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# HYPERBOLIC GEOMETRY

## 117785053 127785020 127785021 127785082

MATHEMATICS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT DUAL DEGREE PROGRAM GRADUATE SURABAYA STATE UNIVERSITY

2013

A. History of Hyperbolic Geometry In mathematics, geometry is generally classified into two types, Euclidean and nonEuclidean. The essential difference between Euclidean and Non-Euclidean geometry is the nature of parallel lines. Recall, that Euclid started with a small set of axioms (postulates), five to be precise. The first four of these axioms are very clear and concise. Here are Euclid's postulates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Each pair of points can be joined by one and only one straight line segment Any straight line segment can be indefinitely extended in either direction There is exactly one circle of any given radius with any given center All right angles are congruent to one another If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if extended indefinitely, meet on that side on which the angles are less than two right angles. Of these five postulates, the fifth is by far the most complicated and unnatural. Given the first four, the fifth postulate can easily be seen to be equivalent to thefollowing parallel postulate, which explains why the expressions Euclid's fifth postulate" and the parallel parallel" are often used interchangeably: Given a line and a point not on it, there is exactly one line going through the given point that is parallel to the given line For two thousand years mathematicians attempted to deduce the fiffth postulate from the four simpler postulates. In each case one reduced the proof of the fifth postulate to the conjunction of the first four postulates with an additional natural postulate that, in fact, proved to be equivalent to the fifth: Proclus (ca. 400 A.D.) used as additional postulate the assumption that the points at constant distance from a given line on one side form a straight line. The Englishman John Wallis (1616 1703) used the assumption that to every triangle there is a similar triangle of each given size. The Italian Girolamo Saccheri (1667 1733) considered quadrilaterals with two base angles equal to a right angle and with vertical sides having equal length and deduced

consequences from the (non-Euclidean) possibility that the remaining two angles were not right angles. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728 1777) proceeded in a similar fashion and wrote an extensive work on the subject, posthumously published in 1786. Gottingen mathematician Kastner (1719 1800) directed a thesis of student Klugel (1739 1812), which considered approximately thirty proof attempts for the parallel postulate. Decisive progress came in the nineteenth century, when mathematicians abandoned the effort to find a contradiction in the denial of the fifth postulate and instead worked out carefully and completely the consequences of such a denial. It was found that a coherent theory arises if instead one assumes that Given a line and a point not on it, there is more than one line going through the given point that is parallel to the given line. This postulate is to hyperbolic geometry as the parallel postulate 50 is to Euclidean geometry. Unusual consequences of this change came to be recognized as fundamental and surprising properties of non-Euclidean geometry: equidistant curves on either side of a straight line were in fact not straight but curved; similar triangleswere congruent; angle sums in a triangle were not equal to , and so forth. History has associated five names with this enterprise, those of three professional mathematicians and two amateurs.The amateurs were jurist Schweikart and his nephew Taurinus (1794 1874).By 1816 Schweikart had developed, in his spare time, an astral geometry" thatwas independent of the fifth postulate. His nephew Taurinus had attained anon-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry by the year 1824. The professionals were Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 1855), Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevskii (1793 1856), and Janos (or Johann) Bolyai (1802 1860). From the papers of his estate it is apparent that Gauss had considered the parallel postulate extensively during his youth and at least by the year 1817 had a clear picture of non-Euclidean geometry. The only indications he gave of his knowledge were small comments in his correspondence. Having satisfied his own curiosity, he was not interested in defending the concept in the controversy that was sure to accompany its announcement. Bolyai's father Farkas (or Wolfgang) (1775 1856) was a student friend of Gauss and remained in correspondence

with him throughout his life. Farkas devoted much of his life's effort unsuccessfully to the proof of the parallel postulate and consequently tried to turn his son away from its study. Nevertheless, Janos attacked the problem with vigor and had constructed the foundations of hyperbolic geometry by the year 1823. His work appeared in 1832 or 1833 as an appendix to a textbook written by his father. Lobachevskii also developed a non-Euclidean geometry extensively and was, in fact, the first to publish his findings, in 1829. See [Lobachevski 1898; Bolyai and Bolyai 1913] Gauss, the Bolyais, and Lobachevskideveloped non-Euclidean geometry axiomatically on a synthetic basis. They had neither an analytic understanding nor an analytic model of nonEuclidean geometry. They did not prove the consistency of their geometries. They instead satisfied themselves with the conviction they attained by extensive exploration in nonEuclidean geometry where theorem after theorem t consistently with what they had discovered to date. Lobachevskideveloped a non-Euclidean trigonometry that paralleled the trigonometric formulas of Euclidean geometry. He argued for the consistency based on the consistency of his analytic formulas. The basis necessary for an analytic study of hyperbolic non-Euclidean geometry was laid by Leonhard Euler, Gaspard Monge, and Gauss in their studies of curved surfaces. In 1837 Lobachevski suggested that curved surfaces of constant negative curvature might represent non-Euclidean geometry. Two years later, working independently and largely in ignorance of Lobachevski's work, yet publishing in the same journal, Minding made an extensive study of surfaces of constant curvature and verified Lobachevski suggestion. Bernhard Riemann (1826 1866), in his vast generalization [Riemann 1854] of curved surfaces to the study of what are now called Riemannian manifolds, recognized all of these relationships and, in fact, to some extent used them as a springboard for his studies. All of the connections among these subjects were particularly pointed out by Eugenio Beltrami in 1868. This analytic work provided specific analytic models for non-Euclidean geometry and established the fact that non-Euclidean geometry was precisely as consistent as Euclidean geometry itself.

