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MINISTRY OF HEALTH SERVICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS Vitebsk State Medical University on General Hygiene and Ecology

Topic-Ecological-Medical Characteristics of Dwelling

Name: Group:

Sasini Ranasinghe 51st

Teacher: Cherkasova O.A.

1. Address
Block No. 809, Prospect Pobedi 5/1, Vitebsk.

2. Owner
The building is a hostel owned by the Vitebsk State Medical University to provide housing for local and foreign students attending the university.

3. Number of Residents
General number of people living per block is 5, which would mean that there are 660 students living in the 132 blocks of the hostel, with 11 blocks for each of the 12 floors.

4. Ground Area
The hostel does not have a garden as such, although an open courtyard with paved stones is present. It is kept very clean, and relatively graffiti free.

5. Location
Building is located in a residential area quiet, no disturbances. Services such as banks, supermarkets and Sports facility, as well as open space for exercise, fresh air, etc., are readily available. There are two Evroopts within 5 minutes walking distance as well as a Vesta across the road. A small number of restaurants are available within easy distance and there is a polyclinic down the Prospect Pobedi which can be reached by bus. There is a tram station on Prospect Moskovski which is the intersecting road, and as much as 3 bus stops within walking distance. The location of the Hostel is ideal to the students as the University is around 15 minutes away with a choice selection of transport available: tramline, buses and even taxis at the students disposal.

6. Ecological-Medical characteristic of Atmospheric Air

Atmospheric air is very clean and clear in and around hostel. Presence of many trees as well as open ground for wind movement allows for fresh air indoors as well as outdoors. Air temperature: 1 degrees celcius Relative Humidity : 50 % Speed of air movement: 1 m/s Atmospheric pressure: 745 mmHg

7. Sources and pollutants of atmospheric air

Only visible source of air pollution is caused by traffic at the nearby intersection, as well as the tramline. No factories, garbage dumps, power stations present nearby. Air transparency and visibility is at an optimum level in the surroundings. Light penetration can also be considered to be extremely good.

8. Ecological-Medical characteristic of Surface Water

There Is no surface water in the surrounding areas of the territory being inspected.

9. Sources and Pollutants of Surface Water

Even though the insepected territory has no surface water areas, some sources of pollution of surface is listed below. Point sources: Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. Non point sources: Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, called urban runoff, is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. However, this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters, and is a point source.

10.Ecological-Medical characteristic of Soil

The ground around the residential grounds contain an excessive amount of 9.5mg/kg of formaldehyde which does not conform to the maximum permissible levels of the lithosphere (maximum permissible levels of formaldehyde = 7mg/kg) All other components of possible pollutants are at maximum permissible levels. These include: Carbophose 2mg/kg Nitrates 130 mg/kg

Arsenic 2mg/kg Benzol 0.3mg/kg Toluene 0.3m/kg Zinc 23 mg/kg Hexachloran 0.1mg/kg

Larvae of flies and helminthes of eggs are absent. Porosity of ground is at an optimum of 60-65% permeability as well.

11.Sources and pollutants of soil

Some general sources of pollutants of soil include: Pollutants often dispersed across cities or concentrated in industrial areas or waste sites. Lead- based paint used on roads and highways and on buildings is one such example of a widely dispersed pollutant that found its way into soil. But humans also bury tremendous amounts of waste in the ground at municipal and industrial dumps. These materials can severely contaminate soils. Even such commonplace items like gasoline storage tanks at filling stations have the potential to cause serious contamination. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (such as naphthalene and benzo, pyrene), solvents, pesticides,lead, and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical usage. Mining Oil and fuel dumping Disposal of coal ash Leaching from landfills Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil Discharging urine and feces in the open Electronic waste Application of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers However the sources of pollution in the inspected area would mostly consist of dumping of household waste, littering by the residents, oil drippage and fumes from vehicles travelling in the main road (Prospect Pobedi)and destroying of top soil and grass layers by the trampling of commuters everyday. On going construction sites also contribute to the pollution of area surrounding the residential area, with the soil being dug up and allowing erosion to occur easily when it rains. Dust, sawdust and cement settle on the soil layers, and as these substances are not easily degradable they decrease the porosity of the soil,

as well as prove to be toxic to the earthworms and other microorganisms living in the soil.

