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Contents

Page
1 Links
2 AimsandObjectives+Agenda
3 LearnerProfile
4 CombinedSLandHL
7 PossibleSchedule
10 DataCollectionandProcessing
24 ConclusionandEvaluation
36 Design
58 Exampleworksheets
78 DesignIdeas
79 Fillingoutthe4PSOW
83 Sampleexample
93 Feedback
101 TheExam
118 ExtendedEssay
127 Group4Project
131 TOKMoments

INTHINKINGPHYSICSWORKSHOP
Barcelona2009

Thisworkbookcontainsexercisesandoutlinesofpresentationsthatwillbe
usedinthiscourse.Allothermaterialusedcanbefoundononeofthe
followinginternetsites

http://occ.ibo.org(TheIBonlineCurriculumCentre)

http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/resources/ict_in_physics/(IBandICT)

http://www.physicsinthinking.co.uk/(IBPhysicsmaintainedbyme)

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


1
www.inthinking.co.uk
INTHINKING
InThinking Physics Workshop
For Teachers New to the IB Diploma
Barcelona, Spain
Friday 30th October - Sunday 1st November 2009
Workshop Leader: Chris Hamper
Aims and Objectives
Introduce participants to the DP (incl. the Core & Learner Profile) and allow them to develop their DP subject-specific
knowledge.
How the learner profile effects the way we teach Physics
Why we shouldnt lose sight of the complete hexagon
TOK and internationalism

Provide tools to implement the programme in their subject or school.
How to set up a practical programme
Sharing methods of delivering the syllabus
Sharing resources
What Extended Essay supervision entails
Engage participants in activities, discussion and reflection about the challenges and rewards of implementing the
DP.
What makes IB physics different?

Gain understanding of methods preparing students for IB assessment.
A comprehensive guide to Internal Assessment and its pitfalls
How to organise your record keeping
How to get the level right when assessing student work

Share ideas about ways to incorporate ICT into the classroom.
Use of SMARTBOARD
Using simulations
Datalogging
Analysis of data
Agenda
Session 1Introductions and the syllabus
Session 2Internal assessment: Data collection
Session 3Datalogging
Session 4Internal Assessment: Processing data
Session 5Internal Assessment: Data Presentation and Graphing
Session 6Internal Assessment: Design Labs
Session 7 Internal Assessment: Conclusion and evaluation
Session 8The complete practical programme
Session 9TOK and the Extended Essay
Session 10Gp 4 Project
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
2
TheLearnerprofile

ThelearnerprofileisalistofthecharacteristicsthatweasIB
Diplomateachersshouldbeencouraginginourstudentsbuthowdo
wedothisinourPhysicsclass?

Inquirers
Knowledgeable
Thinkers
Communicators
Principled
Openminded
Caring
Risktakers
Balanced
Reflective
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
3
CombinedHL/SLclasses

AlotofschoolsdonothaveenoughstudentstorunseparateHLandSLclassesthismeanstheyhave
tobetaughttogether.IftheSLstudentsdidthesamehoursastheHLtheywouldbeoverloadedso
onewayofmakingthisfitintoatimetableistoteach2classesaweekwithSLandHLthenoneextra
classwithHL.OnewayofmakingthisworkistoteachthecorewiththeSLandHLthenteachthe
relevantAHLintheextraclasses.SometimesitmightbedifficulttoachievecontinuitywiththeAHL
studentsbutwithabitofplanningitspossibletorunacoherentcourse.
Thefollowingtableshowstheareasofoverlapwithsomecommentsabouthowthetopicsmightbe
integrated.

Topic1:Physicsandphysicalmeasurement HL SL Comments
1.1Therealmofphysics CORE Noneedtoteachthissectionfirst.
Mostofthiswillcomeupinthe
practicalprogrammeormechanics.
1.2Measurementanduncertainties CORE
1.3Vectorsandscalars CORE

Topic2:Mechanics
2.1Kinematics CORE Theprojectilesbitisonlyashort
sectioncombinedHLstudentswill
havetobidetheirtimewithextra
practicals.
9.1Projectilemotion AHL
2.2Forcesanddynamics CORE
2.3Work,energyandpower CORE
2.4Uniformcircularmotion CORE

Topic3:Thermalphysics
3.1Thermalconcepts CORE QuitealotofAHLheresoHLgroup
canbeworkingonthermodynamics
intheirextraclasses.Onlyhaveto
knowbasickinetictheorybeforethey
start.
3.2Thermalpropertiesofmatter CORE
10.1Thermodynamics AHL
10.2Processes AHL
10.3Secondlawofthermodynamicsand
entropy
AHL

Topic4:Oscillationsandwaves
4.1Kinematicsofsimpleharmonicmotion
(SHM)
CORE TheAHLmaterialinthissectionisthe
sameastheSLoptionA(apartfrom
thebitabouttheeye).Couldeither
getHLstudentstodothisinextra
classesordoitwiththewholegroup.
4.2Energychangesduringsimpleharmonic
motion(SHM)
CORE
4.3Forcedoscillationsandresonance CORE
4.4Wavecharacteristics CORE
4.5Waveproperties CORE
11.1Standing(stationary)waves AHL OpA
11.2Dopplereffect AHL OpA
11.3Diffraction AHL OpA
11.4Resolution AHL OpA
11.5Polarization AHL OpA

Topic5:Electriccurrents
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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5.1Electricpotentialdifference,currentand
resistance
CORE Mayseemstrangedoingthisbefore
electricfieldsbutworksok.
5.2Electriccircuits CORE

Topic6:Fieldsandforces
6.1Gravitationalforceandfield CORE NooverlapheresoHLstudentswill
havetodotheAHLintheirextra
classes.
9.2Gravitationalfield,potentialandenergy AHL
9.4Orbitalmotion AHL
6.2Electricforceandfield CORE
9.3Electricfield,potentialandenergy AHL
6.3Magneticforceandfield CORE
12.1Inducedelectromotiveforce(emf) AHL
12.2Alternatingcurrent AHL
12.3Transmissionofelectricalpower AHL

Topic7:Atomicandnuclearphysics
7.1Theatom CORE QuantumphysicsAHListhesameas
theSLoptionBsowholeclasscould
dothishoweveritmightbemore
usefultodotheAHLintheHLextra
classes.
13.1Quantumphysics AHL OpB
7.2Radioactivedecay CORE
7.3Nuclearreactions,fissionandfusion CORE
13.2Nuclearphysics AHL OpB

Topic8:Energy,powerandclimatechange
8.1Energydegradationandpowergeneration CORE Everyonedoesthistopic.Thetheory
canbetaughtquitequicklywiththe
HLbutSLneedmoretime.
8.2Worldenergysources CORE
8.3Fossilfuelpowerproduction CORE
8.4Nonfossilfuelpowerproduction CORE
8.5Greenhouseeffect CORE
8.6Globalwarming CORE

Topic14:Digitaltechnology
14.1Analogueanddigitalsignals AHL OpC SameastheSLoptionCwithoutthe
mobilephone,andelectronics;thisis
intheHLoptionF.
14.2Datacapture;digitalimagingusingcharge
coupleddevices(CCDs)
AHL OpC

OptionE:Astrophysics
E1Introductiontotheuniverse OpE Thiswouldbeagoodoptionfora
combinedclass. E2Stellarradiationandstellartypes OpE
E3Stellardistances OpE
E4Cosmology OpE
E5Stellarprocessesandstellarevolution AHL
E6Galaxiesandtheexpandinguniverse AHL

OptionF:Communications
F1Radiocommunication OpF IfSLdidthisoptionandtopic14with
HLthentheydgettheirtwooptions.
Wouldntbeaverybalancedcourse
though.
F2Digitalsignals OpF
F3Opticfibretransmission OpF
F4Channelsofcommunication OpF
F5Electronics OpC
F6Themobilephonesystem OpC
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
5

OptionG:Electromagneticwaves
G1NatureofEMwavesandlightsources OpG Thiswouldbeagoodoptionifyou
haveextraHLclasses. G2Opticalinstruments OpG
G3Twosourceinterferenceofwaves OpG
G4Diffractiongrating AHL
G5Xrays AHL
G6Thinfilminterference AHL

OptionH:Relativity
H1Introductiontorelativity OpD ThisispartoftheSL
Relativity/Particlesoption.would
worknicelywithacombinedclassif
theHLdidbothparticlesand
relativity.
H2Conceptsandpostulatesofspecialrelativity OpD
H3Relativistickinematics OpD
H4Someconsequencesofspecialrelativity OpD
H5Evidencetosupportspecialrelativity OpD
H6Relativisticmomentumandenergy AHL
H7Generalrelativity AHL
H8Evidencetosupportgeneralrelativity AHL

OptionI:Medicalphysics
I1Theearandhearing NotintheSLcourseatall,dontknow
why. I2Medicalimaging
I3Radiationinmedicine

OptionJ:Particlephysics
J1Particlesandinteractions OpD ThisispartoftheSL
Relativity/Particlesoption.would
worknicelywithacombinedclassif
theHLdidbothparticlesand
relativity.
J2Particleacceleratorsanddetectors AHL
J3Quarks OpD
J4Leptonsandthestandardmodel OpD
J5Experimentalevidenceforthequarkand
standardmodels
AHL
J6Cosmologyandstrings AHL

Note:
AllthetopicsintheSLoptions,Sightandwaves,QuantumandNuclear,DigitalandRelativityand
ParticleareincludedineitherAHLorHLoptions.EXCEPTSightandtheeye.

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


6
Possibleschedule

Basedonaratioof2lessonsofSLto3HLthecorecouldbeorganisedasfollows.
MechanicsplusPhysicsandphysicalmeasurement

Intro ExtraPracs
Intro

Kinematics ExtraProblems
Kinematics

Forces Parabolicmotion
Forces

Newtonslaws ExtraProblems
Consofmomentum

Work ExtraPracs
Energy

Circularmotion ExtraProblems
Circularmotion

ThermalPhysics

Kineticmodel 1
st
Lawofthermodynamics
HeatandTemp

Sphtcap Engines
Changeofstate

Oscillationsandwaves

SHMintro 2
nd
lawofthermodynamics
SHMequations

SHMenergy Extraproblems
DHM,FHMandresonance

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


7

Wavesintro Standingwaves
Waveproperties

Examplesofwaves Doppler
Test

Electriccurrents

Electricityintro Diffraction
V,IandR

Electriccircuits Resolution
Test

FieldsandForces

Gravitationintro Polarisation
Gfieldstrength

Electricfieldintro Gpotential
Efieldstrength

Magnetismintro Orbitsescapevelocity
Electromagnetism

AtomicandNuclear

Atomintro EPotential
Atomicmodels

Thenucleus Faradayslaw
Bindingenergy

Decay ACgenerator,transformerand
transmission

FissionandFusion

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


8
EnergyPowerandClimatechange

Energydegradation Introtoquantumphysics
Worldfuelsources

Fossilfuelpower Photoelectriceffect
Nonfossilpower

Nonfossilpower Wavenatureofmatter
Greenhouseeffect

Globalwarming Extranuclear

ThisnowleavestheoptionsforbothandDigitalforHL

AnalternativeandprobablymoresensibleapproachwouldbetoteachtheSLcoretothewhole
classfollowedbytheAHLforHLonly.ThiswouldmeanthattheSLstudentswouldgettheirfree
timeattheendofthetopicsratherthanonceeachweek.Thiswouldmakeamuchmorecoherent
programmebutmightnotfitintoalltimetablestructures.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
9
Bata collection anu Piocessing
Aspect1:RecordingRawData

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Records appropriate
quantitative and associated
qualitative raw data, including
units and uncertainties where
relevant.
Partial/1 Records appropriate
quantitative and associated
qualitative raw data, but with
some mistakes or omissions.
Not at All/0 Does not record any
appropriate quantitative raw
data or raw data is
incomprehensible.


Check List
Draw a table (using Excel) with a column for each measurement. This will generally
mean one column for the independent variable and 5 for the repeated measurements
of the dependent. There should be at least 5 rows one for each time you change the
independent variable.

If your data is coming from the gradient of a data logger graph or other graphic
computer display include an example of this graph in you report.

The number of decimal places should be the same for all values in a column
Each column must have a heading and the units of the quantity
You should estimate the uncertainty of the measuring instrument this must be in the
header.

Uncertainties should be rounded of to 1 significant figure 0.2 not 0.17
The number of decimal places in the data should not exceed the limit of the
uncertainty.
e.g. if uncertainty is 0.2 the measurement should only be quoted to 1 decimal place

Comment on how you arrived at any uncertainty value in the table
Comment on any observations you made that might be relevant later; there might not
be anything here.






Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
10

Results
RawDataTable
Below is a table of the data from the 5 runs performed for each of the 7 different heights.
The Uncertainty in Distance is estimated to be 5mm due to the difficulty of measuring the
position of the ball and the point at which the landing pad is activated.
Uncertainty in Time is calculated from the (Max Time Min Time)/2
Distance/m
0.005m
Time 1
/s
Time 2
/s
Time 3
/s
Time 4
/s
Time 5
/s
Av. Time
/s
Time
unc. /s 0.001s 0.001s 0.001s 0.001s 0.001s
0.090 0.135 0.137 0.136 0.135 0.134 0.135 0.002
0.145 0.172 0.171 0.170 0.170 0.171 0.171 0.001
0.170 0.184 0.185 0.184 0.184 0.185 0.185 0.001
0.235 0.217 0.217 0.218 0.217 0.218 0.217 0.001
0.290 0.241 0.241 0.238 0.240 0.241 0.240 0.002
0.310 0.248 0.248 0.247 0.248 0.249 0.248 0.001
0.365 0.270 0.271 0.271 0.270 0.270 0.271 0.001

Measurements were taken from the bottom of the ball to the depressed landing pad.



Errors and
calculations
explained
Table has consistent
decimal places and
units. Uncertainties
seem reasonable.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
11

Aspect2:ProcessingRawData

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Processes the quantitative raw
data correctly
Partial/1 Processes quantitative raw
data, but with some mistakes
and/or omissions.
Not at All/0 No processing of quantitative
raw data is carried out or major
mistakes are made in
processing.


Check list
The data should be processed in some way, for example averaging, squaring or
finding the sine. Processed data should be displayed in a table separate to the raw
data table.

The table must have headers that include units and uncertainties
Calculate uncertainties in the repeated measurements by finding the 1/2(max value
min value) in the spread of data.

Calculate the uncertainties in processed data by calculating the (max value min
value)/2
e.g. if uncertainty in time is 0.2 then uncertainty in t
2
is (t+0.2)
2
(t-0.2)
2
/2.

The number of decimal places in each column must be consistent with each other and
the uncertainty.

Any calculation must be explained


















Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
12
Anextractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements







ProcessedData
Since the initial velocity is zero, the vertical displacement and time are related by the equation
s=1/2at
2
a graph of s vs t
2
will give a straight line. The gradient of this line will be 1/2a.
Distance(m)
0.005
Av. Time
/s
Time
unc. /s
Time
/s
Unc.
Time
/s
0.090 0.135 0.002 0.0183 0.0004
0.145 0.171 0.001 0.0291 0.0003
0.170 0.185 0.001 0.0340 0.0002
0.235 0.217 0.001 0.0472 0.0004
0.290 0.240 0.002 0.0578 0.0007
0.310 0.248 0.001 0.0615 0.0005
0.365 0.271 0.001 0.0732 0.0003


The equation used to calculate the uncertainty in time
2
was (Max time
2
Min time
2
)/2 where
the max and min values were taken to be the average value + and the uncertainty.





















Table has consistent decimal places
and uncertainties. All columns
have correct units. Calculations
explained.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
13
Aspect3PresentingProcesseddata

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Presents processed data
appropriately and, where
relevant, includes errors and
uncertainties.
Partial/1 Presents processed data
appropriately, but with some
mistakes and/or omissions.
Not at All/0 Presents processed data
inappropriately or
incomprehensibly.


Check List
Processed data should be presented in a graph. This graph should be linearised if
possible. The graph should be drawn using Graphical Analysis. If not possible to
linearise the function then a curve can be plotted, however this makes the analysis
more difficult so the following points are for straight lines only.

The graph must have heading, axis labels and units.
Independent variable should be on the x axis
Graph must include error bars
A best fit line should be plotted automatically
The equation of the line must be displayed (y=mx+c).
Manually fit the steepest and least steep lines that fit the error bars
Quote uncertainty in gradient














Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
14

Anextractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements

Graphofsvst
2






Max gradient = 5.198 ms
-2

Min gradient = 4.796 ms
-2
Uncertainty

in gradient = (5.198 4.796)/2 = 0.2 ms
-2

Gradient = 5.0 0.2 ms
-2





Graph has correct labels, units,
custom error bars, best fit line, and
max and min gradients.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
15
BackgroundonExamples

The following examples are taken from 3 student reports. To clarify the way the different
criteria are applied the reports are split into two parts DCP and CE.

The practical was related to hydro electric power (topic 8).

Students worked from the following worksheet which gives some details about the theory but
does not give details on how to collect or process data.

Piactical 11 Byuio Powei Simulation
Introduction
When water flows from the reservoir (bottle) to the end of the pipe PE is converted to KE, this
causes the water to squirt out of the pipe with velocity v falling in the parabolic path shown in
the diagram below.