B. People in Hyperbolic Geometry 1. Johann Carl Friedrich (30 April 1777 23 February 1855)

Johann Carl Friedrich was a German mathematician and physical scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy and optics. Sometimes referred to as the the Prince of Mathematicians" or "the foremost of mathematicians and "greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had a remarkable influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history's most influential mathematicians. He referred to mathematics as "the queen of sciences". Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Braunschweig (Brunswick), in the Duchy of Braunschweig-Wolfenbttel, now part of Lower Saxony, Germany, as the son of poor working-class parents. Indeed, his mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension, which itself occurs 40 days after Easter. Gauss would later solve this puzzle about his birthdate in the context of finding the date of Easter, deriving methods to compute the date in both past and future years. He was christened and confirmed in a church near the school he attended as a child Gauss's intellectual abilities attracted the attention of the Duke of Braunschweig, who sent him to the Collegium Carolinum (now Technische Universitt Braunschweig), which he attended from 1792 to 1795, and to the University of Gttingen from 1795 to 1798. While at university, Gauss independently rediscovered several important theorems; his breakthrough occurred in 1796 when he showed that any regular polygon with a number of sides which is a Fermat prime (and, consequently, those polygons with any number of sides which is the product of distinct Fermat primes and a power of 2) can be constructed by compass and straightedge. This was a major discovery in an important field of mathematics; construction problems had occupied mathematicians since the days of the Ancient Greeks, and the discovery ultimately led Gauss to choose mathematics instead of philology as a career. Gauss was so pleased by this result that he requested that

a regular heptadecagon be inscribed on his tombstone. The stonemason declined, stating that the difficult construction would essentially look like a circle. The year 1796 was most productive for both Gauss and number theory. He discovered a construction of the heptadecagon on 30 March. He further advanced modular arithmetic, greatly simplifying manipulations in number theory. On 8 April he became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law. This remarkably general law allows mathematicians to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic. The prime number theorem, conjectured on 31 May, gives a good understanding of how the prime numbers are distributed among the integers. Gauss also discovered that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers on 10 July and then jotted down in his diary the famous note: "! num = + + ". On October 1 he published a result on the number of solutions of polynomials with coefficients in finite fields, which 150 years later led to the Weil conjectures. In his 1799 doctorate in absentia, A new proof of the theorem that every integral rational algebraic function of one variable can be resolved into real factors of the first or second degree, Gauss proved the fundamental theorem of algebra which states that every non-constant single-variable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one complex root. Mathematicians including Jean le Rond d'Alembert had produced false proofs before him, and Gauss's dissertation contains a critique of d'Alembert's work. Ironically, by today's standard, Gauss's own attempt is not acceptable, owing to implicit use of the Jordan curve theorem. However, he subsequently produced three other proofs, the last one in 1849 being generally rigorous. His attempts clarified the concept of complex numbers considerably along the way. Gauss also made important contributions to number theory with his 1801 book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin, Arithmetical Investigations), which, among things, introduced the symbol for congruence and used it in a clean presentation of modular arithmetic, contained the first two proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, developed the theories of binary and ternary quadratic forms, stated the class number problem for them, and showed that a regular heptadecagon (17-sided polygon) can be constructed with straightedge and compass.

In 1818 Gauss, putting his calculation skills to practical use, carried out a geodesic survey of the Kingdom of Hanover, linking up with previous Danish surveys. To aid the survey, Gauss invented the heliotrope, an instrument that uses a mirror to reflect sunlight over great distances, to measure positions. Gauss also claimed to have discovered the possibility of non-Euclidean geometries but never published it. This discovery was a major paradigm shift in mathematics, as it freed mathematicians from the mistaken belief that Euclid's axioms were the only way to make geometry consistent and non-contradictory. Research on these geometries led to, among other things, Einstein's theory of general relativity, which describes the universe as non-Euclidean. His friend Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai with whom Gauss had sworn "brotherhood and the banner of truth" as a student, had tried in vain for many years to prove the parallel postulate from Euclid's other axioms of geometry. Bolyai's son, Jnos Bolyai, discovered non-Euclidean geometry in 1829; his work was published in 1832. After seeing it, Gauss wrote to Farkas Bolyai: "To praise it would amount to praising myself. For the entire content of the work ... coincides almost exactly with my own meditations which have occupied my mind for the past thirty or thirty-five years." This unproved statement put a strain on his relationship with Jnos Bolyai (who thought that Gauss was "stealing" his idea), but it is now generally taken at face value. Letters from Gauss years before 1829 reveal him obscurely discussing the problem of parallel lines. Waldo Dunnington, a biographer of Gauss, argues in Gauss, Titan of Science that Gauss was in fact in full possession of non-Euclidean geometry long before it was published by Jnos Bolyai, but that he refused to publish any of it because of his fear of controversy. The survey of Hanover fueled Gauss's interest in differential geometry, a field of mathematics dealing with curves and surfaces. Among other things he came up with the notion of Gaussian curvature. This led in 1828 to an important theorem, the Theorema Egregium (remarkable theorem), establishing an important property of the notion of curvature. Informally, the theorem says that the curvature of a surface can be determined entirely by measuring angles and distances on the surface. That is, curvature does not

depend on how the surface might be embedded in 3-dimensional space or 2-dimensional space. 2. Jnos Bolyai (15 December 1802 27 January 1860) Jnos Bolyai (15 December 1802 27 January 1860) was aHungarian mathematician, one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines. The discovery of a consistent alternative geometry that might correspond to the structure of the universe helped to free mathematicians to study abstract concepts irrespective of any possible connection with the physical world. He became so obsessed with Euclid's parallel postulate that his father wrote to him: "For God's sake, I beseech you, give it up. Fear it no less than sensual passions because it too may take all your time and deprive you of your health, peace of mind and happiness in life". Jnos, however, persisted in his quest and eventually came to the conclusion that the postulate is independent of the other axioms of geometry and that different consistent geometries can be constructed on its negation. He wrote to his father: "Out of nothing I have created a strange new universe". Between 1820 and 1823 he prepared a treatise on a complete system of nonEuclidean geometry. Bolyai's work was published in 1832 as an appendix to a mathematics textbook by his father. Gauss, on reading the Appendix, wrote to a friend saying "I regard this young geometer Bolyai as a genius of the first order". In 1848 Bolyai discovered that Lobachevsky had published a similar piece of work in 1829. Though Lobachevsky published his work a few years earlier than Bolyai, it contained only hyperbolic geometry. Bolyai and Lobachevsky did not know each other or each other's works. In addition to his work in geometry, Bolyai developed a rigorous geometric concept ofcomplex numbers as ordered pairs of real numbers. Although he never published more than the 24 pages of the Appendix, he left more than 20,000 pages of mathematical manuscripts when he died. These can now be found in the Bolyai-Teleki library in Trgu Mure, where Bolyai died.