12.Characteristics of sources and water for drinking supply

The water in the pipes is not suitable for drinking due to the presence of chemicals. The water is not transparent and has a foamy, whitish quality. Therefore most of the students residing in the hostel either buy water bottles from the supermarket or order water filters.

13.Characteristics of dwelling
The hostel was built in the 1940s and as such is in a major state of deterioration. However, the blocks are being pulled down and being rebuilt so living conditions of some of the residents are somewhat improved now. The building is 12 floors high with a maximum of 11 blocks in each floor, a basement, an internal staircase and an elevator. Lighting and ventilation of the building is suitable and meets the necessary requirements. Each block consists of 2 rooms, a two-sitter and a three-sitter, a kitchen, toilet and bathroom with a very limited amount of corridor space to move between the separate rooms.

14.Characterisitcs of indoor-dwelling
The walls are exceedingly thin, and does not suffice to provide the necessary amount of required sound-proofing. Residents of one block are more often than not, able to hear the goings-on of their next door neighbors. This is noise pollution. The windows, although double glazed, have expanded and contracted over the years according to the extreme temperatures of the season changes of Belarus and do not fit into their respective frames anymore, thus not providing the insulation that are to be expected from them. They have to be manually sealed every winter to prevent freezing conditions in the rooms. In the kitchen, the cookers are discolored and most often do not work. They are not up to the hygienic conditions of Belarus. Faucets and bathtubs are all leaky and faulty, giving much frustration to the residents. A major breach of the hygienic standards of the country can be seen in the presence of large colonies of mice and cockroaches that live in the walls and come out at night. It is impossible to keep any food out and suitable, dry conditions must be found to preserve food. The mice and the cockroaches could be a reason for some illnesses of the residents.

Block occupies: 1 large room (3 sitter)width :3 m , Length-5 m,hight-2.5 m, So; Per person 12.5 m3 1 small room (2 sitter)width :3 m , Length-4.25 m,hight-2.5 m, So; per person 16m3 Heating: Central , Insufficient ,Not dangerous . Ventilation: Only available if windows are opened which is impossible during the winter. Lighting: Sufficient lighting provided by light bulbs in all areas of the block, and sufficient natural light is let in by the windows during daylight hours. Water: Provided by pipes, both hot and cold.

15. Sources and physical pollutants of indoor dwelling

Construction materials, building products and household electric devices, such as microwaves, mobile phones, televisions, and refrigerators can be mentioned among main indoor sources of pollution of a physical origin, as they emit electromagnetic waves which could interfere with functioning of brain and be carcinogenic, especially as the residents are all students. The main pollutants of a physical nature are: noise (unwanted high levels of sounds), electromagnetic radiation such as the radiofrequency, infrared, visible, ultraviolet and x-rays portion of the spectrum.

16. Sources and chemical pollutants of indoor dwelling

Second-hand smoke is tobacco smoke which affects other people other than the 'active' smoker. Second-hand tobacco smoke includes both a gaseous and a particulate phase, with particular hazards arising from levels of carbon monoxide (as indicated below) and very small particulates (at PM2.5 size) which get past the lung's natural defenses. One of the most acutely toxic indoor air contaminants is carbon monoxide (CO), a colourless, odourless gas that is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Common sources of carbon monoxide are tobacco smoke, space heaters using fossil fuels, defective central heating furnaces and automobile exhaust. Residues of pesticides used on cockroaches and mice, that can cause respiratory trouble. Other sources of chemical pollution are: disinfectors used for household cleaning, different aerosols, cosmetics, finishing materials on a polymeric basis, house furniture, synthetic coverings of floors and walls.

