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1 EYES AND CAMERAS: EVERYDAY LIGHT SENSORS Eyes Lens bends light and creates an image on the retina (which contains cones and rods: lightsensitive cells) Light slows down when it enters eye because light travel slower thru denser matter o Refraction: when the wave bends because it has slowed down Light converges at the focus Nonparallel rays of light dont converge at focus, but still follow same rules and create an image in our eyes on the focal plane Pupil controls amount of light that gets let in Recording Images Works in same way as eye, but makes permanent image with a detector (any object that records light) Now use CCS (charge-coupled devices), or electronic detectors o Chip of silicon divided into Pixels: a grid SECTION 6.2 TELESCOPES: GIANT EYES Properties of Telescopes Light-Collecting Area: tells us how much total light the telescope collects at one time o Telescope diameter is its light-collecting area Angular Resolution: smallest angle over which we can tell the two stars are distinct o Some larger telescopes can have an angular resolution >.05 arcsecs o Overlapping beams of light can interfere with each other and reduce ang res o Diffraction limit: the ang res that a telescope could achieve if it was only limited by interference of light waves Diffraction limit is larger for longer wavelengths Designs of Telescopes Refracting: a telescope that uses glass lenses to focus light Reflecting: has curved primary mirror to gather light, which is reflected to a secondary mirror, then to a focus which can be looked at with the eye o Mostly all research telescopes are reflectors Telescope Use Imaging: placing filters in front of the camera to only allow certain colors or wavelengths o Pics are often combined o Most images created without visible light, then color coded Spectroscopy o Spectrograph: record spectra, use diffraction to separate various colors of light into the spectra, which are recorded o Spectral resolution: degree of detail that can be seen in a spectrum, higher = more detail Timing o Light curves: graph that shows how an objects intensity varies with time

SECTION 6.3 TELESCOPES AND THE ATMOSPHERE Most observations only practical at night b/c atmosphere scatters sunlight Light Pollution: human-made light hindering astronomical observation (esp at night) Turbulence: wind and air currents causing the air in the atmosphere to constantly be moving and mixing around o Causes light bending properties to be constantly changing, which causes stars to twinkle o Blurs astronomical images o Limits ground based angular resolution o Adaptive optics: telescopes flex quickly to account for bending of starlight due to turbulence Telescopes in Space o Above atmosphere, unaffected by atmosphere and daylight o Atmosphere prevents most forms of EM radiation from reaching ground at all SECTION 6.4 TELESCOPES AND TECHNOLOGY Technology increases at astonishing rate, telescopes become smaller and more powerful Atmospheric distortion is being overcome Computers aid in recording and analyzing data Observing Invisible Light Radio Telescopes: like satellite dishes o Satellite dishes point at a geosynchronous satellite, astronomical radio telescopes point at cosmic radio sources o Some are very large to detect long wavelengths Infrared Telescopes o Look similar to visible light telescopes because infrared radiation behaves similarly to light o Can be attached to planes to receive more infrared radiation in the atmosphere o Most effective in space b/c many objects on Earth emit thermal radiation which interferes with infrared rays Ultraviolet Telescopes o Visible light mirrors can pick it up, but most absorbed by the atmosphere X-Ray: cant be observed from the ground, and can also puncture many materials o Grazing incidence mirrors can deflect X-rays Gamma Rays pierce even grazing incidence mirrors and require massive detectors Also have telescopes to measure neutrinos, cosmic rays, and gravitational waves Interferometry Linking 2 or more individual telescopes to achieve angular resolution of a much larger telescope