioremediation: A Sustainable Tool for Environmental Management- A Review, Annual Review and Research in Biology, 3(4), 974-993. Chandrakant S.Karigar and Shwetha S.Rao, (2011), Role of Microbial Enzymes in the Bioremediation of Pollutant: A Review, SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Enzyme Research Kumar.A, Bisht.B.S,Joshi.V.D, Dhewa.T, (2011), Review on Bioremediation of Polluted Environment: A Management Tool, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(6),1079-1090 C.Garbisu and I.Alkorta,(2003), Basic concepts on heavy metal soil bioremediation, The European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, 3(1),58-66. H.Cortez, J.Pingarron, J.A.Munoz, A.Ballester, M.L.Blazquez, F.Gonzalez, C.Garcia and O. Coto, (2010), Bioremediation of soils contaminated with metalliferous mining wastes, 283-299

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Treatment of Polluted Soils: Translating Science into Practice

Rebecca George, UG Student, Karunya University, Varsha Joy, UG Student, Karunya University, Aiswarya S, Assistant Professor, Karunya University,
ABSTRACT: With the rise of concrete buildings and roads, one part of the Earth that we rarely see is the soil. The plants that feed us grow in soil and keeping it healthy is essential for maintaining a beautiful planet. However, like all other forms of nature, soil also suffers from pollution. The pollution of soil is a common thing these days, and it happens due to the presence of man made elements. The main reason why the soil becomes contaminated is due to the presence of man made waste. The waste produced from nature itself such as dead plants, carcasses of animals and rotten fruits and vegetables only adds to the fertility of the soil. However, our waste products are full of chemicals that are not originally found in nature and lead to soil pollution. This paper focuses on the various types of soil pollutions that occur commonly. A detailed discussion is made in this paper about the various treatment methods used for the polluted soil. These treatments include thermal treatment, phytoremediation, soil vapor extraction, biosparging and electric resistance heating works. Case studies where these treatment methods are used are also discussed in this paper. KEYWORDS: Soil Pollution, Soil Treatment, Phytoremediation, Biosparging.

Introduction: Soil contamination or soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and

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benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, from direct contact with the contaminated soil, vapors from the contaminants, and from secondary contamination of water supplies within and underlying the soil. Mapping of contaminated soil sites and the resulting cleanup are time consuming and expensive tasks, requiring and GIS extensive in amounts

of geology, hydrology, chemistry, computer

modeling skills,


Contamination, as well as an appreciation of the history of industrial chemistry. Soil pollution can be caused by:

Application of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers Mining Oil and fuel dumping Disposal of coal ash Leaching from landfills Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil Discharging urine and feces in the open Electronic waste

The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead, and other heavy metals. Coal ash - Historical deposition of coal ash used for residential, commercial, and industrial heating, as well as for industrial processes such as ore smelting, were a common source of contamination in areas that were industrialized before about 1960. Coal naturally concentrates lead and zinc during its formation, as well as other heavy metals to a lesser degree. When the coal is burned, most of these metals become concentrated in the ash (the principal exception being mercury). Coal ash and slag may contain sufficient lead to qualify as a "characteristic hazardous waste", defined in the USA as containing more than 5 mg/L of extractable lead using the TCLP procedure. In addition to lead, coal ash typically contains variable but significant concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g., benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(cd)pyrene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and others). These PAHs are known human carcinogens and the acceptable concentrations of them in soil are typically around 1 mg/kg. Coal ash and slag can be recognized by the presence of off-white grains in soil, gray heterogeneous soil, or (coal slag) bubbly, vesicular pebble-sized grains.jk

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Sewage - Treated sewage sludge, known in the industry as biosolids, has become controversial as a fertilizer to the land. As it is the byproduct of sewage treatment, it generally contains more contaminants such as organisms, pesticides, and heavy metals than other soil. Pesticides and herbicides - A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, there are also drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other organisms. Herbicides are used to kill weeds, especially on pavements and railways. They are similar to auxins and most are biodegradable by soil bacteria. However, one group derived from trinitrotoluene(2:4 D and 2:4:5 T) have the impurity dioxin, which is very toxic and causes fatality even in low concentrations. Another herbicide is Paraquat. It is highly toxic but it rapidly degrades in soil due to the action of bacteria and does not kill soil fauna. Insecticides are used to rid farms of pests which damage crops. The insects damage not only standing crops but also stored ones and in the tropics it is reckoned that one third of the total production is lost during food storage. As with fungicides, the first insecticides used in the nineteenth century were inorganic e.g.Paris Green and other compounds of arsenic. Nicotine has also been used since the late eighteenth century. Types of soil pollution:
a) Agricultural soil pollution - Usage of Pesticides and Fertilizers

Many farming activities engage in the application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides for higher crop yield. This is good because we get more food, but can you think of what happens to the chemicals that end up on the crops and soils? Sometimes, insects and small animals are killed and bigger animals that eat tiny animals (as in food chains) are also harmed. Finally, the chemicals may be washed down as it rains and over time, they end up in the water table below .Above all these,the major amount of pesticides and fertilizers added go to the underground soil thus polluting it to a great extent. b) Soil pollution by industrial effluents and solid wastes

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Chemical and nuclear power plants produce waste materials that have to be stored somewhere. Pharmaceuticals manufacturers also produce lots of solid and liquid waste. In many cases they are stored in an environmentally safe way, but there are some that find their way into landfills and other less safe storage facilities. Sometimes they also find their way into leaking pipes and gutters. They end up polluting soils and making crops harmful to our health. c) Pollution due to urban activities Humans depend on trees for many things including life. Trees absorb carbon dioxide (a green house gas) from the air and enrich the air with Oxygen, which is needed for life. Trees provide wood for humans and a habitat to many land animals, insects and birds. Trees also, help replenish soils and help retain nutrients being washed away. Unfortunately, we have cut down millions of acres of tree for wood, construction, farming and mining purposes, and never planted new trees back. This is a type of land pollution. Treatment Methods:


Phytoremediation is a process that uses plants to stabilize or destroy soil contaminants. A number of different mechanisms exist for this process, including phyto-stabilization and phyto-accumulation. In the former, chemical compounds produced by plants are used to immobilize contaminants. The latter process uses plant shoots and leaves to store contaminants that usually contain metals. The plants are specifically chosen for their abilities to absorb large quantities of lead. Many plants such as mustard plants, alpine pennycress, hemp, and pigweedhave proven to be successful at hyperaccumulating contaminants at toxic waste sites. Poplar trees are among the most widely chosen plants for phytoremediation and require a large surface area of land. In addition to metals, phytoremediation may also be used against pesticides, explosives, fuels and volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds. Over the past 20 years, this technology has become increasingly popular and has been employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead, uranium, and arsenic. While it has the advantage that environmental concerns may be treated in situ; one major disadvantage of phytoremediation is that it requires a long-term commitment, as the process is dependent on a plant's ability to grow and thrive in an environment that is not ideal for normal plant growth. Phytoremediation may be applied wherever the soil or static water environment has become polluted or is suffering ongoing chronic pollution. Examples where phytoremediation has been used successfully include the

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restoration of abandoned metal-mine workings, reducing the impact of sites wherepolychlorinated biphenyls have been dumped during manufacture and mitigation of on-going coal mine discharges. Soil vapor extraction

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an in situ remediation technology that leaves the soil as-is, without moving or digging. The technique uses a vacuum to emit a controlled flow of air through the soil. Volatile and some semi-volatile contaminants are then removed. Ground water pumps may be used during the procedure to mitigate water upwelling caused by the vacuums. After contaminants are removed, other remediation measures may be necessary if soil cleaning objectives have not been met. SVE projects typically require one to three years for completion, and field pilot studies are necessary prior to the procedure for determining feasibility and system configuration. SVE Effectiveness The effectiveness of SVE, that is, the rate and degree of mass removal, depends on a number of factors that influence the transfer of contaminant mass into the gas phase. The effectiveness of SVE is a function of the contaminant properties (e.g., Henrys Law constant, vapor pressure, boiling point, adsorption coefficient), temperature in the subsurface, vadose zone soil properties (e.g., soil grain size, soil moisture content, permeability, carbon content), subsurface heterogeneity, and the air flow driving force (applied pressure gradient). SVE effectiveness issues include tailing and rebound, which result from contaminated zones with lower air flow (i.e., low permeability zones or zones of high moisture content) and/or lower volatility (or higher adsorption). Recent work at U.S. Department of Energy sites has investigated layering and low permeability zones in the subsurface and how they affect SVE operations.Enhancements for improving the effectiveness of SVE can include directional drilling, pneumatic and hydraulic fracturing, and thermal enhancement (e.g., hot air or steam injection) .Directional drilling and fracturing enhancements are generally intended to improve the gas flow through the subsurface, especially in lower permeability zones. Thermal enhancements such as hot air or steam injection increase the subsurface soil temperature, thereby improving the volatility of the contamination. In addition, injection of hot (dry) air can remove soil moisture and thus improve the gas permeability of the soil. Biosparging

Biosparging is a treatment technique using natural microorganisms, like yeast or fungi, to decompose hazardous soil substances. Some microorganisms can ingest dangerous chemicals

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without harm. In turn, those pollutants are rendered into less toxic or nontoxic substances, usually in the form of carbon dioxide and water. To be successful, biosparging requires active and healthy microorganisms. This is encouraged via increased bacterial growth in the soil, which creates optimal living conditions. After the contaminants are regulated, the microorganisms reduce in number because their food source is gone. Biosparging can occur under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

It is an efficient process that is typically more economical than SVE or conventional air sparging. Since flow rates are low, blowers and associated operating costs are less, and there is no need to treat collected contaminant-laden soil gas that has been stripped (like in air sparging). Injection of oxygen or ozone at low flow rates is also commonly used for chemical oxidation, and even propane has been injected to provide a carbon source for biological treatment. All of these treatment methods work by treating the contaminants in situ, rather than stripping them out for removal and ex situtreatment.This methodology is rapidly gaining favor for sites where risk-based assessments have determined that there is little threat of exposure via normal pathways, but that some remediation is needed. It is also useful to create a barrier against migration of contaminants off-sitea horizontal well installed across a migrating contaminant plume effectively treats all of the water that crosses it, eliminating the need for expensive and ineffective pump-and-treat systems. Electric Resistance Heating

Electric resistance heating works by sending an electrical current into soil through multiple electrodes. Those electrodes are strategically placed to ensure an entire area is reached. As the electrical current passes through the subsurface, it encounters resistance that heats the soil. The soil turns gradually hotter until contaminant compounds reach boiling temperatures. They then evaporate, and vapor extraction techniques are used to remove fumes. Once the vapors are removed, treatment can begin at the soil's surface level. Benefits of this technique include low levels of disruption, and cleanup that typically occurs within six to 10 months.

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Electrode spacing and operating time can be adjusted to balance the overall remediation cost with the desired cleanup time. A typical remediation may consist of electrodes spaced 15 to 20 feet apart with operating times usually less than a year. The design and cost of an ERH remediation system depends on a number of factors, primarily the volume of soil/groundwater to be treated, the type of contamination, and the treatment goals. The physical and chemical properties of the target compounds are governed by laws that make heated remediations advantageous over most conventional methods. The electrical energy usage required for heating the subsurface and volatilizing the contaminants can account for 5 to 40% of the overall remediation cost.There are several laws that govern an ERH remediation. Daltons law governs the boiling point of a relatively insoluble contaminant. Raoults law governs the boiling point of mutually soluble co-contaminants and Henrys law governs the ratio of the contaminant in the vapor phase to the contaminant in the liquid phase. Thermal Treatment

Thermal treatment is a solution for treating nonrecyclable and nonreusable waste in an environmental and economical friendly way. Thermal treatment reduces the volume and mass of the waste and inerts the hazardous components, while at the same time generating thermal and/or electrical energy and minimizing pollutant emissions to air and water. Thermal treatment methods generally heat and destroy pollutants through soil. The heat can also destroy or evaporate some chemicals. In turn, evaporated pollutants move more easily than those in solid form. Once treatment begins, pollutants are steered into and contained within underground wells before getting pumped to the surface. Above-ground treatment techniques can then purify the contaminants. Thermal treatment, which has proven particularly successful with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), often keeps soil in place and is thus called in situ. Examples of thermal treatment techniques include steam injection, hot water injection and radio frequency heating, waste incineration, pyrolysis and gasification .In modern European waste management waste incineration plays the absolute dominant role. The processes result in residual products from the waste as well as products resulting from flue gas cleaning additives, which afterwards have to be deposited at a controlled site such as a landfill or a mine. After thermal treatment ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be recovered and recycled. Also the grate ash or slag can be recovered for building purposes. Nutrients and organic matter are destroyed and cannot be recovered after thermal treatment.