Theory
Applying the law of conservation of energy to a mass m of water
mgb =
1
2
m:
2
= gb =
1
2
:
2

The water falls with uniform acceleration, applying the equations of uniform acceleration to
the vertical motion:
s = ut +
1
2
ot
2
= y =
1
2
gt
2
so t = _
2y
g

The horizontal velocity of the water is constant therefore:
x = :t
Substituting for t gives
x = :_
2y
g
= :
2
=
x
2
g
2y

Substituting into the energy equation gives
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
16
gb =
1
2
x
2
g
2y
= b =
x
2
4y

Method
By measuring the height of the top of the water in the bottle and the distance squirted by the
water confirm this relationship and find y.




Measuring the distance squirted by the water is not easy so introduces some uncertainties into
the measurement which are much greater than the uncertainty in the ruler. Students sometimes
find that their spread of data is zero, this gives something to talk about.











Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
17

DCPExample1

Rawdata:

The table below contains the data from four measurements of the dependent variable
(distance) for all the five times, the independent variable was changed.
Height
(cm) 0,3
cm
Distance 1
(cm) 0,5
cm
Distance 2
(cm) 0,5 cm
Distance 3
(cm) 0,5
cm
Distance 4
(cm) 0,5
cm
23,8 1,6 1,7 1,5 1,5
35,8 5,7 5,4 5,3 5,6
47,8 8,5 9,1 8,3 8,2
59,8 10,9 10,8 10,5 10,2
71,8 11,8 11,3 11,2 11,5
The uncertainty in height was estimated 0,3 cm because the bar we measured the
height from was circular and we probably didnt take the measurement of distance
when the water was exactly at the mark.
The uncertainty in distance was estimated 0,5 cm because the water
gush was approximately that thick and fluctuated a little.


Processed data:
The table below contains manipulated date, to allow us plotting a graph, in which I can use the
gradient to find out the height of the end of the pipe, above the scale.

Height
(cm) 0,3
cm
Average
distance
(cm)
Uncertainty
in distance
(cm)
Max
distance
(cm)
(Average
distance)
(cm)
(max
distance)
(cm)
Error in
(average
distance)
(cm)
11,8 1,6 0,1 1,7 2,5 2,9 0,4
23,8 5,5 0,2 5,7 30,3 32,5 2,2
35,8 8,5 0,5 9,0 72,7 81,0 8,3
47,8 10,6 0,4 11,0 112,4 121,0 8,6
59,8 11,5 0,3 11,8 131,1 139,2 8,1

DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
18

The average value of distance was found by applying the average function
in Excel to the values in the raw data table.
The uncertainty in distance was found by applying (MAX value MIN
value)/2 to the values in the raw data table.
Max distance was found by adding each uncertainty to the average value
(Average distance) and (max distance) was found by squaring the value
its based on
The error in (average distance) was found by: [(max distance)- (Average distance)]
Processed data: Graphical Analysis

Manually fit, steepest and least steep line, to find out the uncertainty in the
answer could not be plotted due to inaccuracyinthedata.









DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N

DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
19
DCPExample2

Results
Raw Data Table
Below is a table of the data from the 5 runs performed for each of the 5 different heights.
The uncertainty in Height is estimated to be the smallest division of the meter stick (1mm).
The uncertainty in Horizontal Displacement (Hor.disp.) is calculated by the (Max Disp. Min
Disp.)/2.









Height(cm)
0.05cm
Hor.disp.
1 (cm)
Hor.disp.
2 (cm)
Hor.disp.
3 (cm)
Hor.disp.
4 (cm)
Hor.disp.
5 (cm)
Avg.hor.
disp.(cm)
Hor.disp
unc.(cm)
80 11.0 11.9 11.0 11.0 10.9 11.2 0.5
100 13.5 13.1 13.0 12.8 12.9 13.1 0.3
115 14.0 13.7 14.2 14.3 14.0 14.0 0.3
120 16.2 16.0 17.0 16.5 16.4 16.4 0.5
205 20.9 21.4 21.1 21.0 21.1 21.1 0.25

There was no system for which side of the stream of water would be used to measure the x-
value, which was approximately 1cm in diameter. This may have affected the variation in the
measurements.


Processed Data
The height and the horizontal displacement are related by the equation h=x
2
/4y, and so a
graph of h vs. x
2
will have a gradient of 4y.
Height(cm)
0.05cm
Avg.hor.
disp.(cm)
Hor.disp
unc.(cm)
Avg.hor.
disp.
2
(cm
2
)
Avg.hor.disp.
2
unc.(cm
2
)
80 11.2 0.5 125 11.4
100 13.1 0.3 171 9.21
115 14.0 0.3 196 8.40
120 16.4 0.5 269 16.5
205 21.1 0.25 445 10.6











DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N

DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
20




Graph of Height vs. Distance
2



























DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
21
DCPExample3

RAW DATA AND UNCERTAINTY
Below is a table of the data from the 5 runs performed for each of the five different heights.
The uncertainty in the measurement of the height of water in the bottle is estimated to be of
the smallest division of ruler (1mm). However, the design of the experiment and the manner
in which the equipment had been set up did not allow me to hold the ruler close enough to the
bottle. Thus the ruler had to be held at a distance of 3-4 cm away from the bottle and I had to
rely upon eye measurement. The uncertainty can thus be assumed to be 0.5 cm.
The distance was measured using eye measurement and thus wasnt very precise. The ruler
used to measure the distance lay on top of the bucket, while I measured where the water hit
the bottom of the bucket, which was approximately 30 cm below. Due to this the maximum
precision I was able to make was up to 0.005 m. Also, the water was constantly running and
filling up the bucket, making it harder to accurately measure the distance squirted by water.
Thus the uncertainty in the measurement of the different runs is 0.005m.

PROCESSED DATA

Height of water (m)
0.005 m
Average Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
(m)
Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
Distance
(m)
0.620 0.262 0.008 0.069 0.004
0.600 0.249 0.008 0.062 0.004
0.580 0.245 0.005 0.060 0.002
0.560 0.243 0.005 0.059 0.002
0.530 0.228 0.005 0.052 0.002

The equation used to calculate the uncertainty in distance was (Max distance Min
distance)/2.
Height of water
(m) 0.005 m
Distance squirted
(m) Run1 0.005m
Run2
0.005m
Run 3
0.005m
Run 4
0.005m
Run 5
0.005m
Average
Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
(m)
0.62 0.260 0.265 0.255 0.270 0.260 0.262 0.008
0.60 0.250 0.250 0.240 0.250 0.255 0.249 0.008

0.58 0.245 0.240

0.245 0.250 0.245 0.245 0.005
0.56 0.240 0.245 0.240 0.250 0.240 0.243 0.005
0.53 0.230 0.230 0.220 0.230 0.230 0.228 0.005

DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N

DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
22
The uncertainty in distance is found using (Max-Min)/2 where the maximum and minimum
values for distance are calculated using the average value + and the uncertainty.
From the theory we know that

Meaning that

Therefore,

Resultantly, we will get a graph of x against h will give a gradient equal to 4y.

GRAPH




DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
23

Conclusion anu Evaluation
Aspect1:Concluding

IB Criteria
Complete/2 States a conclusion, with
justification, based on a
reasonable interpretation of the
data.
Partial/1 States a conclusion based on a
reasonable interpretation of the
data.
Not at All/0 States no conclusion or the
conclusion is based on an
unreasonable interpretation of
the data.

Check List
State whether your graph supports the theory. E.g. Is the relationship between the
quantities linear? This is only true if the line touches all error bars, dont say it is if it
isnt.

Are there any points on the graph that appear to be due to mistake (outliers), maybe
its best to remove these and plot the line again?

Normally the data will be arranged so that the gradient will give you some value (e.g.
g) calculate this value from the gradient.

Calculate the uncertainty in this value from the steepest and least steep lines.
Dont forget units.
Compare your result with an accepted value, say where this value is from and quote
uncertainty if known.



















Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
24

Anextractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
Conclusion
From the graph it can be seen that within the uncertainties in the experiment s is proportional
to t
2
. Since the acceleration is therefore constant we can apply the equation s=1/2at
2
so the
gradient of the line can be deduced to be 1/2a where a is the acceleration of free fall.
From the graph the gradient = 4.966ms
-2
so the acceleration g=9.932ms
-2

The uncertainty in the gradient can be found from the steepest and least steep lines
Max value = 2x5.198 = 10.396ms
-2

Min Value = 2x4.796 = 9.593ms
-2
Uncertainty = (Max-min)/2 = 0.4ms
-2

The final value obtained for g is therefore 9.9 0.4 ms
.2

The accepted value established by the 3
rd
General Conference on Weights and Measures is
9.80665 ms
-2
, this lies within the limits of uncertainty of the experimental value obtained,
although it should be noted that g is not the same all over the world so this is an average
value. The value in Oslo is 9.819 ms
-2
(Wikepedia)

Here is the graph referred to in this conclusion










Value of g
calculated from the
gradient.
Uncertainty
calculated from max
and min lines. Value
compared.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
25



Aspect2:Evaluation


IB Criteria
Complete/2 Evaluates weaknesses and
limitations.
Partial/1 Identifies some weaknesses
and limitations, but the
evaluation is weak or missing.
Not at All/0 Identifies irrelevant
weaknesses and limitations.


Check List
This is where you say if the conclusion is reasonable or not, you must have evidence
for anything you write here, this can be from your results (the graph) or the
observations you made during the experiment. You shouldnt say friction was a
problem without evidence. It might help to do a small experiment to show that
something was a problem.
Comments do not have to be negative.

Comment on whether your graph shows a trend; is it clearly a curve even though the
line passes through the error bars? Are the errors reasonable, are they obviously too
big or too small

Comment on whether the intercept tell you anything, if it is supposed to be (0,0) and
isnt it might suggest a systematic error.

Comment on whether you manage to keep the controlled variables constant?
Comment on the equipment used and the method in which you used it.
Comment on the range of values and the number of repetitions.
Comment on time management















Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
26
Extractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements

Evaluation
Looking at the graph I can see that the data points lie very close to the best fit line although
there is some small deviation. The small error bars realistically reflect the accuracy of the
measurement. The final value was quite close to the accepted value supporting this
deduction.
Air resistance was not seen to be a problem; if there had been air resistance the graph would
not have been a straight line
Although the experiment gave a good value the random uncertainty could be reduced by
repeating the measurements more times or using a wider range of heights. In this case air
resistance would start to be a problem so a smaller ball could be used.
They intercept was very close to the theoretical value of 0, this shows that the height
measurement was carried out accurately with no zero error.


Graphreferredto:






Evaluation based on results,
error bars and intercept
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
27
Aspect3:ImprovingtheInvestigation

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Suggests realistic
improvements in respect of
identified weaknesses and
limitations.
Partial/1 Suggests only superficial
improvements.
Not at All/0 Suggests unrealistic
improvements.


Check List
List ways of improving the investigation (I.e. reducing the uncertainties). Anything
you write here must be related to something you mentioned in the evaluation. This in
turn should be linked to the results. Think like a detective, look for evidence.

If possible do a calculation or a small experiment to show how the improvement
might improve the accuracy of the result.

If you had a more reading (wider range or more repetitions) would it improve your
result?

Is there any modification to the apparatus that would make the results better?
If you made any modification to the original method then mention it here, you will
then get credit for suggesting improvements.




















Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
28
Extractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements

Improvements
The method gave good results but the uncertainty 0.4m/s
2
could be reduced. The weak point
of the experiment was the positioning of the ball and the release mechanism. This was not
completely stable and even though we could measure the height to 0.5mm the ball could
easily move after the measurement, a more solid support would reduce this error.
To reduce the uncertainty in the height measurement would have to replace the ruler with
something more accurate, perhaps a vernier calliper could be used to position the ball
however if the support was not made more stable this would be pointless.
A bigger range of values is often seen as a way of reducing the uncertainty however if we
dropped the ball from higher up then air resistance may be a problem since it is related to the
speed of the ball which would in this case be higher.
As stated early there was no evidence that air resistance was a problem, probably due the
short drops used, repeating the experiment in a vacuum would therefore not lead to a
significant improvement.



























All improvements supported
by evidence either from the
results or observation.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
29
CEExample1
Conclusionandevaluation:
Conclusion:
From looking at the graph we can see that (distance)
2
and height seem to be proportional.
However, I cannot confidently state that, due to the inaccuracies in the data. The linear graph
does not pass through all the error bars.
If I assume that the relationship is proportional, I can apply the equation that was
presented in the theory part earlier.


From this
equation, we can divide the gradient by 4 and the result of that
should be equal to the real height of the pipe above the scale, 12 cm
(y).
The results of that calculation is on the other hand:

We can clearly see that there is a mistake in the data collection or in the theory the calculations
are based on.
Things that could have made the results inaccurate:
The path that the water flowed through the pipe did clearly affect the power
at which the water squirted out of it.
o The evidence for this statement is the fact that when we changed the
path from how it is on picture A to how it is on picture B, the distance
that the water squirted increased. More energy is used on the way
through A than B.










CE Aspect 1
C
P
N

CEAspect 2
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
30
o When the independent variable, height was change, the path of the pipe
changed significantly (Picture C) and from my observation connecting power
and path of the water, I can state that this is a factor that could easily influence
the results.










Picture C
The bucket where the scale was placed on (see picture c) might have moved slightly
between measurements, even we market the place on the table
o This was found out by measuring two times during the experiment, how far
over the bucket, the end of the pipe was.
o The scale also moved slightly and it was difficult to adjust it with the curved
edge of the bucket.
The reason for the points being scattered around the best fit line is probably the
different paths of the pipe (the difference, in how we held it), combined with the
factors just mentioned.
o Another possibility is that, by holding the pipe it is possible that I made it
narrower and caused more energy to be used up on the way, in some of the
cases.
The reasons for the interception being -31,42 are not known but might suggest a
systematic error





Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
31
Improvements:
What we did:
o Marked the place on the table where the bucket should stand, to decrease the
inaccuracies in distance.
What we could have done:
o Wrapped the pipe around a horizontal wheel that would make sure that there
were never sharp curves on it and that we are not making the pipe narrower in
some of the cases.
The difference would then always have the same effect and the points
would therefore not be scattered but with a systematic uncertainties.
o Get the bucket and the scale into a position where it would not be necessary to
move it. Pump the water out of the bucket, when it has to be emptied.
Because the reasons for the error in the result of this experiment are not known, I cant
suggest any improvements for it.






























CE Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
32
CEExample2


Conclusion
From the graph it can be seen that the linear fit is nearly within the uncertainties of the
experiment. It seems as though the uncertainty was not large enough or for an unknown
reason the measurements at h=120cm were taken consistently incorrectly. Otherwise, the
slope appears to be constant, and so the equation h=x
2
/4y can be applied.
From the graph the gradient=2.574cm, so the vertical displacement y=0.6435cm
The uncertainty in the gradient can be found in the steepest and least steep lines
Max value = x2.738 = 0.6845cm
Min value = x2.477 = .61925cm
Uncertainty = (Max - Min) = 0.03cm
The final obtained for y is therefore 0.640.03cm
The value measured with the meter stick for y was 0.65cm; this lies within the limits of
uncertainty of the experimental value obtained.
Improvements
The measurements could be taken from a constant position in order to minimize parallax
error.
































CE Aspect 3
C
P
N

CE Aspect 2
C
P
N

CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
33
CONCLUSION
As the height of the open end of the pipe from the table upwards, wasnt changed; y was held
constant throughout the experiment. Therefore, a linear relationship should exist. However,
since the line doesnt touch all the error bars, this is not the case for this particular experiment.
We know that the gradient, taken from the first graph, is equal to 4y.
Therefore

The uncertainty in the gradient can be found from the steepest and least steep lines.
Max value

Min value


Uncertainty

The final value obtained for y is therefore 0.042 m 0.010
EVALUATION
This conclusion seems unreasonable as I was unable to prove, through the experiment, that a
linear relationship exists between the two variables, even though such a relationship should
exist. This may be due to the imprecision of the uncertainties in my measurements, which
could have been greater than was accounted for.
Also, the y-value originally measured in order to obtain the height of water in the bottle, being
approximately 30 cm, was significantly higher than the value that was calculated through the
experiment itself. The y-intercept was not (0,0) i.e. the line did not pass through the equation
y=x, as can be seen from the graph, so a systematic error could have occurred. The y-intercept
not being (0,0) obviously does not make sense, for there cannot be a value for y when there is
in fact no height (h) from which to spurt water.
The position of the clamps to which both the bottle (reservoir) and the end of the pipe were
clamped, was not changed throughout the experiment. Thus I was able to control my
controlled variables.
The equipment used made it extremely difficult to measure:
The height of water since the shape of the bottle clamped to the stand was hard to
measure precisely with the use of a ruler
The distance that water was spurted was imprecisely measured since the only means
of measuring it was a ruler placed on top of the bucket. The distance of the ruler from
the top to the bottom of the bucket (which is where the water fell) was 30 cm; this
distance between the place from which distance of water spurted was measured, and
from where it should have been measured, made the measurement itself inaccurate
The shape of the bucket too was a problem. Since the bucket was circular, instead of
being uniformly shaped, with a smaller diameter at the bottom than at the top, it was
difficult to measure exactly where the water spurted out and touched the bucket. So a
human error in measurement may have led to a repeated systematic error in the
experiment, thus contributing to a shift in the y-intercept
The pipe was stretched by the use of clamps, since without the use of them, the pipe
contracted. Fastening the pipe to the clamp may have resulted in the clamp squeezing

CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
34
the pipe. This may have induced pressure applied on the pipe which wasnt accounted
for in the experiment and thus may have led to a spurt of water to a greater distance
than might actually be the case if the pipe wasnt squeezed at all
As I spilled water everywhere in the beginning of the experiment, I had to carry out the whole
experiment again. Also the fact that I realized after having carried out 2 runs, that the clamp
was squeezing the pipe and thus the values were more likely to be imprecise, meant that I
used more time on this experiment than was originally allotted.








