Page
1 Links
2 AimsandObjectives+Agenda
3 LearnerProfile
4 CombinedSLandHL
7 PossibleSchedule
10 DataCollectionandProcessing
24 ConclusionandEvaluation
36 Design
58 Exampleworksheets
78 DesignIdeas
79 Fillingoutthe4PSOW
83 Sampleexample
93 Feedback
101 TheExam
118 ExtendedEssay
127 Group4Project
131 TOKMoments
INTHINKINGPHYSICSWORKSHOP
Barcelona2009
Thisworkbookcontainsexercisesandoutlinesofpresentationsthatwillbe
usedinthiscourse.Allothermaterialusedcanbefoundononeofthe
followinginternetsites
http://occ.ibo.org(TheIBonlineCurriculumCentre)
http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/resources/ict_in_physics/(IBandICT)
http://www.physicsinthinking.co.uk/(IBPhysicsmaintainedbyme)
ThelearnerprofileisalistofthecharacteristicsthatweasIB
Diplomateachersshouldbeencouraginginourstudentsbuthowdo
wedothisinourPhysicsclass?
Inquirers
Knowledgeable
Thinkers
Communicators
Principled
Openminded
Caring
Risktakers
Balanced
Reflective
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
3
CombinedHL/SLclasses
AlotofschoolsdonothaveenoughstudentstorunseparateHLandSLclassesthismeanstheyhave
tobetaughttogether.IftheSLstudentsdidthesamehoursastheHLtheywouldbeoverloadedso
onewayofmakingthisfitintoatimetableistoteach2classesaweekwithSLandHLthenoneextra
classwithHL.OnewayofmakingthisworkistoteachthecorewiththeSLandHLthenteachthe
relevantAHLintheextraclasses.SometimesitmightbedifficulttoachievecontinuitywiththeAHL
studentsbutwithabitofplanningitspossibletorunacoherentcourse.
Thefollowingtableshowstheareasofoverlapwithsomecommentsabouthowthetopicsmightbe
integrated.
Topic1:Physicsandphysicalmeasurement HL SL Comments
1.1Therealmofphysics CORE Noneedtoteachthissectionfirst.
Mostofthiswillcomeupinthe
practicalprogrammeormechanics.
1.2Measurementanduncertainties CORE
1.3Vectorsandscalars CORE
Topic2:Mechanics
2.1Kinematics CORE Theprojectilesbitisonlyashort
sectioncombinedHLstudentswill
havetobidetheirtimewithextra
practicals.
9.1Projectilemotion AHL
2.2Forcesanddynamics CORE
2.3Work,energyandpower CORE
2.4Uniformcircularmotion CORE
Topic3:Thermalphysics
3.1Thermalconcepts CORE QuitealotofAHLheresoHLgroup
canbeworkingonthermodynamics
intheirextraclasses.Onlyhaveto
knowbasickinetictheorybeforethey
start.
3.2Thermalpropertiesofmatter CORE
10.1Thermodynamics AHL
10.2Processes AHL
10.3Secondlawofthermodynamicsand
entropy
AHL
Topic4:Oscillationsandwaves
4.1Kinematicsofsimpleharmonicmotion
(SHM)
CORE TheAHLmaterialinthissectionisthe
sameastheSLoptionA(apartfrom
thebitabouttheeye).Couldeither
getHLstudentstodothisinextra
classesordoitwiththewholegroup.
4.2Energychangesduringsimpleharmonic
motion(SHM)
CORE
4.3Forcedoscillationsandresonance CORE
4.4Wavecharacteristics CORE
4.5Waveproperties CORE
11.1Standing(stationary)waves AHL OpA
11.2Dopplereffect AHL OpA
11.3Diffraction AHL OpA
11.4Resolution AHL OpA
11.5Polarization AHL OpA
Topic5:Electriccurrents
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
4
5.1Electricpotentialdifference,currentand
resistance
CORE Mayseemstrangedoingthisbefore
electricfieldsbutworksok.
5.2Electriccircuits CORE
Topic6:Fieldsandforces
6.1Gravitationalforceandfield CORE NooverlapheresoHLstudentswill
havetodotheAHLintheirextra
classes.
9.2Gravitationalfield,potentialandenergy AHL
9.4Orbitalmotion AHL
6.2Electricforceandfield CORE
9.3Electricfield,potentialandenergy AHL
6.3Magneticforceandfield CORE
12.1Inducedelectromotiveforce(emf) AHL
12.2Alternatingcurrent AHL
12.3Transmissionofelectricalpower AHL
Topic7:Atomicandnuclearphysics
7.1Theatom CORE QuantumphysicsAHListhesameas
theSLoptionBsowholeclasscould
dothishoweveritmightbemore
usefultodotheAHLintheHLextra
classes.
13.1Quantumphysics AHL OpB
7.2Radioactivedecay CORE
7.3Nuclearreactions,fissionandfusion CORE
13.2Nuclearphysics AHL OpB
Topic8:Energy,powerandclimatechange
8.1Energydegradationandpowergeneration CORE Everyonedoesthistopic.Thetheory
canbetaughtquitequicklywiththe
HLbutSLneedmoretime.
8.2Worldenergysources CORE
8.3Fossilfuelpowerproduction CORE
8.4Nonfossilfuelpowerproduction CORE
8.5Greenhouseeffect CORE
8.6Globalwarming CORE
Topic14:Digitaltechnology
14.1Analogueanddigitalsignals AHL OpC SameastheSLoptionCwithoutthe
mobilephone,andelectronics;thisis
intheHLoptionF.
14.2Datacapture;digitalimagingusingcharge
coupleddevices(CCDs)
AHL OpC
OptionE:Astrophysics
E1Introductiontotheuniverse OpE Thiswouldbeagoodoptionfora
combinedclass. E2Stellarradiationandstellartypes OpE
E3Stellardistances OpE
E4Cosmology OpE
E5Stellarprocessesandstellarevolution AHL
E6Galaxiesandtheexpandinguniverse AHL
OptionF:Communications
F1Radiocommunication OpF IfSLdidthisoptionandtopic14with
HLthentheydgettheirtwooptions.
Wouldntbeaverybalancedcourse
though.
F2Digitalsignals OpF
F3Opticfibretransmission OpF
F4Channelsofcommunication OpF
F5Electronics OpC
F6Themobilephonesystem OpC
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
5
OptionG:Electromagneticwaves
G1NatureofEMwavesandlightsources OpG Thiswouldbeagoodoptionifyou
haveextraHLclasses. G2Opticalinstruments OpG
G3Twosourceinterferenceofwaves OpG
G4Diffractiongrating AHL
G5Xrays AHL
G6Thinfilminterference AHL
OptionH:Relativity
H1Introductiontorelativity OpD ThisispartoftheSL
Relativity/Particlesoption.would
worknicelywithacombinedclassif
theHLdidbothparticlesand
relativity.
H2Conceptsandpostulatesofspecialrelativity OpD
H3Relativistickinematics OpD
H4Someconsequencesofspecialrelativity OpD
H5Evidencetosupportspecialrelativity OpD
H6Relativisticmomentumandenergy AHL
H7Generalrelativity AHL
H8Evidencetosupportgeneralrelativity AHL
OptionI:Medicalphysics
I1Theearandhearing NotintheSLcourseatall,dontknow
why. I2Medicalimaging
I3Radiationinmedicine
OptionJ:Particlephysics
J1Particlesandinteractions OpD ThisispartoftheSL
Relativity/Particlesoption.would
worknicelywithacombinedclassif
theHLdidbothparticlesand
relativity.
J2Particleacceleratorsanddetectors AHL
J3Quarks OpD
J4Leptonsandthestandardmodel OpD
J5Experimentalevidenceforthequarkand
standardmodels
AHL
J6Cosmologyandstrings AHL
Note:
AllthetopicsintheSLoptions,Sightandwaves,QuantumandNuclear,DigitalandRelativityand
ParticleareincludedineitherAHLorHLoptions.EXCEPTSightandtheeye.
Basedonaratioof2lessonsofSLto3HLthecorecouldbeorganisedasfollows.
MechanicsplusPhysicsandphysicalmeasurement
Intro ExtraPracs
Intro
Kinematics ExtraProblems
Kinematics
Forces Parabolicmotion
Forces
Newtonslaws ExtraProblems
Consofmomentum
Work ExtraPracs
Energy
Circularmotion ExtraProblems
Circularmotion
ThermalPhysics
Kineticmodel 1
st
Lawofthermodynamics
HeatandTemp
Sphtcap Engines
Changeofstate
Oscillationsandwaves
SHMintro 2
nd
lawofthermodynamics
SHMequations
SHMenergy Extraproblems
DHM,FHMandresonance
Wavesintro Standingwaves
Waveproperties
Examplesofwaves Doppler
Test
Electriccurrents
Electricityintro Diffraction
V,IandR
Electriccircuits Resolution
Test
FieldsandForces
Gravitationintro Polarisation
Gfieldstrength
Electricfieldintro Gpotential
Efieldstrength
Magnetismintro Orbitsescapevelocity
Electromagnetism
AtomicandNuclear
Atomintro EPotential
Atomicmodels
Thenucleus Faradayslaw
Bindingenergy
Decay ACgenerator,transformerand
transmission
FissionandFusion
Energydegradation Introtoquantumphysics
Worldfuelsources
Fossilfuelpower Photoelectriceffect
Nonfossilpower
Nonfossilpower Wavenatureofmatter
Greenhouseeffect
Globalwarming Extranuclear
ThisnowleavestheoptionsforbothandDigitalforHL
AnalternativeandprobablymoresensibleapproachwouldbetoteachtheSLcoretothewhole
classfollowedbytheAHLforHLonly.ThiswouldmeanthattheSLstudentswouldgettheirfree
timeattheendofthetopicsratherthanonceeachweek.Thiswouldmakeamuchmorecoherent
programmebutmightnotfitintoalltimetablestructures.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
9
Bata collection anu Piocessing
Aspect1:RecordingRawData
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Records appropriate
quantitative and associated
qualitative raw data, including
units and uncertainties where
relevant.
Partial/1 Records appropriate
quantitative and associated
qualitative raw data, but with
some mistakes or omissions.
Not at All/0 Does not record any
appropriate quantitative raw
data or raw data is
incomprehensible.
Check List
Draw a table (using Excel) with a column for each measurement. This will generally
mean one column for the independent variable and 5 for the repeated measurements
of the dependent. There should be at least 5 rows one for each time you change the
independent variable.
If your data is coming from the gradient of a data logger graph or other graphic
computer display include an example of this graph in you report.
The number of decimal places should be the same for all values in a column
Each column must have a heading and the units of the quantity
You should estimate the uncertainty of the measuring instrument this must be in the
header.
Uncertainties should be rounded of to 1 significant figure 0.2 not 0.17
The number of decimal places in the data should not exceed the limit of the
uncertainty.
e.g. if uncertainty is 0.2 the measurement should only be quoted to 1 decimal place
Comment on how you arrived at any uncertainty value in the table
Comment on any observations you made that might be relevant later; there might not
be anything here.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
10
Results
RawDataTable
Below is a table of the data from the 5 runs performed for each of the 7 different heights.
The Uncertainty in Distance is estimated to be 5mm due to the difficulty of measuring the
position of the ball and the point at which the landing pad is activated.
Uncertainty in Time is calculated from the (Max Time Min Time)/2
Distance/m
0.005m
Time 1
/s
Time 2
/s
Time 3
/s
Time 4
/s
Time 5
/s
Av. Time
/s
Time
unc. /s 0.001s 0.001s 0.001s 0.001s 0.001s
0.090 0.135 0.137 0.136 0.135 0.134 0.135 0.002
0.145 0.172 0.171 0.170 0.170 0.171 0.171 0.001
0.170 0.184 0.185 0.184 0.184 0.185 0.185 0.001
0.235 0.217 0.217 0.218 0.217 0.218 0.217 0.001
0.290 0.241 0.241 0.238 0.240 0.241 0.240 0.002
0.310 0.248 0.248 0.247 0.248 0.249 0.248 0.001
0.365 0.270 0.271 0.271 0.270 0.270 0.271 0.001
Measurements were taken from the bottom of the ball to the depressed landing pad.
Errors and
calculations
explained
Table has consistent
decimal places and
units. Uncertainties
seem reasonable.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
11
Aspect2:ProcessingRawData
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Processes the quantitative raw
data correctly
Partial/1 Processes quantitative raw
data, but with some mistakes
and/or omissions.
Not at All/0 No processing of quantitative
raw data is carried out or major
mistakes are made in
processing.
Check list
The data should be processed in some way, for example averaging, squaring or
finding the sine. Processed data should be displayed in a table separate to the raw
data table.
The table must have headers that include units and uncertainties
Calculate uncertainties in the repeated measurements by finding the 1/2(max value
min value) in the spread of data.
Calculate the uncertainties in processed data by calculating the (max value min
value)/2
e.g. if uncertainty in time is 0.2 then uncertainty in t
2
is (t+0.2)
2
(t0.2)
2
/2.
The number of decimal places in each column must be consistent with each other and
the uncertainty.
Any calculation must be explained
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
12
Anextractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
ProcessedData
Since the initial velocity is zero, the vertical displacement and time are related by the equation
s=1/2at
2
a graph of s vs t
2
will give a straight line. The gradient of this line will be 1/2a.
Distance(m)
0.005
Av. Time
/s
Time
unc. /s
Time
/s
Unc.
Time
/s
0.090 0.135 0.002 0.0183 0.0004
0.145 0.171 0.001 0.0291 0.0003
0.170 0.185 0.001 0.0340 0.0002
0.235 0.217 0.001 0.0472 0.0004
0.290 0.240 0.002 0.0578 0.0007
0.310 0.248 0.001 0.0615 0.0005
0.365 0.271 0.001 0.0732 0.0003
The equation used to calculate the uncertainty in time
2
was (Max time
2
Min time
2
)/2 where
the max and min values were taken to be the average value + and the uncertainty.
Table has consistent decimal places
and uncertainties. All columns
have correct units. Calculations
explained.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
13
Aspect3PresentingProcesseddata
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Presents processed data
appropriately and, where
relevant, includes errors and
uncertainties.