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Conclusions: The following conclusions are made from the discussions made in this paper. 1. Soil pollution is caused by the presence of human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. 2. Various treatment methods have evolved in order to treat these polluted soils. 3. Phytoremediation is an in situ process that uses plants to stabilize or destroy soil contaminants and is employed at sites with soils contaminated with lead, uranium, and arsenic. 4. Soil vapour extraction is an in situ process which uses a vacuum to emit a controlled flow of air through the soil. 5. Biosparging is a treatment technique using natural microorganisms, like yeast or fungi, to decompose hazardous soil substances and is an efficient process that is typically more economical than SVE or conventional air sparging. 6. Electric resistance heating is a technique that has low levels of disruption, and cleanup. 7. Thermal treatment is an in situ solution for treating nonrecyclable and nonreusable waste in an environmental and economical friendly way. This treatment reduces the volume and mass of the waste and inerts the hazardous components. 8. There is a great need to realize the importance of soil treatment, so that we save our environment for our future generations. References:
1. Panagos, P., Van Liedekerke, M., Yigini, Y., Montanarella, L , Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2. Snyder C, "The dirty work of promoting "recycling" of America's sewage sludge". Int J Occup Environ Health 11 (4): 41527. 3. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Human Health Evaluation Manual, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20450 4. Michael Hogan, Leda Patmore, Gary Latshaw and Harry Seidman, Computer modelng of pesticide transport in soil for five instrumented watersheds, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Southeast Water laboratory, Athens, Ga. by ESL Inc., Sunnyvale, California. 5. S.K. Gupta, C.T. Kincaid, P.R. Mayer, C.A. Newbill and C.R. Cole, "A multidimensional finite element code for the analysis of coupled fluid, energy and solute transport", Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

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Impact Of Industrialization On The Environment

Study on Urban Environment Quality in Visakhapatnam

V R Sankar Cheela1, Basil Basheerudeen2, Resma Vijay3
Asst. Professor, MVGR College of Engg., Vizianagaram; mail ID:

Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay; mail

Post Graduate, Gnamani College of Engineering, Namakkal; mail ID:

Abstract Increasing sprawl of urban areas due to development activities adversely affects the environment as human footprint spreads over a larger area resulting in increased movement from one point to another. Urban growth both spatially and population wise puts heavy pressure on infrastructure, particularly water supply, sewerage, solid waste, sanitation, road network, traffic and transportation etc., unless infrastructure in improved, quality of life suffers. Most importantly, it impacts economic development of the city and investment climateA big segment of environment, quality of air has been deteriorating due to enhancement of emission from the transport sector particularly in large metro cities, has been a big challenge for scientists, politicians, planners and even for common men. The lack of proper planning may lead to unsustainable development which is extremely undesirable for the budding generations. The air pollution caused by the uncontrolled and above threshold industrial emissions, municipal waste incineration, and vehicular traffic etc cause drastic degradation of quality and instability of environmental parameters. These parameters have to be stabilised and improved by proper protection measures. Major environmental variables characteristic of the city which are responsible for the degradation of the quality of the environment in the city area are considered for describing the environmental scenario of Visakhapatnam - the point and non-point sources of pollution of air, noise, water, land, soil, regimes s well as coastal and marine sectors have been taken into consideration. Keywords: Air Pollution, Temperature, Wind Rose

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Introduction The environmental quality varies from region to region within the city area depending upon the assimilative capacity of a region, population density and the quantity of pollutants causing social damage, the level of valuation and appreciation of the surrounding environment by people in a region etc. All these factors together accord different values regarding the environmental quality to different region within the city. The City of Visakhapatnam is one of the largest Municipal Corporations in India and delivers services to about 1.5 million residents spread across a huge geographical area of 515 There has been a significant migration into the city owing to continuing rapid industrialization and urbanization. Location of Study Topographically, Visakhapatnam is located north east corner of Andhra Pradesh between 173142 - 175529 Northern Latitude to 8325 - 832517 Eastern latitude at an average elevation of 3 meters above sea level surrounded by Kailasa Hills on North, Yarada hills on South, Narva hills on west and Bay of Bengal on East. The city gets moderate rainfall of 1202 mm largely between June to October. On account of its elevation, Visakhapatnam is bestowed with hot and humid climate comparable to those of temperature regions.Merging of the surrounding villages and municipalities is a significant contributing factor for the rapid increase in percentage of population. Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC) has been divided into six zones totally consisting of 72 wards. Meteorology & Climate The meteorological data were obtained from the regional meteorological center (RMC), which is located at Beach Road, Visakhapatnam. The meteorological parameters include, wind speed, wind directions and other information, viz. humidity, rainfall, temperature. The study area is low lying and surrounded by hills and is subjected to a wet weather. The area experiences a lot of rainfall every year. The pre-monsoon months, March-April, have winds from North East. During monsoons, the predominant wind corridors are North East, North, and also south. The post monsoon period, from October-November is a period mixed with calm conditions and winds mainly from North. The winter months, November to February, experience frequent

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calm conditions. The maximum number of calm periods observed is in the month of December and January. The annual average temperature observed of maximum mean daily is 29.5 C and that of minimum mean daily temperature is 19.7 C. August is the hottest and January is the coldest month of the year. The annual average mean relative humidity is 82% in the morning and 70% in the evening. The climatic condition in the area is thus humid and tropical. The average rainfall during May to September is about 81% of the total contribution. The highest rainfall occurs in the month of July followed by June. The average annual rainfall in the city of Visakhapatnam is 166cm. During the study period, the inversion levels (up to 150 to 200m) were observed to be very low, and the prevailing wind direction is observed to be from North-East and East. Based on the data collected the wind rose diagrams are presented for all the seasons of the year 2005 and for the month of February 2006 as in Fig.2 and Fig.3. The wind speed recorded mostly remained within 3kmph.

Fig.1. Wind rose diagram for plot period 2005 to 2013

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Fig.3: Wind rose diagram for 2012-2013 Air Environment Air pollution can cause significant effects on the environment, and subsequently on humans, animals, vegetation and materials. It primarily affects the respiratory (e.g. by fine dust), circulatory (e.g. by carbon monoxide) and olfactory (e.g. by odors) systems in humans. In most of the cases, air pollution aggravates pre-existing diseases or degrades health status, making people more susceptible to other infections or the development of chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Environmental impacts from air pollution can include acidic deposition and reduction in visibility. Following the reconnaissance survey of the study area and taking into account the predominant environmental factors such as winds, topography and details of existing industrial activities in the region, Ambient air quality was monitored at six stations . Selection of Air quality monitoring station was done as per MoEF guidelines for conducting EIA study. One station was set up at the project site (core Zone) and two are in upwind direction and three are in down wind direction of the project site. All the stations were not obstructed by hills or any such structures. High volume samplers were used to collect/measure the air pollutant concentration data at 24 hours averaging periods for a period starting from February to March 2007 at all the stations. The frequency of sampling was two consecutive days a week for a month

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250 Concentration in g/m^3 200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 Days 5 6 7 8 9 SPM10 NAAQS

Fig.4. SPM variation

140 Concentration in g/m^3 120 100 80 SOx 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 Days 5 6 7 8 9 NOx NAAQS

Fig.5. Gaseous pollutant variation Traffic and Transport The baseline traffic count studies are required for assessing the future traffic flow due to proposed activity i.e. landfill and compost facility. The traffic survey is therefore carried out at the NH-5 and the access road junction. However, traffic counting was done for all vehicles passing both ways on NH-5 and passing towards the either side of NH-5(Fig.6). It was carried out during morning and evening including peak hours of the working day and the non-working (weekend) day, at 0900 to 1300 hrs and 1600 to 1900 hrs. The traffic counting

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includes 3 major compositions, viz. 2-wheelers, scooters, mopeds, and motorcycles; light vehicles comprising petrol and diesel driven car, taxi, van, auto; and heavy vehicles comprising mainly diesel driven, buses and trucks.
350 300 Vehicular population in numbers 250 200 150 100 50 0

Time in Hours

Non- Motorised Traffic

Motorise d Traffic

Fig.6. Traffic volume data The major composition of light vehicles and 2 wheelers is observed during day time and heavy vehicles i.e. trucks are observed during night time. The traffic volume is mainly composed of commercial and private vehicles, and seen throughout the day. The curbside air quality is deteriorated due to the dust pollution, re-suspended and generated when big vehicles such as buses and trucks carrying stones from the quarries use the access road and the NH-5. Conclusions The following table 5 describes the base line status of the project area Table.5: Base line studies Attribute Baseline status The meteorological data were obtained from the regional meteorological center located at Beach Road, Visakhapatnam. The meteorological parameters include, Meteorology wind speed, wind directions and other information, viz. humidity, rainfall, temperature. The annual average temperature observed of maximum mean daily is 29.5 C and that of minimum mean daily temperature is 19.7 C. During the study period, the inversion levels (up to 150 to 200m) were observed to be very low,

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and the prevailing wind direction is observed to be from North-East and East. Ambient air quality was monitored at six stations. Selection of air quality monitoring station was done as per MoEF guidelines for conducting EIA study. One station was set up at the project site (core Zone) and two are in upwind Ambient Air Quality direction and three are in down wind direction of the project site. The pollutant concentration levels of NOx, SO2, and RPM (PM10 & SPM were measured. It was observed that while the concentration levels of NOx and SO2 were well within the prescribed limits at all locations, the SPM & PM concentrations exceeded the limits at two locations Noise monitoring was carried out at different locations at and around the site. The Noise Levels noise levels at day & evening time noise levels recorded at the junction of NH-5 and the access road were found to exceed the noise standards due to heavy traffic. The assessment of water quality in the study area was done and compared with the drinking water standards prescribed by CPCB. After studying the drainage pattern of the study area and proximity to the site, 2 samples of surface waters were collected, one is, from C.C Tanks (passing through the proposed site) and the Water Quality second is, from the water body(GhambeeramGedda) near the project site. The physico-chemical parameters are well within the prescribed limits for the drinking water standards. The water quality with respect to almost all was observed to be of good and acceptable quality except for the concentration of iron which was found to be very high. Ground water Availability The aquifer in the area is composed of brownish soil mixed with loose sand. The average depth to groundwater is about 7 to 15m. Groundwater flow is generally west To assess the baseline soil quality in the study region, four soil samples were Soil Quality collected and analyzed at three locations. The surface soil at the proposed site is silty brown, mixed with fine grained sand. The soil being mostly loose sandy for a significant depth has more water contaminant filtering capacity. The share of oxygen and silica content in the soil is more compared to others, however, other

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macronutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have been found in very insignificant amount. The depth of rock in the area is over about 100m. The soil is observed to be having high cation exchange capacity and low soluble ions. The soil is slightly acidic with low nitrogen and phosphate. The study area is scarcely populated and because of wetland and forested (hills) steep slopes, there are no proper roads and other amenities of life. Around the site, few numbers of small villages like MajjiValasa, BodamettaPalem, KapulaUppada, Socioeconomy MajjiPeta, ChepalaUppada, Bheemiliand Lakshmipuram are situated. The land adjoining the site for integrated waste management facility is acquired by for SEZ. In the study area maximum number of people is found to be engaged as other workers in economic activity like Government/Private service, teachers, factory workers, commerce etc. negligible population is involved in agricultural activities. The studies conducted reveals that air quality within the Visakhapatnam urban development area is getting deteriorated day by day. Even though the pollutant concentrations are within the limits as of now, in the horizon years the environment demands sustainable measures to curb the alarming increase of pollutant concentration. Noise hazards are one of the most prominent and influential factors affecting the quality of life of city residents and urban environmental quality. Sustainable measures are to adopted in aim to decrease the air and noise pollution by keeping in control the privatized traffic proportions and putting in use of alternate fuels for vehicles such as low carbon emission vehicles, use of non-motorized transport, public transport integration etc. The public participation and involvement should be encouraged planning and decisions making for the improvement in better urban environmental quality. References i. Pastakia CMR, Jensen A. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) for EIA. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 1998; 18:46182. ii. Brkovi Matija, Sretovi Vinja; Urban Sensing Smart Solutions for Monitoring Environmental Quality: Case Studies from Serbia; 48th ISOCARP Congress (2012) iii. City Development Plan-Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation, Government of Andhra Pradesh.