3.

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (December 1, 1792 February 24, 1856) Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (December 1, 1792

February 24, 1856 ) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry. William Kingdon Clifford called Lobachevsky the "Copernicus of Geometry" due to the revolutionary character of his work. Lobachevsky's main achievement is the development (independently from Jnos Bolyai) of a non-Euclidean geometry, also referred to as Lobachevskian geometry. Before him, mathematicians were trying to deduce Euclid's fifth postulate from other axioms. Euclid's fifth is a rule in Euclidean geometry which states (in John Playfair's reformulation) that for any given line and point not on the line, there is one parallel line through the point not intersecting the line. Lobachevsky would instead develop a geometry in which the fifth postulate was not true. This idea was first reported on February 23 (Feb. 11, O.S.), 1826 to the session of the department of physics and mathematics, and this research was printed in the UMA ( ) in 18291830. Lobachevsky wrote a paper about it called A concise outline of the foundations of geometry that was published by the Kazan Messenger but was rejected when it was submitted to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences for publication. The non-Euclidean geometry that Lobachevsky developed is referred to as hyperbolic geometry. Lobachevsky replaced Playfair's axiomwith the statement that for any given point there exists more than one line that can be extended through that point and run parallel to another line of which that point is not part. He developed the angle of parallelism which depends on the distance the point is off the given line. In hyperbolic geometry the sum of angles in a hyperbolic triangle must be less than 180 degrees. NonEuclidean geometrystimulated the development of differential geometry which has many applications. Hyperbolic geometry is frequently referred to as "Lobachevskian geometry" or "Bolyai-Lobachevskian geometry".

Some mathematicians and historians have wrongfully claimed that Lobachevsky in his studies in non-Euclidean geometry was influenced by Gauss, which is untrue Gauss himself appreciated Lobachevsky's published works very highly, but they never had personal correspondence between them prior to the publication. In fact out of the three people that can be credited with discovery of hyperbolic geometry - Gauss, Lobachevsky and Bolyai, Lobachevsky rightfully deserves having his name attached to it, since Gauss never published his ideas and out of the latter two Lobachevsky was the first who duly presented his views to the world mathematical community. Lobachevsky's magnum opus Geometriya was completed in 1823, but was not published in its exact original form until 1909, long after he had died. Lobachevsky was also the author of New Foundations of on Geometry (18351838). the Theory He also of

wrote Geometrical

Investigations

Parallels (1840) and Pangeometry (1855). Another of Lobachevsky's achievements was developing a method for the approximation of the roots of algebraic equations. This method is now known as the DandelinGrffe method, named after two other mathematicians who discovered it independently. In Russia, it is called the Lobachevsky method. Lobachevsky gave the definition of a function as a correspondence between two sets of real numbers (Dirichlet gave the same definition independently soon after Lobachevsky). 4. Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (September 5, 1667 October 25, 1733) Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri (September 5, 1667 October 25, 1733) was an Italian Jesuit priest,scholastic philosopher, and mathematician. Saccheri was born in Sanremo. He entered the Jesuit order in 1685, and was ordained as a priest in 1694. He taught philosophy at Turin from 1694 to 1697, and philosophy, theology, and mathematics atPavia from 1697 until his death. He was a protg of the mathematician Tommaso Ceva and published several works

## geometrica (1693), Logica

demonstrativa (1697),

and Neo-

He is primarily known today for his last publication, in 1733 shortly before his death. Now considered the second work in non-Euclidean geometry, Euclides ab omni naevo vindicatus (Euclid Freed of Every Flaw) languished in obscurity until it was rediscovered by Eugenio Beltrami in the mid-19th Century. Many of Saccheri's ideas have a precedent in the 11th Century Persian polymath Omar Khayyam'sDiscussion of Difficulties in Euclid (Risla f sharh m ashkala min musdart Kitb 'Ugldis), a fact ignored in most Western sources until recently. It is unclear whether Saccheri had access to this work in translation, or developed his ideas independently. The Saccheri quadrilateral is now sometimes referred to as the Khayyam-Saccheri quadrilateral. The intent of Saccheri's work was ostensibly to establish the validity of Euclid by means of a reductio ad absurdum proof of any alternative to Euclid's parallel postulate. To do this he assumed that the parallel postulate was false, and attempted to derive a contradiction. Since Euclid's postulate is equivalent to the statement that the sum of the internal angles of a triangle is 180, he considered both the hypothesis that the angles add up to more or less than 180. The first led to the conclusion that straight lines are finite, contradicting Euclid's second postulate. So Saccheri correctly rejected it. However, today this principle is accepted as the basis of elliptic geometry, where both the second and fifth postulates are rejected. The second possibility turned out to be harder to refute. In fact he was unable to derive a logical contradiction and instead derived many non-intuitive results; for example that triangles have a maximum finite area and that there is an absolute unit of length. He finally concluded that: "the hypothesis of the acute angle is absolutely false; because it is repugnant to the nature of straight lines". Today, his results are theorems of hyperbolic geometry. There is some minor argument on whether Saccheri really meant this, as he published his work in the final year of his life, came extremely close to discovering non-