IMPROVEMENTS
The uncertainty of 0.010 m being too high could be reduced by improving the experiment in
the following ways:
Use of digital equipment, such as a digital camera with which the whole experiment
could be filmed may enable a more precise measurement for the distance that the
water spurts
Using a smaller ruler at the bottom of the bucket may give a more exact value for x
Using a cuboid bucket for the water to spurt in, would make it easier to measure x and
rid the experiment of the systematic error
The h-values chosen could have had a greater difference in between them. This may have
made it easier for me to find a systematic trend in the results. The amount of repetitions was
appropriate. Further repetitions probably wouldnt have made a significant difference since
the element of systematic and human error due to eye measurement could not be erased even
through more runs.
I carried out certain improvements, though, when going through the experiment for the second
time:
I used a pen to mark the bottle (reservoir) in order to measure h easily
I tried to clamp the end of the pipe to the stand in such a manner that it would squeeze
the pipe as little as possible
I also emptied the bucket each time a run was carried out so that I could measure the
distance the water was spurted (x) more accurately











CE Aspect 2
C
P
N

CE Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
35





Besign
Aspect1:ResearchQuestion

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Formulates a focused
problem/research question and
identifies the relevant
variables.
Partial/1 Formulates a problem/research
question that is incomplete or
identifies
only some relevant variables.
Not at All/0 Does not identify a
problem/research question and
does not identify any relevant
variables.




Check List
State the research question clearly under the heading Research question. It should
be phrased in the form how is y dependant on x. If the topic is not obvious it is
wise to write a paragraph introducing the topic before you state the research question.

Identify and list the independent variable (this is the one you are changing, x) and
dependent variable (the one that changes, y).

Identify and list the controlled variables. These are all the other quantities that you
could change but that are being kept constant.

You will not be graded on writing a hypothesis but it is good practice to say what you
expect to happen.











Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
36


Extractfromareportthatcompetesallrequirements

Introduction
This practical is an investigation into a rubber bung connected to an elastic band. The free
end of the elastic band is clamped to a stand and the bung hung vertically from it. When the
bung was lifted and released the elastic band stretched (as shown in the diagram below). I
decided to investigate the relationship between the maximum stretch of the elastic band and
the height of release.

ResearchQuestion
How does the extension of the elastic band (x) depend upon the height of release (h)?

IndependentVariable: The height of release


DependentVariable: The stretched length of the elastic
ControlledVariables:
Themassofthebung
Thelengthoftheelasticband
Thetypeofelasticband
Theinitialvelocityofthebung
Hypothesis
Applying the law of conservation of energy I expect that the GPE at the top will equal the
EPE at the bottom. mgh=kx
2
Since mg and k are constant I expect that x will be
proportional to h



h
x
Good idea to introduce topic since
its not obvious what this is about
from the research question alone
Clear Research question
Diagram helps clarify research
question
Variables listed
Controlled variables
listed
Hypothesis included but
not necessary for a
complete score
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
37

DesignAspect2Controllingvariables

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Designs a method for the
effective control of the
variables.
Partial/1 Designs a method that makes
some attempt to control the
variables
Not at All/0 Designs a method that does not
control the variables.



Check List
List the apparatus used
Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus, a photo is also a good idea
Describe how you are going to change and measure the independent variable
Describe how you are going to measure the dependent variable.
Describe what you did to make sure the controlled variables remained constant.























Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
38
Extractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements

Method
Measuringthevariables


To measure the height of release and extension a ruler was mounted next to the elastic. It is
important that the ruler is vertical so it was positioned using
a plumb line.
All measurements were made from the bottom of the bung; I
decided to do this because it was a straight line therefore
easy to line up with the ruler.
The bung was lifted so that it lined up with a cm mark on the
ruler and released. To reduce parallax errors I positioned
my head in line with the bung when I took the reading. The
ruler was positioned close to the bung but not touching.
After release the lowest position of the bung was measured
using the same ruler. I found that if I did this a couple of
times I could position my head in line with the lowest point
before release again minimizing parallax error.
Controllingthecontrolledvariables
The same bung and elastic band was used throughout the experiment.
After each run I waited a few seconds so that the elastic would lose any heat generated.
I was careful to make sure that the bung was released from rest each time.
















Apparatus List
Plumb line
Ruler
Rubber bung
Elastic cord
Apparatus list
Details on how
variables are varied
and measured
Details on how each of
the controlled
variables is kept
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
39
DesignAspect3Developingamethodforcollectionofdata

IB Criteria
Complete/2 Develops a method that allows
for the collection of sufficient
relevant data.
Partial/1 Develops a method that allows
for the collection of
insufficient relevant data.
Not at All/0 Develops a method that does
not allow for any relevant data
to be collected.





Check List
State the range of values of the independent variable that you are going to use
State how many times you are going to repeat the measurements of the dependant
variable




























Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
40
Extractfromareportthatcompetesallrequirements


The experiment was repeated 5 times for each of 8 different heights ranging from 4cm above
the at rest position to 12cm above. The elastic supplied by the teacher wasnt long enough
to give the range that I wanted so I swapped it for a longer one.
I decided only to use initial positions where the elastic was slack. This is because I didnt
want the elastic to have any elastic PE before release.










The student has chosen a
good range of values and
repeated each
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
41

BackgroundonExamples

Sponge

In this practical students were given a large piece of foam rubber. It was actually an old
mattress from one of the student houses.
All they were told was that they must think of a research question related to some property of
the sponge (squashiness, absorbency, bounciness etc.)
The research question must be in the form how is y related to x.
An experiment to test the relationship between x and y is then designed and carried out.

Students work in pairs but only one of the pair writes up the experiment.

































Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
42
Piactical Repoit. Sponge
Introduction
This practical is an investigation about a sponge. The Investigated material is used for
making mattresses, such as those used for beds. This material can absorb some energy from
an object which is dropped on it so the surface under the sponge experiences smaller force
than it would without the sponge. It can also be soaked in water, it bounces when dropped,
objects bounce when dropped on the sponge... I decided to investigate the first characteristic:
the change of energy absorbed by the surface under the sponge when an object is dropped on
it.
Researchquestion
How the percentage change in the force exerted when a mass is dropped on the sponge and
without the sponge is related to the mass dropped onto it.
In order to investigate my research question I will measure the force applied on the surface of
the plate attached to a force sensor; once with and once without the sponge (without changing
the mass of the plasticine).
Independentvariable: Weight of the object (plasticine).
Dependentvariable:Energyabsorbedbythesurfaceoftheforcesensorplate.

Controlledvariables:
Heightfromwhichtheobjectisdropped
Elasticityofthesponge(typeofsponge,shapeofsponge)
Theinitialvelocity
Surfaceunderthesponge

Method
Measuringthevariables
ApparatusList:
Sponge(cuboidshape)
Plasticine
Triangularholder
Ruler
Forcesensor+woodenplateadjustage
Digitalscale

Isettheapparatusasshownonthepictureontheright:

Sensor without a
sponge
Sensor with
a sponge
plasticine

D Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
43
IusedplasticineforthisexperimentbecauseIcaneasilychangeitsmasswithoutchangingother
characteristicsofit.

IusedthetriangularholderformakingsurethatIwilldroptheplasticinealwaysfromthesame
height.
ThenIusedapendulumtomakesurethattheendoftheuppermetalsticktheplacefromwhichI
willlaterdroptheplasticineisideallyabovetheforcesensor,soafterIdroptheplasticine,itwill
preciselyfallonthesensor.

Imadesureduringthemeasurementsthatthepositionfromwhichistheplasticinedroppedis
alwaysthesame,sotheloweredgeoftheplasticinewasinthesamelevelastheendoftheupper
metalstick.

Iusedarulertomeasuretheheightdifferencebetweentheendofthemetalupperstickandthe
surfaceoftheforcesensor(notthesurfaceofthesponge).AfterIsettheapparatusup,Ididnot
moveitinanyway.

Iusedaknifetoshapethespongetoanappropriateshape.Itcouldnotbetoothinkbecausethen
thepossibilityofmeasuringsmallmassescouldberestrictedandalsoifthespongewouldbetoo
thin,measurementsforgreatermassesmaynotbeveryclearanddistinctive.Ialsotriedtomakethe
cutsurfaceofthespongeasevenaspossiblesothatthemeasurementisasprecise
aspossible.

Formakingsurethatthespongewillstayontheforcesensorplateandwillnotslip
aside,Iusedathinsothatitwilleffectthemeasurementaslittleaspossible
layerofstickyplasticinetostuckitthere.

Controllingthecontrolledvariables:
Thesamespongewasusedduringthewholeexperiment

IdidnotmovethetriangularholderortheforcesensorafterIsettheapparatussothattheheight
differencewillnotchange.

ImadesurethatIamreleasingtheplasticinefromrestwithoutanyinitialvelocity.

Therewasasmallmechanicalproblemwiththeforcesensor;sometimeswhenagreatermasshit
thesurfaceofthesensor,theplatewhichisconnectedtothesensoritselfbecamemoreloose.
ThereforeaftereveryimpactImadesurethattheadjustageisfastedenough.

Themeasurementsweredonefor5differentmasses.Ifirstrepeatedthemeasurement
withoutsponge10timesinordertodecreasetheuncertaintyasIfindmyhuman
factorinthesettinguptheexperimentverycrucialandalsohighlyinclinedtocause
systematicerror.FurtherIdidnotrepeatthemeasurementwithoutsponge.The
experimentswiththespongewererepeatedatleast4timesasIobservedhuge
differencesinmeasuredvaluesafterthefirstsetofmeasurements.Iwilldiscussthis
problemlaterinmyreport.


D Aspect 2
C
P
N

D Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
44

RawData
Below is the data.
The way I measured force is that I took the value of the peek of each measurement from the
graph (shown below). As I observed, sometimes the graph showed huge uncertainty. I
suppose that this happened when the plasticine hit the wrong place on the sensor plate.
Otherwise I can not explain this unpredictable behavior.


For this problem I took many measurements for the first mass. I decided to take to account
only those values for measurement with the sponge, which are smaller than the value of the
force measured for without sponge. I followed the same procedure for the rest of the
measurements . Data are shown below:

I calculated the uncertainty for force as (max force min force)/2. The uncertainty for the
mass of the plasticine is the smallest mass which could be measured on the scale.

I counted how many percent from the force applied on the sensor plate without the sponge
was applied on the sensor with the sponge: (force with the sponge) / (force without
sponge*0,01)

mass /g/ 306,5 0,1
force /N/
run without sponge with sponge
1 2,32 1,98
2 3,05 1,74
3 2,47 1,04
4 2,93 1,31
5 2,32 1,25
6 2,38 1,25
7 2,69 1,34
Place where the
plasticine probably
hit the wrong spot.
Uncertainty for percentage I counted as a sum of
percentage uncertainty for force with sponge and
without sponge.


DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
45
8 2,78 1,07
9 2,14
10 2,35
average 2,543 1,3725
uncertainty 0,455 0,455
percentage 54,0 %















mass /g/
224,6
0,1
mass
/g/
186,7
0,1
mass
/g/
138,7
0,1
mass
/g/
85,7
0,1
force /N/ force /N/ force /N/ force /N/
run
without
s. with s.
without
s. with s.
without
s. with s.
without
s.
with
s.
1 2,82 1,07 1,9 1,71 1,71 2,56 1,07 0,89
2 1,53 1,59 1,4 1,01
3 2,11 1,1 0,64
4 1,16



1,16

average:
1,57 1,65 1,48 0,85
uncertainty 0,52 0,06 0,73 0,185
percentage 55,7 % 86,8 % 86,5 % 79,4 %



I graph the relationship between change of the mass and the percentage of the force applied
through the sponge. I also plot the uncertainties.













Uncertainty: 51,0 %
Uncertainty: Uncertainty: 21,5 Uncertainty:67,2 Uncertainty: 51,0

DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
46






From the data tables and also from graphically from the graph I see that the uncertainty for
different masses is too big. In some cases is it more, or much more than 50%. For this reason
this experiment is invalid. This experiment must be repeated with more precise equipment
and each measurement repeated more times.

DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N

CE Aspect 3
C
P
N

CE Aspect 2
C
P
N

CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
47

Introdu
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uction:
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will study t
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is dropped?
ndentVariab
entVariable
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ater lost afte
.
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onge was fi
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. After this t
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before and a
L
pped from a
the height
e after the d
p dependant
eisdropped
sponge
er located n
al to the heig
onge with a
about half
recorded. To
measure th
ming in co
e reading po
he bottom o
of the ruler,
with the spon
trial it was
tness on the
weight and t
a number o
0.30m, 0.3
s used. In o
after each e
a certain hei
(h) from w
drop.
on the heig

next to the
ght from w
a sharp knife
a cup of w
o carry on w
he height of
ontact with
oint. This w
of the spon
, in order to
nge.
clear to see
e table. It w
thus the am
of 7 times c
5m 0.40m,
order to ob
xperiment.
ght onto
which the
ght from
which the
e from a
ater; the
with the
f release,
h it. All
was done
nge was
o reduce
e that the
was then
mount of
changing
, 0.45m,
btain the
In order

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to redu
weight
approxi





Results
Raw Da
Below i
weights
The Un
division
The u
(Mux wc
average
Heigh
0.00
0.30
0.00
0.35
0.00
0.40
0.00
0.45
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.55
0.00
0.60
0.00
ce systema
given was
imately the
s:
ata Table
is a table of
s before and
ncertainty in
n of the rule
uncertainty
ght-Mnmu
2
e value + an
ht (m)
01m
0(m)
01m
(m)
01m
0(m)
01m
5(m)
01m
0(m)
01m
5(m)
01m
0(m)
01m
atic error, th
s in fact t
same initial
f the data fr
d after the tr
n the height
er 1(mm).
in we
um wcght)
w
nd uncerta
Weight
before(g)
34.2
34.4
34.8
34.0
34.1
34.7
34.4
he scale wa
the weight
l weight for
from the tes
rials.
when raisin
eight of
where the m
ainty.
Wei
afte
32
32
32
31
30
30
29
as dried aft
of the sp
r the sponge
ts made for
ng the spon
the spo
max and the
ight
er(g)
T
2.8
2.7
2.8
1.1
0.6
0.7
9.8
er every tri
ponge alone
e to be expe
r the 7 diffe
nge is estim
onge is
min values
Total Weigh
loss(g)
1.4
1.7
2.0
2.9
3.5
4.0
4.6
ial in order
e. Also I
erimented on
erent height
ated to be t
calculated
s were take
ht
r to ensure
attempted
n.
ts, and the r
the smallest
d through
en to be the
that the
to have

recorded
t
h
e

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A total of 4 trials were done for each height. In order to be able to examine the amount of
weight with the height, the total grams obtained were then transformed into ml through a
simple transformation through knowing that: 1000g-----1 liter.
Once again the uncertainty in the amount of water lost of the sponge is calculated through
(Mux wutc Iost-Mnmum wutc Iost)
2
where the max and the min values were taken to be the
average value + and uncertainty. The final recordings were as follows:


Processed Data table:
The average amount of water lost for each height was calculated through
thc sum o] uII tuIs
4

Height (m)
0.001m
Average amount of water lost
(ml)
Uncertainty
In amount of water lost(ml)
0.30(m)
0.001m
1.38 0.20
0.35 (m)
0.001m
1.68 0.15
0.40(m)
0.001m
2.13 0.25
0.45(m)
0.001m
2.73 0.15
0.50(m)
0.001m
3.33 0.20
0.55(m)
0.001m
4.2 0.20
0.60(m)
0.001m
4.6 0.10





Height (m)
0.001m
Amount of
water lost (ml)
Trial 1
Amount of
water lost (ml)
Trial 2
Amount of
water lost(ml)
Trial 3
Amount of
water lost(ml)
Trial 4
Uncertainty
In amount
of water
lost(ml)
0.30(m)
0.001m
1.4 1.6 1.2 1.3 0.20
0.35 (m)
0.001m
1.7 1.5 1.7 1.8 0.15
0.40(m)
0.001m
2 2.2 2.4 1.9 0.25
0.45(m)
0.001m
2.9 2.6 2.8 2.6 0.15
0.50(m)
0.001m
3.5 3.1 3.3 3.4 0.20
0.55(m)
0.001m
4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 0.20
0.60(m)
0.001m
4.6 4.5 4.6 4.7 0.10

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GRAPH

H:
Height vss. Average water lost

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Conclusion:
Fromthegraphitcanbeseenthattheuncertaintiesfitmoreorlessthelinearfit,aswellas
demonstratingthattheamountofwaterlostisproportionaltotheheightfromwhichthe
spongewasdropped.
Evaluation:
Although the method proved to be successful the uncertainties could be stabilized, one flaw
in the experiment could have been the position of the eye in front of the sponge to calculate
the height , this automatically creates an uncertainty because of the difficulties in keeping the
eye in the same exact position for every testing and assuring that the bottom of the sponge is
in fact at the same height for every repeated trial.
An important aspect to take into consideration was whether or not the sponge hit the table in
the same way every time. Although I attempted to drop the sponge in a straight position, it is
possible that it did not always reach the table the same way; this is important to examine
because depending on the final position of the sponge it could have lost more or less amounts
of water, thus creating a bigger uncertainty for the amount of water lost.
Improvements:
To reduce the uncertainty in the measuring of the height from which the sponge was dropped,
the ruler would have to be replaced with a more specific instrument seeing as though it is
very probable to have an error with such a device.
Although I did attempt to have the sponge with more or less the same weight for every trial, it
was very difficult to achieve this successfully, I believe that if the sponge had been the exact
weight for every trial the results would have come to be much more precise.




























