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Aptitude Tests for Job Applicants & Graduates

Numerical, Verbal & Diagrammatic reasoning tests are psychometric aptitude tests used by recruiters and employers offering graduate & professional jobs. Practice Aptitude Tests.com offer industry standard employer psychometric tests designed for graduates & professionals seeking careers in banking, accountancy, finance, la!, engineering, business, marketing & similar. Numerical "easoning tests demonstrate a candidates ability to deal !ith numbers #uickly and accurately. These tests contain #uestions that assess your kno!ledge of ratios, percentages, cost and sales analysis, rates, trends and currency con$ersions. Verbal "easoning tests re#uire you to read short passages of !riting and then ans!er #uestions assessing their comprehension of the te%t. "ather than e$aluating your $ocabulary or fluency, these tests assess your ability to think constructi$ely. Diagrammatic reasoning #uestions are designed to assess your logical reasoning ability. The #uestions measure your ability to infer a set of rules from a flo!chart or se#uence of diagrams and then to apply those rules to ne! situation. &ituational 'udgment Tests (&'Ts) assess ho! you approach situations encountered in the !orkplace. They test your suitability for a particular role. *ur test e%perts ha$e identified + key competencies !hich are essential to get ahead of the competition.

List of professions
,rom -ikipedia, the free encyclopedia 'ump to na$igation, search A profession has t!o fundamental cores (.) the art practiced is helpful to others/ and (0) the persons so engaged in that art go$ern the practice in a !ay that is primarily for the public good1citation needed2. Professions include 1.2102

Accountants

An accountant is a practitioner of accountancy or accounting, !hich is the measurement, disclosure or pro$ision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, in$estors, ta% authorities and others make decisions about allocating resources. The 3ig ,our auditors are the largest employers of accountants !orld!ide.

4o!e$er, most accountants are employed in commerce, industry and the public sector.

British Commonwealth
5n the 6ommon!ealth of Nations, !hich includes the 7nited 8ingdom, 6anada, Australia, Ne! 9ealand, 4ong 8ong pre .::; and se$eral do<en other states, commonly recognised accounting #ualifications are 6hartered Accountant (6A or A6A), 6hartered 6ertified Accountant (A66A), 6hartered =anagement Accountant (A6=A) and 5nternational Accountant (AA5A). *ther #ualifications in particular countries include 6ertified Public Accountant (6PA > 5reland and 6PA > 4ong 8ong), 6ertified =anagement Accountant (6=A > 6anada), 6ertified ?eneral Accountant (6?A > 6anada), 6ertified Practising Accountant (6PA > Australia) and members of the 5nstitute of Public Accountants (Australia), and 6ertified Public Practising Accountant (6PPA > Ne! 9ealand). The 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of &cotland (56A&) recei$ed its "oyal 6harter in .+@A and is the !orldBs first professional body of accountants.102 United Kingdom and Ireland =ain article 3ritish #ualified accountants A Chartered Accountant must be a member of one of the follo!ing o the 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants in Cngland & -ales (56AC-) (designatory letters A6A or ,6A) o the 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of &cotland (56A&) (designatory letters 6A) o 6hartered Accountants 5reland (6A5) o a recognised e#ui$alent body from another 6ommon!ealth country (designatory letters being 6A (name of country) e.g. 6A (6anada)) A Chartered Certified Accountant must be a member of the Association of 6hartered 6ertified Accountants (designatory letters A66A or ,66A). A Chartered Management Accountant must be a member of the 6hartered 5nstitute of =anagement Accountants (designatory letters A6=A or ,6=A). A Chartered Public Finance Accountant must be a member of the 6hartered 5nstitute of Public ,inance and Accountancy (designatory letters 6P,A). An International Accountant is a member of the Association of 5nternational Accountants (designatory letters AA5A or ,A5A). An Incorporated Financial Accountant is a member of the 5nstitute of ,inancial Accountants (designatory letters A,A or ,,A). An Associate Professional Accountant is a member of the 5nstitute of Professional Accountants(designatory letters APAD78 or ,PA).1E21importance?2 A Certified Public Accountant may be a member of the Association of 6ertified Public Accountants (designatory letters A56PA or ,6PA) or its e#ui$alent in another country, and is usually designated as such after passing the 7niform 6ertified Public Accountant C%amination. A Public Accountant may be a member of the 5nstitute of Public Accountants (designatory letters A5PA, =5PA or ,5PA).

C%cepting the Association of 6ertified Public Accountants, each of the abo$e bodies admits members only after passing e%aminations and undergoing a period of rele$ant !ork e%perience. *nce admitted, members are e%pected to comply !ith ethical guidelines and gain appropriate professional e%perience. 6hartered, 6hartered 6ertified, 6hartered Public ,inance, and 5nternational Accountants engaging in practice (i.e. selling ser$ices to the public rather than acting as an employee) must gain a Fpractising certificateF by meeting further re#uirements such as purchasing ade#uate insurance and undergoing inspections. The 56AC-, 56A&, 56A5, A66A, A5A and 65P,A are si% statutory R ! Gualification 3odies in the 78. A member of one them may also become a Registered Auditor in accordance !ith the 6ompanies Act, pro$iding they can demonstrate the necessary professional ability in that area and submit to regular inspection. 5t is illegal for any indi$idual or firm that is not a "egistered Auditor to perform a company audit. All si% "G3s are listed under C7 mutual recognition directi$es to practise in 0; C7 member states and indi$idually entered into agreement !ith the 4ong 8ong 5nstitute of 6ertified Public Accountants (4856PA). ,urther restrictions apply to accountants !ho carry out insol$ency !ork. 5n addition to the bodies abo$e, technical #ualifications are offered by the Association of Accounting Technicians, A66A and A5A, !hich are respecti$ely called AAT Technician, 6AT (6ertified Accounting Technician) and 5AT (5nternational Accounting Technician). Australia 5n Australia, there are three legally recognised local professional accounting bodies the 5nstitute of Public Accountants (5PA), 6PA Australia (6PA) and the 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of Australia (56AA). *ther international bodies such as A66A (The Association of 6hartered 6ertified Accountants) and 56AC- (5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of Cngland and -ales) enjoy recognition for the purposes of supporting their members in their careers. ,or instance, A66A has achie$ed recognition by the Ta% Practitioner 3oard, as Ta% and 3A& agents, in 0H.H. Bangladesh =ain article Accountancy profession in 3angladesh 6hartered accountancy is go$erned in 3angladesh by the 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of 3angladesh (56A3).

Canada 5n 6anada, there are four recogni<ed accounting bodies the 6anadian 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants (6A) and the pro$incial and territorial 6A 5nstitutes, the &ociety of =anagement Accountants of 6anada, also kno!n as the 6ertified =anagement Accountants (6=A), the 6ertified ?eneral Accountants Association of 6anada (6?A), and the &ociety of Professional Accountants of 6anada ("PA). 6A and 6?A !ere created by Acts of Parliament in .:H0 and .:.E respecti$ely, 6=A !as established in .:0H and "PA in .:E+. The 6A program is the most focused on public accounting and most candidates obtain auditing e%perience from public accounting firms, although recent changes allo! candidates to obtain their e%perience re#uirements in industry at companies that ha$e been accredited for training 6As (Note Ne! members that obtain their designation in industry are referred as "egistered 6As, in contrast to Iicensed 6As !ho obtain their designation through a registered public accounting firm and able to signDoff on audit opinion)/ the 6=A program focuses in management accounting, but also pro$ides a general approach to financial accounting and ta%/ the 6?A program takes a general approach allo!ing candidates to focus in their o!n financial career choices. The 6A and 6=A programs re#uire a candidate to obtain a degree as a program entry re#uirement. The 6?A program re#uires a degree as an e%it re#uirement prior to certification. Auditing and public accounting are regulated by the pro$inces. 5n 6anada, 6As, 6=As, and 6?As are considered e#ui$alents pursuant to pro$incial and territorial legislation. 4o!e$er, in practice, most public accounting and auditing in 6anada is performed by 6As. As of 0HHJ, the 6hartered 6ertified Accountant (A66A or ,66A) is also recogni<ed by the 6anadian go$ernment as an eligible #ualification to audit federal go$ernment institutions in 6anada. ,urthermore, The 6anadian branch of A66A is pursuing recognition for statutory audit purposes in the pro$ince of *ntario under the pro$inceBs Public Accounting Act of 0HHA. &tarting 0H.., a ne! frame!ork !as de$eloped to unify the 6anadian accounting profession under 6hartered Professional Accountants of 6anada (6PA 6anada). The &ociety of Professional Accountants of 6anada ("PA) !as not included in the merger discussions. *n 'anuary ., 0H.E, 6PA 6anada !as registered as a nonDforDprofit association, and 6A and 6=A members !ere elected as directors of the 6PA 6anada 3oard.1A2 India 6hartered accountancy is offered in 5ndia by the 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of 5ndia (56A5), the second largest accounting body in the !orld. This 5nstitute !as established in .:A: under the 6hartered Accountants Act, .:A: for the regulation of the profession of 6hartered Accountants in 5ndia.