Euclidean geometry and was a logician. Some believe Saccheri only concluded in such way in an intent to avoid criticism that might come from seemingly illogical aspects of hyperbolic geometry. 5. Johann Heinrich Lambert (26 August 1728 25 September 1777) Johann Heinrich Lambert (26 August 1728 25 September 1777) was a Swissmathematician, physicist, philosopher and astronomer. He is best known for proving theIrrationality of . Asteroid 187 Lamberta was named in his honour. Lambert was the first to introduce hyperbolic functions into trigonometry. Also, he made conjectures regarding non-Euclidean space. Lambert is credited with the first proof that is irrational (although it is speculated that Aryabhata was the first to hint at that, in 500 CE). Lambert also devised theorems regarding conic sections that made the calculation of the orbits of comets simpler. Lambert devised a formula for the relationship between the angles and the area of hyperbolic triangles. These are triangles drawn on a concave surface, as on a saddle, instead of the usual flat Euclidean surface. Lambert showed that the angles cannot add up to (radians), or 180. The amount of shortfall, called defect, is proportional to the area. The larger the triangle's area, the smaller the sum of the angles and hence the larger the defect C = ( + + ). That is, the area of a hyperbolic triangle (multiplied by a constant C) is equal to (in radians), or 180, minus the sum of the angles , , and . Here C denotes, in the present sense, the negative of thecurvature of the surface (taking the negative is necessary as the curvature of a saddle surface is defined to be negative in the first place). As the triangle gets larger or smaller, the angles change in a way that forbids the existence of similar hyperbolic triangles, as only triangles that have the same angles will have the same area. Hence, instead of expressing the area of the triangle in terms of the lengths of its sides, as in Euclid's geometry, the area of Lambert's hyperbolic triangle can be expressed in terms of its angles.

6.

Eugenio Beltrami (November 16, 1835 June 4, 1899) Eugenio Beltrami (November 16, 1835, Cremona June 4, 1899, Rome) was an Italianmathematician notable for his work concerning differential geometry and mathematical physics. His work was noted especially for clarity of exposition. He was the first to prove consistency of non-Euclidean geometry by modeling it on a surface

of constant curvature, the pseudosphere, and in the interior of an n-dimensional unit sphere, the so-calledBeltramiKlein model. He also developed singular value decomposition for matrices, which has been subsequently rediscovered several times. Beltrami's use of differential calculus for problems of mathematical physics indirectly influenced development of tensor calculusby Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro and Tullio LeviCivita. In 1868 Beltrami published two memoirs (written in Italian; French translations by J. Hoel appeared in1869) dealing with consistency and interpretations of nonEuclidean geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky. In his "Essay on an interpretation of non-Euclidean geometry", Beltrami proposed that this geometry could be realized on a surface of constant negativecurvature, a pseudosphere. For Beltrami's concept, lines of the geometry are represented by geodesics on the pseudosphere and theorems of nonEuclidean geometry can be proved within ordinary three-dimensional Euclidean space, and not derived in an axiomatic fashion, as Lobachevsky and Bolyai had done previously. In 1840, Minding already considered geodesic triangles on the pseudosphere and remarked that the corresponding "trigonometric formulas" are obtained from the corresponding formulas of spherical trigonometry by replacing the usual trigonometric functions with hyperbolic functions; this was further developed by Codazzi in 1857, but apparently neither of them noticed the association with Lobachevsky's work. In this way, Beltrami attempted to demonstrate that two-dimensional non-Euclidean geometry is as valid as the Euclidean geometry of the space, and in particular, that Euclid's parallel postulate could not be derived from the other axioms of Euclidean geometry. It is often stated that this proof was incomplete due to the singularities of the pseudosphere, which means that geodesics could not be extended indefinitely. However, John Stillwell remarks

that Beltrami must have been well aware of this difficulty, which is also manifested by the fact that the pseudosphere is topologically a cylinder, and not a plane, and he spent a part of his memoir designing a way around it. By a suitable choice of coordinates, Beltrami showed how the metric on the pseudosphere can be transferred to the unit disk and that the singularity of the pseudosphere corresponds to a horocycle on the nonEuclidean plane. On the other hand, in the introduction to his memoir, Beltrami states that it would be impossible to justify "the rest of Lobachevsky's theory", i.e. the nonEuclidean geometry of space, by this method. In the second memoir published during the same year (1868), "Fundamental theory of spaces of constant curvature", Beltrami continued this logic and gave an abstract proof of equiconsistency of hyperbolic and Euclidean geometry for any dimension. He accomplished this by introducing several models of non-Euclidean geometry that are now known as the BeltramiKlein model, the Poincar disk model, and the Poincar half-plane model, together with transformations that relate them. For the half-plane model, Beltrami cited a note byLiouville in the treatise

of Monge on differential geometry. Beltrami also showed that n-dimensional Euclidean geometry is realized on ahorosphere of the (n + 1)-dimensional hyperbolic space, so the logical relation between consistency of the Euclidean and the non-Euclidean geometries is symmetric. Beltrami acknowledged the influence of Riemann's

groundbreaking Habilitation lecture "On the hypotheses on which geometry is based" (1854; published posthumously in 1868). Although today Beltrami's "Essay" is recognized as very important for the development of non-Euclidean geometry, the reception at the time was less enthusiastic. Cremona objected to perceived circular reasoning, which even forced Beltrami to delay the publication of the "Essay" by one year. Subsequently, Felix Klein failed to acknowledge Beltrami's priority in construction of the projective disk model of the non-Euclidean geometry. This reaction can be attributed in part to the novelty of Beltrami's reasoning, which was similar to the ideas of Riemann concerning abstract manifolds. J. Hoel published Beltrami's proof in his French translation of works of Lobachevsky and Bolyai.