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PRACTICAL 11 BASED ON A SPONGE:
I- INTRODUCTION:
The practical is an investigation into the sponge. Sponge has several properties such as
compression, deflection, elongation, water absorption, thermal conductivity, brittleness
temperature, and sound insulation. This last property will be investigated in this experiment,
to find out the relationship between sound loudness and the thickness of the sponge we use
against the microphone. That is going to be done by varying the thickness of the sponge and
then measure the maximum variation in pressure for each set of data. Indeed, the sound
pressure is an adequate loudness indicator because it is directly related to the amplitude
(sound amplitude relates directly to loudness).

Let us first shortly elaborate on that in order to fully understand the
relevance of the problem (investigating the maximum variation in pressure -
which is an indicator of sound loudness- according to the thickness of sponge
between the earphones and the microphone as a sound insulator) and the
selected variables (thickness of the sponge used and maximum variation in
pressure).

The amplitude of a sound wave indicates how high and low the air pressure is in the high-
pressure and low-pressure regions. The following diagram may help explain this better:
Hi ghest Ampl i t ude Lowest Hi ghest Ampl i t ude
Ampl i t ude
/ | \ | ***** *****
| | *** . *** *** . ***
| | ** . ** ** . **
| * . * * . *
Ampl i t ude | * . * * . *
( y) | *- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - *-
| . * * . Ti me
| | . * * . - - - - - >
| | . ** ** . ( x)
\ | / | . *** *** .
| . ***** .
. . .
. . .
| o o oo o o o o o o o o o ooo o o o
| o o oooo o o o o o oo ooo o o o
| o o oooo o o o o o o ooooo o o
| o o o oo o o o o o o o ooo oo o o
| o oo oooo o o o o o o oooo o o oo o

Hi ghest Lowest Hi ghest
Densi t y Densi t y Densi t y
( Pr essur e) ( Pr essur e) ( Pr essur e)
Amplitude corresponds to the amount of pressure oscillation in the air caused by the sound
wave. (source: http://atrevida.comprenica.com/atrtut21.html)
Therefore, maximum variation is a good indicator of loudness that will show us clearly how
sound varies according to the sponge thickness.


Setting the apparatus:
Materials used:
- Pieces of sponges that have different thicknesses
Sound wave
Air
molecule

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-
-
-
Plate 1: t
The ex
produce
used the
amplifie
we used
microph
thickne
1) Rese
How d
placed
Indepen
microph
A Vernier m
Headphone
Fourier mak
the different
xperiment w
e a constant
e earphones
ed and deliv
d the spong
hone. Using
sses of the s
earch Ques
oes the ma
between th
ndent varia
hone
microphone
es
king waves
layers of spo
was pretty s
t sound tha
s as a sourc
vered to the
ge as sound
g loggerpro
sponge.
tion:
aximum va
he sound so
able: is th
e,
software (s
onge and the V
straight for
at is going t
ce to get the
e computer p
insulator a
o software,
ariation in
ource (earp
he thicknes
sound sourc
Vernier micr
rward: first
to be kept in
e maximum
port by the
and placed i
we recorde
pressure d
phones) and
ss of the s
ce)
rophone

we used t
nvariable th
accuracy o
microphone
it in betwee
ed the varia
depend on
d the micro
sponge betw
Plate 2: Th
the program
hroughout t
of the sound
e. Keeping
en the speak
ation in pre
the thickn
ophone?
ween the e
he Vernier int
m named a
the experim
d that is goin
the sound c
ker and the
essure for d
ness of the
earphones
terface
above to
ment. We
ng to be
constant,
Vernier
different

sponge
and the

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The dependent variable: is the maximum variation in pressure recorded.

The controlled variables that I kept constant here are:
- the sound wave that is being recorded
- the earphone-microphone distance
- the material used, the sponge,
- In regard to the three dimensions constituting the sponge, only the third dimension of
thickness is changed so the two other dimensions are kept constant.
- Finally, all the measurements have been taken in the same place, in a short period of time so
that the external factors such as room atmosphere, temperature and noise are the same.

2) Hypothesis:
Since maximum variation in pressure indicates sound loudness and since sponge is a sound
insulator, I expect that as the thickness of the sponge used between the earphones and the
microphone increases, the maximum variation in pressure will decrease.
II DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING:
a) Collecting the data:
The measurements are made from six different values of sponge thickness and the
measurement for each value has been made five times. The thickness of the sponge has been
measured using a ruler and the maximum variation in pressure by using loggerpro. Here is a
sample:










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III. RESULTS:
a. Uncertainties in the sponges thickness:
The smallest division of the ruler is 1mm. Normally, we would take an uncertainty of half the
smallest division but here, since we cut the sponge ourselves without any adequate machine, I
consider that the uncertainty should be: 1mm= 0.001m.
b. Uncertainty in the maximum variation in pressure:
It is caused by the different sounds in the room since there were other people as well talking
and due to the reading of the maximum variation in pressure from the graph in loggerpro. We
repeated the experiment five times to get more accurate results and accurate uncertainties.
The uncertainty is obtained by the difference between maximum and minimum and then
divided by 2.
The maximum variation in pressure was measured directly on the graph recorded in
Loggerpro since the maximum variation in pressure is the amplitude of the graph.
Sponge
thickness
(0.001m)
trial 1
(Pa)

trial 2
(Pa)

trial 3
(Pa)

trial 4
(Pa)

trial 5
(Pa)

Uncertainty
(Pa)

0.005 0.310 0.308 0.312 0.310 0.305 0.004
0.012 0.120 0.114 0.117 0.119 0.124 0.005
0.015 0.093 0.088 0.093 0.098 0.094 0.005
0.025 0.055 0.057 0.051 0.057 0.061 0.005
0.060 0.009 0.023 0.017 0.019 0.019 0.008
0.085 0.008 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.015 0.004

c. Table of results:
sponge's
thickness
(0.001m)
trial 1
(Pa)

trial 2
(Pa)

trial 3
(Pa)

trial 4
(Pa)

trial 5
(Pa)

Uncertainty
(Pa)

Average
(Pa)

0.005 0.310 0.308 0.312 0.310 0.305 0.004 0.309
0.012 0.120 0.114 0.117 0.119 0.124 0.005 0.118
0.015 0.093 0.090 0.093 0.096 0.094 0.003 0.093
0.025 0.055 0.057 0.051 0.057 0.061 0.005 0.056
0.060 0.009 0.021 0.017 0.019 0.019 0.006 0.017
0.085 0.008 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.015 0.004 0.012












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IV. GRAPH : MAXIMUM VARIATION IN PRESSURE AGAINST SPONGE THICKNESS:


V- CONCLUSION:
As we can see from the graph, as the thickness of the sponge is increasing, the
maximum variation in pressure is inversely proportional and decreasing. The
hypothesis is being proved true.
That might be explained by the formula: pressure = force /area where area refers to
the area of the sponge and the force to the air molecules.



VI - EVALUATION:
The graph is accurate and passes through all the points and error bars. This is probably due to
the precision of the software and microphone we are using and the fact that the source of the
sound is an earphone so it could almost be totally delivered to the computer port.
However, as the maximum variation in pressure is getting smaller, the uncertainties are then
relatively big because the uncertainty and the value of maximum variation in pressure are of
the same order.
I think the experiment went well except from the fact that I do not have any precise formula
directly linking the sponge thickness and the maximum variation in pressure. However, due
to researches and readings, I could find some related and relevant formula that I think are
appropriate to be used in the experiment.


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Example woiksheets
ThefollowingareasampleoftheworksheetsIusewithmystudents.
1.IntroductiontoDataStudio
InthispracticalstudentusethePascointerfacetomeasurethetemperatureincreasewhenwateris
heatedinanelectrickettleforoneminute.Theaimistointroducestudentstothedatalogging
equipmentandsoftware.
2.Introductiontodataanalysisanduncertainties
Thisisacontinuationof1.Studentsrepeatthemeasurementstoascertaintheuncertaintiesintheir
methodandplotagraphwitherrorbars.Theaimistointroducestudentstotheconceptof
uncertainty,howtouseExceltoprocessdataandplotgraphswithloggerpro.
3.Determiningg
Thisisaclassicmethodforfindinggbytimingaballfallingdifferentdistances.Theaimisto
reinforcethetheoryofuniformaccelerationandtopracticeprocessingdata.Fartoomuch
informationisgivenontheworksheetforthistobeusedinassessment.
4.DeterminingSpecificHeatcapacityofwater
Inthispracticalvaryingmassesofwaterareheatedinanelectrickettleandagraphicalmethodused
tofindc.TheaimistoreinforcetheoryandassessDCPandCE.Notethestudentsaregiventhe
theorybutnottoldwhathowtoanalysetheirdata.
5.Singleslitdiffraction
ThisisanexampleofhowaclassicpracticalsetupcanbeadaptedtofitinwithIBassessment.A
verniercalliperisusedasavariableslitsoagraphcanbeplottedtodetermine.TyheAimisto
reinforcetheoryandassessDCPandCE.
6.VerifyingKeplersLaw
Thisisanexampleofhowadatabasecanbeusedinphysics.Theaimistoreinforcetheoryandgive
anopportunityforstudentstouseanonlinedatabase.
7.VideoAnalysisofawave
Inthisexerciseasimulationofawaveisusedtoplotagraphtotesttherelationshipbetweenthe
tensionandspeed.Theaimistointroducethestudenttoanalysingvideowithloggerproand
experienceusingasimulation.Theresultisnotwhatwouldbeexpected!

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Piactical 1: Intiouuction to
using Bata Stuuio

Introduction
Inthispracticalyouwillbemeasuringthetemperatureofwater
usingatemperaturesensorconnectedtothecomputerviaaPasco
Interface.Theaimoftheexperimentistolearnhowtousethe
equipmentratherthantounderstandthephysicalprinciples.

Settinguptheinterface
Youwillbeusingthefollowingapparatus:
500Interface

USBConnector

Temperaturesensor

ThereisalsoapowersupplybutIdonthaveapicture.
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Connectthepowersupplytothebackoftheinterfacethenconnectittothemainsplugusinga
powerlead(hangingonthecupboarddoor)
ConnecttheUSBconnectortothebackoftheinterface,dothisverycarefullysoyoudontbreakany
ofthepins,askmetodoitifnotsure.
ConnecttheUSBconnectortotheUSBportonyourcomputer.
ConnecttheTemperaturesensortoAnalogChannelA.
StarttheprogramDataStudio.
WhenaskedHowwouldyouliketousedatastudio?clickcreateexperiment
Youwillgetawindowliketheonebelow.Makesuretheinterfacelooksliketheoneyouareusing,
ifnotchangeitasinstructedbelow.AddtemperaturesensorbydoubleclickingchsnnelAongthe
interfacepicture(wehavetwotypesordinaryandstainlesssteel).Finallydragthegraphiconto
channelA.Youarenowreadytostart.

Note:Ifyouhaveayellowtrianglenexttothepictureoftheinterface(likeabove)askChrisfor
help.
Toseeifeverythingisworkingclickthestartbuttonandseeifyoucanseethetemperaturerecorded
onthegraph.Tryrubbingthesensorinyourhandtomakethetemperaturegoup.
Trychangingthesamplingrate,thisisontherighthandsideofthewindow.Thischangeshow
oftenthecomputermeasurestemperature.

TakingMeasurements.

Youaregoingtoinvestigatehowthetemperatureriseofwaterisrelatedtoitsmass.
Putaknownmassofwaterintothekettle/waterboiler.
Startmeasuringthetemperaturebyclickingthestartbutton
Switchontheheaterandmeasurehowmuchthetemperaturegoesupin1minute.
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Repeattheexperimentwith5differentmassesofwater,enteryourresultsinatableliketheone
below.

Mass (kg) Temperature (C)






PlottingtheGraph(AnalysingtheData)
YouaregoingtoplotthegraphusingthecomputerprogrammeGraphicalAnalysis.Openthe
programmeandyouwillseeablanktableontheleftandablankgraphontherightasshownbelow.

CopythedatafromyourtableofresultsintotheGraphicalanalysistable,youcandoeverythingin
onego.
Toaddtitlestothecolumnsdoubleclickthecolumnheader,youwillgetaboxliketheoneshown
below.Fillinthetitleandunits.

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Thegraphwillbeplottedautomaticallyifityoucantseeitclicktheautoscalebutton
Youshouldnowhaveagraphliketheonebelow

Nextlessonyouwillfindouthowtoaddasmoothcurveanddealwithuncertainties.

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Piactical 2: Intiouuction to Bata
Analysis anu 0nceitainties

Part1Uncertainties
Physicalmeasurementsareneverexact.Forexample,whenyouusearuleryoucanestimatethe
lengthtowithin0.05cm.Soifweusearulertomeasureapieceofstringandfindittobe5cmthen
weshouldsaythatitis50.05cm.Wesaytheuncertaintyorerroris0.05cm.

Ifyouaresimplyusingascalethentheuncertaintyishalfthesmallestdivision.
Sometimesitsnotsosimple,thenyoushouldrepeatthemeasurementseveraltimes,the
uncertaintyisfoundfrom(highestreadinglowestreading)/2

Tofindtheuncertaintyinthewaterheatingexperiment
Heatthesameamountofwater4times.
Calculatethetemperaturedifferenceforeachrun.
Calculatetheaveragevalue.
Findtheuncertaintyfrom(highestreadinglowestreading)/2

Part2Dataanalysis
Youhavealreadyusedgraphicalanalysis(GA)todrawasimplegraph.Youcanseethatthegraphis
notlinear.Togetthelabelsdoubleclickthetableheadersandfillouttheform.

Temperatureriseisinfactinverselyproportionaltomasssotheequationofthelineissomething
likey=k/xwherekissomeconstant

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Curveplotting
YoucanplotacurveusingGAbutfirstremovethelinejoiningthedotsbydoubleclickingonthe
graph.Youwillthenseeamessageboxlikethis:

UnticktheconnectpointsoptionandthenDone.
Toplotacurveclickthisbutton
Youwillgetthefollowingmessagebox:

ChooseA/X(Inverse)andOK
Whatdoesthelinelooklike?
Itmightnotbeverygood,whydoesntthelinepassthroughallthepoints?

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Plottingerrorbars
Anerrorbarisalinethatisdrawnoneachpointonagraphtoshowthemaximumandminimum
values.Belowisanexampleofagraphwitherrorbars

Nowyoucanseethatalthoughthelinedoesntpassthroughallthepointsitdoestouchalltheerror
bars.
Toploterrorbarsformassdoubleclickthetableheaderonthemasscolumn.Youwillgeta
messagebox,clicktheoptionstab.Youwillnowgetthefollowingmessage

TicktheErrorBarCalculationsboxthentheFixedvalueandErrorConstantboxesasabove.Enter
theerrorinthemassreading.Thisis0.1gduetothebalance.
DothesamefortheTemperaturecolumnandentertheuncertaintythatyoucalculatedinpart1.
Doesyourlinepassthroughalltheerrorbars?

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PlottingaStraightLine
Insteadofplottingmassvstemperatureyoucouldhaveplottedmassvs1/temperaturethiswould
havegivenastraightlinegraph.YouarenowgoingtouseEXCELtomanipulatethedata.

CopyandpastethetableIntoExcel

Addathirdcolumncalled1/Temperature.Todothecalculationfollowthesesteps

Clickthefirstcellinthenewcolumn
Write=1/thenclickthefirstcellinthetemperaturecolumn.Theequationshouldnowread=1/B3
Pressreturn
Nowholdthecursoronthebottomcornerofthefirstcelluntilyougetacrossliketheonebelow

Pullthisdownlikeablind,theequationwillnowcopyintoalltheothercellsautomatically
calculating1/Tempforallthevalues.
Youcannowcopythemassand1/temperaturebackintoGA
Removethelineconnectingthepointsasbefore
Addabestfitstraightlinebyclickingthisbutton

Note:thenumbersinthecolumns
havethesamenumberofsignificant
figuresastheuncertainties.

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Yourgraphshouldlooklikethis:

Ifyouwanttoadjustthescaleofthegraphthenyoucanputyourcursorneartheaxislabelstoget
thewigglyarrowshownbelow,Youcanthenslidethisupanddowntoadjustthescale.