The 56A5 set up the Accountancy =useum of 5ndia in 0HH:, the third museum of accounting in the !orld. 5t is currently located at 56A5Bs office in Noida. Pakistan The 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of Pakistan (56AP) offeres chartered accountant studies in Pakistan. 56AP !as established under The 6hartered Accountants *rdinance, .:J. as a selfDregulatory body. New Zealand 5n Ne! 9ealand, there are t!o local accountancy bodies the Ne! 9ealand 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants (N956A) and the Ne! 9ealand Association of 6ertified Public Accountants (N9A6PA) the operating name of Ne! 9ealand Association of Accountants 5nc (N9AA). To audit public companies an indi$idual must be a member of either the N956A or an other!ise ga<etted body. 6hartered 6ertified Accountant (Association of 6hartered 6ertified Accountants or ,66A) #ualification has also been ga<etted under. An A66A member can practice as long as they hold an A66A public practice certificate (!ith audit #ualification) in their country of origin. Sri Lanka 5n &ri Ianka, a chartered accountant must be a member of the 5nstitute of 6hartered Accountants of &ri Ianka (designatory letters A6A or ,6A). 5t is the sole local accountancy body, therefore to audit public companies an indi$idual must be a member of the 56A&I.

Austria
5n Austria the accountancy profession is regulated by the 3ilan<buchhaltungsgeset< 0HHJ (3ibu? > =anagement Accountancy Ia!).

Hong Kong
=ain article Accountancy in 4ong 8ong 5n 4ong 8ong, the accountancy industry is regulated by 4ong 8ong 5nstitute of 6ertified Public Accountants 4856PA under the Professional Accountants *rdinance (6hapter @H, Ia!s of 4ong 8ong). The auditing industry for limited companies is regulated under the 6ompanies *rdinance (6hapter E0, Ia!s of 4ong 8ong), and other ordinances such as the securities and futures ordinance, the listing rules, etc. 4856PA terminated all recognition of o$ersea bodies in 0HH@ for accreditation under professional accountants ordinance. 5n general, all 3ritish "G3s e%cept for 65P,A !ere reDaccredited. Please refer to 4856PA for latest recognition.

Portugal
5n Portugal, there are t!o accountancy #ualifications the Tcnicos Oficiais de Contas (T*6), responsible for producing accounting and ta% information, and the Revisor Oficial de Contas ("*6), more related to auditing practices. The T*6 certification is e%clusi$ely a!arded by the professional organi<ation Ordem dos Tcnicos Oficiais de Contas (*T*6), and the certification to become an auditor is a!arded by another professional organi<ation, the Ordem dos Revisores Oficiais de Contas (*"*6).1@2 5n general, accountants or auditors accredited by *T*6 or *"*6 are indi$iduals !ith uni$ersity graduation diplomas in business management, economics, mathematics or la! !ho, after further studies, applied for an e%am and recei$ed the certification to be a T*6 or "*6. That certification is only recei$ed after a .Dyear (T*6) or EDyears ("*6) internship. Any citi<en ha$ing a polytechnic degree as a bookkeeper is also entitled to apply for the e%am and certification at the *T*6.1J2

United States
,urther information Iegal liability of certified public accountants 5n the 7nited &tates, licensed accountants are 6ertified Public Accountants (6PAs) and in certain states, Public Accountants (PAs). 7nlicensed accountants may be 6ertified 5nternal Auditors (65As) and 6ertified =anagement Accountants (6=As). The difference bet!een these certifications is primarily the legal status and the types of ser$ices pro$ided, although indi$iduals may earn more than one certification. Additionally, much accounting !ork is performed by uncertified indi$iduals, !ho may be !orking under the super$ision of a certified accountant. As noted abo$e the majority of accountants !ork in the pri$ate sector or may offer their ser$ices !ithout the need for certification. A 6PA is licensed by a state to pro$ide auditing ser$ices to the public. =any 6PA firms also offer accounting, ta%, litigation support, and other financial ad$isory ser$ices. The re#uirements for recei$ing the 6PA license $ary from state to state, although the passage of the 7niform 6ertified Public Accountant C%amination is re#uired by all states. This e%amination is designed and graded by the American 5nstitute of 6ertified Public Accountants. A PA (sometimes referred to as IPAKIicensed Public Accountant) is licensed by the state to practice accountancy to a similar e%tent as are 6PAs, e%cept that PAs are generally not permitted to perform audits or re$ie!s (Dela!are is an e%ception, in that PAs are permitted to perform audits and re$ie!s). A PABs ability to practice out of state is $ery limited due to most states ha$ing phased out the PA designation. -hile most states no longer accept ne! PA license applicants, si% states still accept PA applicants for limited practice pri$ileges !ithin the state. As !ith the 6PA, the re#uirements for recei$ing the PA license $ary from state to state. =ost states re#uire a passage of either 0 or E (out of A) sections of the 6PA e%am or passage of the 6omprehensi$e C%amination for Accreditation in Accounting !hich is administered and graded by the Accreditation 6ouncil for Accountancy and Ta%ation (A6AT).

A certified internal auditor (65A) is granted a certificate from the 5nstitute of 5nternal Auditors (55A), pro$ided that the candidate has passed a fourDpart e%amination. *ne of the four parts is !ai$ed if the candidate has already passed the 6PA C%am. A 65A typically pro$ides ser$ices directly to an employer rather than to the public. A person holding the 6ertificate in =anagement Accounting (6=A) is granted the certificate by the 5nstitute of =anagement Accountants (5=A), pro$ided that the candidate has passed an e%amination of t!o parts and has met the practical e%perience re#uirement of the 5=A. A 6=A pro$ides ser$ices directly to employers rather than to the public. A 6=A can also pro$ide ser$ices to the public, but to an e%tent much lesser than that of a 6PA. The 7nited &tates Department of IaborBs 3ureau of Iabor &tatistics estimates that there are about one million persons1;2 employed as accountants and auditors in the 7.&.

Pharmacists

Pharmacist
,rom -ikipedia, the free encyclopedia 'ump to na$igation, search ,or the precursor profession, see Apothecary.

The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. Pharmacists" also kno!n as druggists in North American Cnglish and chemists in 6ommon!ealth Cnglish, are healthcare professionals !ho practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effecti$e medication use. The role of the pharmacist has shifted from the classical Flick, stick, and pourF dispensary role (that is, Flick & stick the labels, count the pills & pour li#uidsF), to being an integrated member of the health care team directly in$ol$ed in patient care.1.2102 Pharmacists undergo uni$ersityD le$el education to understand biochemical mechanisms of action of drugs, drug uses, and therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and

communicate this speciali<ed kno!ledge to patients, physicians, and other health care pro$iders. Among other licensing re#uirements, different countries re#uire pharmacists to hold either a 3achelor of Pharmacy or Doctor of Pharmacy degree. The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as a retail pharmacist, first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist), or a hospital pharmacist, !here they instruct and counsel on the proper use and ad$erse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines.1E21A21@2 5n most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as Fpharmacist prescriberF) and administering certain medications (e.g., immuni<ations) in some jurisdictions. Pharmacists may also practice in a $ariety of other settings, including industry, !holesaling, research, academia, military, and go$ernment.