7. Felix Klein (25th April 1849 22 June 1925) Klein was born in Dusseldorf on 25th April 1849. Klein attended the Gymnasium in Dsseldorf. After graduating, he entered the University of Bonn and studied mathematics and physics there during 1865-1866. He started out on his career with the intention of becoming a physicist. While still studying at the University of Bonn, he was appointed to the post of laboratory assistant to Plcker in 1866. Plcker held a chair of mathematics and experimental physics at Bonn but, by the time Klein became his assistant, Plcker 's interests had become very firmly rooted in geometry. Klein received his doctorate, which was supervised by Plcker , from the University of Bonn in 1868, with a dissertation ber die Transformation der allgemeinen Gleichung des zweiten Grades zwischen Linien-Koordinaten auf eine kanonische Form on line geometry and its applications to mechanics. In his dissertation Klein classified second degree line complexes using Weierstrass 's theory of elementary divisors. However in the year Klein received his doctorate Plcker died leaving his major work on the foundations of line geometry incomplete. Klein was the obvious person to complete the second part of Plcker 's Neue Gometrie des Raumes and this work led him to become acquainted with Clebsch . Clebsch had moved to Gttingen in 1868 and, during 1869, Klein made visits to Berlin and Paris and Gttingen. In July 1870 Klein was in Paris when Bismarck, the Prussian chancellor, published a provocative message aimed at infuriating the French government. France declared war on Prussia on the 19th of July and Klein felt he could no longer remain in Paris and returned. Then, for a short period,

he did military service as a medical orderly before being appointed as a lecturer at Gttingen in early 1871. Klein was appointed professor at Erlangen, in Bavaria in southern Germany, in 1872. He was strongly supported by Clebsch , who regarded him as likely to become the leading mathematician of his day, and so Klein held a chair from the remarkably early age of 23. However Klein did not build a school at Erlangen where there were only a few students, so he was pleased to be offered a chair at the Technische Hochschule at Munich in 1875. There he, and his colleague Brill , taught advanced courses to large numbers of excellent students and Klein's great talent at teaching was fully expressed. Among the students that Klein taught while at Munich were Hurwitz , von Dyck , Rohn , Runge , Planck , Bianchi and Ricci-Curbastro . Also in 1875 Klein married Anne Hegel, the granddaughter of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. In 1886, Klein had a position in Gottingen University. He taught in Gottingen until 1913, but he still strieve to rebuild Gottingen as the famous center of mathematics research in the world. In 1925 he passed away. Klein contribution in geometry is that publish two pieces of paper which called Non-Euclidean Geometry where he showed that Euclidean geometry and non-Euclidean geometry considered as special projective case with the a certain surface formed a con. 8. Henri Poincare (24 April 1854 17 July 1912) Henri Poincare was born in Cite Ducale, Nancy, Meurtheet-Moselle France. In 1862 he entered Lycee University. It took eleven years in the university for that long he became one of the

best student in every lesson because he had an incredeable memory. In 1873, Poincare attented to Ecole Polytechnique and finish in 1875. Actually in the polytechnique he was not succes enough hence he tried to learn piano. After his graduation from Ecole Polytechnique, Poincare continue the study in Ecole des Lombong. After accomplish his studi there, he dedicated his time as engineer in Vesoul. Since he work, he complete the doctoral study, afterward Poincare became a lecturer in Caen University and taught math for at least 2 years. In 1886 Poincare nominated for physic and mathematics department in Sorbone Univerity. He tought about optic, electricity, math electricity, astronomy, and rays. His contribution in every part of branches, such as math, mechanics, fluid mechanics, relativity theory and the phylosopy of science. For to know before 30 years old he had developed automorphic function concepts.Poincare died in 1912 at the age of 58 years old. C. LOBACHEVSKY GEOMETRY Nowadays, non-Euclid geometry from Bolyai has been introduced, and Lobachevsky, as a formal theory which base on some postulates. This theory is called Lobachevsky Geometry to facilitate and to sign the Lobachevskys opus. Lobachevsky geometry can be classified on neutral geometry with esteemed that the sum of the angles of every triangle is less than 180. Nevertheless, we would as follow its developments history and learn it directly in its connection with Euclides parallel postulates. Therefore, to classify on Lobachevsky geometry, we just accept all of Euclides geometry postulates with banish its parallel postulate and change with this postulate as follows: 1. Lobachevskys Parallel Postulate At least there are two parallel lines with the line that pass through the point outside of its line. Clearly, Lobachevsky geometry is a kind of neutral geometry. Consequently, we continue the lesson of neutral geometry with give the additional constraint. Therefore,

theorems in neutral geometry can be applied in Lobachevsky geometry too and can be used in our proofing here. 2. NON-METRICAL THEOREM The first theorem of Lobachevski geometry is a basic theorem that not engage metrical ideas (computation system with basic number 10), such as distances, perpendiculars, or areas. This theorem is about the positions or the lines characteristics. Theorem 1 All of any lines lie inside a certain angle. Proof:
B P A B l Q n A m

Figure 1

Suppose the line l and the point P outside of l is known. Based on Lobachevskys parallel postulates, then there is lines m and n that passes through point P and parallel with l. Lines m and n divide that plane becomes four regions where each regions is the inside of an angle, that is APB, APB, APB, and APB with P lie between A and A on line m and between B and B on line n. Suppose point Q on l and since l not intersect m and n, and then point Q not lie on m or n. Since point Q not lie on m and n, then Q lie on one of the four inside of an angle in above, such APB. Where is the position of l? Point Q lie on line l and lie on the inside of APB, and l not intersect the sides of its angle, that is PA and PB. Therefore, l lie inside APB that means all of lines l are included inside APB. (proven)

Note: It is very interesting that Legendre prove Euclids parallel postulate with assume that a line that contain a point inside of an angle is certainly intersect that angle. 3. THE ANGLE-SUM OF A TRIANGLE IN LOBACHEVSKY GEOMETRY Theorem 1 shows how the positions or the non-metrical characteristics in hyperbolic geometry which have a difference with Euclid geometry. Then, in the furthermore theorem will show the angle-sum of a triangle in hyperbolic geometry. We start with two valid lemmas in absolute geometry. Lemma 1 is a repeated Saccheri-Legendre Theorem. Lemma 1 The sum of two angles of a triangle is less than or equal to the opposite exterior angle of that angle. Proof:
C

A
Figure 5

A + B + C 180

## Both sides is decreased by C, we get:

A + B 180 - C

That lemma applies because the exterior angle C is equal to 180 - C (proven) Lemma 2 Suppose line l, point P outside of l, and point Q on l is known. Suppose the side PQ is given, then there is point R on l that on one side with PQ such that PRQ is a smallest angle that required.

