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Jan 17, 2014

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electrical power system

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electrical power system

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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I. II. Introduction to Optimal Power Flow ....................................................................................................... 1 Optimal Power Flow Techniques ............................................................................................................ 1 1- Economic dispatching of Generations ................................................................................................ 3 2- Transmission Losses........................................................................................................................... 6 3- Reactive Power Flow.......................................................................................................................... 7 III. Applications............................................................................................................................................. 8 IV. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 8 V. References ............................................................................................................................................... 9

List of Figures

Figure 1: fuel-cost curve function of active power output ............................................................................ 3 Figure 2: incremental fuel cost curve versus power output .......................................................................... 4

I. Introduction to Optimal Power Flow

The Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem was defined in the early 1960s as an extension of conventional economic dispatch to determine the optimal settings for control variables in a power network respecting various constraints. The Newton-Raphson method became the commonly used solution method during the 1960s. The OPF used classical Lagrangian techniques for the optimality conditions, but neglected bounds on variables (Squires 1961). In 1962, Carpentier published the optimality conditions for an OPF, including variable bounds, based on the Kuhn-Tucker conditions; this is generally considered the first publication of a fully formulated OPF. Before the OPF problem developed, as early as the 1929, the power flow problem was solved with analog network analyzers that simulated power systems. Then as in 1930s, the power optimization has been known as the economic dispatch problem was solved by hand or especially-developed slide rule using the principle of equal incremental loading; it took 8 hours to complete. As power systems operation or planning increase, the OPF solution become complicated due to more constraints are needed, power generation limits, the cost of power, incentive for adding units, and building transmission systems a particular load center and so on. The demand for an OPF tool has been increasing to assess the state and recommended control actions both for offline and online studies. Historically, in Power System Operation, there are many forms and techniques to calculate the OPF aims to optimize a certain objective, subject to the network power flow equations and system and equipment operating limits. Different solution approaches have been developed to solve these different classes of OPF. Commercially available OPF software can solve very large and complexes formulations in a relatively short time, but it may still be incapable of dealing with online implementation requirements.

An Optimal Power Flow function schedules the power system controls to optimize an objective function while satisfying a set of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints [5]. The optimization methods, OPF, had been widely used in power system operation, analysis and planning and one of the most significant applications. The optimal condition is attained by adjusting the available controls to minimize an objective function subject to specified operating and security requirements. Optimal Load Flow studies are concerned with economic operation of the system in all aspects. Economics operation studies include consideration of all constraints while satisfying the load balance. The various types of equality and inequality constraints will be discussed. The equality constraints are the conventional power flow equations while the inequality constraints are the limits on the control and operating variables of the system.

The control variable are: - Active and Reactive power generation - Phase-shifter angles - Net interchange - Load MW and MVAR (load shedding) - DC transmission line flows - Control voltage settings - LTC transformer Tap ratio settings Examples of equality and inequality constraints are: - Limits on all control variables - Power flow equations - Generation = load balance - Branch flow limits (MW, MVAR, and MVA) - Bus voltage limits - Active and Reactive reserve limits - Generator MVAR limits - Corridor (transmission interface) limits The dependent variables consisting of: - Bus voltage magnitudes and phase angles - MVAR output of gen. designated for bus voltage control - Fixed parameters such as the reference bus angle - Non-controlled generator MW and MVAR outputs - Non-controlled MW and MVAR loads - Fixed bus voltages, line parameters There are many possible objectives for an OPF. The following objectives are most commonly used: - Fuel or Active power cost optimization - Active and Reactive power flow loss minimization - MVAR planning to minimize the cost of reactive power After brief overview of the Optimal Power Flow as mentioned above, the solution methodologies can be broadly grouped in to two namely: 1. Conventional (classical) methods 2. Intelligent methods. The conventional methods are used to effectively solved OPF based on mathematical programming approaches and used to solve different size of OPF problems. To meet the requirements of different objective functions, types of application and nature of constraints. The conventional types include the well known techniques like Gradient method, Newton method, Quadratic Programming method, Linear Programming method and Interior point method. Intelligent methodologies include the recently developed and popular methods like Genetic Algorithm, Particle swarm optimization and Ant Colony Algorithm. To overcome the limitations and deficiencies in analytical methods, intelligent methods based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have been developed in the recent past.