Tomovethegraphsidewaysorupanddownthenusethearrowsnexttothelabels.
Toautomaticallyscalethegraphtofitthepageclickthisbutton onthetoolbar
Plotabestfitlinebyclickingthelinearfitbutton

Plottingerrorbarsonthe1/Tempgraph

GobacktotheExceltableandaddcolumnsasbelow

Themaxtempisthetemp+theuncertainty,fillthisinbywritingtheequation=B3+(uncertainty)and
fillingdownasbefore
Inthe1/MaxTcolumnwriteanequation=1/C3andfilldown
Inthe1/MinTcolumnwriteanequation=1/D3andfilldown
Theerrorin1/tempisfoundbysubtracting(1/MinT1/MaxT)/2
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Thefollowingtablehasbeenfilledinassumingerrorintempwas1C

Noticethattheerrorin1/tempisnotthesameforallthevalues;thismeansthattheyhavetobe
plottedinadifferentway.
Alsonotethatthenumberofsignificantfiguresintheerrorhasbeenreducedto1andthenumber
ofdecimalplacesin1/Tisthesameastheerror.
BacktoGA
FromtheDatamenuchooseNewdataset
Thiswilladdtwonewcolumnsontothetable,addtheheadingerrorin1/Ttooneoftheseandcut
andpastethedatafromexcel.

Doubleclickthe1/tempcolumnselecttheoptiontab.AgainticktheErrorbarcalculationsboxbut
thistimeusecolumn.
SelecttheDataset2errorin1/Toptionfromthelist
Addtheerrorbarstothemasscolumnasbefore.
Youshouldnowhaveagraphlikethis

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PlottingtheLeastSteepandSteepestlines.
Thebestfitlinethatyouhavedrawnisnottheonlylineyoucandrawthroughtheerrorbars.Itis
usefultoplotthesteepestlineandleaststeeplinetogiveyousomeideaoftheuncertaintyinthe
gradient,todothisopenthecurvefitwindowbyclickingthecurvefitbutton .

ThistimeselectLinearthenpressTryFit.Thiswillplaceabestfitlineonyougraph.Nowselect
manual(topright)andusethearrowstotherightofm
1
(Slope)andb(Yintercept)toplacethe
steepestlinethroughtheerrorbars.Thebestwaytodothisistogetthelinetopassthroughthetop
oftherighthandbarandthebottomofthelefthandbarasshownbelow.

NowpressOKandthelinewillappearonyourgraph.
Repeattheprocessbutwiththeleaststeepline.Yourfinishedgraphwilllookliketheonebelow.
ThisisdifficultsoIwilldemonstrateittotheclass.

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Thegradientofthebestfitlineis0.2829kg
1
C
1

Theuncertaintyinthegradientis(maxgradmingrad)/2=(0.470.15)/2
=0.16kg
1
C
1
roundingdownto1sf=0.2kg
1
C
1

Sothegradient=0.3kg
1
C
1
0.2kg
1
C
1

Notethatthegradientisonlygivento1decimalplacesincetheuncertaintyis
0.2kg
1
C
1

Inthisexampletheerrorbarshavebeenexaggeratedsothatyoucanseewhatisbeingdone,you
probablywontgetsuchlargeuncertaintiesinarealexperiment.

Thisisalottotakeinbutyouwillgetmorepracticeoverthenextfewmonths,ifyouwantmore
helpyoucanaskmeoroneofthepeertutors,alternativelygotomywebsite
http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/resources/ict_in_physics/andlookundergraphplotting.

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


70
Piactical S: Neasuiement of g

Introduction
Inthispracticaltheaccelerationduetogravitywillbecalculatedbyusinganelectronictimerto
measurethetimetakenforasmallsteelballtofallaknowndistance.
Procedure
Theapparatusissetupasinthediagram.Findouthowthereleasemechanismworksandmakea
coupleoftrialrunstoseeifitworksproperly.Measurethetimeforthesameheightandseeifyou
getthesamereading.Estimatetheuncertaintyinthetimemeasurementfromthelastdecimal
placeofthetimereading(Ifyouhave4digitse.g.0.3214sthentheuncertaintyis0.0001s).Thisis
theuncertaintyinthemeasuringdevicehoweveryouwillprobablyfindthatthespreadofresultsis
muchbigger.

Theheightistobemeasuredusingameterrule;theuncertaintyinthismeasurementdependsupon
howwellyoucanreadthescale,thebestyoucandowitharuleris0.5mmbutyouprobablywont
bethataccurate.

Copythetablebelowreadyforyourresultsfillintheuncertainties.Nowfixtheheightoftheballat
aconvenientlevelandmeasureitsheight.Releasetheballandmeasurethetimeoffall.Repeatto
makesurethatnomistakewasmade.Enterthedistanceandtimeinyourtable,repeatfor10
differentheights.
Tocalculatetheuncertaintyintimefind(MaxtimeMintime)/2,thisistheuncertaintyinyour
measurementratherthanthedevice,thisisthevalueyouwillusefromnowon.

Distance
m
?
Time1/s
?
Time2/s
?
Time3/s
?
Time4/s
?
Time5/s
?
Average
time
s
Uncertainty
Time
s

H
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
71
Processingthedata

Theequationrelatingdistanceandtimeis
2
2
1
at ut s + =
Sincetheinitialvelocityis0thissimplifiesto
2
2
1
at s =
sisthereforeproportionaltotsoagraphofs(yaxis)againstt(xaxis)willgiveastraightline.The
slopeofthislinewillbea
Addthecolumnsbelowtoyourspreadsheetandcalculatethetime
2
andtheuncertaintyintime
2
,
uncertaintyintime
2
=(Maxtime
2
Mintime
2
)/2

Averagetime
2
s
2

Uncertaintyintime
2
s
2

PresentingData
Youarenowreadytopresentyourdatainagraph.Copythedistanceandtime2columnsinto
loggerPro(orGraphicalAnalysis)andplotthebestfitlineandfindtheaccelerationduetogravity
fromthegradientoftheline.Createanotherdatasetandusetheuncertaintyintime
2
Columnto
plottheerrorbars.
Plotthesteepestandleaststeeplinesmanuallytofindtheuncertaintyintheacceleration.Ifyou
cantrememberhowtodothisseetheICTandIBPhysicswebsite.Onmywebsiteyouwillalsofind
thispracticalusedasanexample.

Conclusionandevaluation
Useyourgraphtoanswerthefollowingquestions
Istheaccelerationtrulyconstant?
Wereyourestimatesofuncertaintiesreasonable?
Isthereanywaythatthisexperimentcouldbeimproved?

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72
Piactical 4: Specific Beat Capacity

Introduction
Inthisexperimentthespecificheatcapacityofwaterwillbe
determinedbyheatingdifferentquantitiesofwaterinanelectric
kettle.Themethodusedisfarfromideal,trytothinkofwaysto
makeyourresultasaccurateaspossibleandmodifythemethodas
appropriate(dontforgettowriteaboutthesemodificationsinyour
report).
Method
Poursomewaterintotheelectrickettleanddetermineitsmass.
Switchonthekettleandmeasuretherateoftemperatureriseusing
atemperaturesensorconnectedtothecomputer.Repeatthe
procedurewithatleast5differentmassesofwater.Enteryour
resultsintoanappropriatetable.

Theory
TherateoftemperatureriseofthekettleT/tisrelatedtothe
powerofthekettle,Pbythefollowingequation:

=
t
T
mc P
Where
m=Massofwater
c=Specificheatcapacityofwater

Findoutthepowerratingofthekettlethenusingagraphical
methodfindthespecificheatcapacityofthewater.
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Piactical S: Biffiaction of light
Introduction
Whenlightpassesthroughanarrowslititspreadsout,thisiscalleddiffraction.Thelightdoesnot
spreadoutuniformlybutformbrightanddarkareasasshownbelow.

Thewidthofthecentralmaximumdependsonthesizeoftheslit,smallslitgiveswidemaximum.
Withtheapparatussetupasshowntherelationshipbetweentheangleandtheslitsizeis:
bsin=

Iftheanglesaresmallthensin=y/D
sotheequationbecomes:by/D=
Method
UsingtheVerniercalliperasaslitformadiffractionpatternonthewall.Bymeasuringthewidthof
thecentralmaximumandthesizeoftheslituseagraphicalmethodtofind.

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ReadingaVernierScale

Toreadthevernierscaleyoufirstread
thepositionofthe0ontheslider.In
theexamplethesliderpointsat
somethingbetween2and3mm.To
findthenextsignificantfigurewelook
toseewheretheslidingscalecoincides
withthefixedscale.Thisisat5onthe
slidingscale.Thereadingistherefore
2.5mm.

Youcantryreadingavernierscaleat
http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/ccline/vernier/vernier.html
toseeifyoudoitright.

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Piactical 6: Kepleis Law
Introduction
Thisisntreallyapracticalbutitisanexerciseinusingdatafromadatabase.Adatabaseisa
computerprogrammethatallowsyoutomakeconnectionsbetweendifferentbitsofdata.The
collegetimetableusesadatabasetomakelistsofthestudentsindifferentclasses,theteachersin
differentroomsandwhattimethedifferentclasseshappen.Whenteachersmarkastudentabsent
thedatabasemakesalistfortheadvisorsotheyknowwhenthestudentmissedaclass.Inthis
exerciseadatabasecontainingdataaboutthesolarsystemwillbeusedtoplotagraphverifying
Keplerslaw.
KeplersLaw
FormanyyearsbeforeNewtonthoughtofhisUniversalLawofGravitymanwasinterestedinthe
movementoftheplanets,thisinterestledtoveryprecisemeasurementoftheirtimeperiodsand
orbitalradii.BymanipulatingthisdataKeplerfoundoutthatthesquareoftheTimeperiodwas
proportionaltothecuberootoftheradius.
rT
LaterNewtonshowedhowthiscouldbederivedfromtheUniversallawofGravity.
Weknowthatifabodymovesinacircletheforceactingtowardthecentre=mv/r
NewtonsLawsaidthatthisforce=GMm/rwhereMisthemassofthesun.
So
0Hm
r
2
=
m:
2
r

Butthespeedofthebodyv=2r/TwhereT=timeperiod
Substitutethisintotheequationaboveandshowthat r
3
=
uM
4n
2
I
2

Usingthedataaboutthesolarsystemfoundhere(http://hyperphysics.phy
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solar/solill.html#c1)(pressctrlandclicktoopenlink),plotagraphofragainst
T.
Useyourgraphtofindthemassofthesun.
MoreinfoaboutdatabasescanbefoundontheICTsite.

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Piactical 8: Neasuiing the velocity of a
wave using viueo analysis
Introduction
InthispracticalthePhetsimulationwavesinastringwillbeusedtoinvestigatetherelationship
betweenthetensioninthestringandthewavespeed.Thisisnotreallyanexperimentsinceyouare
notmeasuringrealphysicalquantitiesbutsimulatedones,howeveritwillintroduceyoutotheuse
ofloggerprotoanalysevideos,andthismightbeusefullaterinthecourse.
Method
Openloggerpro,thisisverysimilartographicalanalysisbutcanalsobeusedtocollectdatausing
thevernierinterfaceandanalysevideo.Openthevideobyselectingmoviefromtheinsertmenu.
Themovieisinmypublicdrive(ac90cham).Ihavealreadypreparedthevideotosavetime.You
shouldseesomethinglikethis

Runthevideobyclickingthearrowatthebottomofthevideowindow.Toanalysethevideogotto
http://home.no/champer/ict/Home/Home.htmlvideoanalysis.Hereyouwillfindstepbystep
instructionsonhowtodoit.Whensettingthescaleassumethelengthofthestringis1m.
Analysis
Thevideoshowsthewavetravellingthroughthestringatdifferenttensionsetting.Theactual
tensionisnotgivenbutassumethetensionscaleisinNewtons(ON10N).Usingloggerprodrawa
graphofthedisplacementofthewaveateachTensionsetting(4N10N),findthewavevelocityby
plottingabestfitlineforeachgraphandrecordingthegradientoftheline.Youshouldenteryour
resultsintoasuitabletable.Dontforgettoestimatetheuncertainties.
Thevelocity,vofthewaveisgivenbytheformulaI = _
1

T=Tensionand=massperunit
length.ByplottingasuitablegraphshowthatvisproportionaltoTandfind.

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DesignPracticals
Oneofthenicethingaboutdoingdesignpracticalsisthatyoudontneedtoprepareaworksheet,all
youdoisgivethestudentsatopictoworkwithandofftheygo.Howeveryoudoneedtomakesure
thatthetopichasalotofpossibilities,itsbestifallthestudentsinaclasshavedifferentresearch
questionssothetopichastobefairlybroad,alternativelyyoucouldgiveavarietyofdifferenttopics.
TotestoutatopicItrytothinkof10differentresearchquestionsin10minutes,ifIcantdothatI
abandontheidea.HerearesomeofthetopicsIhavetriedwithasampleofresearchquestions.
Jelly
InNorwayyoucanbyblocksofreadymadejellyaswellaspowderthatcanusedtomakeyouown,I
givestudentsbothtoincreasethepossibilities.
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheintensityofalaserbeamandthethicknessofaslabof
jelly?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthenumberofbetaparticlespassingthroughaslabofjelly
anditsthickness?
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheelectricalresistanceofasliceofjellyandtheamount
ofjellypowdermixedwithaconstantvolumeofwater?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthevolumeofacubeofjellyanditsnaturalfrequency?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthetemperatureofjellyanditsfrequencyofvibration?
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheelasticconstantofjellycubeofjellyandtheamountof
jellypowderusedtomakethejelly?

Balloons
Ihaveusedthisexampleafterwehavedonemechanics,thermalphysics,SHM,electricalcctsand
fields.Idontrestrictstudentstoaparticulartopic.Someoftheresearchquestionsareabitobscure;
itisthereforeagoodideaforstudentstoalwayswriteanintroductiontothetopicbeforewriting
theirresearchquestion.
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheradiusofaballoonanditsterminalvelocity?
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheamountofairinaballoonandthechargeitgainsafter
beingrubbedthesamenumberoftimes?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthevolumeofaballoonanditstemperature?
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheheightreachedbyaballoonandthedistancethatthe
endispulleddown?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthedeflectionoftwocharge
balloonsand
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
78

Fillingoutthe4PSOW

The4PSOWisthenameoftheIBformusedtorecordandsubmitInternalAssessmentgrades.There
areseveralelectronicversionsofthis(forexampleG4IA)whichsimplifytheprocessnoend.
Herearesomeanswerstoaselectionoffrequentlyaskedquestions:
Youshouldrecordallthepracticalsessionsnotjusttheonesthatareassessed,Inthis
exampleIhaveincludedavisittoaGlacierMuseumwithalotofhandsonexhibits.
Onlylabhoursareincludednotthetimewritingupthereports.
YoumustincludeatleastoneofeachICTexample.
Youdonthavetoincludemarksforallthelabs,justtheonesusedforassessment/onesthe
studentwroteup.Inthisexamplethefirst6werenotassessedhowevertheyweremarked,
fromthenonwardsalmostallwereassessedbutthestudentonlywrotereportsfortheones
shown.
Thedatesdonthavetobeexact.
Youshouldtrytocoverarangeofdifferenttopics.
Youmustselectthetoptwoscoresforeachcriteria,theprogrammeG4IAdoesthisforyou.
Whensending4PSOWsofthesampledworkyoumusthighlightthescoresthatwere
achievedonthesamplessent.Ifyouhaveachoicethensendtheonesthatyoufeelarebest.
The4PSOWonlyshowsscoresforeachcriteriabutyoumustbreakthisdowntoindividual
aspectsonthestudentswork.

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Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


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Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper


81
This one is used in the workbook

4/IA

Internal assessment coversheet: group 4 (except design technology)
Submit to: Moderator Arrival date: 20 Apr / 20 Oct Session: .May/Nov 2010..
School number:
School name: .............................................................................................................................................
Please check () the boxes below to confirm that you have carried out the following requirements in
preparing the sample.

I have read section H6 to H9 and section 4 in the handbook.
Internal standardization has taken place where two or more teachers are responsible for the internal
assessment of candidates.
A Form 4/PSOW is included for each candidate in the sample set.
Photocopied material is legible (ideally, original work should be sent to the moderator).
Criteria D, DCP and CE have all been assessed on at least two occasions.
The two highest levels for each of the criteria D, DCP and CE have been clearly circled or highlighted on
each candidates 4/PSOW.
The corresponding write-ups/reports and teacher instruction sheets for each candidate in the sample set are
clearly identified.
The title of the group 4 project is included in the outline of experiments in the 4/PSOW and the level
achieved for PS in the group 4 project has been noted. (Candidates doing two subjects must have the same
mark in both.)
The summative mark for MS has been noted.
The experiments/dates on which the candidates experienced specific ICT applications have been flagged.
No written evidence is required for PS and MS.
The final mark out of 48 for internal assessment must be recorded on the internal assessment option
on IBIS.
Atypical candidates
It is important that the sample work received by the moderator is typical of the marking standards
applied to the whole group of candidates. If IBIS selects a candidates work for a moderation sample
that is atypical, include the work of another candidate with the same or a similar mark in addition to
that candidates work.
I confirm that, to the best of my knowledge, the write-ups/reports submitted are the authentic work of
each candidate.
Teachers name: . Date: ...................................
Teachers signature: .

0 0

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
82

ExampleofaSampledReport
Thisisthemarkedstudentreportforthesampledexperimentonmagnetism.
Anyworksheetgiventothestudentmustalsobesentwiththesamplehoweverinthiscasetherewasnt
onesothefollowingstatementwasincluded.
Inthisexperimentstudentweregivensomereadywoundcoils,somewireandavarietyofmagnets.
Theywereaskedtodevisearesearchquestionrelatedtoelectromagnetism.
ThepracticalwasmarkedusingatabletPC.Thegradetableincludingcommentspastedtotheendwas
madeusingtheprogramG4IA.Itisveryusefulforthemoderatorifyouwritewhythestudentgained
thegradegivenforeachaspect.