P
b1 b2

b1

b2

R1 Figure 7

R2

Proof: Suppose a is a smallest angle. We will show that there is point R on l that lie in the right of PQ such that < a. Firstly, make an angles sequence: PR1Q, PR2Q, ... with the measurement of angle is not greater than from the previous angle. Suppose R1 on point l and lie in the right of PQ side such that QR1 = PQ.
P

PRQ

Q Figure 6

Make a segment PR1 such that there is PQR1 isosceles and QPR1=QR1P = b1. Suppose the exterior angle PQR1 in Q is b, then according Lemma 1, we obtain: b1+b1= 2b1 b .. (1)

With the same way, make a new triangle. Extend QR1 through R1 and R2 such that R1R2=PR1.

Make a segment PR2, then PR1R2 is isosceles triangle and R1PR2 = PR2R1 =

PR2Q = b2 such that according Lemma 1, we get: b2+b2= 2b2 b1, it means
Accord with equation (1), we obtain:

Repeat the previous step as much as n times such that obtained point Rn on l and in the right side PQ such that obtained . Thereby . . With choose a big enough n, then

Therefore, for R=Rn, PRQ is a smallest angle that required. Theorem 2 There is a triangle with the sum of the angle is less than 180. Proof:
P m n

(proven)

l Figure 8

Suppose l is a line and point p outside of l. Make line m // l through point P by make PQ l at Q, and m PQ at P. According the Lobachevskys parallelism postulates, there is another line, that is line n that pass through P and parallel with l, and one of the angle that be formed by n with PQ is acute.

P a
90- a

m Y X n

l
Q Figure 9 R

Look at the figure 9. Suppose X is a point at n such that QPX is acute and Y is a point at m and in the right side of PQ, like X. Suppose XPY = a, then QPX = 90 - a. Suppose R on l and lie on the right side of PQ such that PRQ< a (use Lemma 2). See PQR
PQR = 90 QRP < a

## (totality is greater than partly)

If the angle P, Q, and R are added then we obtain: PQR + QRP + RPQ < 90 + a + 90 - a = 180 Therefore, PQR has the angle-sum that less than 180. Look at the same situation in Euclid Geometry! Suppose: l PQ at Q, and m PQ at P R is any point at l in the right side of PQ. If R be far from PQ until infinity, then QRP is closed on 0 and QPR is closed on 90.
P

(proven)

Q Figure 10

l R

It is different with the situation in hyperbolic geometry. We still have l PQ at Q, and m PQ di P m // l (Figure 11). As a proof on theorem 2, there is another line PX // l QPX < 90. Suppose R is any points on l in the right side of PQ like X. If R be far from PQ until infinity, then QRP is closed on 0 like at Euclid geometry. But QPR is not closed on 90 because QPR always less than QPX. Therefore, if R is far enough then the sum of the angle of PQR is less than 180.
P

m X

Q
Figure 11

Theorem 3 The sum of the angle of every triangle is less than 180. Proof: According corollary 2 theorem F.8 (Neutral Geometry) If triangle has the angle-sum that less than 180 then every triangle has the angle-sum that less than 180 too. According Theorem 2 (Lobachevsky Geometry): There is a triangle with the angle-sum is less than 180. Based on Corollary 2 Theorem 6 (absolute geometry) and Theorem 2 (Lobachevsky geometry), then the sum of the angle of every triangle is less than 180. Corollary 1 Theorem 3 The sum of the angle of quadrilateral is less than 360 Corollary 2 Theorem 3 There is no rectangle. (proven)

4. SACCHERI QUADRILATERAL IN HYPERBOLIC GEOMETRY Saccheri draw line that perpendicular on the top of two parallel
D C

segment lines. This forming shape is called Saccheri quadrilateral. In this section, we will learn about some characteristics of Saccheri
A Figure 12 B

Definition 1 : Saccheri quadirateral is a quadirateral ABCD with AB as its base, AD and BC are the legs such that AD = BC. A and B are right angles. A and B called base angles and C and D called peak angles. 1. Theorem 4. In a Saccheri quadirateral (i) (ii) The summit angles are congcruent, and The line joining the midpoints of the base and the summit-called the altitude is perpendiculat to both.

PROOF : (i) Look ABD dan BAC AD = BC A = B AB = AB .... Definition 1 .... Definisi 1 .... Refeksive
A B D C

Based on side-angle-side so ABD BAC consequently AC = BD Look ACD dan BDC AD = BC AC = BD DC = DC .... Defintion 1 .... consequently of ABD BAC .... Refeksive

Based on side-side-side so ACD BDC consequently D C. Therefore, the summit angles are congcruent. (proven) (ii) We need to show that the line MN is pendendicular to both lines AB and CD. Now DN CN , AD BC, and D C. Thus by sideangle-side ADN BCN. This means then that AN BN. Also AM BM and MN MN. By side-side-side ANM BNM and it follows that AMN BMN. They are supplementary angles, hence they must be right angles. Therefore MN is perpendicular to AB. Using the analogous proof and triangles DMN and CMN, we can show that MN is perpendicular to CD. Thus, we are done.
A M B D N C

2. Theorem 5 A Lambert quadrilateral is a quadrilateral with three right angles. The fourth angle of a Lambert quadrilateral is acute and each side adjacent to it is longer than the opposite side.

3. Theorem 6 In a quadrilateral with a base, if the arms relative to the base are unequal, so are the summit angles, and conversely, the greater summit angle always lying opposite the greater arm. (Theorem 5) 4. Theorem 7 In a Saccheri quadrilateral, the summit is longer than the base and the segment joining their midpoints is shorter than each arm. PROOF:

Let points E and F be the midpoints of the base and summit, respectively. Then EF is perpendicular to both the base and summit by Theorem 4 (ii). Since C and D are

acute, then AD > EF in quadrilateral AEFD and BC > EF in quadrilateral EBCF, by Theorem 5. So segment EF is shorter than each arm. Now consider quadrilateral AEFD as having arms AE and DF. We have by Theorem 5 that DF > AE. Similarly, for quadrilateral EBCF, we get . Hence, combining these two inequalities, and the summit is longer than the base.