Partial/1 Presents processed data
appropriately, but with some
mistakes and/or omissions.
Not at All/0 Presents processed data
inappropriately or
incomprehensibly.
Check List
Processed data should be presented in a graph. This graph should be linearised if
possible. The graph should be drawn using Graphical Analysis. If not possible to
linearise the function then a curve can be plotted, however this makes the analysis
more difficult so the following points are for straight lines only.
The graph must have heading, axis labels and units.
Independent variable should be on the x axis
Graph must include error bars
A best fit line should be plotted automatically
The equation of the line must be displayed (y=mx+c).
Manually fit the steepest and least steep lines that fit the error bars
Quote uncertainty in gradient
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
14
Anextractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
Graphofsvst
2
Max gradient = 5.198 ms
2
Min gradient = 4.796 ms
2
Uncertainty
in gradient = (5.198 4.796)/2 = 0.2 ms
2
Gradient = 5.0 0.2 ms
2
Graph has correct labels, units,
custom error bars, best fit line, and
max and min gradients.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
15
BackgroundonExamples
The following examples are taken from 3 student reports. To clarify the way the different
criteria are applied the reports are split into two parts DCP and CE.
The practical was related to hydro electric power (topic 8).
Students worked from the following worksheet which gives some details about the theory but
does not give details on how to collect or process data.
Piactical 11 Byuio Powei Simulation
Introduction
When water flows from the reservoir (bottle) to the end of the pipe PE is converted to KE, this
causes the water to squirt out of the pipe with velocity v falling in the parabolic path shown in
the diagram below.
Theory
Applying the law of conservation of energy to a mass m of water
mgb =
1
2
m:
2
= gb =
1
2
:
2
The water falls with uniform acceleration, applying the equations of uniform acceleration to
the vertical motion:
s = ut +
1
2
ot
2
= y =
1
2
gt
2
so t = _
2y
g
The horizontal velocity of the water is constant therefore:
x = :t
Substituting for t gives
x = :_
2y
g
= :
2
=
x
2
g
2y
Substituting into the energy equation gives
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
16
gb =
1
2
x
2
g
2y
= b =
x
2
4y
Method
By measuring the height of the top of the water in the bottle and the distance squirted by the
water confirm this relationship and find y.
Measuring the distance squirted by the water is not easy so introduces some uncertainties into
the measurement which are much greater than the uncertainty in the ruler. Students sometimes
find that their spread of data is zero, this gives something to talk about.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
17
DCPExample1
Rawdata:
The table below contains the data from four measurements of the dependent variable
(distance) for all the five times, the independent variable was changed.
Height
(cm) 0,3
cm
Distance 1
(cm) 0,5
cm
Distance 2
(cm) 0,5 cm
Distance 3
(cm) 0,5
cm
Distance 4
(cm) 0,5
cm
23,8 1,6 1,7 1,5 1,5
35,8 5,7 5,4 5,3 5,6
47,8 8,5 9,1 8,3 8,2
59,8 10,9 10,8 10,5 10,2
71,8 11,8 11,3 11,2 11,5
The uncertainty in height was estimated 0,3 cm because the bar we measured the
height from was circular and we probably didnt take the measurement of distance
when the water was exactly at the mark.
The uncertainty in distance was estimated 0,5 cm because the water
gush was approximately that thick and fluctuated a little.
Processed data:
The table below contains manipulated date, to allow us plotting a graph, in which I can use the
gradient to find out the height of the end of the pipe, above the scale.
Height
(cm) 0,3
cm
Average
distance
(cm)
Uncertainty
in distance
(cm)
Max
distance
(cm)
(Average
distance)
(cm)
(max
distance)
(cm)
Error in
(average
distance)
(cm)
11,8 1,6 0,1 1,7 2,5 2,9 0,4
23,8 5,5 0,2 5,7 30,3 32,5 2,2
35,8 8,5 0,5 9,0 72,7 81,0 8,3
47,8 10,6 0,4 11,0 112,4 121,0 8,6
59,8 11,5 0,3 11,8 131,1 139,2 8,1
DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
18
The average value of distance was found by applying the average function
in Excel to the values in the raw data table.
The uncertainty in distance was found by applying (MAX value MIN
value)/2 to the values in the raw data table.
Max distance was found by adding each uncertainty to the average value
(Average distance) and (max distance) was found by squaring the value
its based on
The error in (average distance) was found by: [(max distance) (Average distance)]
Processed data: Graphical Analysis
Manually fit, steepest and least steep line, to find out the uncertainty in the
answer could not be plotted due to inaccuracyinthedata.
DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N
DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
19
DCPExample2
Results
Raw Data Table
Below is a table of the data from the 5 runs performed for each of the 5 different heights.
The uncertainty in Height is estimated to be the smallest division of the meter stick (1mm).
The uncertainty in Horizontal Displacement (Hor.disp.) is calculated by the (Max Disp. Min
Disp.)/2.
Height(cm)
0.05cm
Hor.disp.
1 (cm)
Hor.disp.
2 (cm)
Hor.disp.
3 (cm)
Hor.disp.
4 (cm)
Hor.disp.
5 (cm)
Avg.hor.
disp.(cm)
Hor.disp
unc.(cm)
80 11.0 11.9 11.0 11.0 10.9 11.2 0.5
100 13.5 13.1 13.0 12.8 12.9 13.1 0.3
115 14.0 13.7 14.2 14.3 14.0 14.0 0.3
120 16.2 16.0 17.0 16.5 16.4 16.4 0.5
205 20.9 21.4 21.1 21.0 21.1 21.1 0.25
There was no system for which side of the stream of water would be used to measure the x
value, which was approximately 1cm in diameter. This may have affected the variation in the
measurements.
Processed Data
The height and the horizontal displacement are related by the equation h=x
2
/4y, and so a
graph of h vs. x
2
will have a gradient of 4y.
Height(cm)
0.05cm
Avg.hor.
disp.(cm)
Hor.disp
unc.(cm)
Avg.hor.
disp.
2
(cm
2
)
Avg.hor.disp.
2
unc.(cm
2
)
80 11.2 0.5 125 11.4
100 13.1 0.3 171 9.21
115 14.0 0.3 196 8.40
120 16.4 0.5 269 16.5
205 21.1 0.25 445 10.6
DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
20
Graph of Height vs. Distance
2
DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
21
DCPExample3
RAW DATA AND UNCERTAINTY
Below is a table of the data from the 5 runs performed for each of the five different heights.
The uncertainty in the measurement of the height of water in the bottle is estimated to be of
the smallest division of ruler (1mm). However, the design of the experiment and the manner
in which the equipment had been set up did not allow me to hold the ruler close enough to the
bottle. Thus the ruler had to be held at a distance of 34 cm away from the bottle and I had to
rely upon eye measurement. The uncertainty can thus be assumed to be 0.5 cm.
The distance was measured using eye measurement and thus wasnt very precise. The ruler
used to measure the distance lay on top of the bucket, while I measured where the water hit
the bottom of the bucket, which was approximately 30 cm below. Due to this the maximum
precision I was able to make was up to 0.005 m. Also, the water was constantly running and
filling up the bucket, making it harder to accurately measure the distance squirted by water.
Thus the uncertainty in the measurement of the different runs is 0.005m.
PROCESSED DATA
Height of water (m)
0.005 m
Average Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
(m)
Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
Distance
(m)
0.620 0.262 0.008 0.069 0.004
0.600 0.249 0.008 0.062 0.004
0.580 0.245 0.005 0.060 0.002
0.560 0.243 0.005 0.059 0.002
0.530 0.228 0.005 0.052 0.002
The equation used to calculate the uncertainty in distance was (Max distance Min
distance)/2.
Height of water
(m) 0.005 m
Distance squirted
(m) Run1 0.005m
Run2
0.005m
Run 3
0.005m
Run 4
0.005m
Run 5
0.005m
Average
Distance
(m)
Uncertainty
(m)
0.62 0.260 0.265 0.255 0.270 0.260 0.262 0.008
0.60 0.250 0.250 0.240 0.250 0.255 0.249 0.008
0.58 0.245 0.240
0.245 0.250 0.245 0.245 0.005
0.56 0.240 0.245 0.240 0.250 0.240 0.243 0.005
0.53 0.230 0.230 0.220 0.230 0.230 0.228 0.005
DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N
DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
22
The uncertainty in distance is found using (MaxMin)/2 where the maximum and minimum
values for distance are calculated using the average value + and the uncertainty.
From the theory we know that
Meaning that
Therefore,
Resultantly, we will get a graph of x against h will give a gradient equal to 4y.
GRAPH
DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
23
Conclusion anu Evaluation
Aspect1:Concluding
IB Criteria
Complete/2 States a conclusion, with
justification, based on a
reasonable interpretation of the
data.
Partial/1 States a conclusion based on a
reasonable interpretation of the
data.
Not at All/0 States no conclusion or the
conclusion is based on an
unreasonable interpretation of
the data.
Check List
State whether your graph supports the theory. E.g. Is the relationship between the
quantities linear? This is only true if the line touches all error bars, dont say it is if it
isnt.
Are there any points on the graph that appear to be due to mistake (outliers), maybe
its best to remove these and plot the line again?
Normally the data will be arranged so that the gradient will give you some value (e.g.
g) calculate this value from the gradient.
Calculate the uncertainty in this value from the steepest and least steep lines.
Dont forget units.
Compare your result with an accepted value, say where this value is from and quote
uncertainty if known.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
24
Anextractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
Conclusion
From the graph it can be seen that within the uncertainties in the experiment s is proportional
to t
2
. Since the acceleration is therefore constant we can apply the equation s=1/2at
2
so the
gradient of the line can be deduced to be 1/2a where a is the acceleration of free fall.
From the graph the gradient = 4.966ms
2
so the acceleration g=9.932ms
2
The uncertainty in the gradient can be found from the steepest and least steep lines
Max value = 2x5.198 = 10.396ms
2
Min Value = 2x4.796 = 9.593ms
2
Uncertainty = (Maxmin)/2 = 0.4ms
2
The final value obtained for g is therefore 9.9 0.4 ms
.2
The accepted value established by the 3
rd
General Conference on Weights and Measures is
9.80665 ms
2
, this lies within the limits of uncertainty of the experimental value obtained,
although it should be noted that g is not the same all over the world so this is an average
value. The value in Oslo is 9.819 ms
2
(Wikepedia)
Here is the graph referred to in this conclusion
Value of g
calculated from the
gradient.
Uncertainty
calculated from max
and min lines. Value
compared.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
25
Aspect2:Evaluation
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Evaluates weaknesses and
limitations.
Partial/1 Identifies some weaknesses
and limitations, but the
evaluation is weak or missing.
Not at All/0 Identifies irrelevant
weaknesses and limitations.
Check List
This is where you say if the conclusion is reasonable or not, you must have evidence
for anything you write here, this can be from your results (the graph) or the
observations you made during the experiment. You shouldnt say friction was a
problem without evidence. It might help to do a small experiment to show that
something was a problem.
Comments do not have to be negative.
Comment on whether your graph shows a trend; is it clearly a curve even though the
line passes through the error bars? Are the errors reasonable, are they obviously too
big or too small
Comment on whether the intercept tell you anything, if it is supposed to be (0,0) and
isnt it might suggest a systematic error.
Comment on whether you manage to keep the controlled variables constant?
Comment on the equipment used and the method in which you used it.
Comment on the range of values and the number of repetitions.
Comment on time management
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
26
Extractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
Evaluation
Looking at the graph I can see that the data points lie very close to the best fit line although
there is some small deviation. The small error bars realistically reflect the accuracy of the
measurement. The final value was quite close to the accepted value supporting this
deduction.
Air resistance was not seen to be a problem; if there had been air resistance the graph would
not have been a straight line
Although the experiment gave a good value the random uncertainty could be reduced by
repeating the measurements more times or using a wider range of heights. In this case air
resistance would start to be a problem so a smaller ball could be used.
They intercept was very close to the theoretical value of 0, this shows that the height
measurement was carried out accurately with no zero error.
Graphreferredto:
Evaluation based on results,
error bars and intercept
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
27
Aspect3:ImprovingtheInvestigation
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Suggests realistic
improvements in respect of
identified weaknesses and
limitations.
Partial/1 Suggests only superficial
improvements.
Not at All/0 Suggests unrealistic
improvements.
Check List
List ways of improving the investigation (I.e. reducing the uncertainties). Anything
you write here must be related to something you mentioned in the evaluation. This in
turn should be linked to the results. Think like a detective, look for evidence.
If possible do a calculation or a small experiment to show how the improvement
might improve the accuracy of the result.
If you had a more reading (wider range or more repetitions) would it improve your
result?
Is there any modification to the apparatus that would make the results better?
If you made any modification to the original method then mention it here, you will
then get credit for suggesting improvements.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
28
Extractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
Improvements
The method gave good results but the uncertainty 0.4m/s
2
could be reduced. The weak point
of the experiment was the positioning of the ball and the release mechanism. This was not
completely stable and even though we could measure the height to 0.5mm the ball could
easily move after the measurement, a more solid support would reduce this error.
To reduce the uncertainty in the height measurement would have to replace the ruler with
something more accurate, perhaps a vernier calliper could be used to position the ball
however if the support was not made more stable this would be pointless.
A bigger range of values is often seen as a way of reducing the uncertainty however if we
dropped the ball from higher up then air resistance may be a problem since it is related to the
speed of the ball which would in this case be higher.
As stated early there was no evidence that air resistance was a problem, probably due the
short drops used, repeating the experiment in a vacuum would therefore not lead to a
significant improvement.
All improvements supported
by evidence either from the
results or observation.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
29
CEExample1
Conclusionandevaluation:
Conclusion:
From looking at the graph we can see that (distance)
2
and height seem to be proportional.
However, I cannot confidently state that, due to the inaccuracies in the data. The linear graph
does not pass through all the error bars.
If I assume that the relationship is proportional, I can apply the equation that was
presented in the theory part earlier.
From this
equation, we can divide the gradient by 4 and the result of that
should be equal to the real height of the pipe above the scale, 12 cm
(y).
The results of that calculation is on the other hand:
We can clearly see that there is a mistake in the data collection or in the theory the calculations
are based on.