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83

DesignerPractical:MeasuringEMF
Introduction
Thispracticalisaninvestigationintoamagnetfallingthroughacoil.Itfallsdownverticallyfroma
particularheightthrougharolledpaperandacoil(seetheillustrationbelow).Idecidedtoinvestigate
therelationshipbetweentheheightofamagnetandtheelectromotiveforce(EMF)inthecoil.

EMF

Figure1:Theheightismeasuredwitharulerfromthetopofthecoil(base)tothemiddleofthepencil
(top).Thenthemagnetisplacedatthesameheightasthetipofthepencilwherethesouthseeking
poleisalwaysonthetop.

Researchquestion
HowistheEMF(y)dependantontheheighth(x)ofthemagnet?
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84

Definingtheindependent,dependentandcontrolledvariables

Theindependentvariableistheheight(h)sinceitistheonewhichchangesinordertomeasurethe
EMF.ThismeansthatthedependentvariableistheEMF,becauseitchangeswhenhcharges.Thereare
3morevariablesthatcouldhavebeenchanged,butkeptconstant.The1stoneistheheightoftheclam
thatholdsthecoil;itwaskeptconstantsohcanbemeasuredfromthesameplace.Thisisindicatedby
linedrawnonthestand.The2ndvariablethatwaskeptconstantwasthenumberofturnsinthecoil,
whichwas1600.The3
rd
variableisthemagnet.Now,thevariablescanbenamed:

Independentvariable:Height(h)ofthemagnet
Dependantvariable:TheEMFgenerated
Constant:Theheightoftheclamholdingthecoil,thenumberofturnsinthecoil+magnet

Theindependentvariablehwillbechangedbychangingthepositionofthepencilwhichishorizontal
andperpendiculartothestand.hwillbemeasuredwitharulerfromthebasetothetop.

ThemeasurementofEMFwasperformedbyusinganinterface(500)thatwasconnectedtoacomputer.
Moreover,acomputerprogramcalledDataStudiowasusedtodrawthegraph.Thegraphwasessential,
sincetheamplitudeofthegraphshowstheEMFgenerated.Themaximumpointofthegraphisthe
valuethatisdefinedastheindependentvalue.

Thenumberofturnsofthecoilwas1600andthesamecoilwasusedatalltimes.Incontrast,theline
drawnonthestandwaschangedoncebecausetheexperimenthadtobecontinuedanotherday;it
affectstheexperiment.Thismighthavebeenbecauseofthemagnet.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Method
ApparatusList
Stand
Clam
Coil(1600)
Pencil
Ruler
Magnet
Rolledpaper Figure2:Illustrationoftheapparatususedintheexperiment.

Alinehasbeendrawnonthestandinordertobeabletomeasuretheheightofthemagnet(h).Thatis
donebyusingaruler,anditisimportantthattherulerisparalleltothestandandperpendiculartothe
pencil.hchangeswhentheheightofthepencilchanges.Inaddition,itwasimportanttokeepthepencil
paralleltothetable.

Afterdecidinghthemagnetwasdroppedfromthetipofthepencilwiththesouthseekingpolefirstat
least5times,butsometimesthereweremorethan5droppingsbecauseofsomereadingswere
significantlydifferentthantheothers.IthinkthatwillminimizetheerroroftheEMF.

Theexperimentwasrepeatedatleast5timesforeachdifferent5heightsrangingfrom4.2cmabove
thebaseto24.3cm.Sincethelengthofthestandisquietsmall,therangeofheightisprettysmall.On
theotherhand,Ithinktherangeofheightwasgoodenoughtohavesignificantlydifferentresultsin
EMF.

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86

Results
RawDataTable
Thetablebelowshowsthedatafromthe5runsperformedforeachofthe5differentheights.
Theuncertaintyinheightisestimatedtobe0.2.Itwasdecidedtobearound0.15andthen
approximatedto0.2.ThereasonisthatIusedarulertomeasureh,whichmeansthatittouches2
points.Onlythatgivesusthesmallestdivisionoftheruler(1mm).Itookthepencilintoconsideration,
becauseitmightnotbeparalleltothetablewhenchangedinheight,andthatmadetheuncertaintya
bithigher.
Height(cm)
0.2
EMF,run1
(V)0.001
EMF,run2
(V)0.001
EMF,run3
(V)0.001
EMF,run4
(V)0.001
EMF,run5
(V)0.001
4.2 0.283 0.293 0.258 0.312 0.259
10.5 0.488 0.500 0.439 0.459 0.440
13.4 0.586 0.566 0.595 0.613 0.576
17.0 0.667 0.673 0.702 0.685 0.686
24.3 0.800 0.911 0.798 0.801 0.772

ThemeasurementofEMFwasdonebyusingacomputerprogramcalledDataStudio.Imeasuredthe
maximumpointofthegraph(shownintheillustrationbelow).
Asmentionedbefore,themaximumpointwassometimesconsiderablydifferentthattherestofthe
droppings,andthatkindofvalueswereignored.

Vvs.t

Figure3:AnexampleofagraphusedtofindoutthevalueofEMFbyfindingthemaximumvalue.Itisin
V(EMF)againsttime(sec.)eventhoughtimeinthiscasedoesntreallymatter.
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ProcessedDatatable

ThetablebelowshowsprocesseddatathatshowstheaverageEMFanditsuncertainty.
Height
(cm)
0.2
Av.EMF
(V)
EMF
Uncertainty
(V)
4.20 0.28 0.03
10.50 0.47 0.03
13.40 0.59 0.02
17.00 0.68 0.02
24.30 0.82 0.07

TheaverageEMFwasfoundbyaddingallthevaluesthendividedbythenumberofvalues:
5
.
5 4 3 2 1
run run run run run
EMF Av
+ + + +
=
TheuncertaintyofEMFwasfoundbysubtractingthemaximumEMFbyminimumEMFthendivideitby
2:
2
min max
.

= Un
Thereisonlyonedecimalplacefortheuncertainties.
GraphofVvs.s

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88

Conclusion
Fromthegraphitcanbeseenthatsomeofthepointsarenotintheline.Thiscanmeanthatthe
relationshipbetweenVandsisnotlinearorthefactthattheexperimentmighthavebeenaffectedbya
differentmagnet.Thiswillbeexplainedmoreindetails.Inaddition,itisclearthattherelationship
betweenthemispositive;whenthemagnetwasdroppedfromahigherplacetheEMFgenerated
becamebigger.

Therearetwopointsthatseemnottofitinthegraphwhicharethe3
rd
andthe4
th
point.Ifremovedthe
graphwilllooklikethis:

Inthiscasetheslopeofthegraphis0.02662V/cminsteadof0.02720V/cmwhichisthecaseinthefirst
graph.

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89

Evaluation
Thegraphshowsthattherearetwopointsthatdontfitwiththerestandthattheerrorbarofthe5
th

runisalotbiggerthattherest.Itisobviouslytoobigsincethedifferenceinheightbetweenallofthem
isnotbig,sotheyshouldhavealmostthesameuncertainties.

Airresistancewasnotaproblemeventhoughthegraphisnotlinear.Theexperimentwasrepeatedat
least5timesforeachheightsotheproblemisnottheairresistance.

Thegraphsyintersectisatapproximately(0;0.3).Thereasonwhyitislikethatmightbebecauseofthe
positionofthecoilwhentheexperimentwasperformed.Itwasaround10cm.abovetheground,soifI
droppedamagnetfromthebasethenitwilljustfalldownandgenerateEMF.

Thecontrolledvariablesplayabigrole.Asmentionedtheexperimenthadtobecontinuedinanother
daywhichmeansthattheheightofthebasemighthavechangedandthemagnetusedmighthavebeen
changed.Thismagnetmightbestrongerorweakerthantheoneusedinthe1
st
partoftheexperiment.
Itislesslikelythatthecoilchangedtheresultsbecauseithad1600turnsallthetime.

Themethodusedwasfairlysimple.Theheightoftheclamwaschanged,measuredwitharulerthenthe
magnetwasreadytobedropped.Ontheotherhand,themagnetusedmighthavechanged.Thepencil
wasusedbecauseitgaveabetterpositioningofthemagnetbyusingitsend.

Therangeofvaluesisfrom4.2to24.3.Idontknowifthegraphwouldhavebeenlinearorsomething
elseiftherangewasbigger,butitwouldhavedefinitelygivenabetteroverviewofthegraph,because
therangeusedisverysmall.Thenumberofrepetitionsmadeitpossibletocalculatetheuncertaintyand
theaveragevalue.Atleast5repetitionswereenoughtogivemethedataIneededtocalculatethem.

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90

Improvingtheinvestigation
Theexperimentwasasmentionedin2parts.The1
st
onehadtobestoppedandthatmighthave
affectedtheexperiment.Thepointsinthegraphcouldhavebeenmoreconnectediftheexperiment
wasperformedinonepiece.Thiscanbesupportedbysayingthatthese2partsmighthavehaddifferent
apparatusi.e.themagnet.ItistheonethatgeneratestheEMFe.g.ifthemagnetisstrongerthenitwill
generatemorethantheweakeronifdroppedfromthesameheightandwiththesameapparatus.

Theuncertaintyofthelastrunisdifficulttoexplainsinceitisalotmoredifferentthantheresteven
thoughthedifferenceinheightisnotbige.g.from0.680.02injumpedto0.820.07.Itcouldbe
improvedbyperformingtheexperimentcalmlyinthatsensethatthemagnetshouldbedroppedinthe
samewayallthetime.Thebiggestvalue,orthesmallestvalue,inrun5mightbebecauseofthatIwas
hurryingupwhichmeansthatImighthavepusheditveryslightlydownwhenIdroppeditortheother
way.Ifthemaximumvaluewas0.801andtheminimumvalue0.772theuncertaintywouldhavebeen:
2
772 . 0 801 . 0
.

= Un =0.01450.01
Themeasurementoftheheightwasperformedwitharuler.Itismobilewhichmeansthatiteasilycan
bemoved,butifthemeasurerwasimmobileIthinkitwouldhavebeenbetter.Thiscouldbedoneby
havingastandthathavearuleronit.

Eventhoughthefrictionintherolledpapertothemagnetisverysmallitcanbelessened.Itcouldbeby
usingaglasstubethatcanfitthroughacoil,andwhereasmallmagnetcanfitin.

Awiderrangewouldgiveawiderrangeanddomaininthegraph.Thatwouldmaybeshowadifferent
shapeofthegraphwhichwouldmakeiteasiertoseeifitislinear,quadraticorsomethingelse.

Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
91

G4IAAssessmentsheet18/05/2008
Student:
Investigation:11.Magnetismdesign
Time:3Hrs
Date(s):08/09/07
Design
2
Definingtheproblem
andselectingvariables

2
Controllingvariables

2
Describingamethod
forcollectionofdata

Datacollection&presentation
2
Collectingrawdata

2
Processingrawdata

1
Presentingprocessed
data

Conclusion&Evaluation
1
Concluding

2
Evaluatingprocedure(s)

2
Improvingthe
investigation

G4IA
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
92
InternalAssessmentFeedback(4/IAF)
Some weeks after the results are released your school will receive feedback on the practical
programme. This does not give information about the grading just the programme and the
procedures for submitting the sample

If you want more information you have to request an IMR (see next section).









































Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
93
Subject: PHYSICS Level: HL/SL Component: PRACTICAL WORK
Internal assessment feedback form: group 4 (4/IAF)
NAME OF TEACHER(S)
Chris Hamper

A) COMMENTS TO TEACHER(S) ON SAMPLE WORK
Were the investigations/projects appropriate for the assessment of particular criteria? If NO,
please complete section below
YES

Name of investigation(s) not suitable for assessing D and reasons why


Name of investigation(s) not suitable for assessing DCP and reasons why


Name of investigation(s) not suitable for assessing CE and reasons why


ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON SECTION A
Good variation in design investigations. Strong DCP skills. Organized programme.

Student work is moderated for Section A ONLY
B) COMMENTS TO TEACHER(S) ON THE PRACTICAL PROGRAMME
Was the practical programme of the correct duration (40hrs SL, 60hrs HL)?
YES

Was the syllabus coverage (Core, AHL, Options) appropriate?
YES
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
94

Was the sample of work of suitable complexity?
YES

Was there good coverage of ICT applications?
YES

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON SECTION B
Excellent use of both Vernier and Pasco tools for ICT related skills.

C) CLERICAL/PROCEDURAL
Was the form 4/PSOW submitted for each candidate completed correctly?
YES

Were the two highest levels for each criterion circled/highlighted on the form 4/PSOW for each
sample candidate?
YES

Were written instructions or outlines of verbal instructions included?
YES

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON SECTION C
Clearly communicated.

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InternalAssessmentModeration
Report(IMR)
This is an IMR from the previous criteria. It is included here to show the sort of detail
included on an IMR.



















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INTERNAL ASSESSMENT MODERATION REPORT (IMR)
Examination Session: May 2007
IMR Reference Number:
School Name:
School Code:
Subject: Physics
Level: HL/SL
Component: Practical Work
Language: English


1. Strengths and weaknesses of the work.

Strengths: The samples sent for moderation were well organized, with all clerical/procedural aspects
correctly completed. Written comments on the lab reports provided useful feedback to candidates
regarding their performance on individual labs, as well as providing information to the moderator(s)
regarding teacher assessment. The practical program was diverse and suitably complex, generally
allowing candidates to demonstrate the full depth and breadth of each required criterion.

Weaknesses: Occasionally grading appeared to overlook the absence of required elements in certain
criteria (see below for details). While topics 1-5 are all represented in the PSOW, there appear to be
no lab investigations relating to topic 6 or either option. This deficit should be addressed in future
years, allowing for a more even distribution across the curriculum. Simulations and computer-based
labs are suitable for topic 6, an area where actual experimentation may be impractical.

2. Suitability of the task(s) set.

Laboratory investigations included in this PSOW are entirely suitable for the demands of the IB
physics program. There is a range of topics and complexities, allowing candidates to develop
necessary practical skills along with the corresponding analysis and discussion of findings.

3. Application of the criteria.

In all cases the criteria chosen for assessment are appropriate based on the lab outline provided by
the teacher.

4. Accuracy of assessment.

Application of the criteria was consistent, recognizing candidate achievements; however
occasional key errors or omissions appeared not to be recognized.

Pl (a) - The majority of research questions were sufficiently focused however on occasion
candidate research questions were unclear. Despite clarification in the hypothesis and
methodology section, if a research question is not suitably clear and concise, a
candidate cannot earn a c in the first aspect of Pl (a). Certain candidate hypotheses
were stated but not sufficiently explained; a theoretical explanation is particularly
important for HL candidates. The hypothesized relationship needs to be specified, for
example claiming the dependent and independent variables are directly proportional
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rather than simply stating that an increase in one results in an increase in the other. It
is in the third aspect of this criterion where the moderators assessment most frequently
deviated from that of the teacher. To obtain a c for the control of variables, the
candidate must explicitly state the dependent, independent, and relevant control
variables. More often that not, candidates in this moderation sample neglected to
identify relevant control variables without penalty.

Pl (b) - All materials used must be listed; a c should not be awarded if required materials are
included by implication only. If a candidate requires a meter stick, uses one during the
lab, but fails to include it in his/her materials list, a p is earned. With regard to the
control of variables, candidates need to provide specific instructions for how key
variables will be controlled. Furthermore, candidates need to recognize that all
variables but the selected independent variable need to be kept constant. For example,
if a candidate increases the mass of a plasticine ball while intending to increase the
diameter of that ball (the identified independent variable), this experiment is not
properly controlled and should be graded accordingly. Finally, to satisfy the third
aspect of sufficient relevant data, candidates should indicate the number of times that
all measurements are repeated to minimize random error.

DC - Uncertainties and units are always required, and were occasionally missing without
penalty. When assessing DC, candidates should be provided with an opportunity to
demonstrate the full depth and breadth of the criterion. Overly simplistic data tables,
even when correct, should not earn a c level. Multivariate data tables are most
appropriate for assessment of DC, in particular for HL candidates. Candidates are
required to record all raw data; on occasion it appeared that candidates were tabulating
calculated averages only. In one extreme case, the candidate failed to record any raw
data at all; rather the data appeared only in what appeared to be a computer-generated
graph. When no raw data is recorded, a candidate must be awarded a 0 for this
criterion.

DPP - Of the two aspects of this criterion, the first refers to numerical calculations, the
processing of data prior to graphing, and the second to a graphical
presentation/analysis of the calculated data. In order to obtain a c on the first aspect,
the calculations, including their units and significant figures, must be correct. It is useful
for candidates to record calculated data in a clearly labelled table, complete with errors
and units. Candidates should be encouraged to show one sample calculation for all
computations, including error propagation for HL candidates. If a lab does not require
numerical calculations as seen in several candidate-planned labs, a candidate must be
awarded an n for the first aspect of DPP; it would therefore be best to avoid assessing
DPP on these labs. To satisfy the second aspect of this criterion, candidates are
required to generate a graph. Graphs produced by data loggers are not acceptable and
would earn the candidate an n for this aspect. Error bars are required on graphs for
both SL and HL candidates, and HL candidates should include max/min lines in order to
determine the error in slope and intercept values.