Contents

. Nature of the !ork o ... Cducation and credentialing o ..0 Practice speciali<ation 0 Training and practice by country o 0.. Australia o 0.0 6anada o 0.E ?ermany o 0.A 'apan 0.A.. 4istory 0.A.0 6ontemporary o 0.@ &!eden o 0.J Pakistan o 0.; Tan<ania o 0.+ 7nited 8ingdom 0.+.. Cducation and registration o 0.: Vietnam o 0..H 7nited &tates 0..H.. Pharmacy &chool Accreditation 0..H.0 Cducation 0..H.E &peciali<ation and credentialing 0..H.A Carnings and !ages E Noted people !ho !ere pharmacists A &ee also @ "eferences J ,urther reading ; C%ternal links

Nature of the work


&ee also Pharmacy

4istorically, the fundamental role of pharmacists as a healthcare practitioner !as to check and distribute drugs to doctors for medication that had been prescribed to patients. 5n more modern times, pharmacists ad$ise patients and health care pro$iders on the selection, dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications, and act as a learned intermediary bet!een a prescriber and a patient. Pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients to ensure the safe and effecti$e use of medication. Pharmacists may practice compounding/ ho!e$er, many medicines are no! produced by pharmaceutical companies in a standard dosage and drug deli$ery form. 5n some jurisdictions, pharmacists ha$e prescripti$e authority to either independently prescribe under their o!n authority or in collaboration !ith a primary care physician through an agreed upon protocol.1J2 5ncreased numbers of drug therapies, ageing but more kno!ledgeable and demanding populations, and deficiencies in other areas of the health care system seem to be dri$ing increased demand for the clinical counselling skills of the pharmacist.1.2 *ne of the most important roles that pharmacists are currently taking on is one of pharmaceutical care.1;2 Pharmaceutical care in$ol$es taking direct responsibility for patients and their disease states, medications, and management of each to impro$e outcomes. Pharmaceutical care has many benefits that may include but are not limited to decreased medication errors/ increased patient compliance in medication regimen/ better chronic disease state management/ strong pharmacist>patient relationship/ and decreased longDterm costs of medical care. Pharmacists are often the first pointDofDcontact for patients !ith health in#uiries. Thus pharmacists ha$e a significant role in assessing medication management in patients, and in referring patients to physicians. These roles may include, but are not limited to

clinical medication management, including re$ie!ing and monitoring of medication regimens assessment of patients !ith undiagnosed or diagnosed conditions, and ascertaining clinical medication management needs speciali<ed monitoring of disease states, such as dosing drugs in renal and hepatic failure compounding medicines pro$iding pharmaceutical information pro$iding patients !ith health monitoring and ad$ice, including ad$ice and treatment of common ailments and disease states super$ising pharmacy technicians and other staff o$ersight of dispensing medicines on prescription pro$ision of nonDprescription or o$erDtheDcounter drugs education and counseling for patients and other health care pro$iders on optimal use of medicines (e.g., proper use, a$oidance of o$ermedication) referrals to other health professionals if necessary pharmacokinetic e$aluation promoting public health by administering immuni<ations

Edu ation and redentialing &ee also 3achelor of Pharmacy, =aster of Pharmacy, and Doctor of Pharmacy The role of pharmacy education, pharmacist licensing, and continuing education $ary from country to country and bet!een regionsLlocalities !ithin countries. 5n most countries, pharmacists must obtain a uni$ersity degree at a pharmacy school or related institution, andLor satisfy other nationalLlocal credentialing re#uirements. 5n many conte%ts, students must first complete preDprofessional (undergraduate) course!ork, follo!ed by about four years of professional academic studies to obtain a degree in pharmacy (e.g., PharmDD Doctorate of Pharmacy). Pharmacists are educated in pharmacology, pharmacognosy, chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, microbiology, pharmacy practice (including drug interactions, medicine monitoring, medication management), pharmaceutics, pharmacy la!, physiology, anatomy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug deli$ery, pharmaceutical care, nephrology, hepatology, and compounding of medications. Additional curriculum may co$er diagnosis !ith emphasis on laboratory tests, disease state management, therapeutics and prescribing (selecting the most appropriate medication for a gi$en patient). *n graduation, pharmacists are licensed, either nationally or regionally, to dispense medication of $arious types in the areas they ha$e trained for. &ome may undergo further speciali<ed training, such as in cardiology or oncology. Pra ti e s!e iali"ation &pecialties include

Academic Pharmacist 6linical Pharmacy &pecialist 6ommunity Pharmacist 6ompounding Pharmacist 6onsultant Pharmacist Drug 5nformation Pharmacist 4ome 4ealth Pharmacist

4ospital Pharmacist 5ndustrial Pharmacist 5nformatics Pharmacist Iocum Pharmacist =anaged 6are Pharmacist =ilitary Pharmacist Nuclear Pharmacist

*ncology Pharmacist Pharmacist prescriber "egulatoryD Affairs Pharmacist Veterinary Pharmacist Pharmacist 6linical Pathologist Pharmacist 6linical To%icologist

#raining and !ra ti e $% ountr%


&ee also Doctor of Pharmacy

Australia &ee also Australian Pharmaceutical Ad$isory 6ouncil The Australian Pharmacy 6ouncil is the independent accreditation agency for Australian pharmacists.1+2 5t conducts e%aminations on behalf of the Pharmacy 3oard of Australia to!ards eligibility for registration. The Australian 6ollege of Pharmacy pro$ides continuing education programs for pharmacists. -ages for pharmacists in Australia appear to ha$e stagnated.1citation needed2 The a!ard !ages for a pharmacist is M+.0 a !eek.1:2 Pharmacist graduates are the lo!est paid uni$ersity graduates most years. =ost pharmacists do earn abo$e the a!ard !age/ the a$erage male pharmacist earns MJ@,HHH, a female pharmacist a$erages M@J,@HH.1citation needed2 *$er recent years, !ages ha$e stagnated, and e$en gone back!ards. There are more graduates e%pected in the ne%t fe! years making it e$en harder to get a job. 'ob security and increase in !ages !ith regards to 6P5 could be unlikely.1citation needed2 This is due to the large numbers of pharmacy graduates in recent years, and go$ernment desire to lo!er P3& costs. 6ontract and casual !ork is becoming more common. A contract pharmacist is selfDemployed and often called a locum/ these pharmacists may be hired for one shift or for a longer period of time. There are accounts of underemployment and unemployment emerging recently.1citation needed2 Canada The 6anadian Pharmacists Association (6PhA) is the national professional organi<ation for pharmacists in 6anada.1@2 &pecific re#uirements for practice $ary across pro$inces, but generally include a 3achelorBs of &cience in Pharmacy from a recogni<ed uni$ersity, successful completion of a national board e%amination through the Pharmacy C%amining 3oard of 6anada, and practical e%perience through an apprenticeshipLinternship program. The $ast majority (+HN) of 6anadaOs licensed pharmacists !ork in community pharmacies, another .@ percent in hospital or institutional pharmacies, and the remainder !ork in situations that may not legally re#uire licensed pharmacists such as associations, pharmaceutical companies, and consulting firms.1.2 The !ages for pharmacists, at about 6AD M:@,HHH, ha$e been said to be slightly better than Australia but not as good as in the 7&A.1citation needed2 This likely depends on !hat parts of 6anada and or the 7&A are compared. -ages being significantly higher in 6anada than the prospect for most de$eloping countries, recruitment of pharmacists from &outh Africa and other countries !ith acute health !orkforce shortages to !ork in pri$ate franchise chains is subject to contro$ersy.1.H2 !ritish Columbia A Pharmacist must be registered !ith the 6ollege of Pharmacists of 3ritish 6olumbia to practice in this pro$ince. A 3achelor of &cience in Pharmaceutical &ciences is the minimum re#uirement to practice as a pharmacist in 36. The 7ni$ersity of 3ritish 6olumbia is the only institution in the pro$ince that trains pharmacists.

36 Professional associationLcollege 6ollege of Pharmacists of 3ritish 6olumbia 3ritish 6olumbia Pharmacy Association

&erman% 5n ?ermany, the education and training is di$ided into three sections, each ending !ith a state e%amination

7ni$ersity 3asic studies (four semesters) 7ni$ersity =ain studies (four semesters) 6ommunity Pharmacy L 4ospital Pharmacy L 5ndustry Practical training (.0 months/ J months in a 6ommunity Pharmacy).