5. Theorem 8 If two parallel lines have a common perpendicular, then they cannot have a second common perpendicular. PROOF: If two lines have two common perpendiculars, then they form a Lambert quadrilateral with four right angles, contradicting Theorem 5

6. Theorem 9 Two lines will be parallel, with a common perpendicular, if there is a transversal which cuts the lines so as to form equal alternate interior angles or equal corresponding angles. PROOF: Let the transversal is the common perpendicular line. (Theorem 4 and preposition 27 Euclid)

7. Theorem 10 If two lines have a common perpendicular, there are transversals which cut the lines so as to form equal alternate interior angles (or equal corresponding angles). The only transversals with this property are those which go through the point on that perpendicular which is midway between the lines. PROOF :

Let M be the midpoint of RS and PQ is the common perpendicular of line QMS equal RMP (preposition 15 euclid). So, . Therefore the

. Then

transversal not only cut the common perpendicular on the middle but also form equal alternate interior angles (or equal corresponding angles).

8. Theorem 11 The distance between two parallels with a common perpendicular is least when measured along that perpendicular. The distance from a point on either parallel to the other increases as the point recedes from the perpendicular in either direction. (By distance from a point to a line is meant the length of a line segment from the line to the point and perpendicular to the line.) PROOF: Let be parallel lines with common perpendicular which meets them at points , respectively. Let to through be any point on other than and construct a perpendicular

is acute and

## (Theorem 6). So the

is less when measured along the common perpendicular than along . is between above). Then . Let be the projection of is a in

## (constructed similar to point

is acute since

Lambert quadrilateral. Also, 2 is obtuse since 1 is acute and so quadrilateral And by Theorem 6, >BC and distance between

increases as described. HENCE. We are now starting to get some insight as to how to visualize parallel lines in hyperbolic geometry. We might think of parallel lines with a common perpendicular as bending away from each other:

## We can think of TRIANGLES, then, as looking like:

9. Theorem 12 Given any line and any point not on it, there passes innitely many lines through the point which are parallel to the line and have a common perpendicular with it. PROOF:

Let

be a line and

## a point not on it. If

is the projection of

and line

is

perpendicular to line

## , then h is one line through on

which is parallel to to the right, say, of . Let point by Theorem 11. Let be the

is the common perpendicular. Next, take a point be the projection of point on line and such that into line g. Then . Then

## is a Saccheri quadrilateral and so

are parallel and have a common perpendicular by Theorem 4 (ii) (the and ). Similarly, by taking

common perpendicular is based on the midpoints of as a point to the right of , and create line from lines and

## are the same. Then there are three points

, which are each not only the same distance from line . But

also perpendicular with it. It contradict theorem 7. Therefore the lines are distinct and for any point on . to the right (or for that matter, the left) of , there is a line parallel to

10. Theorem 13 There are triangles with angle-sum arbitrarily close to PROOF : Consider any triangle and a variable point between . Let approach

(here we are using unstated assumptions involving the continuum and limits). Then approaches sum of , , and approaches . Hence as , approaches approaches , the angle. So

By making

## suciently close to . (This could be neated up with s and s.)

11. Theorem 14 The angle-sum of every (convex) quadrilateral is less than PROOF : We can cut the quadrilateral into two triangles and apply Theorem 13. 12. Theorem 15 Two triangles are congruent if the three angles of one are equal respectively to the three angles of the other. PROOF: Consider triangle ABC and ABCwhere the corresponding angles are equal. Suppose AB > AB. Take point D on AB such that AD = AB. On line AC , on the same side of A as C , take point E such that AE = AC. Then by construction, triangles ABCand ADE are congruent (Proposition 4, S-A-S). So ADE = B and AED = C .

Now if point E is not between points A and C, we have a triangle in which an exterior angle equals an opposite interior angle, contradicting Proposition 16. So point E is

between points A and C . Then in quadrilateral BCED the angle-sum equals 3600, contradicting Theorem H44 (the angle-sume of every (convex) quadrilateral is less than 3600). We conclude that AB = ABand similarly AC = Therefore triangles ABC and ABCare congruent. AC and BD = BC.

APPLICATION OF HYPERBOLIC GEOMETRY I.Chinese checkers 1. Introduction Chinese checkers is a game for two to six players. Each player has ten arranged in a triangle. The goal of the game is to move these marbles to the opposite triangle. In each turn, the player may move one marble to any adjacent position or jump the marble over any adjacent marble into an empty space, and that marble may continue jumping as permitted.

## Figure 1 : The chinese checkers playing board

Chinese checkers is played on a hexagonal grid arranges as in Figure 1. This board provides a fair palying field for games of two, three, four and six players. In five player games, the goal triangles of the four players are filled whereas the goal triangle of

the fifth player is empty. We have called this the tainted win sin this position provides an unfair advantage over the other. In Harts paper attempts to create a fair palying grid for five players, and new fair playing grids for seven or more players. Triangulating a pentagon can produce such a fair grid, though sacrifices the straightness of edges across vertices, as shown in figure 2.

