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RECOMMENDATION 1201 (1993)[1] on an additional protocol on th ri!ht" o# national $inoriti " to th E%rop an Con& ntion on '%$an Ri!ht" 1.

The Assembly recalls its Recommendations 1134 (1990) and 1177 (1992), and its Orders o. 4!" (1990) and o. 474 (1992) on the ri#hts o$ minorities. %n the te&ts ado'ted on ! (ebr)ary 1992 it as*ed the +ommittee o$ ,inisters i. ii. iii. to concl)de as soon as 'ossible the .or* )nder .ay $or the elaboration o$ a charter $or re#ional or minority lan#)a#es and to do its )tmost to ens)re the ra'id im'lementation o$ the charter / to dra. )' an additional 'rotocol on the ri#hts o$ minorities to the 0)ro'ean +on1ention on 2)man Ri#hts / to 'ro1ide the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e .ith a s)itable mediation instr)ment. 2. 3y ado'tin# the 0)ro'ean +harter $or Re#ional or ,inority 4an#)a#es 5 a +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e con1ention 5 on 22 6)ne 1992, the +ommittee o$ ,inisters #a1e the Assembly satis$action on the $irst 'oint. The charter, on .hich le#islation in o)r member states .ill ha1e to be based, .ill also be able to #i1e #)idance to many other states on a di$$ic)lt and sensiti1e s)b7ect. 3. There remains the ra'id im'lementation o$ the charter. %t is enco)ra#in# that .hen it .as o'ened $or si#nat)re on ! o1ember 1992, ele1en +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e member states si#ned it strai#ht a.ay. 3)t one has to #o $)rther. 4. The Assembly there$ore a''eals to member states .hich ha1e not yet si#ned the charter to do so and to )r#e all o$ them to rati$y it s'eedily, acce'tin# as many o$ its cla)ses as 'ossible. !. The Assembly reser1es the ri#ht to ret)rn, at a later date, to the 8)estion o$ a s)itable mediation instr)ment o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e .hich it has already 'ro'osed to set )'. ". %t has been ad1ised o$ the terms o$ re$erence #i1en by the +ommittee o$ ,inisters to the 9teerin# +ommittee $or 2)man Ri#hts and its +ommittee o$ 0&'erts $or the :rotection o$ ational ,inorities and .ishes to #i1e its $)ll s)''ort to this .or* and acti1ely 'romote it. 7. Thro)#h the incl)sion in the 0)ro'ean +on1ention on 2)man Ri#hts o$ certain ri#hts o$ 'ersons belon#in# to minorities as .ell as or#anisations entitled to re'resent them, s)ch 'ersons co)ld bene$it $rom the remedies o$$ered by the con1ention, 'artic)larly the ri#ht to s)bmit a''lications to the 0)ro'ean +ommission and +o)rt o$ 2)man Ri#hts. ;. +onse8)ently, the Assembly recommends that the +ommittee o$ ,inisters ado't an additional 'rotocol on the ri#hts o$ national minorities to the 0)ro'ean +on1ention on 2)man Ri#hts, dra.in# on the te&t re'rod)ced belo., .hich is an inte#ral 'art o$ this recommendation. 9. As this matter is e&tremely )r#ent and one o$ the most im'ortant acti1ities c)rrently )nder .ay at the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e, the Assembly also recommends that the +ommittee o$ ,inisters s'eed )' its .or* sched)le so that the s)mmit o$ heads o$ state and #o1ernment (<ienna, ; and 9 October 1993) .ill be able to ado't a 'rotocol on the ri#hts o$ national minorities and o'en it $or si#nat)re on that occasion. T (t o# th propo"al #or an additional protocol to th Con& ntion #or th )rot ction o# '%$an Ri!ht" and *%nda$ ntal *r do$"+ conc rnin! p r"on" , lon!in! to national $inoriti "