Things that could have made the results inaccurate:
The path that the water flowed through the pipe did clearly affect the power
at which the water squirted out of it.
o The evidence for this statement is the fact that when we changed the
path from how it is on picture A to how it is on picture B, the distance
that the water squirted increased. More energy is used on the way
through A than B.
CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
CEAspect 2
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
30
o When the independent variable, height was change, the path of the pipe
changed significantly (Picture C) and from my observation connecting power
and path of the water, I can state that this is a factor that could easily influence
the results.
Picture C
The bucket where the scale was placed on (see picture c) might have moved slightly
between measurements, even we market the place on the table
o This was found out by measuring two times during the experiment, how far
over the bucket, the end of the pipe was.
o The scale also moved slightly and it was difficult to adjust it with the curved
edge of the bucket.
The reason for the points being scattered around the best fit line is probably the
different paths of the pipe (the difference, in how we held it), combined with the
factors just mentioned.
o Another possibility is that, by holding the pipe it is possible that I made it
narrower and caused more energy to be used up on the way, in some of the
cases.
The reasons for the interception being 31,42 are not known but might suggest a
systematic error
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
31
Improvements:
What we did:
o Marked the place on the table where the bucket should stand, to decrease the
inaccuracies in distance.
What we could have done:
o Wrapped the pipe around a horizontal wheel that would make sure that there
were never sharp curves on it and that we are not making the pipe narrower in
some of the cases.
The difference would then always have the same effect and the points
would therefore not be scattered but with a systematic uncertainties.
o Get the bucket and the scale into a position where it would not be necessary to
move it. Pump the water out of the bucket, when it has to be emptied.
Because the reasons for the error in the result of this experiment are not known, I cant
suggest any improvements for it.
CE Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
32
CEExample2
Conclusion
From the graph it can be seen that the linear fit is nearly within the uncertainties of the
experiment. It seems as though the uncertainty was not large enough or for an unknown
reason the measurements at h=120cm were taken consistently incorrectly. Otherwise, the
slope appears to be constant, and so the equation h=x
2
/4y can be applied.
From the graph the gradient=2.574cm, so the vertical displacement y=0.6435cm
The uncertainty in the gradient can be found in the steepest and least steep lines
Max value = x2.738 = 0.6845cm
Min value = x2.477 = .61925cm
Uncertainty = (Max  Min) = 0.03cm
The final obtained for y is therefore 0.640.03cm
The value measured with the meter stick for y was 0.65cm; this lies within the limits of
uncertainty of the experimental value obtained.
Improvements
The measurements could be taken from a constant position in order to minimize parallax
error.
CE Aspect 3
C
P
N
CE Aspect 2
C
P
N
CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
33
CONCLUSION
As the height of the open end of the pipe from the table upwards, wasnt changed; y was held
constant throughout the experiment. Therefore, a linear relationship should exist. However,
since the line doesnt touch all the error bars, this is not the case for this particular experiment.
We know that the gradient, taken from the first graph, is equal to 4y.
Therefore
The uncertainty in the gradient can be found from the steepest and least steep lines.
Max value
Min value
Uncertainty
The final value obtained for y is therefore 0.042 m 0.010
EVALUATION
This conclusion seems unreasonable as I was unable to prove, through the experiment, that a
linear relationship exists between the two variables, even though such a relationship should
exist. This may be due to the imprecision of the uncertainties in my measurements, which
could have been greater than was accounted for.
Also, the yvalue originally measured in order to obtain the height of water in the bottle, being
approximately 30 cm, was significantly higher than the value that was calculated through the
experiment itself. The yintercept was not (0,0) i.e. the line did not pass through the equation
y=x, as can be seen from the graph, so a systematic error could have occurred. The yintercept
not being (0,0) obviously does not make sense, for there cannot be a value for y when there is
in fact no height (h) from which to spurt water.
The position of the clamps to which both the bottle (reservoir) and the end of the pipe were
clamped, was not changed throughout the experiment. Thus I was able to control my
controlled variables.
The equipment used made it extremely difficult to measure:
The height of water since the shape of the bottle clamped to the stand was hard to
measure precisely with the use of a ruler
The distance that water was spurted was imprecisely measured since the only means
of measuring it was a ruler placed on top of the bucket. The distance of the ruler from
the top to the bottom of the bucket (which is where the water fell) was 30 cm; this
distance between the place from which distance of water spurted was measured, and
from where it should have been measured, made the measurement itself inaccurate
The shape of the bucket too was a problem. Since the bucket was circular, instead of
being uniformly shaped, with a smaller diameter at the bottom than at the top, it was
difficult to measure exactly where the water spurted out and touched the bucket. So a
human error in measurement may have led to a repeated systematic error in the
experiment, thus contributing to a shift in the yintercept
The pipe was stretched by the use of clamps, since without the use of them, the pipe
contracted. Fastening the pipe to the clamp may have resulted in the clamp squeezing
CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
34
the pipe. This may have induced pressure applied on the pipe which wasnt accounted
for in the experiment and thus may have led to a spurt of water to a greater distance
than might actually be the case if the pipe wasnt squeezed at all
As I spilled water everywhere in the beginning of the experiment, I had to carry out the whole
experiment again. Also the fact that I realized after having carried out 2 runs, that the clamp
was squeezing the pipe and thus the values were more likely to be imprecise, meant that I
used more time on this experiment than was originally allotted.
IMPROVEMENTS
The uncertainty of 0.010 m being too high could be reduced by improving the experiment in
the following ways:
Use of digital equipment, such as a digital camera with which the whole experiment
could be filmed may enable a more precise measurement for the distance that the
water spurts
Using a smaller ruler at the bottom of the bucket may give a more exact value for x
Using a cuboid bucket for the water to spurt in, would make it easier to measure x and
rid the experiment of the systematic error
The hvalues chosen could have had a greater difference in between them. This may have
made it easier for me to find a systematic trend in the results. The amount of repetitions was
appropriate. Further repetitions probably wouldnt have made a significant difference since
the element of systematic and human error due to eye measurement could not be erased even
through more runs.
I carried out certain improvements, though, when going through the experiment for the second
time:
I used a pen to mark the bottle (reservoir) in order to measure h easily
I tried to clamp the end of the pipe to the stand in such a manner that it would squeeze
the pipe as little as possible
I also emptied the bucket each time a run was carried out so that I could measure the
distance the water was spurted (x) more accurately
CE Aspect 2
C
P
N
CE Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
35
Besign
Aspect1:ResearchQuestion
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Formulates a focused
problem/research question and
identifies the relevant
variables.
Partial/1 Formulates a problem/research
question that is incomplete or
identifies
only some relevant variables.
Not at All/0 Does not identify a
problem/research question and
does not identify any relevant
variables.
Check List
State the research question clearly under the heading Research question. It should
be phrased in the form how is y dependant on x. If the topic is not obvious it is
wise to write a paragraph introducing the topic before you state the research question.
Identify and list the independent variable (this is the one you are changing, x) and
dependent variable (the one that changes, y).
Identify and list the controlled variables. These are all the other quantities that you
could change but that are being kept constant.
You will not be graded on writing a hypothesis but it is good practice to say what you
expect to happen.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
36
Extractfromareportthatcompetesallrequirements
Introduction
This practical is an investigation into a rubber bung connected to an elastic band. The free
end of the elastic band is clamped to a stand and the bung hung vertically from it. When the
bung was lifted and released the elastic band stretched (as shown in the diagram below). I
decided to investigate the relationship between the maximum stretch of the elastic band and
the height of release.
ResearchQuestion
How does the extension of the elastic band (x) depend upon the height of release (h)?
DesignAspect2Controllingvariables
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Designs a method for the
effective control of the
variables.
Partial/1 Designs a method that makes
some attempt to control the
variables
Not at All/0 Designs a method that does not
control the variables.
Check List
List the apparatus used
Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus, a photo is also a good idea
Describe how you are going to change and measure the independent variable
Describe how you are going to measure the dependent variable.
Describe what you did to make sure the controlled variables remained constant.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
38
Extractfromareportthatcompletesallrequirements
Method
Measuringthevariables
To measure the height of release and extension a ruler was mounted next to the elastic. It is
important that the ruler is vertical so it was positioned using
a plumb line.
All measurements were made from the bottom of the bung; I
decided to do this because it was a straight line therefore
easy to line up with the ruler.
The bung was lifted so that it lined up with a cm mark on the
ruler and released. To reduce parallax errors I positioned
my head in line with the bung when I took the reading. The
ruler was positioned close to the bung but not touching.
After release the lowest position of the bung was measured
using the same ruler. I found that if I did this a couple of
times I could position my head in line with the lowest point
before release again minimizing parallax error.
Controllingthecontrolledvariables
The same bung and elastic band was used throughout the experiment.
After each run I waited a few seconds so that the elastic would lose any heat generated.
I was careful to make sure that the bung was released from rest each time.
Apparatus List
Plumb line
Ruler
Rubber bung
Elastic cord
Apparatus list
Details on how
variables are varied
and measured
Details on how each of
the controlled
variables is kept
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
39
DesignAspect3Developingamethodforcollectionofdata
IB Criteria
Complete/2 Develops a method that allows
for the collection of sufficient
relevant data.
Partial/1 Develops a method that allows
for the collection of
insufficient relevant data.
Not at All/0 Develops a method that does
not allow for any relevant data
to be collected.
Check List
State the range of values of the independent variable that you are going to use
State how many times you are going to repeat the measurements of the dependant
variable
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
40
Extractfromareportthatcompetesallrequirements
The experiment was repeated 5 times for each of 8 different heights ranging from 4cm above
the at rest position to 12cm above. The elastic supplied by the teacher wasnt long enough
to give the range that I wanted so I swapped it for a longer one.
I decided only to use initial positions where the elastic was slack. This is because I didnt
want the elastic to have any elastic PE before release.
The student has chosen a
good range of values and
repeated each
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
41
BackgroundonExamples
Sponge
In this practical students were given a large piece of foam rubber. It was actually an old
mattress from one of the student houses.
All they were told was that they must think of a research question related to some property of
the sponge (squashiness, absorbency, bounciness etc.)
The research question must be in the form how is y related to x.
An experiment to test the relationship between x and y is then designed and carried out.
Students work in pairs but only one of the pair writes up the experiment.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
42
Piactical Repoit. Sponge
Introduction
This practical is an investigation about a sponge. The Investigated material is used for
making mattresses, such as those used for beds. This material can absorb some energy from
an object which is dropped on it so the surface under the sponge experiences smaller force
than it would without the sponge. It can also be soaked in water, it bounces when dropped,
objects bounce when dropped on the sponge... I decided to investigate the first characteristic:
the change of energy absorbed by the surface under the sponge when an object is dropped on
it.
Researchquestion
How the percentage change in the force exerted when a mass is dropped on the sponge and
without the sponge is related to the mass dropped onto it.
In order to investigate my research question I will measure the force applied on the surface of
the plate attached to a force sensor; once with and once without the sponge (without changing
the mass of the plasticine).
Independentvariable: Weight of the object (plasticine).
Dependentvariable:Energyabsorbedbythesurfaceoftheforcesensorplate.
Controlledvariables:
Heightfromwhichtheobjectisdropped
Elasticityofthesponge(typeofsponge,shapeofsponge)
Theinitialvelocity
Surfaceunderthesponge
Method
Measuringthevariables
ApparatusList:
Sponge(cuboidshape)
Plasticine
Triangularholder
Ruler
Forcesensor+woodenplateadjustage
Digitalscale
Isettheapparatusasshownonthepictureontheright:
Sensor without a
sponge
Sensor with
a sponge
plasticine
D Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
43
IusedplasticineforthisexperimentbecauseIcaneasilychangeitsmasswithoutchangingother
characteristicsofit.
IusedthetriangularholderformakingsurethatIwilldroptheplasticinealwaysfromthesame
height.
ThenIusedapendulumtomakesurethattheendoftheuppermetalsticktheplacefromwhichI
willlaterdroptheplasticineisideallyabovetheforcesensor,soafterIdroptheplasticine,itwill
preciselyfallonthesensor.
Imadesureduringthemeasurementsthatthepositionfromwhichistheplasticinedroppedis
alwaysthesame,sotheloweredgeoftheplasticinewasinthesamelevelastheendoftheupper
metalstick.
Iusedarulertomeasuretheheightdifferencebetweentheendofthemetalupperstickandthe
surfaceoftheforcesensor(notthesurfaceofthesponge).AfterIsettheapparatusup,Ididnot
moveitinanyway.
Iusedaknifetoshapethespongetoanappropriateshape.Itcouldnotbetoothinkbecausethen
thepossibilityofmeasuringsmallmassescouldberestrictedandalsoifthespongewouldbetoo
thin,measurementsforgreatermassesmaynotbeveryclearanddistinctive.Ialsotriedtomakethe
cutsurfaceofthespongeasevenaspossiblesothatthemeasurementisasprecise
aspossible.
Formakingsurethatthespongewillstayontheforcesensorplateandwillnotslip
aside,Iusedathinsothatitwilleffectthemeasurementaslittleaspossible
layerofstickyplasticinetostuckitthere.
Controllingthecontrolledvariables:
Thesamespongewasusedduringthewholeexperiment
IdidnotmovethetriangularholderortheforcesensorafterIsettheapparatussothattheheight
differencewillnotchange.
ImadesurethatIamreleasingtheplasticinefromrestwithoutanyinitialvelocity.
Therewasasmallmechanicalproblemwiththeforcesensor;sometimeswhenagreatermasshit
thesurfaceofthesensor,theplatewhichisconnectedtothesensoritselfbecamemoreloose.
ThereforeaftereveryimpactImadesurethattheadjustageisfastedenough.
Themeasurementsweredonefor5differentmasses.Ifirstrepeatedthemeasurement
withoutsponge10timesinordertodecreasetheuncertaintyasIfindmyhuman
factorinthesettinguptheexperimentverycrucialandalsohighlyinclinedtocause
systematicerror.FurtherIdidnotrepeatthemeasurementwithoutsponge.The
experimentswiththespongewererepeatedatleast4timesasIobservedhuge
differencesinmeasuredvaluesafterthefirstsetofmeasurements.Iwilldiscussthis
problemlaterinmyreport.
