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FAULTING AND FOLDING WITH RESPECT TO PAKISTAN

1. FAULTS IN PAKISTAN Chaman and Ornach-Nal-Fault


Transform faults are the parting line between the two side-by-side lying tectonic plates, Ornach-nal-and Chaman transform faults occur between the Indo-Pakistan plate in the east and the Afghan portion of Eurasian plate in the west. Appearing and disappearing on and off intermittently, The Ornach-nal and chaman fault runs across entire width of Baluchistan.

Hub Fault, fault and earth trending north-south of 110 km long, is the closest threat to
the Karachi

Gidar Dhor Fault: The gidar dhor fault joins Hund River Fault near its southern end,
The Gidar Dhor Fault runs along the western margin of the Khuzdar knot.

Anjira Gazan Fault: which separates the Kalat Plateau from Khuzdar Knot? Zhob and Bhalla Dhor Faults: they define the northern and western margins of the
zhob ophiolite-and-thrust belt where as a series of thrust fault namely

Kurram Fault, Murgha KibzaiFault, The Ziarat Fault, Saran Tangi-Sariab Chiltan Fault, And Kalat Fault, demarcate its eastern and southern limit. this belt is
largely comprised of small nappes.

Sarobi Fault: The above mention fault terminates against sarobi fault. Ziarat, Khalifat, Mekhter, Kohlu and Baarkan Faults; these all extensive high
angle thrust faults are in northern and central part of the sulaiman fold belt.

Right Lateral Harnai and Tatra faults: These most significant faults along the
western margin of sulaiman fold belt.

Left Lateral Kingri, Manikhawa, Chaudhwan, Domanda, Sulaiman And Moghalkot Faults: These Faults are along the eastern margin of sulaiman fold belt. Murree Fault: The marree fault runs in E-W( eastern to western) direction of Margalla Hills.Westward.apparently it links up with the PARACHINAR FAULT.

Jhelum Fault; the fault along the western margin of axial zone of the syntaxis left
lateral strike slip named Jhelum fault.

Panjal Thrust (Khairabad fault): the panjal thrust fault runs parallel to MBT on the
eastern limbs of the syntaxis.

Some other faults are as follow Kaalabagh fault Hoshab fault Kirthar fault Pab Fault Panjgur Fault Ghazaband Fault Hund river fault Laut batal fault Mansehra Abatabad Fault Muzzafer Abad Fault.

2. FOLDS IN PAKISTAN Sulaiman Fold belt: The Sulaiman Fold belt in northwestern Pakistan is a linear or
accurate belt in which compression has produced a combination of thrust faults and folds .The belt is located on the northwest margin of the Indian tectonic plate, and was formed as India crashed into Asian continent

Kirthar Fold Belt: This fold belt forms a 50 to 70 km wide and about 380 km long,
north-south trending folded zone between Quetta and Karachi. It is bounded by the Bela- Zhob ophiolite-and thrust belt to the north and west, and by the cibi trough.

Kohat- Potwar Foldbelt: The kohat potwar fold belt, on the northwest margin of the
Indian plate, is a structurally defined petroliferous region

Khude Range Fold belt: This belt is about 10 to 30 km wide, 200 km long, and is
situated south of the khuzdar knot, along its western and eastern margin.

Nagau-Kirthar fold belt: It forms the inner and eastern part of the kirthar fold belt and
covers the Nagau and kirthar Ranges.This belt is 10 30 km wide.

Northwest Himalayan Fold: It occupies a 250 km wide and about 560 km long
irregularly shaped mountainous region stretching from the Afghan border near Prachinar, up to the Kashmir Basin.

Southeastern Hazara Fold: It situated in the southeast of Peshawar Basin. The


Hazara Hill Ranges represent the passive margin sediments of Mesozoic Cenozoic age of Indian plate.