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Impact of Industrial Activities on Heavy Metal Concentrations in Marine Environment of Mangalore

Dr. Raj Mohan B
Associate Professor Department of Chemical Engineering National Institute of Technology Karnataka E- mail:

Jaya Mary Jacob

Research Scholar Department of Chemical Engineering National Institute of Technology Karnataka E- mail:

Akshay Gowda K M
Student Department of Chemical Engineering National Institute of Technology Karnataka

Abstract: Industrialization in the current century has pioneered extensive research in the field of environmental impact concerned with heavy metals and metalloids. Of particular interest is the upsurge in research on the contribution of petrochemicals and refineries on the alarming hike in the heavy metal concentration in the marine environment in proximity to these industries. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. Mangalore, a major coastal industrial hub of India being populated by numerous small scale and large scale industries and the associated anthropogenic activities direct the attention of environmentalists and researchers to evaluate and analyze the heavy metal concentrations in the beaches and other marine hot spots to initiate remediation and precautionary measures to effectively manage the situation. As per preliminary reports, the concentrations of certain heavy metals like Lead and Selenium in sea water samples from beaches in proximity to petro-chemical industries are reportedly higher than the tolerable limits. The present review highlights the major industrial activities that result in elevated metal/metalloid concentrations and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the coastal niche of Mangalore. Key Words: Heavy Metal, Industry, Coast, Mangalore.

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Introduction: Heavy metals are considered a major anthropogenic contaminant in coastal and marine environments worldwide. They pose a serious threat to human health, living organisms and natural ecosystems because of their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation characteristics. Many heavy metal ions are known to be toxic or carcinogenic to humans. Heavy metals can contribute to degradation of marine ecosystems by reducing species diversity and abundance and through accumulation of metals in living organisms and food chains. Anthropogenically, heavy metals can be introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources, including industries, wastewaters and domestic effluent. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments of the Mangalore is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. The West Coast of Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 350 kilometres (220 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore. Mangalore lies between the Mangalore Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, and is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in south western Karnataka. The city is characterized by marked fluctuations in sea temperatures and high salinities. It is relatively a shallow basin with an average area of 1,91,791 km2 , a coastline of 258.15 km. Flora and fauna species in the area inhabit one of the harshest marine environments due to natural stressors represented by higher levels of salinity and temperature, and reduced levels of pH. The West Coast is fed with rapid, short and swift flowing rivers having hardly any delta formations. The tidal range here is comparatively low. The West Coast has a wider continental shelf compared to the East Coast. These characteristics added with the wave and current pattern makes the West Coast rich in biotic wealth compared to the East Coast. In the past few decades, Mangalore has witnessed major economic, social and industrial developments. The coastline has been extensively developed and modified. Dredging and reclamation, industrial and sewage effluents, water discharges from petrochemicals, and oil pollution are examples of anthropogenic stresses that contribute to environmental degradation in the area, which is classified among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the country. These anthropogenic activities are mobilizing and discharging elevated levels of heavy metals

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into the marine environment. Metal pollution in the area could be intensified in recent years due to elevated industrialization and mobility in the ports. Therefore, pollutants such as heavy metals are likely to reside in the marine environment for considerable time. Marine environments of Mangalore are contributing substantially to the sectors of industry, trade, shipping, tourism, electricity production, and other activities. Consequently, additional anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals in sea water might be critical not only to vulnerable and fragile ecosystems, but also to human health and well-being. Objectives of Research Paper: To analyze the major heavy metal contaminants in the sea water in coastal and marine environments of Mangalore. To identify major anthropogenic impacts contributing to heavy metal loads. To suggest measures contributing to environmental management of heavy metal pollution in Mangalore. Research Methodology: The present study is largely a library work, based on published official secondary data and theoretical literature available in the library and on the websites. The Heavy Metal contaminants in the marine niche of Mangalore It may be assumed, perhaps, that due to the discharge of large volume of contaminants, concentrations of heavy metals in the marine biota around India will be fairly high. It can be seen that concentrations of almost all of the metals, particularly the toxic metals Pb, Cd, and Hg, are within the permissible limits for human consumption the concentrations, as is highlighted by the research of heavy metals in zooplankton and in muscles of fishes of commercial importance, that constitute the marine fauna in Mangalore seas. As per research in the year 2011, sea sediments in Mangalore reported Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations of 28.78 6.96g/g, 0.12 0.01g/g and 0.04 0.01g/g respectively. These metal concentrations may be attributed to an increased anthropogenic input of these metals into the region. Researchers pointed out that the industrial discharge at the riverine end, domestic sewage discharge and movement of ships, barges, fishing and passenger boat with in the estuary may be responsible for this increase. Studies reveal that the concentration of heavy metals was in the order of Fe>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb at the Panambur beach in particular benthic fish species. Such organisms represent the most reliable tool to monitor heavy metal contaminations. Further, the concentrations of heavy metals

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were found to be higher during the south west monsoon. This condition might be also due to the increased inputs of land derived metals due to rainfall. Another typical study in the region reveals seasonal distribution showing higher concentration of Cu, Cr and Zn during the post monsoon and Cd in pre monsoon season. Major Anthropogenic Impacts Contributing To Heavy Metal Loads 1. Reclamation and dredging The coasts along Mangalore especially in the port area are undergoing rapid construction activities that are often associated with intensive dredging and reclamation. Coastal and marine environments in the region are the prime target for most of the major recreational and economic developments. Dredging and reclamation processes are typically associated with short and long term biological, physical and chemical impacts. These activities may result in physically smothering the coastal and sub tidal habitats and deoxygenating the underlining sediments. Physical and chemical alternations due to dredging and reclamation may reduce biodiversity, richness, abundance and biomass of marine organisms. Additionally, elevated levels of heavy metals are mobilized during dredging and reclamation activities. These contaminants may enter important food web components including fish and shellfish, and ultimately pose threats to human health. 2. Sewage discharges Sewage discharges are major sources of coastal pollution in Mangalore. Despite high standards of sewage treatment followed, large quantities of domestic effluents are discharged to coastal and marine environments. These effluents are characterized by high-suspended solid and high load of nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and phosphate. Sewage effluents are generally accompanied by biological and chemical pollutants, including heavy metals that may cause degradation in the receiving coastal and marine environments, and subsequently affect the quality of human food and health. 3. Industrial effluents Mangalore has witnessed a rapid industrial growth, mainly in the sectors of oil refining, petrochemical industries. Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, the coastal waters off Mangalore are receiving not only increased load of domestic wastes but also effluents

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from industries such as Iron ore processing plant (KIOCL), Petroleum refinery (MRPL) and Dyes and dispersions plant (BASF) containing hydrocarbons, increased levels of BOD, COD, suspended solids basically from the sludge and other various compounds including heavy metals. These major industries are also discharging wastewater containing a variety of chemicals, including heavy metals, hydrocarbon compounds, and nutrients. Petroleum refinery wastewaters are composed of different chemicals, which include oil and greases, phenols, sulphides, ammonia, suspended solids, and heavy metals like chromium, iron, nickel, copper, molybdenum, selenium, vanadium and zinc. Coastal and marine environments receiving intensive industrial effluents along the coastline of the area are recognized as hotspots for high concentrations of heavy metals.

Fig.1. Major Industries in Mangalore

Management of Heavy Metal Pollution Prevention and control of heavy metal is a global concern. For a densely populated city like Mangalore that is developing as a future industrial and residential hub of India, the management of heavy metal pollution in the city is critically required. Heavy metal

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management strategies in Mangalore can be classified into immediate and long-term measures. The immediate actions may include formulating quality guidelines and standards, enforcing existing national and regional environmental regulations and laws, and conducting holistic environmental monitoring programs. Long-term measures may include applying Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on existing and proposed projects or activities that may contribute to heavy metal pollution, building capacity for advancing scientific research, and using latest technological approaches and techniques in prevention and remediation of heavy metal pollution. Bio monitoring using microbial agents like algae hold great potential for a faster, easier and eco-friendly monitoring of metal concentrations in marine sources. Suggestions & Conclusions: 1. The sea water and sediment analysis from the marine niche of Mangalore indicate elevated levels of heavy metals like Lead, Mercury, Cadmium etc. 2. Anthropogenic activities dominated by the industrial sector could be attributed to the increasing metal concentrations in the region. 3. Al though the industries comply with the environment regulatory aspects regarding effluent discharge, latest technological advancements need to be incorporated to improve the management strategy. References:
Yambem Tenjing Singh, Machina Krishnamoorthy and Seetharamaiah Thippeswamy, Status of heavy metals in tissues of wedge clam, Donax faba (Bivalvia: Donacidae) collected from the Panambur beach near industrial areas, Recent Research in Science and Technology 2012, 4(5): 30-35. B Mohana Kumar, R J Katti, K S Venkatesha Moorthy and Ronald K D Souza, Selected heavy metals in the sediment and macro benthos of the coastal waters of Mangalore, Indian Journal of Fisheries 2003, 50(2), 263-268. Al-Sayed H, Mahasneh A, Al-Saad J, Variation of trace metal concentrations in seawater and pearl oyster Pinctada radiata from Bahrain (Arabian Gulf). Marine Pollution Bulletin 1994, 28 (6), 370374. Fu F, Wang Q, Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. Journal of Environmental Management 2011, 92, 407418. Halpern B, Walbridge S, Selkoe K, Kappel C, Micheli F et al, A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems, Science 2008, 319, 948952. Zhou Q, Zhang J, Fu J, Shi J, Jiang G, Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem, Analytica Chimica Acta 2008, 606, 135150.

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Impact of Urbanization in Kerala: Case study of Cochin Corporation

Basil Basheerudeen1, Aparna Baiju2
1 2

Research Scholar, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay; mail Post Graduate, TocH Institute of Science and Technology; mail ID: Abstract:

Most Indian cities are experiencing rapid urbanization and a majority of the countrys population is expected to live in cities within a span of next two decades. India has been meeting the urbanization challenge by increasing urban spaces and converting and classifying rural areas as urban. Increasing the urban spaces created new issues in large cities, such as lack of physical and social infrastructure, high transportation demand, high pollution levels, development of slums and squatters, reduction in agricultural land, destruction of bio-diversity and ecosystem and loss of community life. Generally, the increase in urban population growth rate is the result of over concentration in the existing cities especially metropolitans. But in Kerala, the main reason for urban population growth is the increase in the number of urban areas and also urbanization of the peripheral areas of the existing major urban centres which is evident from the study of the density pattern. But the density pattern in major cities and towns shows that, the increase in density is due to the overall population increase over the entire spread of Kerala, which is occasionally accentuated in the urban areas with nominal variations. The dispersed settlement pattern, a result of historical trends, a liking for homestead type development, comparatively developed infrastructure in urban and rural areas, geographical reasons etc. can be considered as both a prospect and a problem. Keywords: Demography, Density, Land Use

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Introduction: India is urbanizing rapidly and about 377 million people live in 7935 towns or cities across the country which constitutes about 31.2 % of the total population. Population growth has resulted in the evolution of villages into towns and cities, either by way of organic growth or being part of a larger agglomeration. The process of urbanisation can be discerned from the distribution of urban population. Kerala state recorded an urban population of 1,59,32,171 as per 2011 census, which accounts for 47.2% of the total population of 3,33,87,677 and is far higher than the national urban average. The urban sector in Kerala comprises of five Municipal Corporations and 53 Municipalities. The huge growth in urban population during the past decade 2001-2011 (92.72 %) could be attributed squarely to the manifold increase in number of towns in the State between 2001 & 2011 from 159 to 520 as shown in Fig.1. The districts such as Ernakulam, Thrissur, Calicut, Malappuram, Trivandrum and Kannur are the major contributors of urban population in the state with a joint contribution of 73 percent (Fig.2.) Ernakulam is the most urbanised district (68.07%) and Wayanad (3.87%) is the least urbanised district of the State.

110 90

% of Population

70 50 30 10







24.61 29.78 22.4 19.19 15.44 20.64 15.67 14.522.8224.76 26.29 7.64 11.47 21.85 3.5610.07 19.24 7.52 16.04 14.324.86 11.75 9.43 9.16

% of Urban Population

Decadal Growth of Population in Rural And 52.72 Urban Areas in 35.72 39.89 to 200160.97 Kerala From 34.58 1901-11 37.64 92.72 11 30.47

District wise Level of Urban Population in Kerala

70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Idukki

1981 1991 2001 2011

-10 -30



Fig.1. Decadal Growth of Population in Rural & Urban Areas in Kerala From 1901-11 to 2001-11

District in Kerala

Fig.2. District wise Level of Urban Population in Kerala

The density pattern in major cities and towns shows that, the increase in density is due to the overall population increase over the entire spread of Kerala. However, unlike the other parts of the country

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the urbanization in Kerala is not limited to the designated cities and towns instead the entire state depicts the picture of an urban rural continuum. Kochi Corporation: Kochi, the commercial capital of Kerala, is one of the fastest growing two-tier metropolitan cities in India and is situated in Ernakulam District, is located between 9 52' and 10 1' North Latitude and between 76 14' and 76 21' East Longitude. The city has an area of 94.88 km2 with a population of 6,12,343 curtailed with the Municipal Corporation boundary limits. Urban expansion during the past few decades outgrew the limits to form the largest urban agglomerate in the state. 1. Genesis of Kochi Corporation
Kochi has witnessed unprecedented trends of urbanization during the past four decades due to industrialisation. Kochi Corporation was formed in 1967, incorporating the three Municipalities (Fort Kochi, Mattanchery and Ernakulam), Wellington Island and few surrounding areas in the suburbs. The growth pattern of Kochi is shown in Fig.3.