D Aspect 2
C
P
N
D Aspect 3
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
44
RawData
Below is the data.
The way I measured force is that I took the value of the peek of each measurement from the
graph (shown below). As I observed, sometimes the graph showed huge uncertainty. I
suppose that this happened when the plasticine hit the wrong place on the sensor plate.
Otherwise I can not explain this unpredictable behavior.
For this problem I took many measurements for the first mass. I decided to take to account
only those values for measurement with the sponge, which are smaller than the value of the
force measured for without sponge. I followed the same procedure for the rest of the
measurements . Data are shown below:
I calculated the uncertainty for force as (max force min force)/2. The uncertainty for the
mass of the plasticine is the smallest mass which could be measured on the scale.
I counted how many percent from the force applied on the sensor plate without the sponge
was applied on the sensor with the sponge: (force with the sponge) / (force without
sponge*0,01)
mass /g/ 306,5 0,1
force /N/
run without sponge with sponge
1 2,32 1,98
2 3,05 1,74
3 2,47 1,04
4 2,93 1,31
5 2,32 1,25
6 2,38 1,25
7 2,69 1,34
Place where the
plasticine probably
hit the wrong spot.
Uncertainty for percentage I counted as a sum of
percentage uncertainty for force with sponge and
without sponge.
DCP Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
45
8 2,78 1,07
9 2,14
10 2,35
average 2,543 1,3725
uncertainty 0,455 0,455
percentage 54,0 %
mass /g/
224,6
0,1
mass
/g/
186,7
0,1
mass
/g/
138,7
0,1
mass
/g/
85,7
0,1
force /N/ force /N/ force /N/ force /N/
run
without
s. with s.
without
s. with s.
without
s. with s.
without
s.
with
s.
1 2,82 1,07 1,9 1,71 1,71 2,56 1,07 0,89
2 1,53 1,59 1,4 1,01
3 2,11 1,1 0,64
4 1,16
1,16
average:
1,57 1,65 1,48 0,85
uncertainty 0,52 0,06 0,73 0,185
percentage 55,7 % 86,8 % 86,5 % 79,4 %
I graph the relationship between change of the mass and the percentage of the force applied
through the sponge. I also plot the uncertainties.
Uncertainty: 51,0 %
Uncertainty: Uncertainty: 21,5 Uncertainty:67,2 Uncertainty: 51,0
DCP Aspect 2
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
46
From the data tables and also from graphically from the graph I see that the uncertainty for
different masses is too big. In some cases is it more, or much more than 50%. For this reason
this experiment is invalid. This experiment must be repeated with more precise equipment
and each measurement repeated more times.
DCP Aspect 3
C
P
N
CE Aspect 3
C
P
N
CE Aspect 2
C
P
N
CE Aspect 1
C
P
N
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
47
Introdu
This pra
a flat su
sponge
Resear
How is
which t
Variab
Hypoth
The am
sponge
Method
Measur
big mat
sponge
experim
a ruler
measure
in orde
obvious
The spo
parallax
The spo
sponge
measure
water lo
the heig
0.50m,
To me
weight
uction:
actical is an
urface. We
is dropped
ch Questio
the amount
the sponge i
bles:
Theindepen
Thedepend
Thecontroll
hesis:
mount of wa
is dropped.
d:
ring the vari
To begin th
ttress provid
was then p
ment, the sp
was posit
ements wer
er to simpli
sly a straigh
onge was li
x errors the
onge was th
had lost a
ed once ag
ost after it h
ght of the
0.55m, and
easure W
loss, the we
n investigati
will study t
and the am
on:
t of water l
is dropped?
ndentVariab
entVariable
edVariables
a) The
b) Cons
spon
ater lost afte
.
iables
Instrumen
Mattress
Plastic
Sca
Plasti
he experime
ded. I then
positioned o
onge was fi
tioned next
re made from
ify the pro
ht line.
ifted so as t
readings w
hen swiftly d
certain amo
ain in orde
having been
sponge fro
d 0.60m resp
the weight
eight of the
DESIGN
ion of a soa
the relation
ount of wat
ost from the
ble:theheigh
:theamoun
s:
sizeofthes
stant stabili
nge
er the drop
nts used
sponge
ruler
le
iline
ent I first cu
n went on to
on the scale
first raised to
t to the sp
m the botto
ocess of the
to be lined
ere taken w
dropped ove
ount of wat
r to calcula
n dropped. T
om the surf
pectively.
t loss of th
sponge was
N PRAC
aked sponge
nship existin
ter lost from
e sponge af
htfromwhic
ntofwaterlo
ponge
ty position
is directly p
ut of a squa
o soak the sp
e and the w
o a height o
ponge but w
om of the sp
e experime
up with the
with my eyes
er the table.
ter because
ate the diffe
This process
face of the
he sponge, a
s recorded b
CTICAL
e being drop
ng between
m the sponge
fter its drop
hthesponge
ostfromthe
of the rule
proportiona
ared like spo
ponge with
eight was r
of 30cm, to
without com
ponge as the
nt since th
e readings o
s lined up w
. After this t
e of the wet
erence in w
s was done
table `by
a scale was
before and a
L
pped from a
the height
e after the d
p dependant
eisdropped
sponge
er located n
al to the heig
onge with a
about half
recorded. To
measure th
ming in co
e reading po
he bottom o
of the ruler,
with the spon
trial it was
tness on the
weight and t
a number o
0.30m, 0.3
s used. In o
after each e
a certain hei
(h) from w
drop.
on the heig
next to the
ght from w
a sharp knife
a cup of w
o carry on w
he height of
ontact with
oint. This w
of the spon
, in order to
nge.
clear to see
e table. It w
thus the am
of 7 times c
5m 0.40m,
order to ob
xperiment.
ght onto
which the
ght from
which the
e from a
ater; the
with the
f release,
h it. All
was done
nge was
o reduce
e that the
was then
mount of
changing
, 0.45m,
btain the
In order
D Aspec
C
P
N
D Aspect
C
P
N
ct 1
2
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
48
to redu
weight
approxi
Results
Raw Da
Below i
weights
The Un
division
The u
(Mux wc
average
Heigh
0.00
0.30
0.00
0.35
0.00
0.40
0.00
0.45
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.55
0.00
0.60
0.00
ce systema
given was
imately the
s:
ata Table
is a table of
s before and
ncertainty in
n of the rule
uncertainty
ghtMnmu
2
e value + an
ht (m)
01m
0(m)
01m
(m)
01m
0(m)
01m
5(m)
01m
0(m)
01m
5(m)
01m
0(m)
01m
atic error, th
s in fact t
same initial
f the data fr
d after the tr
n the height
er 1(mm).
in we
um wcght)
w
nd uncerta
Weight
before(g)
34.2
34.4
34.8
34.0
34.1
34.7
34.4
he scale wa
the weight
l weight for
from the tes
rials.
when raisin
eight of
where the m
ainty.
Wei
afte
32
32
32
31
30
30
29
as dried aft
of the sp
r the sponge
ts made for
ng the spon
the spo
max and the
ight
er(g)
T
2.8
2.7
2.8
1.1
0.6
0.7
9.8
er every tri
ponge alone
e to be expe
r the 7 diffe
nge is estim
onge is
min values
Total Weigh
loss(g)
1.4
1.7
2.0
2.9
3.5
4.0
4.6
ial in order
e. Also I
erimented on
erent height
ated to be t
calculated
s were take
ht
r to ensure
attempted
n.
ts, and the r
the smallest
d through
en to be the
that the
to have
recorded
t
h
e
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A total of 4 trials were done for each height. In order to be able to examine the amount of
weight with the height, the total grams obtained were then transformed into ml through a
simple transformation through knowing that: 1000g1 liter.
Once again the uncertainty in the amount of water lost of the sponge is calculated through
(Mux wutc IostMnmum wutc Iost)
2
where the max and the min values were taken to be the
average value + and uncertainty. The final recordings were as follows:
Processed Data table:
The average amount of water lost for each height was calculated through
thc sum o] uII tuIs
4
Height (m)
0.001m
Average amount of water lost
(ml)
Uncertainty
In amount of water lost(ml)
0.30(m)
0.001m
1.38 0.20
0.35 (m)
0.001m
1.68 0.15
0.40(m)
0.001m
2.13 0.25
0.45(m)
0.001m
2.73 0.15
0.50(m)
0.001m
3.33 0.20
0.55(m)
0.001m
4.2 0.20
0.60(m)
0.001m
4.6 0.10
Height (m)
0.001m
Amount of
water lost (ml)
Trial 1
Amount of
water lost (ml)
Trial 2
Amount of
water lost(ml)
Trial 3
Amount of
water lost(ml)
Trial 4
Uncertainty
In amount
of water
lost(ml)
0.30(m)
0.001m
1.4 1.6 1.2 1.3 0.20
0.35 (m)
0.001m
1.7 1.5 1.7 1.8 0.15
0.40(m)
0.001m
2 2.2 2.4 1.9 0.25
0.45(m)
0.001m
2.9 2.6 2.8 2.6 0.15
0.50(m)
0.001m
3.5 3.1 3.3 3.4 0.20
0.55(m)
0.001m
4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 0.20
0.60(m)
0.001m
4.6 4.5 4.6 4.7 0.10
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GRAPH
H:
Height vss. Average water lost
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Conclusion:
Fromthegraphitcanbeseenthattheuncertaintiesfitmoreorlessthelinearfit,aswellas
demonstratingthattheamountofwaterlostisproportionaltotheheightfromwhichthe
spongewasdropped.
Evaluation:
Although the method proved to be successful the uncertainties could be stabilized, one flaw
in the experiment could have been the position of the eye in front of the sponge to calculate
the height , this automatically creates an uncertainty because of the difficulties in keeping the
eye in the same exact position for every testing and assuring that the bottom of the sponge is
in fact at the same height for every repeated trial.
An important aspect to take into consideration was whether or not the sponge hit the table in
the same way every time. Although I attempted to drop the sponge in a straight position, it is
possible that it did not always reach the table the same way; this is important to examine
because depending on the final position of the sponge it could have lost more or less amounts
of water, thus creating a bigger uncertainty for the amount of water lost.
Improvements:
To reduce the uncertainty in the measuring of the height from which the sponge was dropped,
the ruler would have to be replaced with a more specific instrument seeing as though it is
very probable to have an error with such a device.
Although I did attempt to have the sponge with more or less the same weight for every trial, it
was very difficult to achieve this successfully, I believe that if the sponge had been the exact
weight for every trial the results would have come to be much more precise.
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PRACTICAL 11 BASED ON A SPONGE:
I INTRODUCTION:
The practical is an investigation into the sponge. Sponge has several properties such as
compression, deflection, elongation, water absorption, thermal conductivity, brittleness
temperature, and sound insulation. This last property will be investigated in this experiment,
to find out the relationship between sound loudness and the thickness of the sponge we use
against the microphone. That is going to be done by varying the thickness of the sponge and
then measure the maximum variation in pressure for each set of data. Indeed, the sound
pressure is an adequate loudness indicator because it is directly related to the amplitude
(sound amplitude relates directly to loudness).
Let us first shortly elaborate on that in order to fully understand the
relevance of the problem (investigating the maximum variation in pressure 
which is an indicator of sound loudness according to the thickness of sponge
between the earphones and the microphone as a sound insulator) and the
selected variables (thickness of the sponge used and maximum variation in
pressure).
The amplitude of a sound wave indicates how high and low the air pressure is in the high
pressure and lowpressure regions. The following diagram may help explain this better:
Hi ghest Ampl i t ude Lowest Hi ghest Ampl i t ude
Ampl i t ude
/  \  ***** *****
  *** . *** *** . ***
  ** . ** ** . **
 * . * * . *
Ampl i t ude  * . * * . *
( y)  *                   *                   *                   *
 . * * . Ti me
  . * * .      >
  . ** ** . ( x)
\  /  . *** *** .
 . ***** .
. . .
. . .
 o o oo o o o o o o o o o ooo o o o
 o o oooo o o o o o oo ooo o o o
 o o oooo o o o o o o ooooo o o
 o o o oo o o o o o o o ooo oo o o
 o oo oooo o o o o o o oooo o o oo o
Hi ghest Lowest Hi ghest
Densi t y Densi t y Densi t y
( Pr essur e) ( Pr essur e) ( Pr essur e)
Amplitude corresponds to the amount of pressure oscillation in the air caused by the sound
wave. (source: http://atrevida.comprenica.com/atrtut21.html)
Therefore, maximum variation is a good indicator of loudness that will show us clearly how
sound varies according to the sponge thickness.
Setting the apparatus:
Materials used:
 Pieces of sponges that have different thicknesses
Sound wave
Air
molecule
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Plate 1: t
The ex
produce
used the
amplifie
we used
microph
thickne
1) Rese
How d
placed
Indepen
microph
A Vernier m
Headphone
Fourier mak
the different
xperiment w
e a constant
e earphones
ed and deliv
d the spong
hone. Using
sses of the s
earch Ques
oes the ma
between th
ndent varia
hone
microphone
es
king waves
layers of spo
was pretty s
t sound tha
s as a sourc
vered to the
ge as sound
g loggerpro
sponge.
tion:
aximum va
he sound so
able: is th
e,
software (s
onge and the V
straight for
at is going t
ce to get the
e computer p
insulator a
o software,
ariation in
ource (earp
he thicknes
sound sourc
Vernier micr
rward: first
to be kept in
e maximum
port by the
and placed i
we recorde
pressure d
phones) and
ss of the s
ce)
rophone
we used t
nvariable th
accuracy o
microphone
it in betwee
ed the varia
depend on
d the micro
sponge betw
Plate 2: Th
the program
hroughout t
of the sound
e. Keeping
en the speak
ation in pre
the thickn
ophone?
ween the e
he Vernier int
m named a
the experim
d that is goin
the sound c
ker and the
essure for d
ness of the
earphones
terface
above to
ment. We
ng to be
constant,
Vernier
different
sponge
and the
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The dependent variable: is the maximum variation in pressure recorded.
The controlled variables that I kept constant here are:
 the sound wave that is being recorded
 the earphonemicrophone distance
 the material used, the sponge,
 In regard to the three dimensions constituting the sponge, only the third dimension of
thickness is changed so the two other dimensions are kept constant.