Main indoor chemical pollutants include: asbestos, formaldehyde, airborne pesticide residues; chloroform, perchloroethylene (associated particularly with dry cleaning); paradichlorobenzene (from mothballs and air fresheners).

17. Sources and biological pollutants of indoor dwelling

Biological indoor pollutants include viruses, bacteria and pollen. Viruses and bacteria could be air-borne or water-borne and could be transmitted from one person to another. With the enclosed space in the blocks, if one person brings in a pathogen it could be easily transmitted to another person. Pollen could enter through windows and cause allergic reactions. Bacteria and viruses can also be transmitted by the cockroaches and mice that inhabit the blocks.

18. Prescence of insects, rodents

There are large numbers of cockroaches and rats that inhabit the investigated area. This makes it unsuitable for living. Also there are bed bugs in some rooms, making it very uncomfortable for the residents to sleep.

19. Health level of tenants

The main diseases that affect the residents are: Colds High Fever Diarrhea Catarrh Appendicitis Vomiting Fatigue etc. These illnesses are mainly due to insufficient sound and water proofing, thermal insulation, inadequate building materials, dust and dust mites, presence of rodents and insects, high chemical concentration of water in the taps and general lax in taking care of the students well-being.

20. Ecological-Medical estimation of environment of dwelling

Environment of dwelling is generally a pleasant place to live. There are green zones around, albeit with less than 30% coverage of trees which maybe considered insufficient. Although being very near to a metropolitan area, there is less pollution than could be expected, and noise of traffic and the general population is reduced to only festivals. All services that one could expect to lead a good life-style is within easy access

and the zoning of the residential area is well planned and organized, the buildings being built back from the main roads with well paved boulevards and pavements.

21.Ecological-Medical characteristic of indoor of dwelling

Due to insufficient isolation of the building, the presence of cracks in the construction walls, the microclimate of dwelling cannot supply conditions favorable for heat exchange and ability to live for a human organism. Discovered parameters of a microclimate: temperature 13 degrees celciusn(22-25) less than maximal permissible for winter. relative humidity 48 (30-60) % speed of air movement 1.28 (0.25) m/s difference between temperature of air of premises and walls no more than 70C (60C) difference between temperature of air of rooms and floor no more than 34C.

22. Measures on improvement of dwelling environment

As the measure levels of Carbon Dioxide and Formaldehyde exceeded the maximal permissible levels, the following actions should be undertaken: Legislative: working out maximum permissible concentration for chemical substances Technical: working out and creation of the closed technological processes, technologies without waste Planning: zoning of territory of a city, its gardening, built-up districts to project on due distance from the industrial enterprises in view of a wind rose, gardening by a vein of zone and a zone of the industrial enterprises Sanitary-engineering: clearing of garbage on soil by means of clearing devices, effective clearing of the occupied places of garbage, their gathering, removal, neutralization and recycling. To adjust clearing emissions in an atmosphere filters and cyclones. Organizational: monitoring. emissions of the enterprises in an atmosphere to carry out at various times a day, to enter round-the-clock monitoring, to organize prophylactic medical examination of the persons exposed to influence of polluted air. Precautions should also be undertaken to decrease the disease levels of the populated area.

23. Measures on improvement of indoor dwelling

Legislative: Laws regarding the quality of building materials used, maximum permissible humidity, temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the rooms Technical: working out of building procedures without any waste
Planning: Planning of rooms and the floors in such a way to allow minimum noise to be carried, sufficient width of corridors, rooms. Sanitary-engineering: Use of better proofing materials and garbage disposal methods.Providing of new bed materials and removal techiniques of bed bugs. Organizational: Monitoring of rodent populations at regular intervals and using of methods to reduce them.

Note: I would like to signify the fact that I live with the following people in the same block (809) and that any possible similarities in our values are unavoidable since we have the same inspected residence. Uma Gayathrie (group 51) Ovadi De Silva( group 48) Shehani Kossinna (group 48)

------------------------------------(Inspection date)

-----------------------------------------Sasini Ranasinghe