Fig.3. Growth of settlements in Kochi Demography Kerala state accounts for 1.18% of the total area of the country, but houses 4.2% of the countrys population. Kochi, the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala, consists of the Municipal Corporation of Kochi, adjoining Municipalities (Statutory towns) and Grama Panchayaths (Census town) have a population of 21,17,990. The average decadal growth in Kochi Corporation is 7.8% whereas the nearby municipal areas registered decadal average of 18.65%, and the adjoining Panchayaths had an average decadal growth of 12.1% as shown in Fig 4. Semi urban areas around the city is showing

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high rate of population growth and also fast developing trends. Table.1 shows the growth of towns from 2001 to 2011.

Population in persons

Table.1 shows the growth of towns from 2001 to 2011 in Kochi Metropolitan Area No .of Towns Total Type Statutory Census Area (Km2) 45.69 189.45 2001 5 15 2011 6 45

2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0

Decadal Population in Kochi Urban Agglomerate

Kochi Corporation

1981 1991 2001 2011

Fig.4. Decadal Population in Kochi Metropolitan Area

The contributing factors of population growth in the area are mainly the natural increase and the in migration from nearby villages for trade and employment and are projected as given in Table 2. Table.2.Estimated migration component as % to Total population 2011 11.46 26.04 14.16 2021 18.98 38.61 20.83 2026 24.74 46.27 28.28

Kochi City Municipal Areas Census Towns 1. Population Density

As per 2011 census, Kochi Municipal Corporation has a population density of 6340 persons per compared to 6449 persons per for the peripheral areas around the city. The population density variations across the district and within the metropolitan area are given in Fig.5 and Fig.6.

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Fig.5. Popoulation Density Pattern in Ernakulam Fig.6. Population Density variation in the Kochi District and Adjacent areas City region Land Use The characteristic feature of the land utilization pattern in the Kochi City is the predominance of water bodies and wetland. The land utilization pattern shows that the land under water and paddy/fish farm is getting converted to developed land as shown in Fig.7 and Fig.8.

Percent Level of Land Use Pattern

22.7 17.0 48.4

Residential Commercial Industrial

% of Total Area

80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

Percent level of Land Utilisation

3.3 3.9 3.2 0.2


Public & Semi Public

Type ofKochi Land Use City regionMunicipal Area + Panchayaths

Fig.7.Land Use Pattern, 2001Census

Fig.8. % Land Utilisation of Kochi Metropolitan

The analysis of the land utilization pattern shows that the areas on the north eastern and western part of this region vary significantly, as the western part comprises of islands surrounded by water bodies and fragmented by canals and backwaters.

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Transport and Urban Infrastructure Kochi city region has developed in a disintegrated urban form spreading along major traffic corridors. The number of vehicles in Ernakulam district has increased during 1989-90 to2006-07 showing an average annual growth rate between 10 to 20 % and was followed with a declining trend for the next two decades. Vehicle Population increased enormously during 2010-11 with increase in agglomerate population (Fig.9). Two wheelers constituted the major shares of vehicle population in the district with more than 62 percent (Fig.10). Motor Vehicle 1500000
1000000 500000 0 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 7% 62%

Motor Vehicle Population in Nos.

Population in Ernakulam


Modal Split in Ernakulam 2% 8% District 18%

Goods Vehicl e


Fig.9. Decadal Motor Vehicle Population in Ernakulam

Fig.10. Decadal Motor Vehicle Population in Ernakulam

Urban economic activities are dependent upon urban infrastructure like roads, water supply, power, telecommunication, mass transportation and other civic infrastructure like sanitation and solid waste management. Kochi Metropolitan area produces about 670 tons of solid waste per day. The generation of solid waste varies from 0.30 kg to 0.58 kg per head per day in the Kochi City Region. The region does not have a scientific management system for solid waste pushing along with only a collector efficiency of around 40%. The environmental quality of an area depends up on the ambient air quality and water quality which influence the quality of life of the inhabitants. Kochi agglomerate characterised by more amount of industrial and commercial activities resulted in more vehicular emissions, noise pollution, highly contaminated surface water and higher amount of sewerage disposal.

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Conclusions Although natural increase continues to contribute largely in urban growth of India, however with acceleration in demographic transition, rural to urban migration is likely to play more prominent role in the economic development of the country. Kochi Urban agglomeration is experiencing population growth higher than the state average. The population growth rate is showing a declining trend in the Corporation area during the past three decades whereas the suburban area around the city shows considerably high population growth. Growth in population and denser patterns induces traffic demand from the peripheral areas results in the higher usage of privatised vehicles on the road. This leads to congestion, pollution, accidents thereby, degrading the urban environment. Disorganised expansion of urban area at a rapid rate results in scarce availability of basic infrastructure services, facilities etc. to the rapidly growing population at the fullest extent. Keeping in view the above, the strategy for rejuvenating the cities must focus on provision of basic urban infrastructural services, provision of water supply, sewerage and solid waste management, storm water drainage, transport and e-Governance. References i. Comprehensive Development Plan for Kochi City Region (2031), Dept. of Town & Country Planning, Govt. of Kerala. ii. iii.
Comprehensive Study for Transport System for Greater Kochi Area, Rites Ltd, 2001.

Census of India, 2011; Kerala State Planning Board: Economic Review 2007-12.

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Ground Water Issues.

Arsenic Contamination In Ground Water

Mithra.P 1, Annie Joy 2 , Dr. A.K. Vasudevan 3
M Tech student1, Assistant Professor2 TIST, Cochin University, Kerala Professor3 NSS College of Engineering, Palakkad, Kerala e-mail Id: mithraprasadv@gmail.com1

Abstract: Arsenic is a metalloid element ,which is brittle in nature ,and grey white in colour . Arsenic is a chemical that is widely distributed in nature and principally occurs in the form of inorganic or organic compounds .Inorganic compounds consists of Arsenite, the most toxic forms and Arsenate, the less toxic forms. High concentration of Arsenic (As) in ground water in northeastern states of India has become a major cause of concern in recent years. The ground water in the past was considered to be safe for drinking purpose but now it came to be known that many shallow tube wells contain arsenic at concentrations higher than the safe limit set for drinking purpose by WHO 1993. Arsenic has detrimental effects on health .These effects range from skin ailments to serious diseases such as Cancer and to death. Key Words: Arsenic (As), WHO.

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Introduction: Arsenic(As) is an ubiquitous metalloid element that ranks 20th in crustal abundance. It enters into the groundwater and food chain due to its association with rocks, sediments and soils as well as its discharge from industrial sources and the use of pesticides. It is a toxic substance with exceedingly diverse forms of poisoning. Different species of arsenic have different degrees of toxicity, of these As (III) causes the most damage. High concentrations of arsenic have been found in the northeastern states of India and Bangladesh. The ground water in the past was considered to be safe for drinking purpose but now it came to be known that many shallow tube wells contain arsenic at concentrations higher than the safe limit set for drinking purpose by WHO 1993.Arsenic has detrimental effects on health. These effects range from skin ailments to serious diseases such as Cancer and to death. Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To discuss the level of arsenic contamination in different parts of the world. 2. To discuss the different sources of arsenic in ground water. 3. To discuss the different methods for testing arsenic content. 4. To discuss the different methods for management and removal of arsenic. 5. To discuss the effects of arsenic contamination. Research Methodology: The study is largely a library work, based on published official secondary data and theoretical literature available in the library and on the websites. Level of arsenic contamination in different parts of world:

Figure1. Distribution of arsenic in different parts of the world.

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Arsenic contamination of ground water has been reported from many countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam, Argentina, China, parts of USA and now in India. The provisional limit of As in drinking water as recommended by WHO is 0.01mg/l. Figure 1 shows the distribution of arsenic in different parts of the world. In India As in ground water has been detected in some parts of Assam, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. Many areas within the Northeastern states with As concentration greater than 0.05 mg/l, implying that millions of people are at serious risk of As poisoning. Testing for arsenic content: Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a worldwide problem due to its detrimental effects on health. The major issue of arsenic contaminated water is to find out the level of contamination of arsenic and it is not so easy because of no colour, no odour and no taste even in the highly contaminated water. Field methods:

The most important characteristic of field testing method is that the testing can be carried out in field where sample is taken. In this method relatively very simple testing field-kits are used. When any metal arsenic reacts with strong acids, arsine gas is formed. Most arsenic test kits rely on the reduction of inorganic arsenic to arsine gas. Using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid. This gas is allowed to pass through the mercury bromide indicator paper and the intensity of color indicates the concentration of As. Field Kits for the Detection of Inorganic Arsenic in Water

Arsenic detection field kits are being used worldwide to screen wells for arsenic and also to monitor the performance of arsenic removal technologies.

Figure 2. The colour chart of arsenic concentration as provided by the NIPSOM,GPL and Merck kits.

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Figure 3. NEERI field kit for arsenic detection. Management and removal of arsenic: Arsenic removal using wood charcoal and sand

A simple As-removal system has been developed in Bangladesh ,based on a traditional sandfiltration water-purification system. Arsenic removal using sedimentation method

Passive sedimentation received considerable attention because of the rural peoples habit of drinking stored water from pitchers. As level in the water was tested at five different layers of water in the tank. Each layer was assumed to be 20 cm thick and the sixth layer at the bottom acted as sedimentation trap (Figure 5). Table 1 shows the concentration of As in storage water.

Figure 5. Removal of arsenic using natural inorganic gradient. Table 1. Reduction of arsenic level in water by sedimentation method.
Amount of arsenic (mg/l) Duration (h) 0 72 144 Ist layer 0.45 0.05 0.05 2nd layer 0.45 0.10 0.10 3rd layer 0.45 0.20 0.20 4th layer 0.45 0.3 0.20 5th layer 0.45 0.3 0.3 Sedimentation trap 6th layer

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Arsenic removal by coagulation process

Coagulation and filtration is the most common As-removal technology. By adding a coagulant such as alum, ferric chloride or ferric sulphate to contaminated water, much of the As can be removed. Table 2 shows the performance of alum and PAC in arsenic removal. Table 3 shows the arsenic removal from ground water. Table 2.Performance of alum and PAC in arsenic removal
Alum dose (mg/l) 0 Residual arsenic(g/l ) 105 (-) 0 Residual arsenic(g/l ) 519 (-) 0 Residual arsenic(g/l ) 118 9 (-) 30 77 (26.7 ) 100 186 (64.2 ) 100 465 (60.9 ) 40 70 (33.3 ) 150 82 (84.2 ) 150 245 (79.4 ) 50 59 (43.8 ) 200 37 (92.9 ) 200 106 (91.2 ) 60 30 (71.4 ) 210 20 (96.1 ) 210 53 (95.5 ) 70 BDL (>99 ) 220 BDL (>99 ) 220 BDL (>99 ) 0 105 (-) 0 519 (-) 0 118 9 (-) 10 80 (23.8 ) 100 12 (97.7 ) 100 36 (97.0 ) PAC dose (mg/l) 15 63 (40.0 0 110 2 (99.6) 125 7 20 23 (78.1) 120 BDL (>99.6 ) 150 BDL (>99.4 ) 25 15 (85.7) 130 BDL (>99.6 ) 30 BDL (>99 ) -


Figures in parentheses indicate percentage of arsenic corresponding to the dose. BDL. Below Detectable Limit(<2mg/l)

Table 3. Arsenic removal from ground water

Total arsenic in test water(g/l) 105 519 1189 Dose required to obtain residual arsenic concentration (10g/l) Alum (mg/l) 70 220 250 PAC (mg/l) 30 110 125

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Arsenic removal using lime-softening

Lime-softening is a similar process to coagulation with metal salts. Table 4 shows that adding 0.1 % (by weight) of lime to As contaminated water. Table 4. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water with calcium oxide
Initial arsenic content (mg/l) 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 Arsenic concentration (mg/l) After 1h 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.10 10h 0.400 0.350 0.250 0.090 0.070 0.070 0.050 0.050 0.035 0.030 0.020 0.150 0.010 0.010 0.010 Nil 16h 0.40 0.30 0.15 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 1h 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22 33 33 33 44 44 44 56 56 67 78 78 Per cent removal After 10h 11 22 44 80 84 84 88 88 92 93 96 97 98 98 98 100 16h 11 38 67 87 89 89 93 43 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Amount of water (ml) 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000

Amount of CaO (mg) 0.5 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5

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Household arsenic filter

Figure 6. Kanchan arsenic filter developed under Nepal Water Project (MIT and ENPHO). The US- based Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in collaboration with a Nepal based non-governmental Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO) has developed the KanchanTM arsenic filter. Effects of arsenic contamination: The United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have specified arsenic as known human carcinogen. Effects on Human Health

Figure 7. Person affected by melanosis- showing black pigmentation in skin

Figure 8. Palm and soles become rough and tough due to Keratosis. Melanosis (93.5 %), and keratosis are the most common presentations among the affected people.