 Finally, all the measurements have been taken in the same place, in a short period of time so
that the external factors such as room atmosphere, temperature and noise are the same.
2) Hypothesis:
Since maximum variation in pressure indicates sound loudness and since sponge is a sound
insulator, I expect that as the thickness of the sponge used between the earphones and the
microphone increases, the maximum variation in pressure will decrease.
II DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING:
a) Collecting the data:
The measurements are made from six different values of sponge thickness and the
measurement for each value has been made five times. The thickness of the sponge has been
measured using a ruler and the maximum variation in pressure by using loggerpro. Here is a
sample:
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III. RESULTS:
a. Uncertainties in the sponges thickness:
The smallest division of the ruler is 1mm. Normally, we would take an uncertainty of half the
smallest division but here, since we cut the sponge ourselves without any adequate machine, I
consider that the uncertainty should be: 1mm= 0.001m.
b. Uncertainty in the maximum variation in pressure:
It is caused by the different sounds in the room since there were other people as well talking
and due to the reading of the maximum variation in pressure from the graph in loggerpro. We
repeated the experiment five times to get more accurate results and accurate uncertainties.
The uncertainty is obtained by the difference between maximum and minimum and then
divided by 2.
The maximum variation in pressure was measured directly on the graph recorded in
Loggerpro since the maximum variation in pressure is the amplitude of the graph.
Sponge
thickness
(0.001m)
trial 1
(Pa)
trial 2
(Pa)
trial 3
(Pa)
trial 4
(Pa)
trial 5
(Pa)
Uncertainty
(Pa)
0.005 0.310 0.308 0.312 0.310 0.305 0.004
0.012 0.120 0.114 0.117 0.119 0.124 0.005
0.015 0.093 0.088 0.093 0.098 0.094 0.005
0.025 0.055 0.057 0.051 0.057 0.061 0.005
0.060 0.009 0.023 0.017 0.019 0.019 0.008
0.085 0.008 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.015 0.004
c. Table of results:
sponge's
thickness
(0.001m)
trial 1
(Pa)
trial 2
(Pa)
trial 3
(Pa)
trial 4
(Pa)
trial 5
(Pa)
Uncertainty
(Pa)
Average
(Pa)
0.005 0.310 0.308 0.312 0.310 0.305 0.004 0.309
0.012 0.120 0.114 0.117 0.119 0.124 0.005 0.118
0.015 0.093 0.090 0.093 0.096 0.094 0.003 0.093
0.025 0.055 0.057 0.051 0.057 0.061 0.005 0.056
0.060 0.009 0.021 0.017 0.019 0.019 0.006 0.017
0.085 0.008 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.015 0.004 0.012
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IV. GRAPH : MAXIMUM VARIATION IN PRESSURE AGAINST SPONGE THICKNESS:
V CONCLUSION:
As we can see from the graph, as the thickness of the sponge is increasing, the
maximum variation in pressure is inversely proportional and decreasing. The
hypothesis is being proved true.
That might be explained by the formula: pressure = force /area where area refers to
the area of the sponge and the force to the air molecules.
VI  EVALUATION:
The graph is accurate and passes through all the points and error bars. This is probably due to
the precision of the software and microphone we are using and the fact that the source of the
sound is an earphone so it could almost be totally delivered to the computer port.
However, as the maximum variation in pressure is getting smaller, the uncertainties are then
relatively big because the uncertainty and the value of maximum variation in pressure are of
the same order.
I think the experiment went well except from the fact that I do not have any precise formula
directly linking the sponge thickness and the maximum variation in pressure. However, due
to researches and readings, I could find some related and relevant formula that I think are
appropriate to be used in the experiment.
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Example woiksheets
ThefollowingareasampleoftheworksheetsIusewithmystudents.
1.IntroductiontoDataStudio
InthispracticalstudentusethePascointerfacetomeasurethetemperatureincreasewhenwateris
heatedinanelectrickettleforoneminute.Theaimistointroducestudentstothedatalogging
equipmentandsoftware.
2.Introductiontodataanalysisanduncertainties
Thisisacontinuationof1.Studentsrepeatthemeasurementstoascertaintheuncertaintiesintheir
methodandplotagraphwitherrorbars.Theaimistointroducestudentstotheconceptof
uncertainty,howtouseExceltoprocessdataandplotgraphswithloggerpro.
3.Determiningg
Thisisaclassicmethodforfindinggbytimingaballfallingdifferentdistances.Theaimisto
reinforcethetheoryofuniformaccelerationandtopracticeprocessingdata.Fartoomuch
informationisgivenontheworksheetforthistobeusedinassessment.
4.DeterminingSpecificHeatcapacityofwater
Inthispracticalvaryingmassesofwaterareheatedinanelectrickettleandagraphicalmethodused
tofindc.TheaimistoreinforcetheoryandassessDCPandCE.Notethestudentsaregiventhe
theorybutnottoldwhathowtoanalysetheirdata.
5.Singleslitdiffraction
ThisisanexampleofhowaclassicpracticalsetupcanbeadaptedtofitinwithIBassessment.A
verniercalliperisusedasavariableslitsoagraphcanbeplottedtodetermine.TyheAimisto
reinforcetheoryandassessDCPandCE.
6.VerifyingKeplersLaw
Thisisanexampleofhowadatabasecanbeusedinphysics.Theaimistoreinforcetheoryandgive
anopportunityforstudentstouseanonlinedatabase.
7.VideoAnalysisofawave
Inthisexerciseasimulationofawaveisusedtoplotagraphtotesttherelationshipbetweenthe
tensionandspeed.Theaimistointroducethestudenttoanalysingvideowithloggerproand
experienceusingasimulation.Theresultisnotwhatwouldbeexpected!
Introduction
Inthispracticalyouwillbemeasuringthetemperatureofwater
usingatemperaturesensorconnectedtothecomputerviaaPasco
Interface.Theaimoftheexperimentistolearnhowtousethe
equipmentratherthantounderstandthephysicalprinciples.
Settinguptheinterface
Youwillbeusingthefollowingapparatus:
500Interface
USBConnector
Temperaturesensor
ThereisalsoapowersupplybutIdonthaveapicture.
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Connectthepowersupplytothebackoftheinterfacethenconnectittothemainsplugusinga
powerlead(hangingonthecupboarddoor)
ConnecttheUSBconnectortothebackoftheinterface,dothisverycarefullysoyoudontbreakany
ofthepins,askmetodoitifnotsure.
ConnecttheUSBconnectortotheUSBportonyourcomputer.
ConnecttheTemperaturesensortoAnalogChannelA.
StarttheprogramDataStudio.
WhenaskedHowwouldyouliketousedatastudio?clickcreateexperiment
Youwillgetawindowliketheonebelow.Makesuretheinterfacelooksliketheoneyouareusing,
ifnotchangeitasinstructedbelow.AddtemperaturesensorbydoubleclickingchsnnelAongthe
interfacepicture(wehavetwotypesordinaryandstainlesssteel).Finallydragthegraphiconto
channelA.Youarenowreadytostart.
Note:Ifyouhaveayellowtrianglenexttothepictureoftheinterface(likeabove)askChrisfor
help.
Toseeifeverythingisworkingclickthestartbuttonandseeifyoucanseethetemperaturerecorded
onthegraph.Tryrubbingthesensorinyourhandtomakethetemperaturegoup.
Trychangingthesamplingrate,thisisontherighthandsideofthewindow.Thischangeshow
oftenthecomputermeasurestemperature.
TakingMeasurements.
Youaregoingtoinvestigatehowthetemperatureriseofwaterisrelatedtoitsmass.
Putaknownmassofwaterintothekettle/waterboiler.
Startmeasuringthetemperaturebyclickingthestartbutton
Switchontheheaterandmeasurehowmuchthetemperaturegoesupin1minute.
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Repeattheexperimentwith5differentmassesofwater,enteryourresultsinatableliketheone
below.
PlottingtheGraph(AnalysingtheData)
YouaregoingtoplotthegraphusingthecomputerprogrammeGraphicalAnalysis.Openthe
programmeandyouwillseeablanktableontheleftandablankgraphontherightasshownbelow.
CopythedatafromyourtableofresultsintotheGraphicalanalysistable,youcandoeverythingin
onego.
Toaddtitlestothecolumnsdoubleclickthecolumnheader,youwillgetaboxliketheoneshown
below.Fillinthetitleandunits.
Thegraphwillbeplottedautomaticallyifityoucantseeitclicktheautoscalebutton
Youshouldnowhaveagraphliketheonebelow
Nextlessonyouwillfindouthowtoaddasmoothcurveanddealwithuncertainties.
Part1Uncertainties
Physicalmeasurementsareneverexact.Forexample,whenyouusearuleryoucanestimatethe
lengthtowithin0.05cm.Soifweusearulertomeasureapieceofstringandfindittobe5cmthen
weshouldsaythatitis50.05cm.Wesaytheuncertaintyorerroris0.05cm.
Ifyouaresimplyusingascalethentheuncertaintyishalfthesmallestdivision.
Sometimesitsnotsosimple,thenyoushouldrepeatthemeasurementseveraltimes,the
uncertaintyisfoundfrom(highestreadinglowestreading)/2
Tofindtheuncertaintyinthewaterheatingexperiment
Heatthesameamountofwater4times.
Calculatethetemperaturedifferenceforeachrun.
Calculatetheaveragevalue.
Findtheuncertaintyfrom(highestreadinglowestreading)/2
Part2Dataanalysis
Youhavealreadyusedgraphicalanalysis(GA)todrawasimplegraph.Youcanseethatthegraphis
notlinear.Togetthelabelsdoubleclickthetableheadersandfillouttheform.
Temperatureriseisinfactinverselyproportionaltomasssotheequationofthelineissomething
likey=k/xwherekissomeconstant
UnticktheconnectpointsoptionandthenDone.
Toplotacurveclickthisbutton
Youwillgetthefollowingmessagebox:
ChooseA/X(Inverse)andOK
Whatdoesthelinelooklike?
Itmightnotbeverygood,whydoesntthelinepassthroughallthepoints?
Plottingerrorbars
Anerrorbarisalinethatisdrawnoneachpointonagraphtoshowthemaximumandminimum
values.Belowisanexampleofagraphwitherrorbars
Nowyoucanseethatalthoughthelinedoesntpassthroughallthepointsitdoestouchalltheerror
bars.
Toploterrorbarsformassdoubleclickthetableheaderonthemasscolumn.Youwillgeta
messagebox,clicktheoptionstab.Youwillnowgetthefollowingmessage
TicktheErrorBarCalculationsboxthentheFixedvalueandErrorConstantboxesasabove.Enter
theerrorinthemassreading.Thisis0.1gduetothebalance.
DothesamefortheTemperaturecolumnandentertheuncertaintythatyoucalculatedinpart1.
Doesyourlinepassthroughalltheerrorbars?
PlottingaStraightLine
Insteadofplottingmassvstemperatureyoucouldhaveplottedmassvs1/temperaturethiswould
havegivenastraightlinegraph.YouarenowgoingtouseEXCELtomanipulatethedata.
CopyandpastethetableIntoExcel
Addathirdcolumncalled1/Temperature.Todothecalculationfollowthesesteps
Clickthefirstcellinthenewcolumn
Write=1/thenclickthefirstcellinthetemperaturecolumn.Theequationshouldnowread=1/B3
Pressreturn
Nowholdthecursoronthebottomcornerofthefirstcelluntilyougetacrossliketheonebelow
Pullthisdownlikeablind,theequationwillnowcopyintoalltheothercellsautomatically
calculating1/Tempforallthevalues.
Youcannowcopythemassand1/temperaturebackintoGA
Removethelineconnectingthepointsasbefore
Addabestfitstraightlinebyclickingthisbutton
Note:thenumbersinthecolumns
havethesamenumberofsignificant
figuresastheuncertainties.
Ifyouwanttoadjustthescaleofthegraphthenyoucanputyourcursorneartheaxislabelstoget
thewigglyarrowshownbelow,Youcanthenslidethisupanddowntoadjustthescale.
Tomovethegraphsidewaysorupanddownthenusethearrowsnexttothelabels.
Toautomaticallyscalethegraphtofitthepageclickthisbutton onthetoolbar
Plotabestfitlinebyclickingthelinearfitbutton
Plottingerrorbarsonthe1/Tempgraph
GobacktotheExceltableandaddcolumnsasbelow
Themaxtempisthetemp+theuncertainty,fillthisinbywritingtheequation=B3+(uncertainty)and
fillingdownasbefore
Inthe1/MaxTcolumnwriteanequation=1/C3andfilldown
Inthe1/MinTcolumnwriteanequation=1/D3andfilldown
Theerrorin1/tempisfoundbysubtracting(1/MinT1/MaxT)/2
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Thefollowingtablehasbeenfilledinassumingerrorintempwas1C
Noticethattheerrorin1/tempisnotthesameforallthevalues;thismeansthattheyhavetobe
plottedinadifferentway.
Alsonotethatthenumberofsignificantfiguresintheerrorhasbeenreducedto1andthenumber
ofdecimalplacesin1/Tisthesameastheerror.
BacktoGA
FromtheDatamenuchooseNewdataset
Thiswilladdtwonewcolumnsontothetable,addtheheadingerrorin1/Ttooneoftheseandcut
andpastethedatafromexcel.
Doubleclickthe1/tempcolumnselecttheoptiontab.AgainticktheErrorbarcalculationsboxbut
thistimeusecolumn.
SelecttheDataset2errorin1/Toptionfromthelist
Addtheerrorbarstothemasscolumnasbefore.
Youshouldnowhaveagraphlikethis
ThistimeselectLinearthenpressTryFit.Thiswillplaceabestfitlineonyougraph.Nowselect
manual(topright)andusethearrowstotherightofm
1
(Slope)andb(Yintercept)toplacethe
steepestlinethroughtheerrorbars.Thebestwaytodothisistogetthelinetopassthroughthetop
oftherighthandbarandthebottomofthelefthandbarasshownbelow.
NowpressOKandthelinewillappearonyourgraph.
Repeattheprocessbutwiththeleaststeepline.Yourfinishedgraphwilllookliketheonebelow.
ThisisdifficultsoIwilldemonstrateittotheclass.