)r a$,l The member states o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e, si#natory, hereto, 1. +onsiderin# that the di1ersity o$ 'eo'les and c)lt)res .ith .hich it is imb)ed is one o$ the main so)rces o$ the richness and 1itality o$ 0)ro'ean ci1ilisation / 2. +onsiderin# the im'ortant contrib)tion o$ national minorities to the c)lt)ral di1ersity and dynamism o$ the states o$ 0)ro'e / 3. +onsiderin# that only the reco#nition o$ the ri#hts o$ 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority .ithin a state, and the international 'rotection o$ those ri#hts, are ca'able o$ ')ttin# a lastin# end to ethnic con$rontations, and th)s o$ hel'in# to #)arantee 7)stice, democracy, stability and 'eace / 4. +onsiderin# that the ri#hts concerned are those .hich any 'erson may e&ercise either sin#ly or 7ointly / !. +onsiderin# that the international 'rotection o$ the ri#hts o$ national minorities is an essential as'ect o$ the international 'rotection o$ h)man ri#hts and, as s)ch, a domain $or international co5 o'eration, 2a1e a#reed as $ollo.s - ction I . D #inition Article 1 (or the ')r'oses o$ this +on1ention=2>, the e&'ression ??national minority@@ re$ers to a #ro)' o$ 'ersons in a state .ho a. reside on the territory o$ that state and are citiAens thereo$ / b. maintain lon#standin#, $irm and lastin# ties .ith that state / c. dis'lay distincti1e ethnic, c)lt)ral, reli#io)s or lin#)istic characteristics / d. are s)$$iciently re'resentati1e, altho)#h smaller in n)mber than the rest o$ the 'o')lation o$ that state or o$ a re#ion o$ that state / e. are moti1ated by a concern to 'reser1e to#ether that .hich constit)tes their common identity, incl)din# their c)lt)re, their traditions, their reli#ion or their lan#)a#e. - ction 2 . / n ral principl " Article 2 1. ,embershi' o$ a national minority shall be a matter o$ $ree 'ersonal choice. 2. Article 3 1. 01ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to e&'ress, 'reser1e and de1elo' in com'lete $reedom hisBher reli#io)s, ethnic, lin#)istic andBor c)lt)ral identity, .itho)t bein# s)b7ected to any attem't at assimilation a#ainst hisBher .ill. o disad1anta#e shall res)lt $rom the choice or the ren)nciation o$ s)ch membershi'.

2. 01ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority may e&ercise hisBher ri#hts and en7oy them indi1id)ally or in association .ith others. Article 4 All 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority shall be e8)al be$ore the la.. Any discrimination based on membershi' o$ a national minority shall be 'rohibited. Article 5 Celiberate chan#es to the demo#ra'hic com'osition o$ the re#ion in .hich a national minority is settled, to the detriment o$ that minority, shall be 'rohibited. - ction 3 0 -%,"tanti& ri!ht" Article 6 All 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to set )' their o.n or#anisations, incl)din# 'olitical 'arties. Article 7 1. 01ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht $reely to )se hisBher mother ton#)e in 'ri1ate and in ')blic, both orally and in .ritin#. This ri#ht shall also a''ly to the )se o$ hisBher lan#)a#e in ')blications and in the a)dio1is)al sector. 2. 01ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to )se hisBher s)rname and $irst names in hisBher mother ton#)e and to o$$icial reco#nition o$ hisBher s)rname and $irst names. 3. %n the re#ions in .hich s)bstantial n)mbers o$ a national minority are settled, the 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to )se their mother ton#)e in their contacts .ith the administrati1e a)thorities and in 'roceedin#s be$ore the co)rts and le#al a)thorities. 4. %n the re#ions in .hich s)bstantial n)mbers o$ a national minority are settled, the 'ersons belon#in# to that minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to dis'lay in their lan#)a#e local names, si#ns, inscri'tions and other similar in$ormation 1isible to the ')blic. This does not de'ri1e the a)thorities o$ their ri#ht to dis'lay the abo1e5mentioned in$ormation in the o$$icial lan#)a#e or lan#)a#es o$ the state. Article 8 1. 01ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to learn hisBher mother ton#)e and to recei1e an ed)cation in hisBher mother ton#)e at an a''ro'riate n)mber o$ schools and o$ state ed)cational and trainin# establishments, located in accordance .ith the #eo#ra'hical distrib)tion o$ the minority. 2. The 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to set )' and mana#e their o.n schools and ed)cational and trainin# establishments .ithin the $rame.or* o$ the le#al system o$ the state. Article 9 %$ a 1iolation o$ the ri#hts 'rotected by this 'rotocol is alle#ed, e1ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority or any re'resentati1e or#anisation shall ha1e an e$$ecti1e remedy be$ore a state a)thority.

Article 10 01ery 'erson belon#in# to a national minority, .hile d)ly res'ectin# the territorial inte#rity o$ the state, shall ha1e the ri#ht to ha1e $ree and )nim'eded contacts .ith the citiAens o$ another co)ntry .ith .hom this minority shares ethnic, reli#io)s or lin#)istic $eat)res or a c)lt)ral identity. Article 11 %n the re#ions .here they are in a ma7ority the 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority shall ha1e the ri#ht to ha1e at their dis'osal a''ro'riate local or a)tonomo)s a)thorities or to ha1e a s'ecial stat)s, matchin# the s'eci$ic historical and territorial sit)ation and in accordance .ith the domestic le#islation o$ the state. - ction 1 0 I$pl $ ntation o# th protocol Article 12 1. othin# in this 'rotocol may be constr)ed as limitin# or restrictin# an indi1id)al ri#ht o$ 'ersons belon#in# to a national minority or a collecti1e ri#ht o$ a national minority embodied in the le#islation o$ the contractin# state or in an international a#reement to .hich that state is a 'arty.