Today, many pharmacists !ork as employees in public pharmacies. They !ill be paid according to the labour agreement of Ade%a and employer associations. 'a!an History 5n ancient 'apan, the men !ho fulfilled roles similar to pharmacists !ere respected. The place of pharmacists in society !as settled in the TaihP 6ode (;H.) and reDstated in the QPrP 6ode (;.+). "anked positions in the preD4eian 5mperial court !ere established/ and this organi<ational structure remained largely intact until the =eiji "estoration (.+J+). 5n this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists K and e$en pharmacist assistants K !ere assigned status superior to all others in healthDrelated fields such as physicians and acupuncturists. 5n the 5mperial household, the pharmacist !as e$en ranked abo$e the t!o personal physicians of the Cmperor.1..2 Contemporary As of .::;, AJ uni$ersities of pharmacy in 'apan graduated about +HHH students annually.1.02 6ontemporary practice of clinical pharmacists in 'apan (as e$aluated in &eptember 0HHH) focuses on dispensing of drugs, consultation !ith patients, supplying drug information, ad$ising on prescription changes and amending prescriptions. These practices ha$e been linked to decreases in the a$erage number of drugs in prescriptions, drug costs and incidence of ad$erse drug e$ents.1.E2 Sweden 5n &!eden, the national board of health and !elfare regulates the practice of all legislated health care professionals, and also is responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. The education to become a licensed pharmacist is regulated by the Curopean 7nion, and states that minimum educational re#uirements are fi$e years of uni$ersity studies in a pharmacy program, of !hich si% months must be a pharmacy internship. To

be admitted to pharmacy studies, students must complete a gymnasium (school for .@> .+DyearDolds) program in natural sciences after elementary school (J>.@DyearDolds). 5n &!eden, pharmacists are called Apotekare. At pharmacies pharmacists !ork together !ith another class of legislated health care professionals called receptarier, !ho ha$e completed studies e#ual to a bachelor of science in pharmacy, i.e., three years of uni$ersity. These latter also ha$e dispensing rights R Pakistan 5n Pakistan, the Pharm.D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a graduateDle$el professional doctorate degree. T!entyDone uni$ersities are registered !ith the Pharmacy 6ouncil of Pakistan for imparting Pharmacy courses. 5n 0HHA the 4igher Cducation 6ommission of Pakistan and the Pharmacy 6ouncil of Pakistan re$ised the syllabus and changed the AD year 3.Pharmacy (3achelor of Pharmacy) Program to a @Dyear Pharm.D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) program. All 0. uni$ersities ha$e started the @Dyear Pharm.D Program. 5n 0H.. the Pharmacy 6ouncil of Pakistan appro$ed the a!arding of a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, a fi$eDyear programme at the Department of Pharmacy, 7ni$ersity of Pesha!ar. A Pharmacist holding a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D) #ualification can use the prefi% Dr. before their name. #an"ania 5n Tan<ania, pharmacy practice is regulated by the national Pharmacy 3oard, !hich is also responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. 3y international standards, the density of pharmacists is $ery lo!, !ith a mean of H..+ per .H,HHH population. The majority of pharmacists are found in urban areas, !ith some underser$ed regions ha$ing only 0 pharmacists per region. According to 0HH;>0HH: data, the largest group of pharmacists !as employed in the public sector (AAN). Those !orking in pri$ate retail pharmacies !ere 0EN, and the rest !ere mostly !orking for pri$ate !holesalers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, in academiaLteaching, or !ith faithDbased or nonD go$ernmental facilities. The salaries of pharmacists $aried significantly depending on the place of !ork. Those !ho !orked in the academia !ere the highest paid follo!ed by those !ho !orked in the multilateral nonDgo$ernmental organi<ations. The public sector including public retail pharmacies and faith based organi<ations paid much less. The =inistry of 4ealth salary scale for medical doctors !as considerably higher than that of pharmacists despite ha$ing a difference of only one year of training.1.A2 United Kingdom &ee also 6onsultant pharmacist 5n the 7nited 8ingdom, most pharmacists !orking in the National 4ealth &er$ice practice in hospital pharmacy, community pharmacy or in primary care trusts. Pharmacists can undertake additional training to allo! them to prescribe medicines for specific conditions.1.@2

5n 3ritish Cnglish (and to some e%tent Australian Cnglish), the professional title kno!n as FpharmacistF is also kno!n as #dispensing chemist#. A dispensing chemist usually operates from a pharmacy or chemistBs shop (also called a Fdrug storeF else!here), and is allo!ed to fulfil medical prescriptions and sell o$erDtheDcounter drugs and other healthD related goods. The ne! professional role for pharmacist as prescriber has been recogni<ed in the 78 since =ay 0HHJ, called the FPharmacist 5ndependent PrescriberF. *nce #ualified, a pharmacist independent prescriber can prescribe any licensed medicine for any medical condition !ithin their competence. This includes controlled drugs e%cept schedule . and prescribing for the treatment of addiction.1.J2 Education and registration Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and pharmacy premises in ?reat 3ritain are regulated by the ?eneral Pharmaceutical 6ouncil (?Ph6). The role of regulatory and professional body !as pre$iously carried out by the "oyal Pharmaceutical &ociety of ?reat 3ritain, !hich remained as a professional body after handing o$er the regulatory role to the ?Ph6 in 0H.H.1.;2 The follo!ing criteria must be met for #ualification as a pharmacist in ?reat 3ritain

&uccessful completion of a ADyear =aster of Pharmacy degree at a ?Ph6 accredited uni$ersity. Pharmacists holding degrees in Pharmacy from o$erseas institutions are able to fulfill this stage by undertaking the *$erseas Pharmacist Assessment Programme (*&PAP), !hich is a oneDyear postgraduate diploma. *n completion of the *&PAP, the candidate !ould proceed !ith the other stages of the registration process in the same manner as a 78 student. 6ompletion of a @0D!eek preregistration training period. This is a period of paid employment in an appro$ed hospital or community pharmacy under the super$ision of a pharmacist tutor. During this time the student must collect e$idence of ha$ing met certain competency standards set by the ?Ph6. A pass mark in the ?Ph6 registration e%am. This includes a closedDbook paper and an open bookLmental calculations paper (using the 3ritish National ,ormulary and the ?Ph6Bs F&tandards of 6onduct, Cthics and PerformanceF document as reference sources). The student must achie$e an o$erall mark of ;HN, !hich must include at least ;HN in the calculations section of the open book paper. &atisfactorily meeting the ?Ph6Bs ,itness to Practice &tandards.1.+2

Pharmacists in Northern 5reland are regulated by the Pharmaceutical &ociety of Northern 5reland. They operate separate but broadly similar registration re#uirements to the ?Ph6.
1.:2

There are currently too many Pharmacists graduating in the 78, making it $ery difficult for ne!ly graduated Pharmacists to secure employment. *ne of the reasons for this is the fact that many ne! &chools of Pharmacy ha$e opened in the past decade. 5n a sur$ey

conducted by the 3ritish Pharmaceutical &tudentsB Association (3P&A) it !as found that :0N of registered Pharmacists thought that there !ere too many Pharmacists in the 78. (ietnam &chool students must take a national e%am to enter a uni$ersity of pharmacy or the pharmacy department of a uni$ersity of pharmacoDmedicine. About @D ;N of students pass the e%am. There are E aspects to the e%am. These are on math, chemistry, and physics. After being trained in the uni$ersity students recei$e a @ D year bachelorOs degree in pharmacy (uni$ersitary pharmacist to discriminate bet!een college pharmacist or $ocational pharmacist). An alternati$e method of obtaining a 3achelorBs degree is as follo!s. &chool pupils study in a college of pharmacy or a $ocational school of pharmacy. After attending the school or college they go to !ork. And !ith t!o years of practice they could take an e%am to enter uni$ersity of pharmacy or the pharmacy department of a uni$ersity of pharmacoDmedicine. This e%am is easier than the national one. Passing the e%am they continue studying to gain E D year bachelorOs degrees or A D year bachelorOs degrees. This degree is considered e#ui$alent to a @ D year bachelorOs degree. United States 5n the 7nited &tates, the majority (J@N) of pharmacists !ork in retail settings, mostly as salaried employees but some as selfDemployed o!ners. About 00N !ork in hospitals, and the rest mainly in mailDorder or 5nternet pharmacies, pharmaceutical !holesalers, practises of physicians, and the ,ederal ?o$ernment.1A2 All graduating pharmacists must no! obtain the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree before they are eligible to sit for the North American Pharmacist Iicensure C%amination (NAPICS) to enter into pharmacy practice.10H2 Pharmacy School Accreditation The Accreditation 6ouncil for Pharmacy Cducation (A6PC) !as founded in .:E0 as the accrediting body for schools of pharmacy in the 7nited &tates.10.2 The mission of A6PC is TTo assure and ad$ance e%cellence in education for the profession of pharmacy.U 1002 A6PC is recogni<ed for the accreditation of professional degree programs by the 7nited &tates Department of Cducation (7&DC) and the 6ouncil for 4igher Cducation Accreditation (64CA).10E2 &ince .:;@, A6PC has also been the accrediting body for continuing pharmacy education. The A6PC board of directors are appointed by the American Association of 6olleges of Pharmacy (AA6P), the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), the National Association of 3oards of Pharmacy (NA3P) (three appointments each), and the American 6ouncil on Cducation (one appointment). To obtain licensure in the 7nited &tates, applicants for the North American Pharmacist Iicensure C%amination (NAPICS) must graduate from an A6PC accredited school of pharmacy. A6PC publishes standards that schools of pharmacy must comply !ith to gain accreditation.10A2 There are currently EH standards organi<ed !ithin si% major categories of

