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M A T H E M A T I C A L

M O D E L S MACHINES

F O R

I N D U C T I O N

P. Pillay, Senior Member, IEEE, and V. Levin

Department of Electrical Engineering University of New Orleans New Orleans, LA 7 0 1 4 8 Ph: ( 5 0 4 ) 2 8 6 - 7 1 6 1 ; Fax: ( 5 0 4 ) 2 8 6 - 3 9 5 0
Abstract-Different mathematical models have been used over the years t o examine different problems associated w i t h induction motors. These range from the simple equivalent circuit models t o more complex d,q models and abc models which allow the inclusion of various forms of impedance and/or voltage unbalance. Recently, hybrid models have been developed which allow the inclusion of supply side unbalance but with the computational economy of the d,q models. This paper presents these models with typical results and provides guidelines for their use. I.INTRODUCTION. The well k n o w n equivalent circuit model of the induction motor [11 has been widely used over the years t o examine the steady state behavior of induction motor. Both ABC and various forms of d,q models have been used t o study transient behavior [21. Lately, several hybrid models have also been developed for the modeling of machines for particular motor drive or transient operation [31. This is a review paper, w i t h the aim of presenting these models together w i t h results and guidelines for their use. The paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the transformer type equivalent circuit model. Section 111 presents the ABC model. Section I V presents the d,q models. Sections V and VI present ABC/dq and DQ/abc models. Section VI1 has the conclusions.
21 22

frequency f
(0)

frequency sf

frequency f

(b)

frequency s f

Fig.1. The conventional (a) and transformer type (b) equivalent circuits of the induction motor.

II.CONVENT1 ON A L AND TRANS FORMER TYPE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
The conventional equivalent circuit (EC) for an induction motor is s h o w n i n Fig.la. This circuit has been widely used for studying the steady state operation of induction motors. It can give erroneous results when either the stator or rotor circuits have power electronic devices connected t o them, if the machine itself has any phase unbalance or during severe transients created during starting or autoreclosing. The transformer type EC [4,51, a variation of the conventional circuit (Fig.lb), can be used w i t h fair accuracy for rectifier calculations, while including the effect of source impedance induced overlap. Parameters of the transformer type EC are related t o those of the conventional EC in the following way:

- - _ _ Z, =Z,,+k Z2

- -- - - - - -- z,=Q+s; q,=q+ z ;, k=nz,,J(z,+ z , ) ;

where the symbols have their usual meanings. From Fig.1 b the motor equations for the steady state mode of operation w i t h sinusoidal currents are as follows:

The application of the conventional EC in a wide variety of applications is well k n o w n and not included here. A s an example of the use of the transformer type model, its application t o a slip energy recovery induction motor drive w i t h a step-down chopper between the rotor rectifier and inverter is given in Fig.2 [41. Fig.2 shows the predicted stator, supply and rotor current waveforms of a 4-pole, slip- energy recovery induction motor drive together w i t h their measured counterparts at a speed 1300 rpm. The results indicate that the drive performance can be fairly accurately calculated with the EC circuit. This model does not w o r k well a t a slip of 116 where a peculiar harmonic effect takes place. A more detailed model is needed for this purpose which is discussed later. Both the transformer type model and conventional equivalent circuit of the induction motor neglect mutual inductance effects and therefore cannot be applied for an accurate prediction of the transients in the motor. Hence more rigorous models should be used for the analysis of the motor, particularly when driven b y variable speed drives, when the machine has impedance unbalance or subjected to certain forms of supply unbalance.

0-7803-3008-0195$4.00 0 1995 IEEE

606

io

e-

Measured

C a,

Time

(ins)

-a
CO

; ?

a
3

t t
-10

-I5 P

Time (ms)

Fig.2. Measured and calculated waveforms at speed 1300 rpm.

111. THE ABCiabc MOTOR MODEL.


A . Basic ABC/abc model.

All motor models for the transient analysis of an induction motor are based on the so-called ABC/abc model. The equations of this model are derived under assumptions that the MMF in the air gap of the motor is sinusoidal, there is negligible saturation and negligible losses in the core o f the machine. Then the simplified schematic of the stator and rotor windings in Fig.3 can be used to obtain the electromagnetic equations.