Thegradientofthebestfitlineis0.2829kg
1
C
1
Theuncertaintyinthegradientis(maxgradmingrad)/2=(0.470.15)/2
=0.16kg
1
C
1
roundingdownto1sf=0.2kg
1
C
1
Sothegradient=0.3kg
1
C
1
0.2kg
1
C
1
Notethatthegradientisonlygivento1decimalplacesincetheuncertaintyis
0.2kg
1
C
1
Inthisexampletheerrorbarshavebeenexaggeratedsothatyoucanseewhatisbeingdone,you
probablywontgetsuchlargeuncertaintiesinarealexperiment.
Thisisalottotakeinbutyouwillgetmorepracticeoverthenextfewmonths,ifyouwantmore
helpyoucanaskmeoroneofthepeertutors,alternativelygotomywebsite
http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/resources/ict_in_physics/andlookundergraphplotting.
Introduction
Inthispracticaltheaccelerationduetogravitywillbecalculatedbyusinganelectronictimerto
measurethetimetakenforasmallsteelballtofallaknowndistance.
Procedure
Theapparatusissetupasinthediagram.Findouthowthereleasemechanismworksandmakea
coupleoftrialrunstoseeifitworksproperly.Measurethetimeforthesameheightandseeifyou
getthesamereading.Estimatetheuncertaintyinthetimemeasurementfromthelastdecimal
placeofthetimereading(Ifyouhave4digitse.g.0.3214sthentheuncertaintyis0.0001s).Thisis
theuncertaintyinthemeasuringdevicehoweveryouwillprobablyfindthatthespreadofresultsis
muchbigger.
Theheightistobemeasuredusingameterrule;theuncertaintyinthismeasurementdependsupon
howwellyoucanreadthescale,thebestyoucandowitharuleris0.5mmbutyouprobablywont
bethataccurate.
Copythetablebelowreadyforyourresultsfillintheuncertainties.Nowfixtheheightoftheballat
aconvenientlevelandmeasureitsheight.Releasetheballandmeasurethetimeoffall.Repeatto
makesurethatnomistakewasmade.Enterthedistanceandtimeinyourtable,repeatfor10
differentheights.
Tocalculatetheuncertaintyintimefind(MaxtimeMintime)/2,thisistheuncertaintyinyour
measurementratherthanthedevice,thisisthevalueyouwillusefromnowon.
Distance
m
?
Time1/s
?
Time2/s
?
Time3/s
?
Time4/s
?
Time5/s
?
Average
time
s
Uncertainty
Time
s
H
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Processingthedata
Theequationrelatingdistanceandtimeis
2
2
1
at ut s + =
Sincetheinitialvelocityis0thissimplifiesto
2
2
1
at s =
sisthereforeproportionaltotsoagraphofs(yaxis)againstt(xaxis)willgiveastraightline.The
slopeofthislinewillbea
Addthecolumnsbelowtoyourspreadsheetandcalculatethetime
2
andtheuncertaintyintime
2
,
uncertaintyintime
2
=(Maxtime
2
Mintime
2
)/2
Averagetime
2
s
2
Uncertaintyintime
2
s
2
PresentingData
Youarenowreadytopresentyourdatainagraph.Copythedistanceandtime2columnsinto
loggerPro(orGraphicalAnalysis)andplotthebestfitlineandfindtheaccelerationduetogravity
fromthegradientoftheline.Createanotherdatasetandusetheuncertaintyintime
2
Columnto
plottheerrorbars.
Plotthesteepestandleaststeeplinesmanuallytofindtheuncertaintyintheacceleration.Ifyou
cantrememberhowtodothisseetheICTandIBPhysicswebsite.Onmywebsiteyouwillalsofind
thispracticalusedasanexample.
Conclusionandevaluation
Useyourgraphtoanswerthefollowingquestions
Istheaccelerationtrulyconstant?
Wereyourestimatesofuncertaintiesreasonable?
Isthereanywaythatthisexperimentcouldbeimproved?
Introduction
Inthisexperimentthespecificheatcapacityofwaterwillbe
determinedbyheatingdifferentquantitiesofwaterinanelectric
kettle.Themethodusedisfarfromideal,trytothinkofwaysto
makeyourresultasaccurateaspossibleandmodifythemethodas
appropriate(dontforgettowriteaboutthesemodificationsinyour
report).
Method
Poursomewaterintotheelectrickettleanddetermineitsmass.
Switchonthekettleandmeasuretherateoftemperatureriseusing
atemperaturesensorconnectedtothecomputer.Repeatthe
procedurewithatleast5differentmassesofwater.Enteryour
resultsintoanappropriatetable.
Theory
TherateoftemperatureriseofthekettleT/tisrelatedtothe
powerofthekettle,Pbythefollowingequation:
=
t
T
mc P
Where
m=Massofwater
c=Specificheatcapacityofwater
Findoutthepowerratingofthekettlethenusingagraphical
methodfindthespecificheatcapacityofthewater.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Piactical S: Biffiaction of light
Introduction
Whenlightpassesthroughanarrowslititspreadsout,thisiscalleddiffraction.Thelightdoesnot
spreadoutuniformlybutformbrightanddarkareasasshownbelow.
Thewidthofthecentralmaximumdependsonthesizeoftheslit,smallslitgiveswidemaximum.
Withtheapparatussetupasshowntherelationshipbetweentheangleandtheslitsizeis:
bsin=
Iftheanglesaresmallthensin=y/D
sotheequationbecomes:by/D=
Method
UsingtheVerniercalliperasaslitformadiffractionpatternonthewall.Bymeasuringthewidthof
thecentralmaximumandthesizeoftheslituseagraphicalmethodtofind.
Toreadthevernierscaleyoufirstread
thepositionofthe0ontheslider.In
theexamplethesliderpointsat
somethingbetween2and3mm.To
findthenextsignificantfigurewelook
toseewheretheslidingscalecoincides
withthefixedscale.Thisisat5onthe
slidingscale.Thereadingistherefore
2.5mm.
Youcantryreadingavernierscaleat
http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/ccline/vernier/vernier.html
toseeifyoudoitright.
Usingthedataaboutthesolarsystemfoundhere(http://hyperphysics.phy
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solar/solill.html#c1)(pressctrlandclicktoopenlink),plotagraphofragainst
T.
Useyourgraphtofindthemassofthesun.
MoreinfoaboutdatabasescanbefoundontheICTsite.
Runthevideobyclickingthearrowatthebottomofthevideowindow.Toanalysethevideogotto
http://home.no/champer/ict/Home/Home.htmlvideoanalysis.Hereyouwillfindstepbystep
instructionsonhowtodoit.Whensettingthescaleassumethelengthofthestringis1m.
Analysis
Thevideoshowsthewavetravellingthroughthestringatdifferenttensionsetting.Theactual
tensionisnotgivenbutassumethetensionscaleisinNewtons(ON10N).Usingloggerprodrawa
graphofthedisplacementofthewaveateachTensionsetting(4N10N),findthewavevelocityby
plottingabestfitlineforeachgraphandrecordingthegradientoftheline.Youshouldenteryour
resultsintoasuitabletable.Dontforgettoestimatetheuncertainties.
Thevelocity,vofthewaveisgivenbytheformulaI = _
1
T=Tensionand=massperunit
length.ByplottingasuitablegraphshowthatvisproportionaltoTandfind.
Balloons
Ihaveusedthisexampleafterwehavedonemechanics,thermalphysics,SHM,electricalcctsand
fields.Idontrestrictstudentstoaparticulartopic.Someoftheresearchquestionsareabitobscure;
itisthereforeagoodideaforstudentstoalwayswriteanintroductiontothetopicbeforewriting
theirresearchquestion.
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheradiusofaballoonanditsterminalvelocity?
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheamountofairinaballoonandthechargeitgainsafter
beingrubbedthesamenumberoftimes?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthevolumeofaballoonanditstemperature?
Whatistherelationshipbetweentheheightreachedbyaballoonandthedistancethatthe
endispulleddown?
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthedeflectionoftwocharge
balloonsand
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Fillingoutthe4PSOW
The4PSOWisthenameoftheIBformusedtorecordandsubmitInternalAssessmentgrades.There
areseveralelectronicversionsofthis(forexampleG4IA)whichsimplifytheprocessnoend.
Herearesomeanswerstoaselectionoffrequentlyaskedquestions:
Youshouldrecordallthepracticalsessionsnotjusttheonesthatareassessed,Inthis
exampleIhaveincludedavisittoaGlacierMuseumwithalotofhandsonexhibits.
Onlylabhoursareincludednotthetimewritingupthereports.
YoumustincludeatleastoneofeachICTexample.
Youdonthavetoincludemarksforallthelabs,justtheonesusedforassessment/onesthe
studentwroteup.Inthisexamplethefirst6werenotassessedhowevertheyweremarked,
fromthenonwardsalmostallwereassessedbutthestudentonlywrotereportsfortheones
shown.
Thedatesdonthavetobeexact.
Youshouldtrytocoverarangeofdifferenttopics.
Youmustselectthetoptwoscoresforeachcriteria,theprogrammeG4IAdoesthisforyou.
Whensending4PSOWsofthesampledworkyoumusthighlightthescoresthatwere
achievedonthesamplessent.Ifyouhaveachoicethensendtheonesthatyoufeelarebest.
The4PSOWonlyshowsscoresforeachcriteriabutyoumustbreakthisdowntoindividual
aspectsonthestudentswork.
ExampleofaSampledReport
Thisisthemarkedstudentreportforthesampledexperimentonmagnetism.
Anyworksheetgiventothestudentmustalsobesentwiththesamplehoweverinthiscasetherewasnt
onesothefollowingstatementwasincluded.
Inthisexperimentstudentweregivensomereadywoundcoils,somewireandavarietyofmagnets.
Theywereaskedtodevisearesearchquestionrelatedtoelectromagnetism.
ThepracticalwasmarkedusingatabletPC.Thegradetableincludingcommentspastedtotheendwas
madeusingtheprogramG4IA.Itisveryusefulforthemoderatorifyouwritewhythestudentgained
thegradegivenforeachaspect.
DesignerPractical:MeasuringEMF
Introduction
Thispracticalisaninvestigationintoamagnetfallingthroughacoil.Itfallsdownverticallyfroma
particularheightthrougharolledpaperandacoil(seetheillustrationbelow).Idecidedtoinvestigate
therelationshipbetweentheheightofamagnetandtheelectromotiveforce(EMF)inthecoil.
EMF
Figure1:Theheightismeasuredwitharulerfromthetopofthecoil(base)tothemiddleofthepencil
(top).Thenthemagnetisplacedatthesameheightasthetipofthepencilwherethesouthseeking
poleisalwaysonthetop.
Researchquestion
HowistheEMF(y)dependantontheheighth(x)ofthemagnet?
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Definingtheindependent,dependentandcontrolledvariables
Theindependentvariableistheheight(h)sinceitistheonewhichchangesinordertomeasurethe
EMF.ThismeansthatthedependentvariableistheEMF,becauseitchangeswhenhcharges.Thereare
3morevariablesthatcouldhavebeenchanged,butkeptconstant.The1stoneistheheightoftheclam
thatholdsthecoil;itwaskeptconstantsohcanbemeasuredfromthesameplace.Thisisindicatedby
linedrawnonthestand.The2ndvariablethatwaskeptconstantwasthenumberofturnsinthecoil,
whichwas1600.The3
rd
variableisthemagnet.Now,thevariablescanbenamed:
Independentvariable:Height(h)ofthemagnet
Dependantvariable:TheEMFgenerated
Constant:Theheightoftheclamholdingthecoil,thenumberofturnsinthecoil+magnet
Theindependentvariablehwillbechangedbychangingthepositionofthepencilwhichishorizontal
andperpendiculartothestand.hwillbemeasuredwitharulerfromthebasetothetop.
ThemeasurementofEMFwasperformedbyusinganinterface(500)thatwasconnectedtoacomputer.
Moreover,acomputerprogramcalledDataStudiowasusedtodrawthegraph.Thegraphwasessential,
sincetheamplitudeofthegraphshowstheEMFgenerated.Themaximumpointofthegraphisthe
valuethatisdefinedastheindependentvalue.
Thenumberofturnsofthecoilwas1600andthesamecoilwasusedatalltimes.Incontrast,theline
drawnonthestandwaschangedoncebecausetheexperimenthadtobecontinuedanotherday;it
affectstheexperiment.Thismighthavebeenbecauseofthemagnet.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Method
ApparatusList
Stand
Clam
Coil(1600)
Pencil
Ruler
Magnet
Rolledpaper Figure2:Illustrationoftheapparatususedintheexperiment.
Alinehasbeendrawnonthestandinordertobeabletomeasuretheheightofthemagnet(h).Thatis
donebyusingaruler,anditisimportantthattherulerisparalleltothestandandperpendiculartothe
pencil.hchangeswhentheheightofthepencilchanges.Inaddition,itwasimportanttokeepthepencil
paralleltothetable.
Afterdecidinghthemagnetwasdroppedfromthetipofthepencilwiththesouthseekingpolefirstat
least5times,butsometimesthereweremorethan5droppingsbecauseofsomereadingswere
significantlydifferentthantheothers.IthinkthatwillminimizetheerroroftheEMF.
Theexperimentwasrepeatedatleast5timesforeachdifferent5heightsrangingfrom4.2cmabove
thebaseto24.3cm.Sincethelengthofthestandisquietsmall,therangeofheightisprettysmall.On
theotherhand,Ithinktherangeofheightwasgoodenoughtohavesignificantlydifferentresultsin
EMF.
Results
RawDataTable
Thetablebelowshowsthedatafromthe5runsperformedforeachofthe5differentheights.
Theuncertaintyinheightisestimatedtobe0.2.Itwasdecidedtobearound0.15andthen
approximatedto0.2.ThereasonisthatIusedarulertomeasureh,whichmeansthatittouches2
points.Onlythatgivesusthesmallestdivisionoftheruler(1mm).Itookthepencilintoconsideration,
becauseitmightnotbeparalleltothetablewhenchangedinheight,andthatmadetheuncertaintya
bithigher.