The Economics Dispatch, one of the most common methods in OPF which is to be focused upon coordinating the power production with minimum cost at each plant in certain generation limits. The production cost of the power generated actually depends on several items such as fuel cost, labor charges, cost of items such as oil, water and other supplies needed and also the cost of maintenances. Generally, the power plants are not located at the same distance from the center of load and their fuel costs are different. Now assume that total load is transferred from generators at different place as well as the different production cost. Some of the load is transferred from the generator with the higher production cost to the unit with the lower incremental cost. Reducing the total load requirement resulting in reduce the incremental cost in unit while addition load produced in the unit with lower production cost. The transfer of load from one to other units with different characteristics continues with a reduction in total fuel cost until all units operate in same production cost. Thus, for economical reason all units must operate at the same incremental fuel cost. In practical case, the fuel-cost of generation can be represented as a quadratic function of real power generation. The Large turbine-generator units may have several steam admission valves which are opened in a sequence to meet the increasing steam demand and the input-output characteristic of this type of power plant may show as one unit with two of them combine discontinuously. Consider there is ng of stream turbines in a system which has input-output characteristic as a quadratic function of real power generation. The fuel-cost function of each plant defined as below:

Ci = ai Pi 2 + bi Pi + ci

Figure 1: fuel-cost curve function of active power output Since the Economic Dispatching of Generator is one of the OPF, then power production cost which is known as fuel cost function would be the objective function to be minimized. The constraints would be focused in the following, while the equality constraint will discussed before the inequality constraint will be considered as the real application in electrical power system. The conventional power flow equations are the equality constraints while the inequality constraints are the limits on the control and operating variables of the system.

3

Take consideration of the first case of equality constraints and neglect all the system limits, such as power the transmission loses, limits on all control variables, buses voltage assume to be constants, active and reactive reserve limits, and active and reactive power of generator limits. The power flow equation is then total power demand is equal to total power output from generator. Then the system assumes to be only one bus with ng generators connected to only one load bus.

P = P

i =1 i

ng

Pi : real power output from plant i (MW) where PD : total real power demand (MW)

= Ct

(a P

ng i =1 i i

+ bi Pi + ci )

Using the Lagrangian method, Necessary condition for optimizing the fuel-cost function obtains:

b Pi = i 2ai

Hence

PD + i =1 ( 2ba )

ng

i

( )

ng

1

i =1

2 ai

Pi : generating power of plant i th with optimum point at

Figure 2: incremental fuel cost curve versus power output The incremental fuel-cost curve is a measure of how costly it will be to produce the next incremental of power. The total operating cost includes the fuel cost, and the cost of labors, supplies and maintenances. Example 1: The total load demand of 950MW will transferred from three generators with different fuel-cost function as bellows:

2 C1 = 500 + 5.3P ; C2 = 400 + 5.5 P2 + 0.006 P22 1 + 0.004 P 1

4

These three generators have to be operated the same production cost in order to optimum incremental while all constraints are ignored.

950 +

1 2

( + + ) = ( + + )

1 2 5.3 0.004 5.5 0.006 5.8 0.009 5.3 0.004 5.5 0.006 5.8 0.009

9.06842 $/MWh

The generator with high cost will produce less power output, while the other two provide power to the system depending on the fuel-cost function respectively. Unit one generate 471MW with lowest fuel cost, then unit two produce 297MW and 182MW will be taken from the third generator which has high production cost. To transfer total load demand of 950MW to the system, all three generator has the total production cost which is the summation of each generation incremental cost, then Ct=