Fig.3. The schematic diagram of a 3-phase induction motor for ABC/abc model.

The most cieneral form of these equations i s as follows:

607

r-0

0 0 0 O i

O r , O

0 0 O i

0 0 r,, 0 0 0 i, 0 0 O r , O 0

Oi, 0 0 0 0 rrb 0 i,
0 0 0 0 r,ci

i+
phase;

P i I 1 +

where

v ,

,..., v,, are applied phase voltages; . lea, ...,iIC are currents of each rotor and stator
.
r ,

...,r,, are resistances of each phase; L,,,, ...,L,,, are the leakage inductances of each phase;
8 is electrical angle between the axis of stator phase A and axis of rotor phase a; MAA, ...,Mccare self inductances or mutual inductances

between each phase of the stator (rotor)and each of the other stator or rotor phases when 8 = 0 ; p i s the symbol for differentiation; ...,f C c Ware functions of 8; fAA(8), f'm(8),...,f'cc(0) are derivatives of the above functions; U, - is electrical angular speed of the motor If both stator and rotor windings are electrically and magnetically symmetrical, a more well k n o w n f o r m of equation 12) results:

608

where M , - is mutual inductance between a stator phase and a rotor phase when O = O ; L', = LIS Ma,: L', = L,, Ms,: a, =cos@: b, =sin@; a2= cos(@ 2n/3); b, = sin@ + 2n/3); a3 =cos(@-2n/3); b3=sin(O-2n/3) The expression for electromagnetic torque is as follows:

5.20 r

P T,=--MJ(imim +iSbirb+i,i,)sin8 +(isairb+isbim +iJJsin(e +2x/3) +


2

where P is the number of poles in the motor. In the case of Y or A stator connected squirrel cage induction motors,

and the parameters of the ABC/abc model are related t o the parameters of the EC of Fig.1a in the following simple way:

b) Start up electric 'torque Fig.4. Start u p st,ator current and torque of a 22 k W induction motor (using ABC/abc model).

B. ABC/abc moldel without inversion of the inductance matrix


One straiightforward approach of avoiding the problem of the inversion of the variable inductance matrix, is t o invert the inductance matrix analytically before numerical integration of the equations. In general, such a procedure is extremely difficult. But i f the phase impedances are symmetrical and conditions in (5)are satisfied, then explicit expressions for derivatives of the currents can be obtained relatively easily. N o w the ABClabc model has the following form:

Thus the ABC/abc model allows the tracking of the "natural" phase currents directly at any time of a transient. Also the model of the f o r m in (2) is not limited b y conditions of symmetry of either supply voltages or phase impedances. Therefore the ABC/abc model, is suitable for a study of complex unbalance in the motor (operation of the motor w i t h a nonuniform air gap, operation of the motor under b o t h unbalanced voltages and unbalanced impedances, etc.) when the simplifying assumptions of alternative models 161 render t h e m inapplicable. As an example of the application of the ABC/abc model, transients during start up of a 2 2 K W induction motor ( w i t h parameters given in the Appendix I) are presented in Fig.4. The inherent defect of the direct application of the ABC/abc model for digital simulation of the motor transients is the large computation time required for inversion of the time-varying inductance matrix in (3) during each step of integration. Many other models and approaches were developed t o avoid this timeconsuming operation.

where [il is the column of stator and rotor phase currents; [VI is the column of applied voltages: [AI, [Bl are 6 b y 6 and 6 b y 3 matrices respectively The entries of [ A I and CBI are given in Appendix II. Equation (7) can be integrated m u c h faster than equation (3).In Fig.5 the results of transient analysis of the same motor as in preceding chapter b u t using (7) are shown. The current and torque waveforms are identical w i t h those of Fig.4. However one can see that this model still has 7 equations. Reference frame theory allows the reduction f r o m six equations t o four, w i t h a constant inductance matrix.