Height(cm)
0.2
EMF,run1
(V)0.001
EMF,run2
(V)0.001
EMF,run3
(V)0.001
EMF,run4
(V)0.001
EMF,run5
(V)0.001
4.2 0.283 0.293 0.258 0.312 0.259
10.5 0.488 0.500 0.439 0.459 0.440
13.4 0.586 0.566 0.595 0.613 0.576
17.0 0.667 0.673 0.702 0.685 0.686
24.3 0.800 0.911 0.798 0.801 0.772
ThemeasurementofEMFwasdonebyusingacomputerprogramcalledDataStudio.Imeasuredthe
maximumpointofthegraph(shownintheillustrationbelow).
Asmentionedbefore,themaximumpointwassometimesconsiderablydifferentthattherestofthe
droppings,andthatkindofvalueswereignored.
Vvs.t
Figure3:AnexampleofagraphusedtofindoutthevalueofEMFbyfindingthemaximumvalue.Itisin
V(EMF)againsttime(sec.)eventhoughtimeinthiscasedoesntreallymatter.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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ProcessedDatatable
ThetablebelowshowsprocesseddatathatshowstheaverageEMFanditsuncertainty.
Height
(cm)
0.2
Av.EMF
(V)
EMF
Uncertainty
(V)
4.20 0.28 0.03
10.50 0.47 0.03
13.40 0.59 0.02
17.00 0.68 0.02
24.30 0.82 0.07
TheaverageEMFwasfoundbyaddingallthevaluesthendividedbythenumberofvalues:
5
.
5 4 3 2 1
run run run run run
EMF Av
+ + + +
=
TheuncertaintyofEMFwasfoundbysubtractingthemaximumEMFbyminimumEMFthendivideitby
2:
2
min max
.
= Un
Thereisonlyonedecimalplacefortheuncertainties.
GraphofVvs.s
Conclusion
Fromthegraphitcanbeseenthatsomeofthepointsarenotintheline.Thiscanmeanthatthe
relationshipbetweenVandsisnotlinearorthefactthattheexperimentmighthavebeenaffectedbya
differentmagnet.Thiswillbeexplainedmoreindetails.Inaddition,itisclearthattherelationship
betweenthemispositive;whenthemagnetwasdroppedfromahigherplacetheEMFgenerated
becamebigger.
Therearetwopointsthatseemnottofitinthegraphwhicharethe3
rd
andthe4
th
point.Ifremovedthe
graphwilllooklikethis:
Inthiscasetheslopeofthegraphis0.02662V/cminsteadof0.02720V/cmwhichisthecaseinthefirst
graph.
Evaluation
Thegraphshowsthattherearetwopointsthatdontfitwiththerestandthattheerrorbarofthe5
th
runisalotbiggerthattherest.Itisobviouslytoobigsincethedifferenceinheightbetweenallofthem
isnotbig,sotheyshouldhavealmostthesameuncertainties.
Airresistancewasnotaproblemeventhoughthegraphisnotlinear.Theexperimentwasrepeatedat
least5timesforeachheightsotheproblemisnottheairresistance.
Thegraphsyintersectisatapproximately(0;0.3).Thereasonwhyitislikethatmightbebecauseofthe
positionofthecoilwhentheexperimentwasperformed.Itwasaround10cm.abovetheground,soifI
droppedamagnetfromthebasethenitwilljustfalldownandgenerateEMF.
Thecontrolledvariablesplayabigrole.Asmentionedtheexperimenthadtobecontinuedinanother
daywhichmeansthattheheightofthebasemighthavechangedandthemagnetusedmighthavebeen
changed.Thismagnetmightbestrongerorweakerthantheoneusedinthe1
st
partoftheexperiment.
Itislesslikelythatthecoilchangedtheresultsbecauseithad1600turnsallthetime.
Themethodusedwasfairlysimple.Theheightoftheclamwaschanged,measuredwitharulerthenthe
magnetwasreadytobedropped.Ontheotherhand,themagnetusedmighthavechanged.Thepencil
wasusedbecauseitgaveabetterpositioningofthemagnetbyusingitsend.
Therangeofvaluesisfrom4.2to24.3.Idontknowifthegraphwouldhavebeenlinearorsomething
elseiftherangewasbigger,butitwouldhavedefinitelygivenabetteroverviewofthegraph,because
therangeusedisverysmall.Thenumberofrepetitionsmadeitpossibletocalculatetheuncertaintyand
theaveragevalue.Atleast5repetitionswereenoughtogivemethedataIneededtocalculatethem.
Improvingtheinvestigation
Theexperimentwasasmentionedin2parts.The1
st
onehadtobestoppedandthatmighthave
affectedtheexperiment.Thepointsinthegraphcouldhavebeenmoreconnectediftheexperiment
wasperformedinonepiece.Thiscanbesupportedbysayingthatthese2partsmighthavehaddifferent
apparatusi.e.themagnet.ItistheonethatgeneratestheEMFe.g.ifthemagnetisstrongerthenitwill
generatemorethantheweakeronifdroppedfromthesameheightandwiththesameapparatus.
Theuncertaintyofthelastrunisdifficulttoexplainsinceitisalotmoredifferentthantheresteven
thoughthedifferenceinheightisnotbige.g.from0.680.02injumpedto0.820.07.Itcouldbe
improvedbyperformingtheexperimentcalmlyinthatsensethatthemagnetshouldbedroppedinthe
samewayallthetime.Thebiggestvalue,orthesmallestvalue,inrun5mightbebecauseofthatIwas
hurryingupwhichmeansthatImighthavepusheditveryslightlydownwhenIdroppeditortheother
way.Ifthemaximumvaluewas0.801andtheminimumvalue0.772theuncertaintywouldhavebeen:
2
772 . 0 801 . 0
.
= Un =0.01450.01
Themeasurementoftheheightwasperformedwitharuler.Itismobilewhichmeansthatiteasilycan
bemoved,butifthemeasurerwasimmobileIthinkitwouldhavebeenbetter.Thiscouldbedoneby
havingastandthathavearuleronit.
Eventhoughthefrictionintherolledpapertothemagnetisverysmallitcanbelessened.Itcouldbeby
usingaglasstubethatcanfitthroughacoil,andwhereasmallmagnetcanfitin.
Awiderrangewouldgiveawiderrangeanddomaininthegraph.Thatwouldmaybeshowadifferent
shapeofthegraphwhichwouldmakeiteasiertoseeifitislinear,quadraticorsomethingelse.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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G4IAAssessmentsheet18/05/2008
Student:
Investigation:11.Magnetismdesign
Time:3Hrs
Date(s):08/09/07
Design
2
Definingtheproblem
andselectingvariables
2
Controllingvariables
2
Describingamethod
forcollectionofdata
Datacollection&presentation
2
Collectingrawdata
2
Processingrawdata
1
Presentingprocessed
data
Conclusion&Evaluation
1
Concluding
2
Evaluatingprocedure(s)
2
Improvingthe
investigation
G4IA
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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InternalAssessmentFeedback(4/IAF)
Some weeks after the results are released your school will receive feedback on the practical
programme. This does not give information about the grading just the programme and the
procedures for submitting the sample
If you want more information you have to request an IMR (see next section).
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Subject: PHYSICS Level: HL/SL Component: PRACTICAL WORK
Internal assessment feedback form: group 4 (4/IAF)
NAME OF TEACHER(S)
Chris Hamper
A) COMMENTS TO TEACHER(S) ON SAMPLE WORK
Were the investigations/projects appropriate for the assessment of particular criteria? If NO,
please complete section below
YES
Name of investigation(s) not suitable for assessing D and reasons why
Name of investigation(s) not suitable for assessing DCP and reasons why
Name of investigation(s) not suitable for assessing CE and reasons why
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON SECTION A
Good variation in design investigations. Strong DCP skills. Organized programme.
Student work is moderated for Section A ONLY
B) COMMENTS TO TEACHER(S) ON THE PRACTICAL PROGRAMME
Was the practical programme of the correct duration (40hrs SL, 60hrs HL)?
YES
Was the syllabus coverage (Core, AHL, Options) appropriate?
YES
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Was the sample of work of suitable complexity?
YES
Was there good coverage of ICT applications?
YES
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON SECTION B
Excellent use of both Vernier and Pasco tools for ICT related skills.
C) CLERICAL/PROCEDURAL
Was the form 4/PSOW submitted for each candidate completed correctly?
YES
Were the two highest levels for each criterion circled/highlighted on the form 4/PSOW for each
sample candidate?
YES
Were written instructions or outlines of verbal instructions included?
YES
ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON SECTION C
Clearly communicated.
Do not allow
turbine.
[2]
(b) (i) mass of water in crest
1
2
A L = ;
this falls through a height A;
change in potential energy
2
1
2
mgh A L g = = ; [3]
(ii)
v
= ;
2
1
2
A gv = [2]
(c) estimate of speed as
1
0.5 10ms
;
power per unit length
2 3
1
2
0.3 1.2 10 10 [0.5 10] = yields
1 1
270Wm 5.4kWm
; [2]
Award [1 max] for answer where no speed estimate made, response will leave
answer in form 540v. Do not apply a unit penalty in this question whether
algebraic or numerical solution.
(d) sinusoidal would have a smaller volume of water in each peak;
some indication that first marking point leads to a smaller amount; [2]
A5. (a) small area on silicon/semiconductor chip/semiconductor lattice;
that is the smallest part of the chip that can detect a photon / that behaves as a
capacitor / OWTTE; [2]
(b) photons cause emission of electrons/holes;
this changes the potential difference (developed across the pixel);
potential difference is proportional to light intensity; [3]
(c) position of pixel/colour/wavelength; [1]
(d) e.g. much greater quantum efficiency;
sensitive to wider range of e.m. spectrum;
processing time of image very much shorter;
image can be processed easily / no need for image to be developed;
image data can be transmitted directly;
much less storage space needed;
digital material can be reused unlike film;
film degrades with time;
film experiences reciprocity failure; [2 max]
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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TheExaminersReportonQuestionA4
Doesthedepthofaswimmingpoolaffectthemaximumspeed
achievedbyaswimmer?
Ratherthantryingtomeasurethespeedofswimmersindifferent
depthpoolsexperimentswereperformedinthephysicslabpullinga
floatingballacrossarippletank.Thisledtotheresearchquestion
Whatistherelationshipbetweenthedepthofwaterandthedrag
experiencedbyabodymovingacrossthesurface?
Whyisntitpossibletochargeaballoonthatisntblownup?
Thistopicledtotheresearchquestionwhatistherelationship
betweentheelectronaffinityofrubberandtheamountthatthe
rubberisstretched.Toperformtheexperimentamachinewasbuilt
thatcouldrubdifferentsamplesofstretchedrubberinthesame
way.
WhydoesmymotorbikeleantotheleftwhenIturnthehandle
barstotheright?
Ratherthanexperimentingonamotorbikeexperimentswere
performedinthelabwithasimplegyroscope.Theresearchquestion
washowistherateofprecessionofaspinningwheelrelatedtothe
appliedtorque?
Photo2GiovanniBraghieriIBphysicsstudent
andEEwriterridinghismotorbike.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
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Performingthepracticalwork
Mostextendedessayswillinvolvesomepracticalwork,youshould
startthisasearlyaspossible,ifitdoesntworkoryoufindyoudont
havetherightequipmentthenyoumightwanttochangethe
researchquestion.Youdonthavetospendhoursandhoursonthe
experiment(althoughsomestudentsdo)thewholeessayisonly
supposedtotake40hourssokeepthingsinperspective.Makesure
theexperimentsarerelevanttotheresearchquestionandthatyou
considerpossiblesourcesoferrorlikeyouwouldinanyotherpiece
ofpracticalwork.Ifyougetstuckaskyoursupervisorforhelp,they
cantdoitforyoubutcanhelpyousolveproblems.
Research
Rememberthatyouredoingresearchnotapieceofinternal
assessment,thismeansthatyoushouldfindoutwhatotherpeople
havedoneandcomparetheirfindingswithyourown.Thismightbe
difficultifyouhavechosenaparticularlynoveltopicbutmostthings
havebeendonebefore.YoucantrytheinternetbutSciencejournals
foundinUniversitylibrariesareoftenthebestgoodsourceof
information.
WritingtheEssay
Onceyouhavedonesomeresearchandconductedyourexperiment
youarereadytowritetheessay.Rememberyouaretryingto
answeraresearchquestionsogetstraighttothepoint,thereisno
needtotellastoryabouthowthishasbeenyourgreatestinterest
sinceyouwereasmallchildorsomethingofthatnature,youare
expectedtomakesomepersonalinputbutnotlikethat.
Makeaplanofhowyouwantyouressaytobe,thethreadrunning
throughitistheresearchquestion,dontlosesightofthis.Hereisa
planoftheessaymentionedaboveabouttheballoon:
Introductionofthetopicandresearchquestion,howthe
electronaffinityofrubberisconnectedtothechargingofa
balloon.
Thetheoryofchargingaballoonandelectronaffinity
Hypothesisbasedonthetheory
HowIamgoingtotestthehypothesis
Detailsofexperimentaltechnique
Resultsofexperiment
Interpretationofresultsincludingevaluationofmethod.
Conclusion,howmyresultssupportmyhypothesisandthe
findingsofothers.
Whyaballoonthatisinflatedcannotbecharged.
ExtendedEssayAssessment
TheextendedessayismarkedbyexperiencedPhysicsteachers
against11criteriaitisimportantthatyouunderstandthecriteria
sinceifyouressaydoesntsatisfythemitwontscorewellevenifits
reallygood.
AResearchQuestion
Mostimportantlyyourresearchquestionmustbephysicsandnot
justlooselyrelatedtophysics.DidIsaacNewtonsmotherinfluence
hislawsofmotion?Isntphysics.Aninvestigationintothe
relationshipbetweenthethicknessofJellyandtheattenuationofa
laserbeamis.Assumingyouhaveagoodresearchquestionmake
sureyouemphasiseitintheintroductionofyouressay,thefirst
paragraphwouldbegood.