## Figure 2: Pentagon triangulation

2. Hyperbolic Goemetry Euclid defined geometry taht now shares his name with five axioms. The fifth axiomstates that given a line and a point not on the line, then there exits only one line passing through the point tht does not believed to be a consequence of the first for axioms, until hyperbolic geometry wa devised, which follows the first four of Euclids axioms but not the fifth. There are several Eulidean models of hyperbolic geometry taht make it easier to visualize the relationship between hyperbolic points and lines. Tpyically, the hyperbolic plane is represented by the unit open disk D centered at the origin. The unit-radius circle that forms the boundary of this disk is called the circle at infinity C. The projective Klein model represents hyperbolic lines with Euclidean lines. This model is popular for computer rendering if 3-D hyperbolic structure, such as those in the animated educational short Not Knot (Gunn, 1993), because it can be incorporated into the standard homogeneous 4 x 4 transformation matrix implemented in computer graphics hardware (Phillips & Gunn, 1992). An alternative representation of hyperbolic geometry is the conformal Poincare model. This wass the model used by M.C. Escher (Ducham et al., 1981). The Poincare

model represents hyperbolic lines with Euclidean circles such that the hyperbolic line passing through any two points is uniquely repesenting by the Euclidean c ircle piercing the two points that intersects the infinity disk orthogonally. The angle formed by the intersection of two circular arcs is the angle formed by their tangents at the intersection. Given two points a, b C is given by ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ) ) D the origin o of the cicle passing through a nad b, orthogonal to

The radius r of this circle is then the Euclidean distance between a and o. If the hyperbolic line passes through the origin, then its representation is a Euclidean line (a diameter of the circle at infinity). An example is shown in Figure 3.

o a (0,0) b

Figure 3: Geometryof the hyperbolic line piercing points a and b The property of hyperbolic sapce that makes it so appealing for chinese checkers is that the hyperbolic plane can be tessellated by regular polygons with any number of sides. Tessellations of the hyperbolic plane are denoted {p, q} which indicates a tessellation with p-gons and q of these p-gons meet at each vertex. The only restristion is that (p-2)(q-2) >4 The angles of hyperbolic triangles sum to less than . Regular hyperbolic tessellations are described by a single right triangle with angles of /p and /q. The /p

vertex is placed at the origin, which causes two of the triangles three hyperbolic sides to be straight Eulidean lines in the Poincare model. The only remaining degree of freedom is the scale of the triangle. The length of the edge from the /p vertex to the /q vertex is given by d as

Successive reflections of this triangle abaut its straight (non-circukar) edges form an initial p-sided polygon. Successive reflections of the p-gon about its circular edge tessellate space. The reflection of a point about a Euclidean line is straightforward. The reflection of a point x abaut a circle of radius r centered at the point o is the y that lies on a Euclidean ray extending from o through x and satisfies. d(o, x)d(o, y) = r2 where d return the Euclidean distance.

3. Some Results

Figure 4: A fair playing field for five players generated by the tessellation {5, 4}

Figure 5: A fair playing field for seven playaers generated by the tessellation {7, 3}

We can apply the regular hyperbolic polygon tesselation to solve the problem of providing a fair playing field for 5, 7 or more players. Figure 4 shows a fair playing field for five players whereas Figure 5 shows a fair playing field for seven players. These tessellations contain the polygons that fit within a Euclidean circle of radius. Small start and goal triangles need to be placed around the perimiter of the playing field. For the pentagonal tessellation, ten triangles wouls be placed, facing the ends of the five diameters (straight Euclidean lines). Likewise, for the septagonal tessellation, fourteen triangles would appear, placed at the ends of the seven diameters. Unlike the petagon triangulation in Figure 2, the conformalproperty of the Poincare model of hyperbolic geometry clearly defines the direction of each jump. Each hyperbolic polygon contains an extra vertex at its center. Line segments connect its vertices and edge (at their midpoints) to its center. For odd-sided polygons, jumping over a marble at the polygons center takes a marble from the polygons corner to its opposing edge.

4. Future work Weve never actually played a chinese checkers game on one of these boards. The next abvious step is implementation, eaither in software or cardboard. The standard chinese checkers board (figure 1) organizes marbles into four distinct phase spaces. A phase space is the set of all positions a marble could ever jump into. Such analysis of hyperbolic chinese checkers boards remains open.

Hyperbolic geometry hold a key role in our daily life, particularly in the other branch knowledge such as physics, astronomy, art, architecture, and etc. This is the explanation for hyperbolic geometrys application: 1. General theory relativity from Einstein In physics, Einsteins general theory relativity uses hyperbolic geometry as a description of spacetime. According to this idea, spacetime has a positive curvature nar gravitating matter and the geometry is non Euclidean. When a body revolves around another body, it appears to move in a curved path due to some force exerted by the central body, but it is actually moving along a geodesic, without any force acting on it. 2. Application of Poincare model in art In art, surface of circle limit IV was created by M. C. Escher also one of model representation of the hyperbolic disk. In architecture, there are many building which is built based on hyperbolic geometry consept. For instance, McBride Charles Ryan is inspired by Kleins model to build his home. 3. Complex network The other application is proposed from Krioukov in his journal about complex network. Network has some metric structure, and if the network degree distribution is heterogeneous, then the network has an effective hyperbolic geometry underneath. Then he establish a mapping between our geometric framework and statistical mechanics of complex networks. This mapping interprets edges in a network as non-interacting fermions whose energies are hyperbolic distances between nodes, while the auxiliary fields coupled to edges are linear functions of these energies or distances. He shows that targeted transport processes without global topology knowledge, made possible by our geometric framework, are maximally efficient, according to all efficiency measures, in networks with

strongest heterogeneity and clustering, and that this efficiency is remarkably robust with respect to even catastrophic disturbances and damages to the network structure. 4. Hyperbolic geometry in the other branch Hyperbolic geometri also has an application in the other mathematics branch, Geometry Topology

REFERENCES

Stillwell, John. 2000. The Four Pillars of Geometry. San Fransisco: Springer. Wolfe, Harold E. 1945. Introduction to Non-Euclidean Geometry.New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winscton inc. Greenberg, Marvin Jay. 1972. Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries: Development and History. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company (second edition). Moise, Edwin. E. 1963. Elementary Geometry from an Advanced Standpoint. London: AddisonWesley Publishing Company. Anderson, James, W. 1964. Hyperbolic Geometry. London : Springer-Verlag (second edition). Cannon, J.W, et.al. 1997. Hyperbolic Geometry. MSRI Publication, 31.