.) mission, planning, and e$aluation, 0) organi<ation and administration, E) curriculum, A) students, @) faculty and staff, J) facilities and resources. A Pharmacy school pursuing accreditation must first apply and be granted PreDcandidate status.10@2 These schools ha$e met all the re#uirements for accreditation, but ha$e not yet enrolled any students. This status indicates that the school of pharmacy has de$eloped its program in accordance !ith the A6PC standards and guidelines. *nce a school has enrolled students, but has not yet had a graduating class, they may be granted 6andidate status. The e%pectations of a 6andidate program are that they continue to mature in accordance !ith stated plans. The graduates of a 6andidate program are the same as those of fully accredited programs. ,ull accreditation is granted to a program once they ha$e demonstrated they comply !ith the standards set forth by A6PC. The customary re$ie! cycle for established accredited programs is si% years, !hereas for programs achie$ing their initial accreditation this cycle is t!o years. These are comprehensi$e onDsite e$aluations of the programs. Additional e$aluations may be conducted at the discretion of A6PC in the interim bet!een comprehensi$e e$aluations. Education A Pharmacy student must complete eight years of professional le$el training at a pharmacy school, or A years after recei$ing a bachelors degree. A bachelors degree is not re#uired as some pharmacy schools only re#uire t!o years of undergraduate education and the completion of a list of prere#uisites. 6ompetition to obtain entry into pharmacy school, ho!e$er, limits the number of students admitted !ithout a bachelors degree. 3efore schools !ent to the all PharmD programs students could do @ years of professional undergraduate le$el training and recei$e a 3&cPharm !ith the option of continuing for one more year for the PharmD. There are currently ..J accredited pharmacy schools in the 7nited &tates (late 0HH:), and J of these schools offer FacceleratedF EDyear PharmD programs by attending school almost year round > !ith fe!er breaks for summer and holidays.1citation needed2 There also is one fully accredited FdistanceLonlineF ADyear PharmD program offered by 6reighton 7ni$ersity.1citation needed2 Pharmacists recei$e a PharmD (Doctor of Pharmacy) upon graduation, and licensure after passing the NAPICS and =P'C. 3oth the PharmD and the 3&cPharm take the same licensure e%ams. =andatory courses may include

Anatomy 3iochemistry 3iology 5mmunology 6ommunications L Public &peaking Cconomics

Physics 4umanities =icrobiology =olecular 3iology *rganic 6hemistry =edicinal 6hemistry

Pharmaceutical 6are Pharmacokinetics Pharmaceutics Pharmacology Physiology Pathophysiology To%icology

3esides taking classes, additional re#uirements before graduating may include, for instance, a certain number of hours for community ser$ice, e.g., !orking in hospitals, clinics, and retail. Specialization and credentialing American pharmacists can become certified in recogni<ed specialty practice areas by passing an e%amination administered by one of se$eral credentialing boards.

The 3oard of Pharmaceutical &pecialties10J2 certifies pharmacists in si% specialties o Ambulatory care pharmacy (starting 0H..) o Nuclear pharmacy o Nutrition support pharmacy o *ncology pharmacy o Pharmacotherapy, !hich has t!o subspecialties cardiology and infectious disease o Psychiatric pharmacy The 6ommission for 6ertification in ?eriatric Pharmacy certifies pharmacists in geriatrics specialty practice. The American 3oard of Applied To%icology10;2 certifies pharmacists and other medical professionals in applied to%icology.

Earnings and wages According to the 0H.H FPharmacy 6ompensation &ur$eyF



10+2

Directors of Pharmacy M.0@,0HH "etail &taff Pharmacists M..E,JHH 4ospital &taff Pharmacists M...,;HH =ail *rder &taff Pharmacists M.H:,EHH 6linical Pharmacists M..E,AHH

According to the 7& 3ureau of Iabor &tatistics > Occupational Outlook Handbook !"#"$## %dition 1A2

=edian annual !ages of !age and salary pharmacists in =ay 0HH+ !ere M.HJ,A.H. The middle @H percent earned bet!een M:0,J;H and M.0.,E.H a year. The lo!est .H percent earned less than M;;,E:H, and the highest .H percent earned more than M.E.,AAH a year.

Actuaries

Actuar$

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Damage from 4urricane 8atrina. Actuaries need to estimate longDterm le$els of such damage in order to accurately price property insurance and set appropriate reser$es. %ccupation &ames Actuary 5nsurance, "einsurance, Acti'it$ sectors Pension plans, &ocial !elfare programs (escription =athematics, finance, Competencies analytical skills, business kno!ledge )ducation re*uired &ee 6redentialing and e%ams An actuar$ is a business professional !ho deals !ith the financial impact of risk and uncertainty. Actuaries pro$ide e%pert assessments of financial security systems, !ith a focus on their comple%ity, their mathematics, and their mechanisms (Tro!bridge .:+:, p. ;). Actuaries mathematically e$aluate the probability of e$ents and #uantify the contingent outcomes in order to minimi<e the impacts of financial losses associated !ith uncertain undesirable e$ents. &ince many e$ents, such as death, cannot be a$oided, it is helpful to take measures to minimi<e their financial impact !hen they occur. These risks can affect both sides of the balance sheet, and re#uire asset management, liability management, and $aluation skills. Analytical skills, business kno!ledge and understanding of human beha$ior and the $agaries of information systems are re#uired to design and manage programs that control risk (3eAnActuary 0HH@a). The profession has consistently ranked as one of the most desirable in $arious studies o$er the years. 5n 0HHJ, a study by &'(' )e*s + ,orld Report included actuaries among the 0@ 3est Professions that it e%pects !ill be in great demand in the future (Nemko

0HHJ). A study published by job search !ebsite 6areer6ast ranked actuary relati$e to other jobs in the 7nited &tates as number . in 0H.H (Needleman 0H.H), number 0 in 0H.0 (Thomas 0H.0) and number . in 0H.E (-eber 0H.E). The study used fi$e key criteria to rank jobs en$ironment, income, employment outlook, physical demands and stress.