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Conclusion: There are 20 countries in the world in which groundwater arsenic contamination episodes have been cited, but the worst suffering people have been observed in Bangladesh and West Bengal. Groundwater in these regions are contaminated with As which occurs naturally in alluvial and deltaic sediments. Due to high concentration of As in well water, the people of these regions are continuously being exposed to As toxicity causing serious health hazards. Therefore, the first priority to remediate the crisis should be early identification of the affected sources, and the next hurdle is to provide arsenic-safe water to the affected masses. References: Roy,T.K.,Mukhopadhyay,A.R.,Ghosh,S.K.,Majumdar,G.,(2010). Arsenic Enrichment in Groundwater in the Middle Gangetic Plain of Ghazipur District in UttarPradesh,India.Indian Journal of Environmental Protection,30,653-658. M.D.,AbulFazal,Toshihiko Kawachi.,(2011).Extent and severity of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh.Water International,26,370-379. A.K.,Singh.,(2007).Approaches for Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater of Northeastern India,Current Science,92,1506-1515. NurunNahar,Faisal Hossain,M.,Delawer Hossain.,(2008).Health and Socioeconomic Effects of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Rural Bangladesh:New Evidence from Field Surveys,Journal of Environmental Health,70,42-47.

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Groundwater Wakeup
Asika Johney, Avinash Satheesh, K.Akhil *, Lekshmi M. S.**
*B.Tech Students,**Asso. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering Toc H Institute of Science & Techonology, Arakkunnam e-mail id:

Abstract: Demand for clean drinking water increases continually. Drinking water is drawn mainly from groundwater in most of the places because it is naturally protected, of high quality and is reliable. Groundwater depletion is a key issue associated with groundwater use. Groundwater depletion and the lowering of the water table is very serious for several reasons. The most effective method of controlling depletion is groundwater recharging. Toc H Institute of Science and Technology is situated in a locality where there is scarcity of water. This paper discusses about the water crisis in the locality of Arakkunnam and different ground water recharge techniques for those wells that get dried up during the year. Different artificial recharge techniques by which excess surface water is directed into the ground either by spreading on the surface, by using recharge wells, or by altering natural conditions to increase infiltration, have been briefly explained in this paper. This paper also discusses about the results obtained from various groundwater quality tests conducted on the sample.

Key Words: Groundwater depletion, groundwater recharge techniques, Ground water quality

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Introduction: Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. Groundwater makes up about twenty percent of the world's fresh water supply, which is about 0.61% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice. Groundwater is the largest source of usable, fresh water in the world. In many parts of the world, especially where surface water supplies are not available, domestic, agricultural, and industrial water needs can only be met by using the water beneath the ground. Groundwater depletion is a term often defined as long term water-level declines caused by sustained groundwater pumping. It is a key issue associated with groundwater use. Groundwater depletion is to be controlled at its earliest to prevent all these negative effects which can be fatal to the environment as well as to the public. The most effective method of controlling depletion is groundwater recharging. The quality of groundwater also plays a major role. Groundwater contamination occurs when manmade products such as gasoline, oil, road salts and chemicals get into the groundwater and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use. Materials from the land's surface can move through the soil and end up in the groundwater. For example, pesticides and fertilizers can find their way into groundwater supplies over time. Road salt, toxic substances from mining sites, and used motor oil also may seep into groundwater. In addition, it is possible for untreated waste from septic tanks and toxic chemicals from underground storage tanks and leaky landfills to contaminate groundwater. Drinking contaminated groundwater can have serious health effects. Diseases such as hepatitis and dysentery may be caused by contamination from septic tank waste. Poisoning may be caused by toxins that have leached into well water supplies. Wildlife can also be harmed by contaminated groundwater. Other long term effects such as certain types of cancer may also result from exposure to polluted water. Toc H Institute of Science and Technology is situated in a locality where there is a depletion of groundwater. Studies were carried out in and around TIST ,Arakkunnam ,to assess the quality as well as quantity of groundwater at present during the years 2012- 2013 . Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To discuss about the results obtained from groundwater quantity mapping.

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2. To discuss about various groundwater recharge techniques that can be implemented in the study area. 3. To discuss about the results obtained from groundwater quality mapping. Research Methodology:

The present study is largely a work, based on the data collected during the course of the project on Groundwater Mapping around TIST Arakkunnam 2012-2013and Investigations on recharging of groundwater around TIST Arakkunnam 2013-2014 Study Area: The study area was selected within a radius of 0.25 km of the TIST campus. It falls in Mulanthuruthy block of Ernakulam district in Kerala. It consists of 20 open wells which were used as the observation wells throughout the course of the project. The 20 wells were distributed in three directions with 5 wells to the north, 6 wells to the north west and 9 wells to the south east of TIST gate.

Field Results: An auto level survey was conducted in the field for determining the reduced levels of the selected wells. The reduced levels of the wells were determined keeping the TIST gate as the bench mark (assuming an R.L of 100m for the gate).

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Water depth measurements of the wells in the field under study were taken from the month of August 2012 till the month of October 2013. The water levels showed a generally decreasing trend during the period of August January. This can be mainly attributed to the receding monsoons, which showed a sharp decline compared to that of the previous years. It was also found that a particular area that is to the north west direction of TIST gate has almost dried up by the end of January. Reasoning for groundwater level fluctuations: Out of the six wells, two wells extensively dried during the dry seasons of the year. The depth of these wells were comparatively less than the other wells. This may be one among the reasons for the depletion of groundwater. Transpiration effects: Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts. Magnitudes of transpiration fluctuations depend on the type of vegetation, season, and weather. The area under study is situated parallel to a rubber plantation. Groundwater recharge may be reduced due to paved surface area. The site under study is having a bituminous road. The wells are situated close to each other, the supply of water will be greatly affected, due to interference, when both the wells are pumped simultaneously.

Implementation Of Artificial Recharge Techniques On Study Area: From the water level readings it was understood that the area under study was affected by water shortage during the dry seasons. This situation can be improved by artificial recharging of groundwater. Groundwater recharge with vetiver system can be suitably adopted to the study area. Vetiver grass has roots of 2 to 3 metres length that can penetrate very hard soil layers. Much of this water will penetrate into the ground because the water can flow along the Vetiver roots. The method of recharge shafts can be adopted to the study area. Recharge shafts are constructed to augment recharge into phreatic aquifers where water levels are much deeper

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and the aquifer zones are overlain by strata having low permeability .They are much smaller in cross section . Aquifer modification techniques such as bore blasting or hydrofracturing can be adopted to increase the groundwater yield. Groundwater Quality Test: Groundwater is required for domestic, irrigation, and industrial uses. A large part of drinking water supply is fulfilled by groundwater, thereby increasing its vital importance. In many of the areas groundwater is only source of drinking water, thus a large population is exposed to the risk of consuming contaminated water . Water samples were collected from the selected wells and the following water quality tests were conducted: I. Turbidity test II. Test to detect the presence of iron III. Test to detect the presence of manganese IV. Test to detect the presence of nitrate. Turbidity test: As per WHO standards, the permissible limit for turbidity of drinking water is 5 NTU. It was seen that the sample from a single well has a turbidity value of 16.2 NTU. Hence the sample should be used only after proper treatment. Determination of iron: Iron is harmless, though sometimes annoying. High concentrations of dissolved iron can result in poor tasting, unattractive water that stains both plumbing fixtures and clothing. As per IS:10500, permissible limit for iron in drinking water is 0.3ppm. The values of iron content in the samples from five wells were more than 0.3ppm. Hence the water in these wells should be treated before domestic use. Determination of Manganese: Water rich in manganese can increase bacterial growth in water. Excessive manganese intake can cause hypertension in patients older than 40. Significant rises in manganese concentrations have

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been found in patients with severe hepatitis, in dialysis patients and in patients suffering heart attacks. As per IS 10500, the permissible limit of manganese in drinking water is 0.1ppm. The samples from two wells had contain manganese values greater than 0.1ppm.So the water in these wells have to be treated before domestic use. Determination of Nitrate: Nitrate intrusion into groundwater happens mainly from fertilizers used in agriculture and also from plants nearby. High nitrite content in water can cause methamoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome. As per I.S 10500, the permissible limit of nitrite in drinking water is 45 ppm, as none of the well samples exceeded this limit, it can be safely used for domestic purpose. Conclusions: Drinking water is drawn mainly from groundwater in most of the places because it is naturally protected, of high quality and reliable. It is clear that the relative importance of groundwater resources will increase considerably and that careful and sustainable exploitation must be regarded as means of overcoming the looming water crisis in the locality of Arakkunnam. The motivation of this paper was to meet the water crisis in the locality of Arakkunnam by suggesting different groundwater recharge techniques and also infer the results obtained from the quality test of the water samples. References:

Manual on Artificial Recharge on Groundwater,September 2007, Ministry of water Resources, Central Groundwater Board ,Government of India,. Nikitha Narayanan, Shifas I., Umalakhmi K.,S.,Project report on Groundwater Mapping in Arakkunnam. H.M Raghunath, Groundwater, Third edition, New AgeInternational Publishers Ltd, (2007). David Keith Todd, Groundwater Hydrology,Second edition, published by John Wiley & Sons Pte. Ltd

Renewable & Non-Renewable Energies

Solar Roadways
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Parvathi.S; Asst Prof Life John

Department of Civil Engineering Toch Institute Of Science and Technology, Kerala email Abstract Sustainability is critical in current engineering techniques, particularly in the field of pavement engineering. It is based on using minimum resources while optimizing design for maximum efficiency. One such project is the proposal to build roads that have been integrated with photovoltaic cells in order to provide a high performance driving surface while generating renewable electricity. The electricity thus generated can then be used in local infrastructure, adjacent buildings, or it can be sold to the electrical grid. The solar roadway is an intelligent road that provides clean renewable energy and safer driving conditions, along with data and power delivery.

The principle objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of Solar Roadways A road that pays for itself. The various layers of solar roadways and the materials used for its component parts are also discussed in this paper along with its applications. K e y words: Sustainability, Renewable, Solar Road

Introduction: Sustainable solutions are a requirement for modern design problems due to societys overreliance on natural resources. Thus innovative ideas which focus on sustainability must be considered as a key priority for design and optimization. One of the primary solutions for this problem is the increase in use of renewable energy resources. Different types of renewable energy resources are solar, wind, ocean and geothermal energy. Among these, solar energy is the only

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resource which is abundantly available and evenly distributed worldwide. Hence developing technologies to capture this solar energy is the need of the hour. One such project is the proposal to build roads that have been integrated with photovoltaic cells in order to provide a high performance driving surface while generating renewable electricity. The Solar Roadway is a series of structurally-engineered solar panels that are driven upon. It would utilize the use of roads that would be covered by photovoltaic panels. The idea is to replace the current asphalt roads, parking spaces, and driveways with Solar Road Panels that collect energy to be used by our homes and businesses. The ultimate goal is to store excess energy in or along-side the Solar Roadways. The Solaroad technology from TNO/Solaroad Technology Group LLC in the Netherlands and Solar Roadways, a non-profit organization in the United States, both use the same approach, though with different patented systems. Wherein The Solaroad Technology Group in the Netherlands is proposing a solar bike path capable of generating 50kWh electricity for each
square meter of solar path each year.

Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To introduce the concept of Solar Roadways. 2. To discuss the various layers of solar roadways and the materials used for its component parts. 3. To discuss its various applications. Research Methodology : This p a p e r is largely a library work, based on published official secondary data and theoretical literature available in the library and on the websites. Typical Solar Roadway: The solar roadway is an intelligent road that provides clean renewable energy and safer driving conditions, along with power and data delivery. The three major layers of the solar roadway are: Road surface layer - translucent and high-strength, textured glass, that is rough enough to provide sufficient traction, but still passes sunlight through to the solar collector cells embedded within, along with the LEDs and the heating element. This layer needs to be capable of withstanding today's heaviest loads under the worst conditions and to be weatherproof, to protect the electronics layer which lies beneath it.