CE - In the conclusion, candidates should explain the theoretical relationship between the
dependent and independent variables rather than merely stating it. When possible,
they should compare their results to known values, calculating a percent error value.
For example, in the planning lab relating to conducting paper, many candidates
investigated the resistance of the paper and calculated an R-value for the paper. Since
the manufacturers value for the resistance of this paper was known, in order to receive
a c for the conclusion, candidates should have calculated their percent error. HL
candidates should also comment on the reliability of their results. Limitations of the
experiment should be stated explicitly, including the effects these limitations would
likely have on the results. Candidates should explain identified limitations; for example,
a candidate suggesting that the clay used may have become stickier throughout the
investigation should explain why this might have happened. Finally, suggested
improvements need to be specific and relate to methodology; treat the table so the clay
would not stick to it will earn the candidate an n. Improvements should be meaningful,
and provide solutions for the identified limitations present in the experiment.
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5. Recommendations for future improvement.

This is a good physics practical program. One suggestion for improvement relates to the current use
of mark sheets; candidates are provided with comments in the body of the lab, but only a final number
grade is awarded. It may be more useful for candidates (and for moderators) if the teacher were to
indicate candidate performance on each aspect of the criteria, e.g. n, p or c. Secondly, there was
some indication that candidates were not planning labs individually (the use of the word we in Pl(a)
and Pl(b) descriptions). In order to be assessed for either planning criteria, a lab must be planned by
an individual candidate. While group planning can certainly be useful from a learning perspective,
they are not appropriate for formal assessment. Closer scrutiny of candidate work, in particular with
Pl(a) and Pl(b) criteria, should result in grading more consistent with that of the moderators.

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InternalAssessmentSample
Beforeenteringgrade
Havestudentshavesubmittedenoughexamples
Haveyouhavemarkedthemproperly
Haveyougotacopy?
Werethepracticalssuitable?
Selectingsample
Youmustsend2examplesofpracticalswiththehighestgradeachievedin
eachsample
Muchbetterifyouhaveachoice
Selectthebestexamples
Showyourrangeofpracticals
DontsendthesameDesignpracforallthesample
DontsendthesameResearchquestionforwholesample
Checkforduplicates
Substituteifnontypical
NotesfortheModerator
Explainusingthecriteriawhyyouawardedthemarksyoudid
Includeworksheetorexplainwhatthestudentsweretoldorgiven
Organisethesamplewell,attachworksheets,4PSOWcoversheetsetc.
Submitontime
Ifitallgoeswrong
AskDiplomacoordinatortocontctIB
Askforfeedback

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TheExam
Thissectioncontainsoneexamquestionfrompaper2sectionAplus3studentanswers,thesewill
beusedforapracticemarkingexercise.
Examquestionsusecommandtermsasanindicationofthecomplexityoftheanswerrequired.The
examasawholeisbalancedintermsofhowmanyquestionsaresetofvaryingcomplexity,thiscan
beseeninthetablecopiedfromthesubjectguide.
Aftertheexamisoveritispossibletobuyacopyofthemarkscheme,theIBOalsopublishesan
examinersreportwhichisavailablefreeontheOCC.Therelevantsectionsoftheserelatedthe
questionusedareincludedherealso.
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Group 4
Command terms
International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 11
These command terms indicate the depth of treatment required for a given assessment statement. These
command terms will be used in examination questions, so it is important that students are familiar with the
following definitions.
Objective 1
Define Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase or physical quantity.
Draw Represent by means of pencil lines.
Label Add labels to a diagram.
List Give a sequence of names or other brief answers with no explanation.
Measure Find a value for a quantity.
State Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.
Objective 2
Annotate Add brief notes to a diagram or graph.
Apply Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in a new situation.
Calculate Find a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the working (unless instructed
not to do so).
Describe Give a detailed account.
Distinguish Give the differences between two or more different items.
Estimate Find an approximate value for an unknown quantity.
Identify Find an answer from a given number of possibilities.
Outline Give a brief account or summary.
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Command terms
12 International Baccalaureate Organization 2007
Objective 3
Analyse Interpret data to reach conclusions.
Comment Give a judgment based on a given statement or result of a calculation.
Compare Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items, referring
to both (all) of them throughout.
Construct Represent or develop in graphical form.
Deduce Reach a conclusion from the information given.
Derive Manipulate a mathematical relationship(s) to give a new equation or relationship.
Design Produce a plan, simulation or model.
Determine Find the only possible answer.
Discuss Give an account including, where possible, a range of arguments for and against the
relative importance of various factors, or comparisons of alternative hypotheses.
Evaluate Assess the implications and limitations.
Explain Give a detailed account of causes, reasons or mechanisms.
Predict Give an expected result.
Show Give the steps in a calculation or derivation.
Sketch Represent by means of a graph showing a line and labelled but unscaled axes but with
important features (for example, intercept) clearly indicated.
Solve Obtain an answer using algebraic and/or numerical methods.
Suggest Propose a hypothesis or other possible answer.
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Assessment outline
Group 4
International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 13
SL assessment specifications
First examinations 2009
Component Overall
weighting
(%)
Approximate
weighting of
objectives (%)
Duration
(hours)
Format and syllabus coverage
1+2 3
Paper 1 20 20 30 multiple-choice questions on the
core
Paper 2 32 16 16 1 Section A: one data-based question
and several short-answer questions on
the core (all compulsory)
Section B: one extended-response
question on the core (from a choice of
three)
Paper 3 24 12 12 1 Several short-answer questions in
each of the two options studied (all
compulsory)
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Assessment outline
14 International Baccalaureate Organization 2007
HL assessment specifications
First examinations 2009
Component Overall
weighting
(%)
Approximate
weighting of
objectives (%)
Duration
(hours)
Format and syllabus coverage
1+2 3
Paper 1 20 20 1 40 multiple-choice questions (15
common to SL plus about five more
on the core and about 20 more on the
AHL)
Paper 2 36 18 18 2 Section A: one data-based question
and several short-answer questions on
the core and the AHL (all compulsory)
Section B: two extended-response
questions on the core and the AHL
(from a choice of four)
Paper 3 20 10 10 1 Several short-answer questions and
one extended-response question in
each of the two options studied (all
compulsory)
In addition to addressing objectives 1, 2 and 3, the internal assessment scheme for both SL and HL addresses
objective 4 (personal skills) using the personal skills criterion to assess the group 4 project, and objective 5
(manipulative skills) using the manipulative skills criterion to assess practical work. For both SL and HL,
calculators are not permitted in paper 1 but are required in papers 2 and 3.
A clean copy of the Physics data booklet is required for papers 1, 2 and 3 at both SL and HL.
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M09/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ2/XX/M+
15 pages




MARKSCHEME




May 2009





PHYSICS





Higher Level





Paper 2



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3 M09/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ2/XX/M+
General Marking Instructions

Subject Details: Physics HL Paper 2 Markscheme

Mark Allocation

Candidates are required to answer ALL questions in Section A [45 marks] and TWO questions in
Section B [2 25 marks]. Maximum total = [95 marks].

1. A markscheme often has more marking points than the total allows. This is intentional. Do not award
more than the maximum marks allowed for part of a question.

2. Each marking point has a separate line and the end is signified by means of a semicolon (;).

3. An alternative answer or wording is indicated in the markscheme by a slash (/). Either wording can
be accepted.

4. Words in brackets ( ) in the markscheme are not necessary to gain the mark.

5. Words that are underlined are essential for the mark.

6. The order of marking points does not have to be as in the markscheme, unless stated otherwise.

7. If the candidates answer has the same meaning or can be clearly interpreted as being of
equivalent significance, detail and validity as that in the markscheme then award the mark.
Where this point is considered to be particularly relevant in a question it is emphasized by
writing OWTTE (or words to that effect).

8. Effective communication is more important than grammatical accuracy.

9. Occasionally, a part of a question may require an answer that is required for subsequent
marking points. If an error is made in the first marking point then it should be penalized.
However, if the incorrect answer is used correctly in subsequent marking points then
follow through marks should be awarded.

10. Only consider units at the end of a calculation. Unless directed otherwise in the mark scheme,
unit errors should only be penalized once in the paper.

11. Significant digits should only be considered in the final answer. Deduct 1 mark in the paper for
an error of 2 or more digits unless directed otherwise in the markscheme.

e.g. if the answer is 1.63:
2 reject
1.6 accept
1.63 accept
1.631 accept
1.6314 reject
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7 M09/4/PHYSI/HP2/ENG/TZ2/XX/M+
A4. (a) conversion to mechanical energy described e.g. oscillating water column/duck
/turbine;

mechanical energy converted to electrical energy e.g. dynamo/
electrical generator;


Do not allow
turbine.

[2]

(b) (i) mass of water in crest
1
2
A L = ;
this falls through a height A;
change in potential energy
2
1
2
mgh A L g = = ; [3]

(ii)
v

crests pass a point in unit time;


power per unit length
2
1
2
1 v
A L g
L

= ;

2
1
2
A gv = [2]

(c) estimate of speed as
1
0.5 10ms

;
power per unit length
2 3
1
2
0.3 1.2 10 10 [0.5 10] = yields
1 1
270Wm 5.4kWm

; [2]
Award [1 max] for answer where no speed estimate made, response will leave
answer in form 540v. Do not apply a unit penalty in this question whether
algebraic or numerical solution.

(d) sinusoidal would have a smaller volume of water in each peak;
some indication that first marking point leads to a smaller amount; [2]



A5. (a) small area on silicon/semiconductor chip/semiconductor lattice;
that is the smallest part of the chip that can detect a photon / that behaves as a
capacitor / OWTTE; [2]

(b) photons cause emission of electrons/holes;
this changes the potential difference (developed across the pixel);
potential difference is proportional to light intensity; [3]

(c) position of pixel/colour/wavelength; [1]

(d) e.g. much greater quantum efficiency;
sensitive to wider range of e.m. spectrum;
processing time of image very much shorter;
image can be processed easily / no need for image to be developed;
image data can be transmitted directly;
much less storage space needed;
digital material can be re-used unlike film;
film degrades with time;
film experiences reciprocity failure; [2 max]

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TheExaminersReportonQuestionA4

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TheExtendedEssay
ThisisanuneditedextractfromthesoontobepublishedHLPhysics
bookbyHeinemann.
ExtendedEssay
Theextendedessayisa4000wordpieceofindependentresearchon
anIBtopicofyourchoice.Tacklinganextendedessayinphysicscan
beafrighteningprospectbutyourphysicsteacherwillbegiventhe
taskofsupervisingyourresearchandwillbeonhandtogive
guidanceandhelpsolveanypracticalproblemsthatyoumightcome
across.Yoursupervisorwillalsogiveyouabooklet;theextended
essayguidegivingguidanceonhowtoconstructtheessaywith
somespecificrecommendationsforphysics.
ChoosingaTopic
IfyouhaveagoodtopicthenwritinganextendedessayinPhysics
canbequitestraightforward,chooseabadtopicanditcouldbea
nightmare,yoursupervisorwillhelpguideyoubutherearesome
guidelinestohelp:
Dontbetooambitious,simpleideasoftenleadtothebest
essays.Studentsoftendontbelievethattheycanwrite4000
wordsonsomethingassimpleasaballofplasticenebeing
droppedonthefloorbutendupstrugglingtoreducethe
numberofwords.
Makesureitsphysics,avoidanythingthatoverlapswith
chemistryorbiologyandkeepwellawayfrommetaphysics
orbadscience.
Althoughtheessaydoesnothavetobesomethingthathas
neverbeendonebeforeitmustntbesomethinglifted
straightfromthesyllabus.
Avoidapurelytheoreticalbasedessayunlessyouhave
specialistknowledge.Theessaymustincludesomepersonal
input;thisisverydifficultifyouwriteaboutsomeadvanced
topiclikeblackholesorsuperstrings.
Itisbestifyoucandowhateverexperimentsyourequirein
theschoollaboratoryunderthesupervisionofyour
supervisor.Ifyoudotheexperimentsathomeduringthe
holidaykeepincontactwithyoursupervisorsoyour
researchiskeptontherighttrack.
Chooseatopicthatinterestsyouthenitwillbeeasierto
keepmotivatedwhenthegoinggetstough.
Photo1RobertoCarlosfreekicks
areaninterestingphenomenonbut
canyoudotheminthelab?
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Sportsofferawiderangeofinterestingresearchquestions
butsometimesitisverydifficulttoperformexperiments.
RobertoCarlosfamousfreekickisafascinatingtopicforan
extendedessaybutnotevenhecandoiteverytimelet
alonewithdifferentamountsofspin.Ifyouarekeentodo
thissortofresearchtrytothinkhowyoucansimplifythe
situationsoitcanbedoneinthelaboratorynotonthe
footballpitch.
Youmustntdoanythingdangerousorunethical.
TheResearchQuestion
Onceatopichasbeendecideduponyouwillhavetothinkofa
specificresearchquestion,thisnormallyinvolvessomeexperimental
trialsandbookresearch.Thetitleoftheessayoftenposesa
questionthatcouldbeansweredinmanyways;theresearch
questionfocusesinonthewaythatyouaregoinganswerthe
question.Itisimportantthatasyouwritetheessayyoureferbackto
theoriginaltopicanddontgetlostintheintricaciesofyour
experimentalmethod.
Examplesoftopicsandresearchquestions

Doesthedepthofaswimmingpoolaffectthemaximumspeed
achievedbyaswimmer?
Ratherthantryingtomeasurethespeedofswimmersindifferent
depthpoolsexperimentswereperformedinthephysicslabpullinga
floatingballacrossarippletank.Thisledtotheresearchquestion
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthedepthofwaterandthedrag
experiencedbyabodymovingacrossthesurface?

Whyisntitpossibletochargeaballoonthatisntblownup?
Thistopicledtotheresearchquestionwhatistherelationship
betweentheelectronaffinityofrubberandtheamountthatthe
rubberisstretched.Toperformtheexperimentamachinewasbuilt
thatcouldrubdifferentsamplesofstretchedrubberinthesame
way.

WhydoesmymotorbikeleantotheleftwhenIturnthehandle
barstotheright?
Ratherthanexperimentingonamotorbikeexperimentswere
performedinthelabwithasimplegyroscope.Theresearchquestion
washowistherateofprecessionofaspinningwheelrelatedtothe
appliedtorque?

Photo2GiovanniBraghieriIBphysicsstudent
andEEwriterridinghismotorbike.
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Performingthepracticalwork
Mostextendedessayswillinvolvesomepracticalwork,youshould
startthisasearlyaspossible,ifitdoesntworkoryoufindyoudont
havetherightequipmentthenyoumightwanttochangethe
researchquestion.Youdonthavetospendhoursandhoursonthe
experiment(althoughsomestudentsdo)thewholeessayisonly
supposedtotake40hourssokeepthingsinperspective.Makesure
theexperimentsarerelevanttotheresearchquestionandthatyou
considerpossiblesourcesoferrorlikeyouwouldinanyotherpiece
ofpracticalwork.Ifyougetstuckaskyoursupervisorforhelp,they
cantdoitforyoubutcanhelpyousolveproblems.
Research
Rememberthatyouredoingresearchnotapieceofinternal
assessment,thismeansthatyoushouldfindoutwhatotherpeople
havedoneandcomparetheirfindingswithyourown.Thismightbe
difficultifyouhavechosenaparticularlynoveltopicbutmostthings
havebeendonebefore.YoucantrytheinternetbutSciencejournals
foundinUniversitylibrariesareoftenthebestgoodsourceof
information.

WritingtheEssay
Onceyouhavedonesomeresearchandconductedyourexperiment
youarereadytowritetheessay.Rememberyouaretryingto
answeraresearchquestionsogetstraighttothepoint,thereisno
needtotellastoryabouthowthishasbeenyourgreatestinterest
sinceyouwereasmallchildorsomethingofthatnature,youare
expectedtomakesomepersonalinputbutnotlikethat.
Makeaplanofhowyouwantyouressaytobe,thethreadrunning
throughitistheresearchquestion,dontlosesightofthis.Hereisa
planoftheessaymentionedaboveabouttheballoon:
Introductionofthetopicandresearchquestion,howthe
electronaffinityofrubberisconnectedtothechargingofa
balloon.
Thetheoryofchargingaballoonandelectronaffinity
Hypothesisbasedonthetheory
HowIamgoingtotestthehypothesis
Detailsofexperimentaltechnique
Resultsofexperiment
Interpretationofresultsincludingevaluationofmethod.
Conclusion,howmyresultssupportmyhypothesisandthe
findingsofothers.
Whyaballoonthatisinflatedcannotbecharged.

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Whatcangowrong
Intherealworldthingsarerarelyassimpleastheyfirstappearand
youmightfindthatyourdatadoesnotsupportyouoriginal
hypothesis,thiscanbedisappointingbutshouldntruinyourchances
ofwritingagoodessay.Firstmakesurethatyouhaventmadeany
mistakesinyourinitialassumptionsoranalysisofdatathentryto
thinkwhatwhytheexperimentdoesntmatchthetheoryandwrite
thisintheconclusion.Dontpretendthatitdoesifitdoesnt.