Contents

. Disciplines 0 4istory o 0.. Need for insurance o 0.0 Carly attempts o 0.E De$elopment of theory o 0.A Carly actuaries o 0.@ De$elopment of the modern profession E "esponsibilities o E.. Traditional employment o E.0 NonDtraditional employment o E.E "emuneration A 6redentialing and e%ams o A.. C%am support o A.0 Pass marks and pass rates @ Notable actuaries J ,ictional actuaries ; "eferences + C%ternal links

)is i!lines
ActuariesB insurance disciplines include life/ health/ pensions, annuities, and asset management/ social !elfare programs/ property/ casualty/ general insurance/ and reinsurance. Iife, health, and pension actuaries deal !ith mortality risk, morbidity, and consumer choice regarding the ongoing utili<ation of drugs and medical ser$ices risk, and in$estment risk. Products prominent in their !ork include life insurance, annuities, pensions, mortgage and credit insurance, short and long term disability, and medical, dental, health sa$ings accounts and long term care insurance. 5n addition to these risks, social insurance programs are greatly influenced by public opinion, politics, budget constraints, changing demographics and other factors such as medical technology, inflation and cost of li$ing considerations (3ureau of Iabor &tatistics 0HH:). 6asualty actuaries, also kno!n as nonDlife or general insurance actuaries, deal !ith risks that can occur to people or property other than risks related to the life or health of a person. Products prominent in their !ork include auto insurance, homeo!ners insurance, commercial property insurance, !orkersB compensation, title insurance, malpractice insurance, products liability insurance, directors and officers liability insurance, en$ironmental and marine insurance, terrorism insurance and other types of liability insurance. "einsurance products ha$e to accommodate all of the pre$iously mentioned products, and in addition ha$e to reflect properly the increasing long term risks associated

!ith climate change, cultural litigiousness, acts of !ar, terrorism and politics (3ureau of Iabor &tatistics 0HH:). 3oth major classes of actuaries are also called upon for their e%pertise in enterprise risk management (3ureau of Iabor &tatistics 0HH:). This can in$ol$e dynamic financial analysis, stress testing, the formulation of corporate risk policy, and the setting up and running of corporate risk departments (5nstitute and ,aculty of Actuaries 0H..b). Actuaries are also in$ol$ed in other areas of the financial ser$ices industry, and can be in$ol$ed in managing corporate credit, company e$aluations, and tool de$elopment (3ureau of Iabor &tatistics 0HH:).

Histor%

=athematician Nathaniel 3o!ditch !as AmericaBs first insurance actuary Need for insuran e The basic re#uirements of communal interests ga$e rise to risk sharing since the da!n of ci$ili<ation. ,or e%ample, people !ho li$ed their entire li$es in a camp had the risk of fire, !hich !ould lea$e their band or family !ithout shelter. After basic e%change came into e%istence, more comple% forms de$eloped beyond a basic barter economy, and ne! forms of risk manifested. =erchants embarking on trade journeys bore the risk of losing goods entrusted to them, their o!n possessions, or e$en their li$es. 5ntermediaries de$eloped to !arehouse and trade goods, and they often suffered from financial risk. The primary pro$iders in any e%tended families or household al!ays ran the risk of premature death, disability or infirmity, lea$ing their dependents to star$e. 6redit procurement !as difficult if the lender !orried about repayment in the e$ent of the borro!erBs death or infirmity. Alternati$ely, people sometimes li$ed too long from a financial perspecti$e, e%hausting their sa$ings, if any, or becoming a burden on others in the e%tended family or society (Ie!in 0HH;, p. E).

Earl% attem!ts 5n the ancient !orld there !as not al!ays room for the sick, suffering, disabled, aged, or the poorKthese !ere often not part of the cultural consciousness of societies (Perkins .::@). Carly methods of protection, aside from the normal support of the e%tended family, in$ol$ed charity/ religious organi<ations or neighbors !ould collect for the destitute and needy. 3y the middle of the Erd century, .,@HH suffering people !ere being supported by charitable operations in "ome (Perkins .::@). 6haritable protection is still an acti$e form of support to this $ery day (?i$ing7&A 0HH:). 4o!e$er, recei$ing charity is uncertain and is often accompanied by social stigma. Clementary mutual aid agreements and pensions did arise in anti#uity (Thucydides). Carly in the "oman empire, associations !ere formed to meet the e%penses of burial, cremation, and monumentsK precursors to burial insurance and friendly societies. A small sum !as paid into a communal fund on a !eekly basis, and upon the death of a member, the fund !ould co$er the e%penses of rites and burial. These societies sometimes sold shares in the building of columbVria, or burial $aults, o!ned by the fundKthe precursor to mutual insurance companies ('ohnston .:HE, WA;@>WA;J). *ther early e%amples of mutual surety and assurance pacts can be traced back to $arious forms of fello!ship !ithin the &a%on clans of Cngland and their ?ermanic forbears, and to 6eltic society (Ioan .::0). NonDlife insurance started as a hedge against loss of cargo during sea tra$el. Anecdotal reports of such guarantees occur in the !ritings of Demosthenes, !ho li$ed in the Ath century 36C (Ie!in 0HH;, pp. E>A). The earliest records of an official nonDlife insurance policy come from &icily, !here there is record of a fourteenthDcentury contract to insure a shipment of !heat (&!eeting 0H.., p. .A). 5n .E@H, Ienardo 6attaneo assumed Fall risks from act of ?od, or of man, and from perils of the seaF that may occur to a shipment of !heat from &icily to Tunis up to a ma%imum of EHH florins. ,or this he !as paid a premium of eighteen per cent (Ie!in 0HH;, p. A). 5n current terminology, this !ould be an ocean marine contract for a rateDonDline of .+N. )e*elo!ment of theor%

0HHE 7& mortality (life) table, Table ., Page . The .;th century !as a period of e%traordinary ad$ances in mathematics in ?ermany, ,rance, and Cngland. At the same time there !as a rapidly gro!ing desire and need to place the $aluation of personal risk on a more scientific basis. 5ndependently from each other, compound interest !as studied and probability theory emerged as a !ell understood mathematical discipline. Another important ad$ance came in .JJ0 from a Iondon draper named 'ohn ?raunt, !ho sho!ed that there !ere predictable patterns of longe$ity and death in a defined group, or cohort, of people, despite the uncertainty about the future longe$ity or mortality of any one indi$idual person. This study became the basis for the original life table. 5t !as no! possible to set up an insurance scheme to pro$ide life insurance or pensions for a group of people, and to calculate !ith some degree of accuracy ho! much each person in the group should contribute to a common fund assumed to earn a fi%ed rate of interest. The first person to demonstrate publicly ho! this could be done !as Cdmond 4alley. 5n addition to constructing his o!n life table, 4alley demonstrated a method of using his life table to calculate the premium someone of a gi$en age should pay to purchase a lifeDannuity (4alley .J:E). Earl% a tuaries 'ames DodsonBs pioneering !ork on the le$el premium system led to the formation of the &ociety for C#uitable Assurances on Ii$es and &ur$i$orship (no! commonly kno!n as C#uitable Iife) in Iondon in .;J0. This !as the first life insurance company to use premium rates !hich !ere calculated scientifically for longDterm life policies, using DodsonBs !ork. The company still e%ists, though it has run into difficulties recently. After DodsonBs death in .;@;, Cd!ard "o!e =ores took o$er the leadership of the group that e$entually became the &ociety for C#uitable Assurances in .;J0. 5t !as he !ho specified that the chief official should be called an BactuaryB (*gborn .:@J, p. 0E@). Pre$iously, the use of the term had been restricted to an official !ho recorded the decisions, or BactsB, of ecclesiastical courts, in ancient times originally the secretary of the "oman senate, responsible for compiling the Acta &enatus (*gborn .:@J, p. 0EE). *ther companies !hich did not originally use such mathematical and scientific methods most often failed or !ere forced to adopt the methods pioneered by C#uitable (3Xhlmann .::;, p. .JJ). )e*elo!ment of the modern !rofession =ain article Actuarial science 5n the .+th and .:th centuries, computational comple%ity !as limited to manual calculations. The actual calculations re#uired to compute fair insurance premiums are rather comple%. The actuaries of that time de$eloped methods to construct easily used tables, using sophisticated appro%imations called commutation functions, to facilitate timely, accurate, manual calculations of premiums (&lud 0HHJ). *$er time, actuarial organi<ations !ere founded to support and further both actuaries and actuarial science, and to protect the public interest by ensuring competency and ethical standards (4ickman 0HHA, p. A). 4o!e$er, calculations remained cumbersome, and actuarial shortcuts !ere commonplace. NonDlife actuaries follo!ed in the footsteps of their life compatriots in the

early 0Hth century. 5n the 7nited &tates, the .:0H re$ision to !orkersB compensation rates took o$er t!o months of aroundDtheDclock !ork by day and night teams of actuaries (=ichelbacher .:0H, pp. 00A, 0EH). 5n the .:EHs and .:AHs, ho!e$er, rigorous mathematical foundations for stochastic processes !ere de$eloped (3Xhlmann .::;, p. .J+). Actuaries could no! begin to forecast losses using models of random e$ents instead of deterministic methods. 6omputers further re$olutioni<ed the actuarial profession. ,rom pencilDandDpaper to punchcards to microcomputers, the modeling and forecasting ability of the actuary has gro!n e%ponentially (=ac?innitie .:+H, pp. @H> @.). Another modern de$elopment is the con$ergence of modern financial theory !ith actuarial science (3Xhlmann .::;, pp. .J:>.;.). 5n the early 0Hth century, actuaries !ere de$eloping many techni#ues that can be found in modern financial theory, but for $arious historical reasons, these de$elopments did not achie$e much recognition (-helan 0HH0). 4o!e$er, in the late .:+Hs and early .::Hs, there !as a distinct effort for actuaries to combine financial theory and stochastic methods into their established models (DBarcy .:+:). Today, the profession, both in practice and in the educational syllabi of many actuarial organi<ations, combines tables, loss models, stochastic methods, and financial theory (,eldblum 0HH., pp. +>:), but is still not completely aligned !ith modern financial economics (3ader & ?old 0HHE).