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Electronics layer/Optical layer - It transmits the load around the solar cells. Contains a microprocessor board with support circuitry for sensing loads on the surface and controlling a heating element with a view to reducing or eliminating snow and ice removal as well as school and business closings due to inclement weather. The microprocessor controls lighting, monitoring, communications, etc. With a communications device at frequent intervals, a solar roadway can be an intelligent highway system. Base plate layer - While the electronics layer collects energy from the sun, the base plate layer distributes that power as well as data signals (phone, TV, internet, etc.) down the line to all buildings and businesses connected to the solar roadway. It has to transmit the load to a pavement, sub grade, or base structure. It needs to be weatherproof to protect the electronics layer above it.

Fig 1: layers of solar roadway When we interconnect multiple Solar Road Panels, the intelligent Solar Roadway is formed. These panels can replace the current driveways, parking lots, and all road systems-interstate highways, state routes, residential streets, downtown streets, or even plain dirt or gravel country roads. Besides these panels can be used in amusement parks, raceways, bike paths, remote military locations, etc. Any home or business connected to the Solar Roadway (via a Solar Road Panel driveway or parking lot) receives the power and data signals that the Solar Roadway provides. The Solar Roadway becomes a self-healing, intelligent, decentralized (secure) power grid. Material properties: One of the main problems in implementing the solar roadways system is in the material selection for the top cover of the solar panel. It is quite obvious that the material selected for the top cover must possess sufficient structural strength to take on the vehicle load moving over it while possessing surface properties similar to those of roads, so that the vehicles moving over it will have sufficient traction to move and stop safely in slippery conditions like rain and snow.Currently for

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analysis and testing purpose float glass and polycarbonate is being used by the Solar Roadways in U.S.A. The glass is a tempered treated glass that withstands cracking and chipping. At an advanced loading facility, a giant truck tire with weights on top of it was used to simulate a truck driving across the panels. The hardness of the glass falls between steel and stainless steel and truck tires wear out well before the surface of glass, says Scott(2009).The studies conducted by The Department of Civil and Environmental engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada used tempered glass as the top transparent layer. For further analysis fiberglass panels were also used. In the studies conducted by The University of Western Ontario, London used acrylic plastic as the transparent layer. Whereas hardened glass was used by The Solaroad Technology Group in the Netherlands. Traction refers to the maximum frictional force that can be produced between surfaces without slipping. Rubber on glass has a very high static friction coefficient (s) of 1-2, meaning that it takes more force to start rubber sliding on glass than the normal force of gravity.In order to obtain sufficient traction, research is going on at, how to make a prism pattern work (similar to Fresnel lenses) so that when light comes in it will bend it down and make it more efficient. Brusaw(2009) is planning to use thousands of tiny prisms built into the surface, which will maximize the run-off of water and the tire-roadway contact in wet conditions and also direct sunlight into the photovoltaic cells when the sun is low. Glass was chosen as the material for optical layer. Due to the requirements of the prototype design, fiberglass was chosen as the ideal material by The Department of Civil and Environmental engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada. The optical layer consists of photovoltaic cells of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon cells. Besides these, it also contains a microprocessor which sends communication to the neighboring panels. This layer also incorporates LEDs and heating element, to keep snow and ice off the road
According to The Department of Civil and Environmental engineering, University of

Waterloo, Canada, the base structure is straight forward while using multiply fiberglass as the bulk of the structure is simply layers of fiberglass adhered together. Whereas the Solar Roadway project at Idaho in USA, proposes to use concrete with glass aggregate as the base layer. The current conceptual design for Solaroad cycle path by TNO in proposes to use concrete elements measuring 1.5 by 2.5 m as its base layer Design Of Solar Cycle Path: In The University of Western Ontario, the design of the panel was done by COMSOL Multiphysics,an engineering simulation software. The model created in the COMSOL

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Multiphysics for the analysis purpose consists of a vertically hollow square base layer with sides 4 meters in length, 0.5 meter in height and 0.1 meter in thickness..The base layer is considered to be made up of concrete, and covered with a transparent cover of size 4 m and thickness 0.01 m made up of acrylic plastic, whose material properties are given in Table 1. The acrylic sheets have a working temperature range of -40C up to 93C, and the elastic properties are assumed to remain constant in this temperature range. The specifications of the vehicles are given in table 2.According to standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges (IRC: 6-2000), the car and the motorbike belongs to Class A loading and bicycle belongs to Class B loading. Table 1: Material properties for Acrylic plastic and Concrete Material properties Density Youngs modulus Poisson ratio Acrylic plastic 1190(kg/m3) 50.8x109(Pa) 0.37 Concrete 2400(kg/m3) 25x109(Pa) 0.33

Table 2: Specifications of car, motorbike and bicycle used in the analysis Car 616.9kg 3.05m 2.04m 60/40 Motorbike 213.2kg 2.1m 1.5m 51/49 Bicycle 13.6kg 1.006m 40/60

Curb weight Length Wheel Base Weight distribution

The size of selected base layer was 1.5 m x 0.2 m x 0.1 m, covered by a transparent top cover of size 1.5 meters and with a thickness of 10 mm. It was found that the total weight of the bicycle, 90.7kg (including weight of the bicycle and person travelling on it) caused a stress of 20.67MPa, which is quite low when compared to the ultimate tensile strength of 69MPa. The maximum surface displacement was 2.05mm, which is well below the AASHTO design standard. Whereas in the analysis considering motorbike and car it was found that if the youngs modulus is increased from 50.8x109 to 50.8x1010 Pa, a thickness of 15mm and 25.4mm was suitable for both vehicles respectively. Applications: The Solar Roadways has LEDs which can paint the lanes and could be utilized to create messages to warn the drivers of detours, accidents, or construction works ahead thus creating an illuminated highway. The panels are capable of self heating thus keeping snow and ice off the road.

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Major application of solar roadways is in traffic management wherein the roads helps in drastically reducing the number of deaths/injuries caused by impaired driving. The road also helps in maintaining proper speed by the vehicles. The electricity produced by the solar roadways can be used in lighting of street lights, traffic lights and traffic signs. Besides the solar roadways have various applications in water management, home and business, and national security. Suggestions & Conclusions: The need of the hour for an alternative energy source is increasing at an alarming rate. We can't wait any longer to find a replacement for oil, which is rapidly disappearing. The solar roadways if implemented can be a solution for all our energy concerns.Solar energy is considered as one the most abundant, clean and simple solution to address global warming. This is why many nations are now encouraged to come up with solar projects. What differentiates the solar roadways project from the rest is the issue of land use, since the solar roadways are constructed on already existing road surfaces, parking lots and footpaths. The cost of the project (compared to asphalt roads) and lack of scientific data and methodology on how these road surfaces would behave in real life situations is yet to be investigated. Despite these drawbacks, there is no doubt that solar panel highways are a unique and groundbreaking idea. The Solar Roadway or Solaroad technologies could play a vital role in overcoming our dependency on fossil fuels. But still a lot of research has to be carried out in order to find the structural action of solar roadways to static, dynamic and impact loads. Focus of the research should be to find out a strong and economical glass that can be used to construct the top layer. Ending on a positive note, it can be expected the current and future research on solar cells, glass surfaces, hexagonal panel shape and superconducting transmission cables can eliminate the drawbacks of solar roadways and turn our roads into electric roads. References:
1) Alark A. Kulkarni(2013), Solar Roadways-Rebuilding our Infrastructure and Economy, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA), Vol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1429-1436 2) "Solar Roadways," [Online]. Available:

Passive Solar Buildings

Jiya Jaison
Semester Eight, B.Tech Civil Engineering Thejus Engineering College, Vellarakkad, Thrissur

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Email Id:

Abstract This paper discusses the principles and concepts underlying the design of building to passively utilize solar energy for heating. A buildings windows, doors, walls and floors can be designed to collect, store and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems it doesnt involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices such as pumps, fans or electrical control to move solar heat. Thus passive solar design is an economic way of using solar energy in buildings. This paper gives an idea about the basic systems and building features that can be used to passively heat buildings using solar energy. Also it discusses the feasibility of cost effective passive solar systems at specific project sites. It helps to gain knowledge about the guidelines to use in preparing feasibility studies for passive solar projects and to develop the foundation to move forward with passive solar design as an integral part of our building design skill. Introduction: Passive solar energy is one of the most efficient forms of energy in the world. All our

energy ultimately comes from the sun. Passive solar, free solar heat collected by passive means, i.e. not requiring the use of pumps or fans, is already a part of every house, because all windows collect solar energy in the form of heat. Not only does it reduce the cost of energy it also reduces the demand on non-renewable supplies and avoids carbon emission and other environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the day and reducing the requirement for active lighting, heating and cooling systems. Passive solar building design is one part of green building design and does not include active systems such as mechanical ventilation or photovoltaic. The scientific basis for passive solar building design has been developed from a combination of climatology, thermodynamics and human thermal comfort. Passive solar homes range from those heated almost entirely by the sun to those with south facing windows that provide some fraction of the heating load. The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional

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home is design. And the key is designing a passive solar home to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements of design include window location and glazing type, insulation, air sealing, thermal mass, shading, and sometimes auxiliary heat. Objectives of Paper: 1. 2. To discuss the principles of passive solar buildings. To discuss the various systems in passive solar buildings.

Passive solar thermodynamic principles: As a fundamental law, heat moves from warmer materials to cooler ones until there is no longer a temperature difference between the two. A passive solar building makes use of this law by three heat movement mechanisms conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the way heat moves through materials, travelling from molecule to molecule. In convection, heat circulates through liquids and gases. Lighter, warmer fluid will always rise and cooler, denser fluid will sinks. Radiant heat moves through the air from warmer objects to cooler ones. The main source of heat transfer is radiant energy and the primary source is sun. Passive solar design: There are three possibilities in passive solar design: Passive solar heating Passive solar cooling Day lighting

Passive solar heating: Components: Components of passive heating systems are collection, storage, distribution and control. The solar heat will be collected through collection systems including windows, skylights, or some other type of solar aperture. The storage component will store the collected solar heat until it is needed by the occupants in the building. Distribution of this heat is accomplished by arranging the functional spaces of the building such that those that need heat are closest to the storage subsystem. Control of heat is achieved through the use of shading devices, or some other means to regulate the sunlight entering the building

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Passive solar heating systems: Passive solar heating systems are generally classified into three. They are: Direct gain heating system Indirect gain heating system Isolated gain heating system

1. Direct gain heating system: Direct gain buildings are passive solar heating systems in which sunlight is directly introduced in to the living space. This is possible through windows or glazed apertures.
Direct gain heating system

2. Indirect gain heating system: This system is also called thermal storage system. An indirect-gain passive solar home has its thermal storage wall between the south-facing windows and the living spaces. There are many types of thermal storage walls distinguished by the type of storage medium employed. They are mainly trombe wall, water wall and concrete block wall. 3. Isolated gain heating system: An isolated gain heating system (e.g. Sunspace) is also known as a solar room or solarium. It collects solar radiation in an area that can be selectively closed off or opened to the rest of the building. Passive solar cooling: Passive cooling benefits are achieved by avoidance of the cooling load in the building. In buildings, the cooling requirement is directly associated with solar gains. By avoiding solar gains, a portion of the cooling load is avoided. This can be accomplished by shading the apertures of the building. Shading can be achieved using the shape and form of the facade, using low transmission glazing, or using devices inside of the Shading schematics Sunspace
Thermal storage wall

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building. From a passive solar viewpoint, the most effective method of shading is on the outside of the building using overhangs, fins, or louvers. Daylighting: Daylighting is the use of natural light from the sky as a supplement for electric lighting in buildings. Traditional daylighting systems differ in one major respect from passive heating systems: they use the sky as a source of light and avoid letting direct sunlight into a building. Since light from the sky is used in lieu of direct sunlight, daylighting systems function quite well on overcast, partly cloudy, or clear days. Daylighting is an instantaneous use of the light from the sky. Therefore, daylighting systems consist of collection and distribution components and do not include a storage component like passive heating systems. However, much like solar thermal strategies, daylighting systems are categorized according to the type of collection system used. Thus, there are three basic types of daylighting systems: Sidelighting Toplighting Core daylighting In many large buildings, the largest single component of the cooling load is the energy needed to remove heat generated by the electric lighting system. Therefore, turning off the electric lighting, reduces, by as much as 40%, the energy used to mechanically cool the building. A total of five different daylighting systems are there. They are: Windows (sidelighting) (WIN) Skylights (toplighting) (SKY) Saw tooth apertures (toplighting) (SAW) Monitor apertures (toplighting) (MON) Atria (core daylighting) (ATR)