Introduction
Theintroductionputsyourresearchquestionincontext;itisnot
supposedtobeastory.Givesomebackgroundinformationabout
thetopicyouareinvestigatingtohelpthereadertounderstandthe
researchquestion.Forexampleifyourresearchquestionisthe
relationshipbetweenthevelocityofatoyhedgehogandtheangleof
theslopeyouhadprobablybetterexplainhowthetoyhedgehog
works,howeverdontbothertellingastoryaboutthedayyou
boughtitandhowyourloveofphysicsblossomedfromthatday
forth.
Investigation
Thismarkisforthepracticalworkthatyoucarriedoutorinthecase
ofatheoreticalessaytheresearch.Includeenoughdetailsothatthe
readercanunderstandwhatyoudidbutdontgetboggeddownin
detail.Rememberitisanessaynotalabreport,dontwhateveryou
dousetitleslikeDatacollectionandProcessing.Ifyouhaveused
secondarydatamakesureyoureferencethesourcesandgivesome
indicationoftheirreliability.Ifyouhavegottheideaforyour
experimentaldesignfromabookortheinternetthenquotethe
source.Makesureyouestimatetheuncertaintiesinallofyour
measurementsandpropagatethencorrectlythroughany
calculations;allgraphsshouldincludeerrorbars.
Photo3Simpletoysbasedon
complexphysicsareoftenagood
sourceofideas
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
121
KnowledgeandUnderstandingofTopicStudied
Togainmarksinthiscriteriayoumustshowthatyouunderstandthe
physicsthatyouareusing.Itisalmostimpossibletowriteanessay
thatshowsyouunderstandsomethingifyoudontunderstanditso
chooseatopicthatyoueitherunderstandorthinkyouwillbeableto
understandifyoureaduponit.Thisiswhyitsnotagoodideato
writeanessayonsomethinglikestringtheory(unlessyouare
brilliantofcourse),itsalsowhyinterestingapplicationsof
Newtonianmechanicstonovelsituationsoftenleadtogoodessays.
ReasonedArgument
Tohaveareasonedargumentthatrunsthroughanessayrequiresa
goodessayplan.Whenyouhaveyourdataandknowyour
conclusionsplanhowyouaregoingtotellthestory.The
introductionshouldleadintotheexperiment,theresultsshould
implytheconclusion,andtheevaluationshouldbebasedon
evidencethatcanbeseenintheresults.EssaysinPhysicscan
becomeunconnectedsections,thinkcarefullyabouthowitfits
together,ifsomethingtakesyouawayfromthemainargument
leaveitout.
ApplicationofAnalyticalandevaluativeskillsappropriatetothe
subject
Mostessaysinphysicswillincludesomemathematics,makesure
youunderstandwhatyouaredoing,dontjustcopyderivationsfrom
abookorusecomputersoftwareblindly.Analyseyourdata
properly;someoftheapproximationsforcalculatingerrorsusedin
theinternalassessmentarenotgoodenoughifusinglargeamounts
ofdata.Evaluateyourexperimentaltechniquehonestly,donttryto
hidemistakes,itshowsyouunderstandwhatyouaredoingifyou
canspotmistakes.
UseofLanguageappropriatetothesubject
Inphysicswordsdonthavetwomeanings,usethelanguageof
physicscarefully.Ifyouusesymbolstorepresentquantitiesdefine
themclearlyandbeconsistent.Alwaysgivetheunitsofanyquantity.
Ifyoudontknowwhatatermmeansthendontuseit,sticktowhat
youknow.
Conclusion
Theresultsofyourexperimentshouldleadlogicallytothe
conclusion;thisispartofthedevelopmentoftheargument
mentionedpreviously.Whenyoufirstthoughtofyourresearch
questionyoumayalreadyhavethoughtoftheconclusion,tryto
forgetthisandbasetheconclusiononwhatyourexperimenttells
younotonwhatyouthoughtwouldhappen.Yourconclusionwillbe
havegreatervalidityifyouruncertaintiesaresmall,iftheyarelarge
thenexplainhowtheyaffectyourconclusion.Ifyourresultsare
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
122
inconclusivesaywhatfurtherinvestigationcouldbedonetoresolve
theproblem.
Formalpresentation
Makesureyouhaveincludedallofthecomponentslistedinthe
officialextendedessayguide:
Titlepage
Abstract
Tableofcontents
Pagenumbers
References
Bibliography
Abstract
Theabstractisanoverviewofthewholeessayincludingtheresearch
questionmethodofresearchandconclusion,hereisanexample:
TheRelationshipbetweentheDepthandtheDragofWater
Theaimoftheessayistoinvestigatetherelationshipbetweenthe
depthofwaterandtheresistingforcecausedbythewaterona
floatingobjectthatisbeingpulledparalleltothesurfaceofthe
water.Theexperimentonlydealswithasmallsphericalobjectthatis
beingpulledwithaconstantforce,onalowvelocityandonshallow
depthstolimitthescope.
Accordingtothedevelopedhypothesistheresistingforce,drag,is
proportionalto1/depthbecausethemovementofthesphere
pushesthewatertowardsthebottomwhichmeansthatthebottom
isalsopushingthewatertowardsthesphere.Thelongerthe
distancebetweenthesphereandthebottomthemoretheforceis
dispersedtootherdirections.
Amethodofmeasuringtheaccelerationofthesphereatacertain
velocitybutdifferentdepthswasusedtoexaminetherelationship.
Fromtheacceleration,themassesandthegravitationalforce
involveditispossibletocalculatethedrag.
Theconclusionoftheexperimentisthatthehypothesisdoeshold
truefortheconductedexperimenti.e.thedragisproportionalto
1/depthforthelimitedscopeofsituationthattheexperimentdeals
with.Therearealsocertainreservationsabouttheaccuracyofthe
experiment.
JoonasGoveniusRCNUWC
Why?
Encourageanunderstandingoftherelationshipsbetweenscientificdisciplines
andtheoverarchingnatureofthescientificmethod.(Aim10)
Encouragestudentstoworkasateam.Theabilitytobeagoodteammember
isseenasapositiveattributebymostemployersanduniversities.
TheTeam
Agroupofstudentsfromdifferentscientificdisciplines.
Howmany?
Cooperationeachteammemberdoingapart
CollaborationTheendresultisproducedbytheteam
Giveguidanceonteammanagement
Designingthetask
Clearlydefinedoutcome
AssessmentCriteria
Avarietyofrolesandresponsibilities
Scopeforcreativity
Groupproduct
Requirementforcooperation
Giveenoughtime
Assessment
mustunderstandtheassessmentcriteriaandhowtheywillbeapplied.
Assessingindividualcontributions.
Noteasytodoifyouarentthereallthetime
Difficulttojudgeasanoutsider
Assessingthefinalproduct.
Shouldallteammembersgetthesamemark?
Dontexpectthefinalproducttobehighquality.
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
127
AssessmentCriteria
PeerAssessment
Theteammembersknowmoreaboutwhocontributedmostthanyoudo.
Studentsdontlikegivingtheirfriendslowmarks
ModeratedTeacherAssessment
Giveamarkforeachstudent.
Geteachstudenttogradetheirpeers.
Moderateyourmarkbasedonthepeerassessment.
AssessmentExample
Teachersmark+averageofpeermarks
Evaluation:
OntheIBscaleof17(1Bad7Excellent)ratethefollowing
1. Thedayoverall
2. Thetopicoftheproject
3. Theorganisationoftheday
4. TheInformationgiven
Anyothercomments:
Barcelona 2009 Chris Hamper
129
Topic1:Physicsandphysicalmeasurement
1.1Therealmofphysics Measurementvsperception.
Howwedefinequantities.
Whatifthestandardmeterkeptchanging.
Whyiseverythingbasedonnumbers?
Istheresuchathingasanonphysicalworld?
1.2Measurementanduncertainties Canweevermeasureexactly,ifwecanthow
canwereallyknowanything?
Whydoweusegraphs?
Anscombesquartet.
1.3Vectorsandscalars Iseverythingreallyavectororascalar?
Topic2:Mechanics
2.1Kinematics Usinggraphstoaidunderstanding.
Usingequationstomodelswhatthephysical
world.
9.1Projectilemotion
2.2Forcesanddynamics WhydowecallNewtonsLawslaws.
Howarephysicslawsdifferenttootherlaws
Usinglawstomakepredictions
2.3Work,energyandpower Misuseofthewordenergy.
2.4Uniformcircularmotion Doescentrifugalforceexist?
Topic3:Thermalphysics
3.1Thermalconcepts Doesheatmeanthesamethinginother
contexts?
3.2Thermalpropertiesofmatter Particles,therecurringtheme.
10.1Thermodynamics Lawsmakestrongarguments.
10.2Processes Usinggraphstovisualisetheinvisible.
10.3Secondlawofthermodynamicsand
entropy
Isothermalchanges,notpracticallypossibleor
impossible.
Decreasingentropy,impossibleorunlikely.
Arrowsoftime
Topic4:Oscillationsandwaves
4.1Kinematicsofsimpleharmonicmotion
(SHM)
Patternsinphysics
4.2Energychangesduringsimpleharmonic
motion(SHM)
4.3Forcedoscillationsandresonance Learningthehardway,TacomaNarrows.
4.4Wavecharacteristics Patternsagain
4.5Waveproperties
11.1Standing(stationary)waves
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131
11.2Dopplereffect Usingphysicstocheatthespeedtrap.
11.3Diffraction
11.4Resolution Whenweuseanelectronmicroscopearewe
seeing?
11.5Polarization
Topic5:Electriccurrents
5.1Electricpotentialdifference,currentand
resistance
Analogiesinphysics
5.2Electriccircuits Doesitmatterwhatshappeninginthewireas
longasthelightgoeson?
Topic6:Fieldsandforces
6.1Gravitationalforceandfield Howcanthingsacceleratewithoutanything
touchingthem?
9.2Gravitationalfield,potentialandenergy
9.4Orbitalmotion Galileoandthechurch.
6.2Electricforceandfield Thesymmetryofthephysicalworld
9.3Electricfield,potentialandenergy
6.3Magneticforceandfield Monopolesanddipoles
12.1Inducedelectromotiveforce(emf) RulesnotLaws
12.2Alternatingcurrent
12.3Transmissionofelectricalpower Healthhazardsandthemedia.
Topic7:Atomicandnuclearphysics
7.1Theatom Thedevelopmentofmodelsthrough
experiment.
IsthisHistory?
13.1Quantumphysics Howcansomethingbeaparticleandawave?
Paradigmshifts.
7.2Radioactivedecay EthicsofusingdatafromHiroshima.
Radioactivedatingandreligion.
7.3Nuclearreactions,fissionandfusion Ethicsofresearchtomakebombs
13.2Nuclearphysics IstheWWWtheonlythingthatCERNhasdone?
Topic8:Energy,powerandclimatechange
8.1Energydegradationandpowergeneration
8.2Worldenergysources Howdoweknowhowmuchoilisleft?
8.3Fossilfuelpowerproduction
8.4Nonfossilfuelpowerproduction Isitphysicsoreconomics?
8.5Greenhouseeffect
8.6Globalwarming Internationalproblemandinternational
solutions.
Whatdoes99%certainmean?
Politicsandphysics
Topic14:Digitaltechnology
14.1Analogueanddigitalsignals ChinesealphabetandASCII
14.2Datacapture;digitalimagingusingcharge
coupleddevices(CCDs)
TheeffectsofdevelopmentsinPhysicson
society.
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OptionE:Astrophysics
E1Introductiontotheuniverse Mansobsessionwiththestars.
Horoscopes.
E2Stellarradiationandstellartypes Basedonasmallamountoflight.
Howbrightisastar,earlymeasurements.
E3Stellardistances Canwehaveafeelforthesedistances.
E4Cosmology RecreatingthebigbangatCERN.
E5Stellarprocessesandstellarevolution Graphsandcharts.
Howcanweknowwhathappenedwhenwe
onlyseewhatistheretoday.
E6Galaxiesandtheexpandinguniverse Cosmologyandreligion
Whatwastherebeforethebigbang?
Chancediscoveries.
Justifyingtheexpenseofresearch.
OptionF:Communications
F1Radiocommunication
F2Digitalsignals Thedigitalrevolution.
Redundanttechnology.
Samplingandtheinterpretationofsignals
F3Opticfibretransmission Opticalfibreseverywhere,whodecides?
F4Channelsofcommunication Satellitesandspacelaw.
F5Electronics Cananyonecomprehendtheelectricalcctsina
computer?
F6Themobilephonesystem Mobilephonesandsociety.
Canamobilecookyourbrain?
OptionG:Electromagneticwaves
G1NatureofEMwavesandlightsources EMradiationandHealth.
G2Opticalinstruments
G3Twosourceinterferenceofwaves
G4Diffractiongrating
G5Xrays
G6Thinfilminterference Doesknowingwhyabubbleiscolouredmakeit
morebeautiful?
OptionH:Relativity
H1Introductiontorelativity
H2Conceptsandpostulatesofspecialrelativity Theuseofpostulatesinscience.
Toproveitwrongyoumustprovethepostulate
wrong.
H3Relativistickinematics Theuseofthoughexperiments
H4Someconsequencesofspecialrelativity Isthisalljustmadeupbyphysicists?
Dothingsgetshorterorisitanopticalillusion?
H5Evidencetosupportspecialrelativity Uncertainties
H6Relativisticmomentumandenergy
H7Generalrelativity Howcanwevisualisecurvedspacetime?
H8Evidencetosupportgeneralrelativity Isitafieldoracurvedspace?
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OptionI:Medicalphysics
I1Theearandhearing Perceptionandmeasurement
I2Medicalimaging Technologyfortherich.
I3Radiationinmedicine Benefitsoutweightherisk.
Nosafelimit
Ethicsoftesting.
OptionJ:Particlephysics
J1Particlesandinteractions
J2Particleacceleratorsanddetectors IsCERNworththeexpense?
explodingblackboxes
Technologyandknowledge
J3Quarks Isthesimplestmodelnecessarilytherightone?
Whennumbersarenotenough.
Ifaquarkcannotexistonitsowndoesitexist?
StrangenessandCharm,languageinphysics.
J4Leptonsandthestandardmodel
J5Experimentalevidenceforthequarkand
standardmodels
Isthisphysicsorstampcollecting?
J6Cosmologyandstrings Arewegettingclosertothetruthorsimply
diggingadeeperhole?
Dowehavetoknoweverything?
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