+es!onsi$ilities
Actuaries use skills primarily in mathematics, particularly calculusDbased probability and mathematical statistics, but also economics, computer science, finance,and business to help businesses assess the risk of certain e$ents occurring and to formulate policies that minimi<e the cost of that risk. ,or this reason, actuaries are essential to the insurance and reinsurance industry, either as staff employees or as consultants/ to other businesses, including sponsors of pension plans/ and to go$ernment agencies such as the ?o$ernment ActuaryBs Department in the 78 or the &ocial &ecurity Administration in the 7&. Actuaries assemble and analy<e data to estimate the probability and likely cost of the occurrence of an e$ent such as death, sickness, injury, disability, or loss of property. Actuaries also address financial #uestions, including those in$ol$ing the le$el of pension contributions re#uired to produce a certain retirement income and the !ay in !hich a company should in$est resources to ma%imi<e its return on in$estments in light of potential risk. 7sing their broad kno!ledge, actuaries help design and price insurance policies, pension plans, and other financial strategies in a manner !hich !ill help ensure that the plans are maintained on a sound financial basis (3ureau of Iabor &tatistics 0HH:). #raditional em!lo%ment *n both the life and casualty sides, the classical function of actuaries is to calculate premiums and reser$es for insurance policies co$ering $arious risks. Premiums are the amount of money the insurer needs to collect from the policyholder in order to co$er the e%pected losses, e%penses, and a pro$ision for profit. "eser$es are pro$isions for future liabilities and indicate ho! much money should be set aside no! to reasonably pro$ide

for future payouts. 5f you inspect the balance sheet of an insurance company, you !ill find that the liability side consists mainly of reser$es. *n the casualty side, this analysis often in$ol$es #uantifying the probability of a loss e$ent, called the fre#uency, and the si<e of that loss e$ent, called the se$erity. ,urther, the amount of time that occurs before the loss e$ent is also important, as the insurer !ill not ha$e to pay anything until after the e$ent has occurred. *n the life side, the analysis often in$ol$es #uantifying ho! much a potential sum of money or a financial liability !ill be !orth at different points in the future. &ince neither of these kinds of analysis are purely deterministic processes, stochastic models are often used to determine fre#uency and se$erity distributions and the parameters of these distributions. ,orecasting interest yields and currency mo$ements also plays a role in determining future costs, especially on the life side. Actuaries do not al!ays attempt to predict aggregate future e$ents. *ften, their !ork may relate to determining the cost of financial liabilities that ha$e already occurred, called retrospecti$e reinsurance, or the de$elopment or reDpricing of ne! products. Actuaries also design and maintain products and systems. They are in$ol$ed in financial reporting of companiesB assets and liabilities. They must communicate comple% concepts to clients !ho may not share their language or depth of kno!ledge. Actuaries !ork under a strict code of ethics that co$ers their communications and !ork products, but their clients may not adhere to those same standards !hen interpreting the data or using it !ithin different kinds of businesses. Non,traditional em!lo%ment =any actuaries are general business managers or financial officers. They analy<e business prospects !ith their financial skills in $aluing or discounting risky future cash flo!s, and many apply their pricing e%pertise from insurance to other lines of business. &ome actuaries act as e%pert !itnesses by applying their analysis in court trials to estimate the economic $alue of losses such as lost profits or lost !ages. There has been a recent !idening of the scope of the actuarial field to include in$estment ad$ice and asset management. ,urther, there has been a con$ergence from the financial fields of risk management and #uantitati$e analysis !ith actuarial science. No!, actuaries also !ork as risk managers, #uantitati$e analysts, or in$estment specialists. C$en actuaries in traditional roles are no! studying and using the tools and data pre$iously in the domain of finance (,eldblum 0HH., p. +). *ne of the latest de$elopments in the industry, insurance securiti<ation, re#uires both the actuarial and finance skills (8ruto$ 0HHJ). Another field in !hich actuaries are becoming more prominent is that of Cnterprise "isk =anagement, for both financial and nonDfinancial corporations (DBarcy 0HH@). ,or e%ample, the 3asel 55 accord for financial institutions, and its analogue, the &ol$ency 55 accord for insurance companies, re#uires such institutions to account for operational risk

separately and in addition to credit, reser$e, asset, and insol$ency risk. Actuarial skills are !ell suited to this en$ironment because of their training in analy<ing $arious forms of risk, and judging the potential for upside gain, as !ell as do!nside loss associated !ith these forms of risk (DBarcy 0HH@). +emuneration The credentialing and e%amination procedure for becoming a fully #ualified actuary can be intensely demanding. 6onse#uently, the profession remains $ery small throughout the !orld. As a result, actuaries are in high demand, and they are highly paid for the ser$ices they render (C<ra 0H..). 5n the 78, !here there are appro%imately :,HHH fully #ualified actuaries, typical postDuni$ersity starting salaries range bet!een ?3P Y0@,EHH and YE@,HHH (MAH,@HH and M@J,HHH) and successful, more e%perienced actuaries can earn !ell in e%cess of Y.HH,HHH (M.JH,HHH) a year (Iomas 0HH:).

Credentialing and e-ams


=ain articles Actuarial credentialing and e%ams and 6ategory Actuarial associations 3ecoming a fully credentialed actuary re#uires passing a rigorous series of professional e%aminations, usually taking se$eral years in total. 5n some countries, such as Denmark, most study takes place in a uni$ersity setting (Norberg .::H, p. AH;). 5n others, such as the 7.&., most study takes place during employment through a series of e%aminations (&*A 0H.0, 6A& 0H..). 5n the 78, and countries based on its process, there is a hybrid uni$ersityDe%am structure (5nstitute and ,aculty of Actuaries 0H..a). E-am su!!ort As these #ualifying e%ams are rigorous, support is usually a$ailable to people progressing through the e%ams. *ften, employers pro$ide paid onDtheDjob study time and paid attendance at seminars designed for the e%ams (3eAnActuary 0HH@b). Also, many companies !hich employ actuaries ha$e automatic pay raises or promotions !hen e%ams are passed. As a result, actuarial students ha$e strong incenti$es for de$oting ade#uate study time during offD!ork hours. A common rule of thumb for e%am students is that, for the &ociety of Actuaries e%aminations, roughly AHH hours of study time are necessary for each fourDhour e%am (&ieger .::+). Thus, thousands of hours of study time should be anticipated o$er se$eral years, assuming no failures (,eldblum 0HH., p. J). 5n practice, as the historical passing percentages remain belo! @HN for these e%ams, the Ftra$el timeF to credentialing is e%tended and more study time is needed. This process resembles formal schooling, so that actuaries !ho are sitting for e%ams are still called FstudentsF or FcandidatesF despite holding important positions !ith substantial responsibilities. Pass marks and !ass rates 7nlike some other professions, the actuarial profession is generally reluctant to specify the pass marks for its e%aminations. This has led to speculation o$er the years that the profession runs a #uota system, perhaps (a) to limit the supply of those !ho pass the

e%ams and #ualify in the profession or (b) because a high fail rate might gi$e the impression of difficulty and high $alue to a #ualification that is not easy to obtain. This concern is confirmed by a former 6hairman of the 3oard of C%aminers of the 5nstitute and ,aculty of Actuaries !ho made the follo!ing denial (=uckart) Although students find it hard to belie$e, the 3oard of C%aminers does not ha$e fail #uotas to achie$e. Accordingly pass rates are free to $ary (and do). They are determined by the #uality of the candidates sitting the e%amination and in particular ho! !ell prepared they are. ,itness to pass is the criterion, not !hether you can achie$e a mark in the top AHN of candidates sitting. "egarding this concern, the 6A& has stated (6A& 0HH.) The 3oard further affirms that the 6A& shall use no predetermined pass ratio as a guideline for setting the pass mark for any e%amination. 5f the 6A& determines that ;HN of all candidates ha$e demonstrated sufficient grasp of the syllabus material, then those ;HN should pass. &imilarly, if the 6A& determines that only EHN of all candidates ha$e demonstrated sufficient grasp of the syllabus material, then only those EHN should pass.