1. Sidelighting (win): It is not necessary to add extensive amounts of glazing to sidelight a building. However, there are limitations to the depth that daylight can penetrate into a building from a window. In most cases, 30 feet is the maximum depth of daylight penetration for a typical office, though a greater depth can be assumed for tall hangars, Window day lighting Page 313

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depending on their geometry. The layout of interior walls and furnishings can reduce this depth of daylight penetration. Beyond this distance, either top lighting or core daylighting systems must be used Skylights 2. Top lighting: Toplighting systems bring light through the roof of the building to illuminate interior spaces. These systems are most effective in one-story buildings. Three different types of toplighting systems are considered in this handbook: (1) Skylights, (2) Saw tooth apertures, and (3) Monitor apertures. Skylights: Skylights are horizontal apertures cut through the roof of building. Saw tooth Aperture: Saw tooth apertures are a top lighting system that includes a glazed vertical surface and a sloped roof. Monitor Aperture: In this type of toplighting high bay is extended beyond the roof line and glazed on the opposite sides that extend above the roof. Mo nit or aperture Saw tooth aperture

Atrium: In multistory commercial-type buildings, the most difficult location to daylight is the centre of the building, called the building core. An atrium (ATR) is a core daylighting concept that opens up the centre of the building so that it can he daylight. An atrium works best when the

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perimeter of the building within 15 ft of the exterior walls is daylighted using sidelighting techniques. An atrium can be capped with any of the roof aperture systems Conclusion: The brief discussion has been intended to introduce the reader to the basic types of passive solar systems that may be used to heat, cool and lighting the building and there by conserve energy. Passive solar buildings are an important tool to fight against energy crisis. If we properly utilize the energy from sun we can attain comfort inside a building. This paper has discussed various scopes in passive solar design. This paper was intended to give the reader a foundation for learning about the various passive solar systems which can be successfully introduced in buildings. By the proper implementation of these systems the energy consuming for mechanical heating, cooling and lighting of a building can be reduced. Hence the Passive Solar Building concept can be considered as a relevant topic of today as the energy crisis is increasing day by day. Reference: Introduction To Passive Solar Concepts United States Air Force. Passive solar handbook Volume 1. Jonathan Scott, Martin Edge, and Richard Laing Passive solar design of mass housing: ensuring environmental improvements at the planning stage for Paul Kando Solar houses Costal Journal Part 1, March 15, 2012. Representative designs of energy-efficient conventional Energy Sources, Delhi. buildings in India. Ministry of Nonsuburban housing.

Journal of building appraisal, Vol.2 No.3, PP 207-222. Page No: 207-223.

Sequential Production of Biofuel from Leather Fleshing Waste

Dhanya Muralidharan
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Thejus Engineering College, Vellarakkad, Thrissur

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Abstract: This paper describes the production of biofuels in sequence from the fleshing waste generated from leather processing. Fleshing has high protein and fat content and has obnoxious odour. Presently it is being disposed of by landfilling, leading to groundwater pollution and air pollution due to its putrefaction. The problem is acute in regions where leather process industries are located. Around 70000 tonnes of fleshing waste is generated in India per annum. It was attempted to harness the fat content of fleshings to produce bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. In the present study the fat oil from animal fleshing material was recovered and used in transesterification reactions to produce biodiesel using the solvent methanol which yielded Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Around 96% of fat conversion was observed in the chemical transesterification into FAME. FTIR is done to identify the presence of FAME. The biodiesel yield was around 100 ml per kg of animal fleshing waste. The residue after biodiesel production comprises of glycerol, which acts as the raw material for bioethanol production by acidogenic yeast enriched strictly fermented anaerobic seed sludge fed in to batch digested enriched from molasses. The residue left after bioethanol production is further utilized in the production of gaseous biofuels Biomethane and Biohydrogen, thus aiming for the development of a zero discharge scheme for generation of fuel from waste through a biorefinery process. Keywords: Leather fleshings, fat, transesterification, methyl esters, biodiesel, glycerol, anaerobic digestion, bioethanol, biomethane, biohydrogen

Introduction Every year, about 55 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) and 38 billion litres of sewage are generated in the urban areas of India. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Leather Industry has been categorized as one of the most polluting industries due to the nature of wastes generated in the leather processing and pre processing stages, which are of unsightly appearance and obnoxious odour. About 50-60% of

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solid wastes are produced during the raw to wet blue process. Fleshing is the adipose layer removed from the hide prior to tanning to improve the penetration of chemicals and is rich in protein and fat. Most of this waste ends up in landfills, causing groundwater pollution by seepage in the leather industry cluster areas, indicated by the level of total dissolved solids in these areas going up by about ten times beyond the permissible level. Improper management of waste also leads to problems for the local population, especially in the rainy season. Hence it has been proposed in the present study to put this waste to use in a productive manner by recovering the fat content in it for biofuel generation. The fat is primarily converted to biodiesel using alkali - a process called Transesterification. The various conditions affecting this conversion have been studied in detail. The waste generated during the production of the same acts as the base for bioethanol production using pre fermented strictly anaerobic seed sludge. This is an attractive prospect since ethanol acts as a raw material as well as substitute for petro fuel in vehicles. Furthermore, the waste generated from ethanol production is used to produce gaseous biofuels biohydrogen and biomethane. Hence this work exemplifies the setting up of a Biorefinery process. Biofuels are often presented as a contribution towards the solution of the problems related to our strong dependency on fossil fuels, besides being a way to support rural development. Moreover, the use of waste as raw material offers a better waste management approach. Hence this work focuses on the twin benefits of waste management along with fuel generation which can be put to use in industrial and commercial scenario. Objectives of Research Paper: 1. To produce biofuels from waste fleshings obtained from tannery industry 2. To investigate the conditions for maximum product recovery. 3. To reduce the burden on treatment and disposal of waste. 4. To achieve renewable energy based waste management.

Research Methodology: Raw fleshings were cut into small pieces and immersed in alkaline solutions of pH ranging from 8 to 12. The volume of the solution was varied from 1:1 to 1:4 ratios for fleshing weight. The fat floating on the top of the solution was then collected and heated to expel all the moisture. The free fatty acid content of the fat was found to be less than 1% hence alkali catalysis was adopted for

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transesterification using an oil:methanol ratio 1:6. The catalyst used was 1.2% the weight of fat. The system was maintained at a temperature of 60 degree Celcius for 30 minutes with mixing. The mixture is then poured out into a separating funnel and allowed to separate into Glycerol, Fatty acid methyl esters and unreacted methanol. The biodiesel is confirmed to be present using FTIR analysis. The glycerol is then separated out and provided as substrate for ethanol production. The waste was mixed with different ratios of seed sludge and adjusted to pH4.5 in sealed serum bottles. This set up was maintained for 5 days. Daily analysis of process parameters such as TS, VS, COD, VFA, Alkalinity, pH and ORP were carried out. Ethanol content was analysed on every alternate day. The waste from ethanol production was similarly treated under strictly anaerobic conditions using different seed sludge at pH 5.5 and pH 6.5 for hydrogen production and methane production respectively. Results and Discussions It was observed that maximum hydrolysis took place at pH 11 ratio 1:4. About 120g fat was obtained from 1kg fleshing waste. After alkali catalyzed transesterification, the fat yielded 100ml fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), called biodiesel.
100.0 90 80 70 60 3472.32 1362.85 2289.63 1021.30


50 40 30 2859.08 20 1743.73 10 0.0 4000.0 3000 2000 c m -1 1500 1000.0 2926.59 1452.06


Ester peak

The FTIR analysis of FAME was done to identify the presence of esters and compared with the standard spectrum. Ethanol production was affected by various interlinked parameters. Volatile fatty acid content reduces with time and attains a maximum value on 5th day after slight decrease on the 2nd day. This caused a decrease in pH. The VFA content affects ethanol production positively till 3rd day and then inversely affects the production due to the inability of the organisms

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to utilize this substrate. Correspondingly, the pH values reduce to optimum around 4.5 with time due to acetogenesis taking place. Beyond this point, the organisms are not able to break down all the organic acids and hence pH value reduces further inhibiting the growth of acetogens. Optimum VFA/ Alkalinity ratio is obtained on the third day, signifying good amount of ethanol production. Overall COD removal was 69.5%, which was also on the third day. Suggestions & Conclusions: Conversion of fat to biodiesel achieved was 96%. The waste material was then used for ethanol production. The glycerol generated from biodiesel production is demonstrated as a source for bio ethanol generation through anaerobic digestion. Highest ethanol production was supported by pH 4.47, which are nearly 4.5 on the third day of observation. Highest yields of ethanol was shown at higher concentration of the raw material, which was about 0.08 L per gram COD. Hence it can be concluded that fleshing waste can be utilized productively in sequential generation of biofuels as biodiesel followed by bioethanol, biohydrogen and biomethane successfully becomes a major process efficient and renewable energy based waste management for leather industries. References: 1. Abara E Abara., Godwin O Obochi., Magdalene E., and Obi-Abang. 2011 Ethanol Production From Environmental Wastes, J. of Medical research and science, 1(3). 2. Abhishek Murarka., Yandi Dharmadi., Syed Shams Yazdani., and Ramon Gonzalez., 2007 Fermentative utilization of glycerol in Escherichia coli and its implications for the production of fuels and reduced chemicals, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 10, 192-97. 3. Dharmadi Y., Murarka A., and Gonzalez R. 2006 Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol by Escherichia coli: a new platform for metabolic engineering, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 94(5), 8219. 4. Selime Colak, Gokhan Zengin, Hasan Ozunguay., and Ozcan Sari. 2005 Utilization of leather industry pre-fleshings in biodiesel production, JALCA, 100(4), 137 141. 5. Shanmugam P and Horan N J. 2009 Optimising the biogas production from leather fleshing waste by co-digestion with MSW, Bioresource Technology, 100, 41174120.

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6. Mittelbach M., Pokits B., and Silberholz A. 1992 Production and fuel properties of fatty acid methyl esters from used frying oil, Procedure of Alternative Energy Conference: Liquid Fuel from Renewable Resources 1415 December, 7478. 7. Ramesh, 2000 Case Study of the Leather Industry in Tamilnadu, Internet 8. Nanqi Ren., Defeng Xing., Bruce E., Rittmann., Lihua Zhao., Tianhui Xie., and Xin Zhao. 2007 Microbial community structure of ethanol type fermentation in bio hydrogen production, Environmental Microbiology, 9, 11121125. 9. Nida Chaudhary., Michael O Ngadi., Benjamin K Simpson., and Lamin S Kassama. 2011 Biosynthesis of Ethanol and Hydrogen by Glycerol Fermentation Using Escherichia coli , Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 1, 83-89. 10. Ozgunay H., Colak S., Mutlu M M., and Akyuz F. 2011 Characterization of Leather Industry Wastes, Polish J. of Environ. Stud., 16(6), 867 873.

Scope of Non-Conventional Energy in India

Arjun Murali1, Asst. Prof. Anju Paul2

B. Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, TIST


Department of Civil Engineering, TIST

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Abstract: India is a developing country. As for any developing economy, the energy sources play a vital role in our growth as a world power. Our primary energy needs are met by more than 25% energy imports. We have 2 lakh MW cumulative installed capacity of power as of March 2012. The Union Power Ministries has set a target of 100,000 MW of additional power generation between 2012-17. Renewable energy has been an important component in Indias energy planning process. This paper focuses on the current status of various energy sources and their potential capacity in India. Key Words: Conventional energies, Non-conventional energies Introduction: Availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmental friendly, play an important role in the development of any country. India has second largest population bank in world with a total human resource of 1,21,01,93,422 which is approximately 17%. The high standards of living in the developed countries are attributable to high-energy consumption levels. Electricity use has become a scale to measure the level of development and quality of life. Table 1 gives the per capita energy consumption of the country.