0.g

IV. D-Q MODELS OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR.


A. The theory of d-q models. Park's transformation can be applied t o the ABC/abc model of any symmetrical induction machine. In the general case, such a transformation leads t o the dqO reference frame L6.71 which can be used for studying certain types of unbalanced operation of the motor as well as for stability analysis and controller design. Fig.7 shows a schematic of a 3-phase induction motor with the q,d axes superimposed. The d axis lags the q axis b y 90" (electrical). Coils QS, DS, qr, dr replace the real phase coils AS, BS, CS, ar, br, or. d,q variables are obtained f r o m abc variables b y application of the Park transformation below:

8.3 u.7
3
v
c

2
E
2
L

5.0

3.4
1.a
0.2

g-1'4
-3.1

-4.7
-fi 7

"-0

25

50

75

100 125 150 Time (ms)

175

200

225

250

(a) Start up stator current

609

90

5 2

a3 67
?
I

4.5

Fn

7 50 a

5 1.8 ; 0.2
-3.1

3.4

S -1.4
-4.7
-6

7 .-

-201

25

50

75

100 125

Time (ms)

150

175

2W

225

250

'

v w

'

'

'

'
75

'

50

' 100

'

' ' ' ' ' 125 150 175

'

Time(ms)

zoa

'

'

'
225

'

'
250

(a) Start up stator current

(b) Start up torque

Fig.5. Stator transients of the motor using the transformed ABC/abc model.
+q oxis
#

and

Fig.6. The schematic diagram of a 3-phase induction motor for d-q model.

se cos(e-y) cos(e+y)

where y=2rr/3, while abc variables are obtained b y the inverse Park transform:

where Wqs, W',,, Wq,, W,, denote flux linkages of the coils i n the d-q frame; Os, p are the angles between the q axis and stator phase A and rotor phase A respectively; L , is the same as in ( 6 ) (apparent mutual inductance of the motor); L=L,,+L,=L',+(1/2)M,, is the apparent self inductance of a stator phase; L, =L,, + L , = L', + ( 1 /2)M,, is the apparent self inductance of a rotor phase. The choice of the angle 8, and hence the speed of the rotation of the d-q frame, defines the type of the d-q model. The expression for electromagnetic torque however does not depend on the particular reference frame and has the following general form:

The general f o r m o f the voltage balance equations for the d-q model is as follows:

In this case O,=O and the q,d axes are stationary. Hence the equations are as follows:

610

!
.
~

PSpice implementation and studying electromechanical transients. In Fig.8 the PSpice d-q equivalent circuits based on the stationary reference frame and the torque equivalent circuit are also given.

(13)

Rs

where [RI I S 4 b y 4 matrix of stator resistances rm and rotor resistances r,; v , = V,,cos(w,t);v,, =-V,,sin(w,t); V ,, - is the peak value of the stator voltage; U, - is electrical synchronous speed of the motor The expressions for vqr and v , depend on the frequency and the phase of the voltage applied to the rotor. Usually for most practical applications of the stationary frame, v , =vd, =O. Fig.7 shows the results of the computer simulation of start up currents of the 22 k W induction motor in the stationary reference frame. The q-axis stator variables of the stationary reference frame behave in the same way as do the physical stator variables. In particular, the iqD current coincides with the actual stator phase A current (Fig.7). Therefore this model is advantageous when only transients in the stator are of interest as in the case of sttidying stator transients of squirrel cage induction motors connected to the bus, or stator fed variable-speed induction motor drives.
1 0 . ~ PHASE A STATOR CURRENT
4 -

(3"'
~

RE

-' L Vds

v3
-1ds
+

H2
-idr

v4

7
Fig.8. PSpice equivalent circuits. In Fig.8, V1 through V5 are d u m m y (zero) voltage sources to measure stator and irotor currents. H 1 and HZ are Current Controlled Voltage Sources (CCVS) where

H T e l and HTe2 are also CCVS t o represent the electromagnetic torque:

HTel =(--)l($Lmirqird; I' 3 HTe2=(--)(-)LmiJ, P 3 2 2

(15)

-10.4

am

56.m

100.00
(a)

150.00
mi

200.00

25800

I.

TIME

1 1 i-SEC

R,, and Lj are the friction coefficient and the inertia of the motor respectively. Parameters , L , L , L , are the same as in (6) and as in the conventional equivalent circuit. The starting u p torque o f the 2 2 k W motor obtained b y the PSpice circuits simulation is given in Fig.9.