Nota$le a tuaries
Nathaniel 3o!ditch Carly American mathematician remembered for his !ork on ocean na$igation. 5n .+HA, 3o!ditch became AmericaBs first insurance actuary as president of the Csse% ,ire and =arine 5nsurance 6ompany in &alem, =assachusetts. 7nder his direction, the 6ompany prospered despite difficult political conditions and the -ar of .+.0. 4arald 6ramZr &!edish actuary and probabilist notable for his contributions in the area mathematical statistics, such as the 6ramZr>"ao ine#uality (6ramZr .:AJ). Professor 6ramZr !as an 4onorary President of the &!edish Actuarial &ociety (8endall .:+E). 'ames Dodson 4ead of the "oyal =athematical &chool, and &toneBs &chool, Dodson built on the statistical mortality tables de$eloped by Cdmund 4alley in .J:E (Ie!in 0HH;, p. E+). Cdmond 4alley -hile 4alley actually predated much of !hat is no! considered the start of the actuarial profession, he !as the first to mathematically and statistically rigorously calculate premiums for a life insurance policy (4alley .J:E). 'ames 6. 4ickman Notable actuarial educator, researcher, and author (6haptman 0HHJ). Da$id S. Ii 6anadian #ualified actuary !ho in the first decade of the 0.st century pioneered the use of ?aussian copula models for the pricing of collaterali<ed debt obligations (6D*s). The ,inancial Times called him Fthe !orldBs most influential actuary,F !hile in the aftermath of the ?lobal financial crisis of 0HH+>0HH:, to

!hich IiBs model has been credited partly to blame, his model has been called a Frecipe for disasterF. Cd!ard "o!e =ores ,irst person to use the title BactuaryB !ith respect to a business position (*gborn .:@J). -illiam =organ =organ !as the appointed Actuary of the &ociety for C#uitable Assurances in .;;@. 4e e%panded on =oresBs and DodsonBs !ork, and may be rightly considered the father of the actuarial profession in that his title became applied to the field as a !hole.(*gborn .:;E). Anette Norberg &kip for the &!edish -omenBs 6urling Team at the 0H.H -inter *lympics. Norberg has !on gold medals at the 0H.H -inter *lympics, the 0HHJ -inter *lympics, se$en Curopean 6urling 6hampionships, and t!o -orld 6urling 6hampionships. =aurice Princet ,rench actuary and close associate of artist Pablo Picasso. Princet is considered FIe =athZmaticien du 6ubismeF (FThe =athematician of 6ubismF) for his Fcritical influence on PicassoBs de$elopment as an artist at the birth of cubismF (3oyle 0HH0). ,rank "edington De$eloped the "edington 5mmuni<ation Theory 5saac =. "ubino! ,ounder and first president of the 6asualty Actuarial &ociety (6A&, 0HH+). Cli<ur -right American actuary and abolitionist, professor of mathematics at -estern "eser$e 6ollege (*hio). 4e campaigned for la!s that re#uired life insurance companies to hold sufficient reser$es to guarantee that policies !ould be paid (&tearns .:H@).

Architects Dentists

(entist
,rom -ikipedia, the free encyclopedia 'ump to na$igation, search This article is about the dental profession. ,or tooth care, see oral hygiene and dental surgery. The e%amples and perspecti$e in this article ma$ not represent a +orld+ide 'ie+ of the sub,ect. Please impro$e this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. -)ovember !"##. Dentist

Competencies )ducation re*uired

(escription critical thinking, analytical skills, professionalism, management skills, and communication Doctor of Dental =edicine or Doctor of Dental &urgery

A dentist, also kno!n as a Bdental surgeonB, is a health care practitioner that speciali<es in the diagnosis, pre$ention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral ca$ity. The dentistBs supporting team aides in pro$iding oral health ser$ices. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and in some states, dental therapists.

#raining
All dentists in the 7.&. must graduate from high school and complete re#uired courses such as general biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, physics, and statisticsLcalculus. -hile most dental schools re#uire at least a bachelors degree, a fe! schools may consider admitting e%ceptional students after only E years of college. To apply, students must take the Dental Admissions Test. Admission to dental school is competiti$e, and is generally determined based on factors such as ?PA, DAT scores, recommendation letters, and e%tracurricular acti$ities. To become a licensed dentist, one must then complete an accredited dental school curriculum and successfully master all clinical competencies and national board e%ams. =ost dental school curricula re#uire four years of training, ho!e$er, some states re#uire dentists to complete a post graduate residency program as !ell. 5n the 7.&., a ne!ly graduated dentist is then a!arded the DD&, Doctor of Dental &urgery, degree or the D=D, Doctor of Dental =edicine, degree depending on the dental school attended. The degrees are e#ui$alent. A ne!ly graduated dentist can then pursue further specialty residency training ranging from 0 to J years. Additionally, dentists participate in continuing education !here they attend lectures to learn of recent de$elopments, practice ne! methods, and earn continuing education hours. There are specific re#uirements for dentists to attend continuing education hours, and dentists !ho accumulate additional training are better prepared to handle a $ariety of cases and surprises during treatment. 5n the 78 the training is similar e%cept it is generally a fi$e year undergraduate course leading to a 3D& (3achelor of Dental &urgery).

+es!onsi$ilities
An independent suburban dentist 3y nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorati$e (dental restorations, cro!ns, bridges), orthodontics (braces), prosthetic (dentures), endodontic (root canal) therapy, periodontal (gum) therapy, and e%odontia (e%traction of teeth), as !ell as performing e%aminations, taking radiographs (%Drays) and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists are allo!ed to engage in oral surgery !hen performing

in$asi$e procedures such as dental implant placement.1.2 Dentists can also prescribe medications such as antibiotics, fluorides, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedati$esLhypnotics and any other medication that ser$e in the treatment of the $arious conditions that arise in the head and neck. Dentists need to take additional #ualifications or training to carry out more comple% procedures such as ?eneral anesthesia, oral and ma%illofacial surgery, and implants. -hile many oral diseases are uni#ue and selfDlimiting, poor conditions in the oral ca$ity can lead to poor general health and $ice $ersa. 6onditions in the oral ca$ity may be indicati$e of systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, A5D&, different blood diseases(including malignancies) etc.

S!e ialties
=ain article &pecialty (dentistry) *fficial specialties

Dental public health D The study of dental epidemiology and social health policies. Cndodontics D "oot canal therapy and study of diseases of the dental pulp. *ral and ma%illofacial pathology D The study, diagnosis, and sometimes the treatment of oral and ma%illofacial related diseases. *ral and ma%illofacial radiology D The study and radiologic interpretation of oral and ma%illofacial diseases. *ral and ma%illofacial surgery D C%tractions, implants, and =a%illo,acial surgery !hich also includes correction of congenital facial deformities. *rthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics D The straightening of teeth and modification of midface and mandibular gro!th. Periodontology (periodontics) D &tudy and treatment of diseases of the gums (nonD surgical and surgical) as !ell as placement and maintenance of dental implants Pediatric dentistry (formerly pedodontics) D Dentistry for children Prosthodontics D Dentures, bridges and the restoration of implants. &ome prosthodontists further their training in Foral and ma%illofacial prosthodonticsF, !hich is the discipline concerned !ith the replacement of missing facial structures, such as ears, eyes, noses, etc.

&pecialists in these fields are designated FregistrableF (in the 7nited &tates, Fboard eligibleF) and !arrant e%clusi$e titles such as orthodontist, oral and ma%illofacial surgeon, endodontist, pediatric dentist, periodontist, or prosthodontist upon satisfying certain local accreditation re#uirements (7.&., F3oard 6ertifiedF).

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