Table 1: Per capita energy consumption U.S.A Energy Consumption: (million barrels of oil equivalent) Energy Per Capita: Russian Federation 5220 36.8 China U.K. India

17,260 57.2

13380 10.2

1620 26.6

3280 2.9

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(barrels of oil equivalent per person) We are far behind in terms of energy per capita even though we rank sixth in the world in energy consumption. Thus there is a huge scope for non-conventional energy in the country. Conventional Energy Sources: 1. Coal Coal provides 30.3% of global primary energy needs and generates 42% of the world's electricity. Half of the primary energy needs and a third of the total energy needs in India is met by the use of coal. The electricity generation using coal is quite less as compared to developed countries. Developed countries has switched to other form of energies because electricity generation through coal is destructive to our environment through massive production of various toxic pollutants. 2. Oil World oil reserves, by the end of 2011, is about 1481526 million tonnes. It is sufficient to meet approximately 55 years of energy requirement at the current rate of consumption. India is the 4th largest consumer of petroleum oil in the world, including domestically produced and imported oil. But petroleum meets only 23% of the total Indian energy demand. 3. Natural gas Natural gas can be a substitute for both coal as well as petroleum because it emits 20% to 25% less carbon dioxide emission as compared to petroleum products and 60% less as compared to coal based energy output. India is the 12th largest natural gas consumer in the world with about 55.7 million tonnes oil equivalent. India is the 6th largest importer of natural gas. Non-Conventional Energy Sources: The budget of India for the economic year 2013-14 is about 680123 crores of rupees of which 158287 crores of rupees is planned to spend in energy sector, i.e., 23% of the national economy is being spent on energy. India, which relies on import for 79% of its oil needs, bought a total of 182.5 million tonnes crude in 2012-13. We had in the previous fiscal imported 171.7 million tonnes of crude oil, up from 163.4 million tonnes in 2010-11 and 159.2 million tonnes of 2009-

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10. During 2011-12, India spent a 160 billion USD to import crude oil. This is more than half of the countrys total earnings from exports during the same period. This energy deficit can be reduced by the judicious development of renewable energy sources. Indian government has taken an interest in renewable energy to overcome the difference between its demand and supply. The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy estimates that there is a potential of around 90,000 MW in the country. 1. Solar Power Solar energy is a much diffused energy source. Therefore, to gather solar energy at a level sufficient to meet our national energy needs, we would need approximately 45000 sq. km of land area. India has 5 trillion kWh/year potential in solar energy. Most of the country receives more than 4kWh/m2/day and we about 300 sunny days in most parts of the country which makes solar power an ideal scenario in India. But we are far behind in the utilization and storage of solar energy. The first applications of solar power were for replacing Indias four to five million diesel powered water pumps. Many new projects are in the design phase including solar power projects in Thar desert. It is estimated that these projects will generate 200,000 MW by 2050 which is around 1.3 times the energy production of the country. But the main hindrance in the execution of these projects is the availability of the technology and the land acquisition required for the projects. Since solar energy is not continuously available, storage of energy to bridge the difference between power generation and demand across the grid would be necessary. 2. Wind Energy As of February 2013, installed wind energy capacity of India is 18527 MW. The total potential for wind power in India is estimated to be about 65-70 GW. India has a long coastline of over 7500 km, based on which World Institute of Sustainable Energy assumes that with some innovation, approximately 100 GW of wind energy. Wind in India is influenced by the strong south-west summer monsoon, which starts in May-June, when cool, humid air moves towards the land and the weaker north-east winter monsoon, which starts in October, when cool, dry sir moves towards the ocean. During the period march to August, the winds are uniformly strong over the whole Indian Peninsula, except the eastern

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peninsular coast. Wind speeds during the period November to march are relatively weak, though higher winds are available during a part of the period on the Tamil Nadu coastline. The western coastline has modest potential. While the Gujarat coastline has reasonable potential, it is prone to severe cyclonic conditions. The state-wise wind potential is given in Table 2. Table 2: State-wise wind power installed capacity of India State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Gross Potential (MW) 8968 10645 11531 1171 1019 4584 255 4858 5530 Installed Capacity (MW) 136 1864 1473 28 229 2078 1088 4907

3. Hydroelectric Power Over 19% of electricity produced by India today is from hydropower. The Central Electricity Authority expects a hydro capacity addition of 11897 MW in the Twelfth Plan period, including a contribution of 3534 MW by private companies. 4. Nuclear Power Nuclear energy is the energy of tomorrow. The energy produced by 1 kg of uranium, if utilized at its full capacity, is equivalent to 3000 tonnes of coal. In the reactor core, nuclear energy is released in the form of heat which is used to generate steam and this steam is used to generate electricity. Uranium is the most common nuclear fuel. India produced 400 tonnes of uranium in the year 2010 but the demand was 930 tonnes. This huge difference between demand and supply is a very big obstacle in the successful use of the nuclear power. Thorium is yet another nuclear fuel which is a safer and more efficient alternative to the use of uranium and plutonium. Also, India has a vast thorium reserve as against limited uranium sources.

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Another hurdle in the use of nuclear power is the technology required. A lot of research and development is happening in this direction. Also, we need to prepare the people and address their concerns. Conclusion: Although India is abundantly endowed with renewable energy sources in the form of solar, wind, hydro and nuclear power, we are still dependent on coal, petroleum products and energy imports. Only if this situation change, can we surge forward in economic development. The immense potential of solar, wind, hydro and nuclear energy should be judiciously used. Reference: [1] Singh L. P, Dubey M. K, Singh P. K, Verma S. K, Kushwaha V. K, Analytical Study of the Scope of Nuclear Energy in Indian Energy Scenerio, International Journal of Mechanical Energy and Technology, Vol. 4, August 2013, p.p. 224-231 [2] Hasmukh N. Patel, Dr. Vivek L. Manekar, Dr. Prakash D. Porey, Viability of Wind Farm Planning at Proposed Project, Gujarat (India), International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, March 2011, p.p. 01-09 [3] Chandrasekhar R. Suryawanshi, Geothermal Energy: The Eco-Friendly Alternative Source of Energy, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, April 2013, p.p. 81-84

Role of FRP as sustainable construction material -An overview

Ramadass S1 and Job Thomas2

Research Student, 2Reader in Civil Engineering

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Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India

Abstract: Over the last decade, there has been significant growth in the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite as construction materials. FRP composites are used in structural engineering in a variety of forms, from structural profiles to internal reinforcing bars for concrete members and also as strips and sheets for external strengthening of concrete and other structures. This paper gives an overview that follow focuses on the use of FRP composite materials in three prime areas (1) reinforcements for new concrete structural members (2) strengthening for existing structural members, and (3) profiles for new structures. This paper addresses the role of FRP as sustainable construction material in structural engineering. Key words: FRP, construction material, structural engineering Introduction: Fibre reinforced composite materials have been used to many decades in the aerospace, automotive and the industrial and recreational products industries. However, Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials have developed into economically and structurally viable construction materials for buildings and bridges over the last two decades. FRP composites materials used in structural engineering typically consist of glass, carbon or aramid fibers encased in a matrix of epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester or phenolic thermosetting resins that have fiber concentrations greater than 30% by volume. Depending on the form of the FRP product used in structural engineering, the FRP material is supplied either as a ready-to-use structural component such a wide flange profile or a reinforcing bar, or it is supplied in its constituent forms as dry fiber and liquid polymer resin and formed and cured in situ to create a structural component. These two forms should be familiar to structural engineers, as they have analogs in conventional structural materials such as steel beams or steel reinforcing bars which are supplied in ready- to- use form from a steel mill, or Portland cement concrete, which is supplied in the form of cement aggregate and water constituents and is formed in situ to create a structural element. Over the years there have been a number of other applications and uses of FRP composites in structural engineering. In many cases, code based guidance has only recently been developed or is currently being developed for these applications. The applications include FRP tendons for internal

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or external prestressing of concrete. FRP stay cables for bridges or guy wires for towers. FRP grids, meshes and grating for reinforcing concrete; FRP stay-in-place forms for concrete beams, slabs or columns: FRP strengthening of prestressed concrete structures; FRP strengthening of masonry structures; FRP strengthening of steel, aluminum, or timber structures; mechanically fastened FRP strengthening system, FRP pretensioned sheets for strengthening; and FRP strengthening systems; FRP pretensioned sheets for strengthening; and FRP strengthening for blast loads on structures. Also known as fiber-reinforced plastics, or advanced composite materials (ACMs), these material have proven themselves to be valuable for use in the construction of new buildings and bridges and for upgrading of existing buildings and bridges. Overview: The overview that follow focuses on the use of FRP composite materials in three prime areas (1) reinforcements for new concrete structural members (2) strengthening for existing structural members, and (3) profiles for new structures. The various forms of FRP structural components are given in Fig 1. The various structural applications of FRP are given in Fig 2. (1) FRP reinforcements for new concrete structural members: FRP reinforcements for new concrete structural members can be divided into three primary areas (1) FRP bars or grids for reinforced concrete (RC) members, (2) FRP tendons for prestressed concrete (PC) members, and (3) stay- in- place FRP formwork for reinforced concrete members. Today, FRP reinforcing bars for concrete with both glass and carbon fibers are produced by a number of companies in North America, Asia and Europe.

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(a) rebar for internal reinforcement

(b) grill for drains

(c) mats for surface reinforcement Fig 1 Forms of FRP in structural applications

(d) pultruded structural sections

(1) FRP strengthening of existing structural members: FRP materials used to strengthen and repair load bearing structural members are popular applications of FRP composites in structural engineering. Collectively, these applications are known as retrofitting applications, as they are used in existing structures and not in the construction of new structures. Retrofitting applications can be classified broadly into two types. One type is strengthening, where the original structures strength or ductility (typically, i ts displacement capacity) is increased from the loads (or displacements) for which it was originally designed. This increase may be necessitated by the desire to make the structure compatible with existing building codes (particularly in the case of seismic retrofitting) or may be desired due to changes in use of the structure. FRP retrofitting to improve the performance (load carrying and ductility) of a structure when subjected to blast and impact loading has become of interest of late.

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The other type of FRP retrofitting can be classified as repair. In this case, the FRP composite is used to retrofit an existing and deteriorated structure to bring its load carrying capacity or ductility back to the loads or displacements for which it was designed (and hence is in fact, a type of strengthening), Repair is necessitated when the original structure has deteriorated due to environmental effects, such as corrosion of steel reinforcing in concrete structures or when the original structure has been damaged in service or was not constructed according to the original design.

(a) FRP rebar in slab construction

(b) FRP rebar in deck construction

(c) FRP bars in marine structures Fig 2 Applications of FRP in concrete structures

(d) FRP mat is strengthening column

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FRP retrofitting has been used successfully on reinforced concrete structures, prestressed concrete structures, timber structures and masonry and metal structures. At this time, code design guidance is only available for FRP retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures, particularly as applied to strengthening. FRP retrofitting has been used with bridge and building structures to strengthen static and quasi static loads (such as increases in deal or live load in a bridge or building structure), and for dynamic loads (such as strengthening for improved seismic or blast response in a bridge or building structure). FRP composites have been used successfully for flexural strengthening of concrete beams and slabs, shear strengthening of concrete beams, and axial strengthening and ductility enhancement of concrete columns. (2) FRP profiles for new structures: FRP profiles of standard cross sections are seldom used in multistory framed building structures for commercial or residential construction. One of the major difficulties with multi story frame structures using FRP profiles is the development of economical and effective means of connecting the individual members. No simple and effective connection system has yet been developed or commercialized for FRP pultruded profiles. Other emerging applications of interest to structural engineers Strengthening of masonry structures with FRP strips, sheets, and fabrics is one of the largest emerging applications areas of FRP composites in structural engineering. Unfortunately, no code based design guidance is available for a masonry strengthening at this time. Strengthening of timber structures, primarily glue laminated beams, with FRP strips and manufacturing of glue laminated beams containing FRP layers to increase strength at the outer fibers has been used since the early 1990s.Retrofitting of metallic structures has recently attracted some interest in the structural engineering community. In most case the steel or aluminum structure is sufficiently stiff and strong. The FRP composite is generally used to increase fatigue resistance and to arrest cracks. In the United States, FRP composite wraps have been used successfully to repair fatigue damage on overhead aluminum sign support bridges. In this particular application, the FRP strengthening system is preferable to in situ welding, which is difficult and time consuming. The use of round bars as surface reinforcement in masonry wall structures is shown in Fig 3

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Fig 3 Masonry strengthening using FRP bar surface reinforcement. Summary and conclusions: An overview of the use of FRP as a sustainable construction material in structural engineering has been discussed. The service life of a structure depends on the potentiality and the level of corrosion of internal reinforcement. Deterioration becomes a serious problem in concrete structures due to the corrosion of internal steel reinforcement. Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) bars are alternative type of reinforcements in concrete structures, which can be used for mitigating the life reduction of structures associated with corrosion damages. References: Composites for Construction: Structural Design with FRP Material, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Bank L C 2006, NJ, 551p. Structural implications of using GFRP bars as concrete reinforcement, Swamy N and Aburawi M 1997, Proceedings of Third International Symposium on Non- metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures (FRPRCS-3), Japan Concrete Institute, Sapporo, Japan, 2, pp 503-510. Behaviour of shear critical RC beams reinforced with GFRP, Thomas J 2010, Report No. PLB3/00463/2007, CUSAT, 12p.

Environment Observer

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Environment Observer

Page 332