D l l l l l l l c mn: C l l V l V S 14:S1:111

3 d

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(a)

c:\inimmrsn.nr

c
(L

z W
rr

3 U

1
-10.a.

I
50.00 TIME 100.00
(b)

0 . 00

150.00
mi

200.00

250. 00

"l ...........
k
D 1l11.1l

. ,..............
th
tk
bU

1 1 i-SEC
011.:

11-

Fig.7. Start up stator current using the stationary frame. The d-q stati-'iary reference frame enables o n e t o obtain relatively simple but accurate equivalent circuits o f the motor for

*,

11. O V 5

v 3

11":

1272:15

Fig.9. Start UP torque of the motor (using PSpice).

611

C. Rotor reference frame.

N o w Oq = 8 = w,dt and the q,d axes rotate at rotor speed and the q-axis position coincident with the rotor phase A axis. Hence f r o m Fig.6, the equations of the model have the following form:

where [RI and [L] coincide w i t h the corresponding matrices of equation (1 3); vq,=V,,cos(w,t-8); v,,=-V,,sin(w,t-O); 8 is the angle between stator and rotor phase A axes Since i n this model the rotor q-axis variables are a t slip frequency, they behave i n the same w a y as the rotor phase A variables (Fig.10). Hence the rotor reference frame is convenient for studying transient phenomena i n the rotor. PHASE A ROTOR CURRENT

where v , = V , : v ,= O In this model, the stator d-q voltages and currents are DC quantities (Fig.1 1 ) i n the steady state.
10.0%.

PHASE A STATOR CURRENT

-1 0. 00. -10.

0 d 0. 40

a00 50.00 100.00 150.00


m i

5800

im.00
(a)

1~0.00

~00.00

200.00

250.00

ZSI 00

TIME

m i I 1 I-SEC

TIME

a)
:

111-SEC

-AXIS STATOR CURRENT

10-OBt I

Q-AXIS ROTOR CURRENT

--

Y I

- 1 a 001
-10. .GI!

a 00

50.00

100.00
(bl

150.00
m i

200.00

250.00

0. 0 0

50.00

180.00

150.00

TIME

bl

mi

200.00 1 1 1-SEC

--&.

TIME
00

1 1 i-SEC

Fig.1 1 . Start up stator current using synchronously rotating reference frame It is thus possible t o use a larger step length i n the digital integration routine to obtain a reduced computation time when using this frame. This frame is also often used for stability analysis and controller design, because o f the ability t o linearize the d,q variables. One important area o f application o f rotating d-q reference frame

Fig.10. Start u p rotor current using rotor reference frame

D. Synchronously rotating reference frame.


In this case the q,d axes rotate at synchrondus speed and The equations o f the model are as follows:

O,=w,t.

612

theory i s in the field oriented control of A C motor drives. While d-q reference frames have a very wide area of application, they are not appropriate for studying unbalanced operation of the motor especially when conditions (5) are not met. One particular example is the case of motor operation during unbalanced phase faults or autoreclosing operation when the tracking of individual phase currents is necessary t o simulate circuit breaker performance. This leads t o the ABC/dq model of the next section.

M
a / . ABC/dq MOTOR MODEL.

In m a n y practical problems one faces the situation where only variables of the stator (rotor) and electromagnetic torque are of interest while the variables of the rotor (stator) are of no significant importance. The d-q model cannot be easily applied i f there is complex unbalance of the stator (rotor) circuit. A typical example of such a problem is bus transfer or autoreclosing operation of induction motors. When studying d r i v e h o t o r interactions during bus transfer and autoreclose operations it is important t o consider the opening of the breaker and overlap effects in the rectifier in detail [ 8 ] . In this case the so-called hybrid ABC/dq reference frame can be used which preserves the stator states in their original form, while only transforming the rotor states t o d,q axis variables. A schematic of the induction motor w i t h ABC/dq axes shown is in Fig.12.

lo
0 0 0 0 0 0
-@M
2
0
L,:

2 1 -M -M 2
where

0 @M

1 -M

-E, 0

'

tq axis

+d'

Expressions for vq, vd depend o n the frequency of applied rotor voltage. If the frequency is equal t o the slip frequency then

is the peak rotor voltage; s - is the slip of the motor The expression for electromagnetic torque in the ABC/dq model is as follows:
s t a t o r phase

, where V

axis

+'

Fig.12. Schematic diagram of a 3-phase induction motor for ABC/dq model.