( c + b P + a P )=

3 2 i =1 i i i i i

8, 000.13 $ / h

The company have to spend 8,000.13$ in every hour to generate power 950MW to the load demanded. When the load increase the operating cost will be increase and generators would be adjust to the new optimization point. Since the Generators are restricted to operate within the limits of minimum and maximum power output, the other conditions will be considered for the optimal dispatch. In this case, to meet the objective function minimization production cost, equality and inequality constraints will take into account. The equality constraint in operation is power flow equation which has been mentioned. In addition, a number of inequality constraints due to physical and operational limitations of the units and components will arise in economic scheduling. These is the form of inequality constraint of each generator in operation will have a minimum and maximum permissible output and the production must be constrained to ensure within minimum and maximum, Pi (min) Pi Pi (max) . The dependent variables such as bus voltage magnitude and phase angle and the other hand transformer tap changing and other control variable are maintained. Example 2: Repeat the example 1 we will calculate the new incremental cost due to generators limits. Pd = 950MW and 200 P 450 ; 150 P2 350 ; 100 P3 225 1 Applying the Newton-Raphson method and the Kuhn-Tucker conditions complement the Lagrangian conditions to include the inequality constraints Pi (min) Pi Pi (max) as additional term. Hence, the first power plant generate 450MW of maximum output power due to the lowest production cost, as shown in the previous example it produced 471MW without limits of power output. The second unit generates 310MW, while the unit with highest production cost takes as low as power output of 190MW in order meet the optimum point of system has same incremental cost = 9.22 $/MWh . It shows that the total production cost for load demand remains not change

Ct =

(c

3 i =1

incremental cost increase, because of unit with lowest production cost has limits of power generation of unit number one. The generation has to be kept constant at the capacity limit for that unit and eliminated from further optimum calculations and this method can be solved for economic scheduling analytically neglecting the effect of transmission losses. The line losses will take in to consideration as additional constraint for next section in optimal power flow solution.

5

2- Transmission Losses

In electrical power system, to optimize the economic operation, transmission losses in the line has been defined as inequality constraint of branch flow limits to study optimal power flow solution. The losses in transmission line normally assumed to be loss coefficient due to the constant of line parameters. Transmission losses have been added to the load with few percentage of total load demand in electrical power system analysis. The line flow limits has to be taken in consideration when large power transfer in long distance between load center and sources. In determining the economics of power transfer of load between plants, we need to consider losses in transmission line while the size of the power systems increased enormously, with long transmission lines connecting several power generating stations extending over large geographical areas transferring power to several load centers. Although the incremental cost at one plant can be lower than the others, but it may be located farther from the load center. The transmissions losses can be taken into account that make the plant become higher incremental cost. The objective functions to be minimized are given by the sum of line losses in all branches.

PL = PiL

i =1

Equality Constraints for this objective function to minimize the loss are load balance equations, line admittance, controllable system quantities are generator MW, controlled voltage magnitude, reactive power injection from reactive power sources and transformer tapping. The objective use these constraints are to minimize the power transmission loss function by optimizing the control variables within their limits. Therefore, the inequality constraints represent the limit on all variables, MVA flow of transmission lines, load bus voltage magnitude, generator MVAR, and power transfer angle occurs in normal system operating conditions. These are system constraints to be formed as equality and inequality constraints as shown below. One common practice to represent objective function is including the effect of total transmission losses as a quadratic function of the power output into the total power demand. The following single line diagram of three buses system is taken as the example.

PL = 3 I12 R12 + 3 I13 R13 + 3 I 23 R23

2 2 2

PL =

2 1

The term B11 , B22 and B33 are called loss-coefficients or B-coefficients in each line. P1, P2 and P3 are the power output of G1, G2 and G3 respectively as well as the bus Voltage at the plants. In the real operation, B-coefficients are assumed to be constant and reasonable accuracy can be expected provided the actual condition are close to the base case. Anyway, the function output power of generation should equal total demands plus losses.

= P

n =1 n

ng

PD + PL

6

The large systems are economically loaded by calculations based on several sets of Bcoefficients depending on load conditions. If the fixed amount of power plant are transferred over tie-line from other system, the remaining transmission line among the plant is effected by changing the loss coefficient though additional point to the existing system. The equations below can take in to calculation of transmission loss with economics dispatch. PL = Bii Pi 2

i =1 ng

Pi =

ng

bi 2 ( ai + Bii )

= ng

Pi

dPi d

( )

i =1

ng dPi d i 1= i 1 =

( ) = 2

( ai + Bii )

ai + Bii bi

P = PD + PL

i =1

ng

( )

dPi d

There are other reasons to reduce the losses along the transmission line is to minimization the real and reactive power transfer to the load center.

Reactive power flow depends on the angles and voltage magnitude at the sending and receiving ends. Usually the reactive power transfer along the line related mainly on voltage magnitude and flow from the highest to the lowest voltage. The higher reactive power transfer along the transmission line cause the voltage drop at receiving ends, the higher current will give more losses both active and reactive while the reactive power losses take the most. The difficulty with reactive power is cannot be transmitted long distances; hence real losses should be minimized for economic reasons. The optimization of reactive power flow is a problem with one or more objective of minimizing the active power losses for fixed generation schedule. The constraints are the limits of control variables, generator bus voltages, transformer tap settings and reactive power output of the compensating devices placed on different bus bars. The line losses can be optimized by equations below.