2. ,eas)res ta*en $or the sole ')r'ose o$ 'rotectin# ethnic #ro)'s, $osterin# their a''ro'riate de1elo'ment and ens)rin# that they are #ranted e8)al ri#hts and treatment .ith res'ect to the rest o$ the 'o')lation in the administrati1e, 'olitical, economic, social and c)lt)ral $ields and in other s'heres shall not be considered as discrimination. Article 13 The e&ercise o$ the ri#hts and $reedoms listed in this 'rotocol $)lly a''lies to the 'ersons belon#in# to the ma7ority in the .hole o$ the state b)t .ho constit)te a minority in one or se1eral o$ its re#ions. Article 14 The e&ercise o$ the ri#hts and $reedoms listed in this 'rotocol are not meant to restrict the d)ties and res'onsibilities o$ the citiAens o$ the state. 2o.e1er, this e&ercise may only be made s)b7ect to s)ch $ormalities, conditions, restrictions or 'enalties as are 'rescribed by la. and necessary in a democratic society in the interests o$ national sec)rity, territorial inte#rity or ')blic sa$ety, $or the 're1ention o$ disorder or crime, $or the 'rotection o$ health or morals or $or the 'rotection o$ the ri#hts and $reedoms o$ others. - ction 2 . *inal cla%" " Article 15 o dero#ation )nder Article 1! o$ the +on1ention $rom the 'ro1isions o$ this 'rotocol shall be allo.ed, sa1e in res'ect o$ Article 10 o$ the latter. Article 16 o reser1ation may be made )nder Article "4 o$ the +on1ention in res'ect o$ the 'ro1isions o$ this 'rotocol. Article 17

The 9tates :arties shall re#ard the 'ro1isions o$ Articles 1 to 11 o$ this 'rotocol as additional articles o$ the +on1ention and all the 'ro1isions o$ the +on1ention shall a''ly accordin#ly. Article 18 This 'rotocol shall be o'en $or si#nat)re by the member states o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e .hich are si#natories to the +on1ention. %t shall be s)b7ect to rati$ication, acce'tance or a''ro1al. A member state o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e may not rati$y, acce't or a''ro1e this 'rotocol )nless it sim)ltaneo)sly rati$ies or has 're1io)sly rati$ied the +on1ention. %nstr)ments o$ rati$ication, acce'tance or a''ro1al shall be de'osited .ith the 9ecretary Deneral o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e. Article 19 1. This 'rotocol shall enter into $orce on the $irst day o$ the month $ollo.in# the date on .hich $i1e member states o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e ha1e e&'ressed their consent to be bo)nd by the 'rotocol in accordance .ith the 'ro1isions o$ Article 1;. 2. %n res'ect o$ any member state .hich s)bse8)ently e&'resses its consent to be bo)nd by it, the 'rotocol shall enter into $orce on the $irst day o$ the month $ollo.in# the date o$ the de'osit o$ the instr)ment o$ rati$ication, acce'tance or a''ro1al. Article 20 The 9ecretary Deneral o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e shall noti$y the member states o$ the +o)ncil o$ a. any si#nat)re / b. the de'osit o$ any instr)ment o$ rati$ication, acce'tance or a''ro1al / c. any date o$ entry into $orce o$ this 'rotocol / d. any other act, noti$ication or comm)nication relatin# to this 'rotocol. %n .itness .hereo$ the )ndersi#ned, bein# d)ly a)thorised thereto, ha1e si#ned this 'rotocol. Cone at 9trasbo)r# this day o$ , in 0n#lish and (rench, both te&ts bein# e8)ally a)thentic, in a sin#le co'y, .hich shall be de'osited in the archi1es o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e. The 9ecretary Deneral o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e shall transmit certi$ied co'ies to each member state o$ the +o)ncil o$ 0)ro'e. =1> Assembly debate on 1 (ebr)ary 1993 (22nd 9ittin#) (see Coc. "742, re'ort o$ the +ommittee on 4e#al A$$airs and 2)man Ri#hts, Ra''orte)r - ,r Eorms / and Coc. "749, o'inion o$ the :olitical A$$airs +ommittee, Ra''orte)r - ,r de :)i#). Text adopted by the Assembly on 1 (ebr)ary 1993 (22nd 9ittin#). =2> The term ??+on1ention@@ in this te&t re$ers to the +on1ention $or the :rotection o$ 2)man Ri#hts and ()ndamental (reedoms.