In the model, the d-axis coincides w i t h phase A of the stator while the q-axis leads the d by 90" (electrical). The differential equations of the ABC/dq model can be obtained b y applying t w o transformations in cascade t o the ABC/abc impedance matrix. A t first, the balanced three phase rotor winding is transformed t o a t w o phase d'q' equivalent frame which is stationary relative t o the rotor (axis d' coincides w i t h the rotor phase A axis). Then the d'q' frame is transformed t o the d-q reference frame which is stationary relative to the stator yielding the following equations:

Unlike the ABC/abc model, the inductance matrix of (1 8 ) is time invariant and does not need t o be inverted during each step of integration. Therefore transients can be simulated much faster w i t h the advantage that stator variables coincide w i t h physical stator variables of the motor. In Fig.13 an induction motor and induction motor drive connected t o the sarne bus are shown, while Fig. 1 4 gives the result of a simulation of .the system.

613

Fig.13. The schematic of induction motor and induction motor drive.

MOTOR TORQUE
(MOTOR CONNECTED TU THE BUS DIRECTLY)

(MorOR CONNECTEO 70 T H E aus DIRECTLY)

MOTOR STATOR CURRENT

Fig.14. Current and torque of the motor connected t o the bus. I n Fig.14 autoreclosing takes place at 1.5 sec. of the transient. Thus the ABCidq model allows tracking of all stator variables of the motor and drive during opening and reclosing operation of the breaker. VI.DQ/abc MOTOR MODEL. A similar idea can be applied for studying phenomena in the rotor circuit. If for example, a detailed study of the slip energy recovery induction motor drive of Fig.3, including the effect of overlap in the rectifier [91 is carried out, a complex configuration in the rotor circuit results while a detailed knowledge of the stator variables m a y not be necessary. Hence the rotor variables should be preserved in their natural form. A schematic diagram o f the DQ/abc model is s h o w n in Fig.15 where the DQ/abc axes are superimposed. In this model, the d axis coincides with phase A of the rotor, while the q-axis leads the d b y 90 (electrical). The equations of the DQ/abc model can be obtained b y applying t w o transformations in cascade. A t first, the three phase stator windings are transformed to a t w o phase d'q' system stationary relative to the stator (axis d' coincides w i t h stator phase A axisi Then the d'q' frame is transformed t o a d-q reference frame

+q'

axis

+d axis#

rotor phase
C oxi5

Fig.15. The schematic diagram of a 3-phase induction motor for DQlabc model stationary relative to the rotor. The result of the transformation is as follows:

614

where M is the same as in ( 1 9);

The expression following form:

for

electromagnetic

torque

has the

T =-[ P --Ml&,+-Mi&,+Mi f i . '2 2 2

i --Miqirb--Miqim] 1 1
qra

(a)

Like the ABC/dq model, the inductance matrix of the DQlabc model is time invariant. Hence its inversion during each step of integration is avoided while the rotor states are retained in their original form. Fig.16 shows the stator, supply and rotor current waveforms of the slip energy recovery drive a t a speed of 1 2 5 0 rpm (slip = 1/ 6 ) predicted w i t h DQ/abc model. The waveforms of measured and predicted rotor current in Fig.16 are almost identical. Indeed the DQ/abc model enables one t o consider the overlap effect in detail and gives the correct value of the overlap angle. The simple equivalent circuit is unable t o predict this result, particularly at this slip of 1 / 6 .