2 P I= R = loss

S ()=

P 2 + Q 2 ()

To minimize the losses due to reactive power, the maximization of power factor will be taken. At PF=1 only the pure resistive loss, with increasing reactive power flow, Ploss and Qloss will increase. The real practice of economic in electrical power system, reduction reactive power by compensate the power capacitor bank is the most commonly apply to the high location of reactive power need. According to the power equations mention above, we can optimize the reactive power flow by increasing the voltage receiving end close to nominal operation point. There are several most common ways to optimize the reactive power transfer: - Generator voltage and Reactive power - LTC transformer tap setting - Synchronous condensers - Static VAR compensator (SVC) and STATCOM

Several reasons to minimize reactive power transfer [4] : - Inefficient during high real power transfer and requires substantial voltage magnitude gradients - Cause high active and reactive power loss - Can lead to damaging temporary over voltage following load rejections - Require larger equipment sizes for transformer and cables

III. Applications

The applications of OPF have been applied to any softwares for Power Flow Solution Engineering for case studies and system online monitoring in electrical power systems controls and operations. Present commercial OPF programs can solve very large and complex power systems optimization problems in a relatively less time. Many different solution methods have been suggested to solve OPF problems. Newtons method is one of very powerful solutions algorithm because of its rapid convergence near the solution. This property is especially useful for power system applications because an initial guess near the solution is easily attained. System voltages will be near rated system values, generator outputs can be estimated from historical data, and transformer tap ratios will be near 1.0 p.u. OPF should support deregulation transactions or furnish information on what reinforcement is required. OPF studies can decide the tradeoffs between reinforcements and control options as per the results obtained from carrying out OPF studies. It is clarified when a control option enhances utilization of an existing asset (e.g., generation or transmission), or when a control option is an inexpensive alternative to installing new facilities. Issues of priority of transmission access and VAR pricing or auxiliary costing to afford price and purchases can be done by OPF. The economic dispatch of a power system does control generator MW output, the OPF controls transformer tap ratios and phase shift angles as well. The OPF also is able to monitor system security issues including line overloads and low or high voltage problems. If any security problems occur, the OPF will modify its controls to fix them, i.e., remove a transmission line overload. Reactive Power Flow is the static applications for planning and operation engineering to improve power losses and voltage drop in critical areas and in most of the substations. The main goal of generic OPF is to reduce the costs of meeting the load demand for a power system while up keeping the security of the system. From the viewpoint of an OPF, the maintenance of system security requires keeping each device in the power system within its desired operation range at steady-state conditions.

IV. Conclusion

The techniques mentioned of OPF are Economic dispatch, transmission losses and Reactive power compensation is the most conventional method applied for some scale in electrical power systems. In other hand, the intelligent method maintains good accuracy while achieving the speed of convergence for the large systems. As a result most of the classical optimization techniques might converge to a local optimum instead of at the global optimum. Moreover, these classical techniques cant be solved the complex objective functions which are not differentiable, particularly in large dimension problems or with complicated constraints.

Development of computer speed, researcher develop new techniques for solving multiple objective problems as they are versatile in handling qualitative constraints including learning ability, fast convergence and their suitability for non linear modeling.

V. References

[1]. Power System Analysis, 2nd Edition, international edition 2004, Hadi Saadat, McGraw-Hill companies, Inc., Publishing 2002 [2]. Elements of Power System Analysis, 4th edition, William D. Stevenson, Jr., McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1982 [3]. Power System Operation, 3rd Edition, Robert H. Miller, James H. Malinowski, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993 [4]. Power System Voltage Stability, the EPRI Power System Engineering Series, Carson W. Taylor, Fellow IEEE, California, 1994 [5]. OPTIMAL POWER FLOW PROBLEM & SOLUTION, Ch3 - Electronic source book pdf, source internet [6]. Operation and Control in Power System, Prof. P. S. R. MURTY, B.Sc. (Eng.) (Hans.) ME., Dr. - Ing (Berlin), F.I.E. (India), BS publications,

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