ExtendedEssayAssessment
TheextendedessayismarkedbyexperiencedPhysicsteachers
against11criteriaitisimportantthatyouunderstandthecriteria
sinceifyouressaydoesntsatisfythemitwontscorewellevenifits
reallygood.
AResearchQuestion
Mostimportantlyyourresearchquestionmustbephysicsandnot
justlooselyrelatedtophysics.DidIsaacNewtonsmotherinfluence
hislawsofmotion?Isntphysics.Aninvestigationintothe
relationshipbetweenthethicknessofJellyandtheattenuationofa
laserbeamis.Assumingyouhaveagoodresearchquestionmake
sureyouemphasiseitintheintroductionofyouressay,thefirst
paragraphwouldbegood.
Introduction
Theintroductionputsyourresearchquestionincontext;itisnot
supposedtobeastory.Givesomebackgroundinformationabout
thetopicyouareinvestigatingtohelpthereadertounderstandthe
researchquestion.Forexampleifyourresearchquestionisthe
relationshipbetweenthevelocityofatoyhedgehogandtheangleof
theslopeyouhadprobablybetterexplainhowthetoyhedgehog
works,howeverdontbothertellingastoryaboutthedayyou
boughtitandhowyourloveofphysicsblossomedfromthatday
forth.
Investigation
Thismarkisforthepracticalworkthatyoucarriedoutorinthecase
ofatheoreticalessaytheresearch.Includeenoughdetailsothatthe
readercanunderstandwhatyoudidbutdontgetboggeddownin
detail.Rememberitisanessaynotalabreport,dontwhateveryou
dousetitleslikeDatacollectionandProcessing.Ifyouhaveused
secondarydatamakesureyoureferencethesourcesandgivesome
indicationoftheirreliability.Ifyouhavegottheideaforyour
experimentaldesignfromabookortheinternetthenquotethe
source.Makesureyouestimatetheuncertaintiesinallofyour
measurementsandpropagatethencorrectlythroughany
calculations;allgraphsshouldincludeerrorbars.
Photo3Simpletoysbasedon
complexphysicsareoftenagood
sourceofideas
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KnowledgeandUnderstandingofTopicStudied
Togainmarksinthiscriteriayoumustshowthatyouunderstandthe
physicsthatyouareusing.Itisalmostimpossibletowriteanessay
thatshowsyouunderstandsomethingifyoudontunderstanditso
chooseatopicthatyoueitherunderstandorthinkyouwillbeableto
understandifyoureaduponit.Thisiswhyitsnotagoodideato
writeanessayonsomethinglikestringtheory(unlessyouare
brilliantofcourse),itsalsowhyinterestingapplicationsof
Newtonianmechanicstonovelsituationsoftenleadtogoodessays.

ReasonedArgument
Tohaveareasonedargumentthatrunsthroughanessayrequiresa
goodessayplan.Whenyouhaveyourdataandknowyour
conclusionsplanhowyouaregoingtotellthestory.The
introductionshouldleadintotheexperiment,theresultsshould
implytheconclusion,andtheevaluationshouldbebasedon
evidencethatcanbeseenintheresults.EssaysinPhysicscan
becomeunconnectedsections,thinkcarefullyabouthowitfits
together,ifsomethingtakesyouawayfromthemainargument
leaveitout.
ApplicationofAnalyticalandevaluativeskillsappropriatetothe
subject
Mostessaysinphysicswillincludesomemathematics,makesure
youunderstandwhatyouaredoing,dontjustcopyderivationsfrom
abookorusecomputersoftwareblindly.Analyseyourdata
properly;someoftheapproximationsforcalculatingerrorsusedin
theinternalassessmentarenotgoodenoughifusinglargeamounts
ofdata.Evaluateyourexperimentaltechniquehonestly,donttryto
hidemistakes,itshowsyouunderstandwhatyouaredoingifyou
canspotmistakes.
UseofLanguageappropriatetothesubject
Inphysicswordsdonthavetwomeanings,usethelanguageof
physicscarefully.Ifyouusesymbolstorepresentquantitiesdefine
themclearlyandbeconsistent.Alwaysgivetheunitsofanyquantity.
Ifyoudontknowwhatatermmeansthendontuseit,sticktowhat
youknow.
Conclusion
Theresultsofyourexperimentshouldleadlogicallytothe
conclusion;thisispartofthedevelopmentoftheargument
mentionedpreviously.Whenyoufirstthoughtofyourresearch
questionyoumayalreadyhavethoughtoftheconclusion,tryto
forgetthisandbasetheconclusiononwhatyourexperimenttells
younotonwhatyouthoughtwouldhappen.Yourconclusionwillbe
havegreatervalidityifyouruncertaintiesaresmall,iftheyarelarge
thenexplainhowtheyaffectyourconclusion.Ifyourresultsare
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inconclusivesaywhatfurtherinvestigationcouldbedonetoresolve
theproblem.
Formalpresentation
Makesureyouhaveincludedallofthecomponentslistedinthe
officialextendedessayguide:
Titlepage
Abstract
Tableofcontents
Pagenumbers
References
Bibliography
Abstract
Theabstractisanoverviewofthewholeessayincludingtheresearch
questionmethodofresearchandconclusion,hereisanexample:

TheRelationshipbetweentheDepthandtheDragofWater

Theaimoftheessayistoinvestigatetherelationshipbetweenthe
depthofwaterandtheresistingforcecausedbythewaterona
floatingobjectthatisbeingpulledparalleltothesurfaceofthe
water.Theexperimentonlydealswithasmallsphericalobjectthatis
beingpulledwithaconstantforce,onalowvelocityandonshallow
depthstolimitthescope.

Accordingtothedevelopedhypothesistheresistingforce,drag,is
proportionalto1/depthbecausethemovementofthesphere
pushesthewatertowardsthebottomwhichmeansthatthebottom
isalsopushingthewatertowardsthesphere.Thelongerthe
distancebetweenthesphereandthebottomthemoretheforceis
dispersedtootherdirections.

Amethodofmeasuringtheaccelerationofthesphereatacertain
velocitybutdifferentdepthswasusedtoexaminetherelationship.
Fromtheacceleration,themassesandthegravitationalforce
involveditispossibletocalculatethedrag.

Theconclusionoftheexperimentisthatthehypothesisdoeshold
truefortheconductedexperimenti.e.thedragisproportionalto
1/depthforthelimitedscopeofsituationthattheexperimentdeals
with.Therearealsocertainreservationsabouttheaccuracyofthe
experiment.

JoonasGoveniusRCNUWC

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HolisticJudgement
Thesemarksareawardedtotheessayasawholetoreward
intellectualinitiative,Insight,originalityandcreativity.Evenifthe
essayisntwellwrittenitcanstillgainmarkshereifyouhavefor
exampleshownoriginalthoughtindevisinganingeniouswayof
solvingapracticalproblem.

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SomeExtendedEssayHints
(FromGeoffNeuss)
ResearchQuestion
TheresearchquestionMUSTbeclearlywordedandsharplyfocused.
WithoutthisthewholeEEwillbeonveryshakygroundasthewholeessay
shouldbebasedontheRQ.
ItsnotanormalLabStudentsmustnotjustfollowtheIAcriteria.They
mustaddressALLtheEEcriteria.
Research
TheEEisaboutresearch.Studentsmustfindoutandreportwhatothers
havedoneinthearea.Itisnogoodjustdoing'aninvestigation'intosome
problemwithoutputtingitintopropercontext.
Sources
Thequalityofthesourcesmustbeanalyzed.Studentsdothisadnauseam
fortheequipmenttheyusetoproducetheirownresultsbutoftentheydo
notquestiontheveracityofinternetsourcesnordotheytendtoquestion
theunderlyingphysicalassumptionsintheirownwork.
DevelopmentofArgument
Studentsmustdevelopanargumentratherthanjustwriteanarrative
account.Itcanbeparticularlyhelpfultotrytoarriveatasolutiontoa
problembytwoindependentroutesasthenthemeritsofthetworoutes
canbecompared.
AddressCriteria
Don'tlosemarksbyfailingtoaddressallthecriteriacorrectly.Thechecklist
tobefoundinmyIBStudyGuideisextremelyusefulhere.Studentsmust
beabletocheck'yes'toeverypoint.
Initiative
Studentsmustdemonstratepersonalinputandinitiative.
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Enoughdetail
Whengivingexperimentdetailsgiveenoughinformationsothatthework
couldberepeatedbyothers.Acknowledgewherethebasicexperimental
methodwasobtainedfrom.Detailspecificequipmentsuchasthemakeof
avisiblespectrometerbutdonotgivespuriouslistsofbasicequipment.
Alsodonotincludeunnecessaryphotographs.
Explain
ItisnotnecessarytoexplainbasicphysicsthatiscoveredinthecoreorAHL
programme,butthestudentmustensurethatitisclearthatthey
understandtheunderlyingphysicsandusethecorrectterminology.Physics
thatisnotonthecore/AHLetcshouldbeexplainedandthephysics
underlyingspecializedtechniquesshouldalsobeexplained.

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Group4Project

Why?
Encourageanunderstandingoftherelationshipsbetweenscientificdisciplines
andtheoverarchingnatureofthescientificmethod.(Aim10)
Encouragestudentstoworkasateam.Theabilitytobeagoodteammember
isseenasapositiveattributebymostemployersanduniversities.
TheTeam
Agroupofstudentsfromdifferentscientificdisciplines.
Howmany?
Cooperationeachteammemberdoingapart
CollaborationTheendresultisproducedbytheteam
Giveguidanceonteammanagement
Designingthetask
Clearlydefinedoutcome
AssessmentCriteria
Avarietyofrolesandresponsibilities
Scopeforcreativity
Groupproduct
Requirementforcooperation
Giveenoughtime
Assessment
mustunderstandtheassessmentcriteriaandhowtheywillbeapplied.
Assessingindividualcontributions.
Noteasytodoifyouarentthereallthetime
Difficulttojudgeasanoutsider
Assessingthefinalproduct.
Shouldallteammembersgetthesamemark?
Dontexpectthefinalproducttobehighquality.
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AssessmentCriteria

PeerAssessment
Theteammembersknowmoreaboutwhocontributedmostthanyoudo.
Studentsdontlikegivingtheirfriendslowmarks
ModeratedTeacherAssessment
Giveamarkforeachstudent.
Geteachstudenttogradetheirpeers.
Moderateyourmarkbasedonthepeerassessment.
AssessmentExample
Teachersmark+averageofpeermarks

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Group4Project2008Assessment
Name_______________________________
Project title___________________________
Usingthefollowingcriteriagradeyourselfandthemembersofyourteam

Self Member1 Member2 Member3 Member4 Member5


Name:
Motivation
Teamwork
Reflection

Evaluation:
OntheIBscaleof17(1Bad7Excellent)ratethefollowing
1. Thedayoverall
2. Thetopicoftheproject
3. Theorganisationoftheday
4. TheInformationgiven

Anyothercomments:
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TOKMoments
WecanbringupTOKineveryphysicslessonbuthereareafewmemorablemoments.

Topic1:Physicsandphysicalmeasurement
1.1Therealmofphysics Measurementvsperception.
Howwedefinequantities.
Whatifthestandardmeterkeptchanging.
Whyiseverythingbasedonnumbers?
Istheresuchathingasanonphysicalworld?
1.2Measurementanduncertainties Canweevermeasureexactly,ifwecanthow
canwereallyknowanything?
Whydoweusegraphs?
Anscombesquartet.
1.3Vectorsandscalars Iseverythingreallyavectororascalar?

Topic2:Mechanics
2.1Kinematics Usinggraphstoaidunderstanding.
Usingequationstomodelswhatthephysical
world.
9.1Projectilemotion
2.2Forcesanddynamics WhydowecallNewtonsLawslaws.
Howarephysicslawsdifferenttootherlaws
Usinglawstomakepredictions
2.3Work,energyandpower Misuseofthewordenergy.
2.4Uniformcircularmotion Doescentrifugalforceexist?

Topic3:Thermalphysics
3.1Thermalconcepts Doesheatmeanthesamethinginother
contexts?
3.2Thermalpropertiesofmatter Particles,therecurringtheme.
10.1Thermodynamics Lawsmakestrongarguments.
10.2Processes Usinggraphstovisualisetheinvisible.
10.3Secondlawofthermodynamicsand
entropy
Isothermalchanges,notpracticallypossibleor
impossible.
Decreasingentropy,impossibleorunlikely.
Arrowsoftime

Topic4:Oscillationsandwaves
4.1Kinematicsofsimpleharmonicmotion
(SHM)
Patternsinphysics
4.2Energychangesduringsimpleharmonic
motion(SHM)

4.3Forcedoscillationsandresonance Learningthehardway,TacomaNarrows.
4.4Wavecharacteristics Patternsagain
4.5Waveproperties
11.1Standing(stationary)waves
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11.2Dopplereffect Usingphysicstocheatthespeedtrap.
11.3Diffraction
11.4Resolution Whenweuseanelectronmicroscopearewe
seeing?
11.5Polarization

Topic5:Electriccurrents
5.1Electricpotentialdifference,currentand
resistance
Analogiesinphysics
5.2Electriccircuits Doesitmatterwhatshappeninginthewireas
longasthelightgoeson?

Topic6:Fieldsandforces
6.1Gravitationalforceandfield Howcanthingsacceleratewithoutanything
touchingthem?
9.2Gravitationalfield,potentialandenergy
9.4Orbitalmotion Galileoandthechurch.
6.2Electricforceandfield Thesymmetryofthephysicalworld
9.3Electricfield,potentialandenergy
6.3Magneticforceandfield Monopolesanddipoles
12.1Inducedelectromotiveforce(emf) RulesnotLaws
12.2Alternatingcurrent
12.3Transmissionofelectricalpower Healthhazardsandthemedia.

Topic7:Atomicandnuclearphysics
7.1Theatom Thedevelopmentofmodelsthrough
experiment.
IsthisHistory?
13.1Quantumphysics Howcansomethingbeaparticleandawave?
Paradigmshifts.
7.2Radioactivedecay EthicsofusingdatafromHiroshima.
Radioactivedatingandreligion.
7.3Nuclearreactions,fissionandfusion Ethicsofresearchtomakebombs
13.2Nuclearphysics IstheWWWtheonlythingthatCERNhasdone?

Topic8:Energy,powerandclimatechange
8.1Energydegradationandpowergeneration
8.2Worldenergysources Howdoweknowhowmuchoilisleft?
8.3Fossilfuelpowerproduction
8.4Nonfossilfuelpowerproduction Isitphysicsoreconomics?
8.5Greenhouseeffect
8.6Globalwarming Internationalproblemandinternational
solutions.
Whatdoes99%certainmean?
Politicsandphysics

Topic14:Digitaltechnology
14.1Analogueanddigitalsignals ChinesealphabetandASCII
14.2Datacapture;digitalimagingusingcharge
coupleddevices(CCDs)
TheeffectsofdevelopmentsinPhysicson
society.
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OptionE:Astrophysics
E1Introductiontotheuniverse Mansobsessionwiththestars.
Horoscopes.
E2Stellarradiationandstellartypes Basedonasmallamountoflight.
Howbrightisastar,earlymeasurements.
E3Stellardistances Canwehaveafeelforthesedistances.
E4Cosmology RecreatingthebigbangatCERN.
E5Stellarprocessesandstellarevolution Graphsandcharts.
Howcanweknowwhathappenedwhenwe
onlyseewhatistheretoday.
E6Galaxiesandtheexpandinguniverse Cosmologyandreligion
Whatwastherebeforethebigbang?
Chancediscoveries.
Justifyingtheexpenseofresearch.

OptionF:Communications
F1Radiocommunication
F2Digitalsignals Thedigitalrevolution.
Redundanttechnology.
Samplingandtheinterpretationofsignals
F3Opticfibretransmission Opticalfibreseverywhere,whodecides?
F4Channelsofcommunication Satellitesandspacelaw.
F5Electronics Cananyonecomprehendtheelectricalcctsina
computer?
F6Themobilephonesystem Mobilephonesandsociety.
Canamobilecookyourbrain?

OptionG:Electromagneticwaves
G1NatureofEMwavesandlightsources EMradiationandHealth.
G2Opticalinstruments
G3Twosourceinterferenceofwaves
G4Diffractiongrating
G5Xrays
G6Thinfilminterference Doesknowingwhyabubbleiscolouredmakeit
morebeautiful?

OptionH:Relativity
H1Introductiontorelativity
H2Conceptsandpostulatesofspecialrelativity Theuseofpostulatesinscience.
Toproveitwrongyoumustprovethepostulate
wrong.
H3Relativistickinematics Theuseofthoughexperiments
H4Someconsequencesofspecialrelativity Isthisalljustmadeupbyphysicists?
Dothingsgetshorterorisitanopticalillusion?
H5Evidencetosupportspecialrelativity Uncertainties
H6Relativisticmomentumandenergy
H7Generalrelativity Howcanwevisualisecurvedspacetime?
H8Evidencetosupportgeneralrelativity Isitafieldoracurvedspace?

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OptionI:Medicalphysics
I1Theearandhearing Perceptionandmeasurement
I2Medicalimaging Technologyfortherich.
I3Radiationinmedicine Benefitsoutweightherisk.
Nosafelimit
Ethicsoftesting.

OptionJ:Particlephysics
J1Particlesandinteractions
J2Particleacceleratorsanddetectors IsCERNworththeexpense?
explodingblackboxes
Technologyandknowledge
J3Quarks Isthesimplestmodelnecessarilytherightone?
Whennumbersarenotenough.
Ifaquarkcannotexistonitsowndoesitexist?
StrangenessandCharm,languageinphysics.
J4Leptonsandthestandardmodel
J5Experimentalevidenceforthequarkand
standardmodels
Isthisphysicsorstampcollecting?
J6Cosmologyandstrings Arewegettingclosertothetruthorsimply
diggingadeeperhole?
Dowehavetoknoweverything?

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