machines," Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons LTD, London, 1968. 2. P. Krause and C . Thomas,"Simulation of symmetrical induction machinery," Iff Trans. PAS-84, 1965, pp.1038-1053. 3 . J.E. Brown, W. Drury, B.L. Jones and P. Vas, "Analysis of the periodic transient slate of a static Kramer drive," Proc lff, ~01.133, Pt.B. no 1, Jan 1!386, pp.21-30. 4. P. Pillay and IL. Refoufi, "Calculation of slip energy recovery induction motor drive behavior using the equivalent circuit," /ff Trans. lnd. Appl., vo1.30, no. 1, Jan/Feb 1 9 9 4 , pp. 154-1 63. 5. D.G.O. Morris,"!;ome tests of an exact practical theory of the induction motor," F'roc. Iff, vol. 97, Pt.11, pp. 7 6 7 - 7 7 8 . 6. P. Krause, "Analysis of electric machinery," McGraw-Hi//, 1 9 8 6 . 7 . R. Lee, P. Pillay and R. Harley, "D,Q reference frames for the simulation of induction motors," f P S R Journal, vo1.8. October 1984, pp. 15-25. 8 . T. Higgins, P. Young, W. Snider, H. Holley, "Report on bus transfer studies,'"lEff Trans. Energy Conversion, vo1.5, no.3, September 1990, pp. 470-484. 9 . E. Akpinar, P. Pillay, "Modeling and performance of slip energy recovery induction motor drives," Iff Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 5, no. 1, March 1990, pp. 203-210.

APPENDIX I. 2 2 kW Induction motor parameters

VII. CONCLUSIONS. Base power Base stator voltage Base stator current Base stator impedance Base torque Number of poles Stator resistance Rotor resistance Stator leakage reactance Rotor leakage reactance Magnetizing reactanlce Moment of inertia 27.91 8 k V a 2 2 0 V (phase) 42.3A (phase) 5.21 O h m 177.8" 4 0.021p.u. 0.057p.u. 0.049p.u. 0.132p.u.at 50 Hz 3.038p.u. 0.29kg m2

This paper has reviewed and presented the details of several different types of mathematical models suitable for the induction motors and drives. Guidelines for the use of each model has been provided.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT.

The authors acknowledge EPRl and Entergy Corporation for financial support.

REFERENCES.

1. M. G. Say,"The performance and design of alternating current

6 15

Predicted
A
U

c
01
CI

. . .. ... .

Measured . .. . ......... ..... ................... ..,................................... ........................

t 4 "

1 0 '

jut v v v v v v v v v v v v
A.

ffi

;D.

Fig.16. Measured and calculated waveforms of the slip-energy recovery induction motor drive a t a speed 1 2 5 0 r p m (using DQ/abc model) APPENDIX II. ABC/abc MOTOR MODEL WITHOUT INVERSION OF THE I1 A12 A13 A14 A15 A INDUCTANCE MATRIX. The equation (7) has the following form:

where A 1 1 =(P1 *r,)/det[cll A 1 2 = ( Q 1 *r,+CS(Pl-Q ))/det[C11 A 1 3 = ( Q l *r,+CS(Ql-P ) ) / d e t [ C I ] A14=-(P1 *S1 +Ql(S2+S3))/det[Cl] A 1 5 = - ( P 1 * S 3 + Q 1 (S1 +S2))/det[C11 A 1 6 = - ( P 1 * S 2 + Q l ( S l +S3))/det[C11 A21 =A13 A31 =A12 A22=A11 A32 =A13 A23 =A1 2 A33 =A1 1 A24=A16 A34=A15 A25=A14 A35 =A1 6 A 3 6 = A 14 A26 =A1 5 A41 = - ( P 2 * R 0 1 Q2(R02+R03))/det[C21 A 4 2 = - ( P 2 * R 0 2 + Q 2 ( R 0 1 R03))/det[C21 A43 = - ( P 2 * R 0 3 Q2(R01 R02))/det[C21 A44=P2*r,/detlC21 A 4 5 = (Q2*r, + CR(Q2-P2))/det[C2] A 4 6 = (Q2*r, CR(P2-Q2))/det[C2] A51 =A43 A61 = A 4 2 A52 =A41 A62 =A43

+ +

A53 =A42 A63 =A41 A54=A46 A64 =A45 A 5 5 =A 4 4 A 6 5 =A 4 6 A 5 6 =A 4 5 A66 =A44 B1 1 = - P l / d e t [ C l ] 8 4 1 = ( P 2 * a l Q2(a2 a3))M,/(LSdet[C2I) B 1 2 =-Q1 /det[C11 B 4 2 = (P2*a3 Q 2 ( a l a2))M,,/(LSdet[C21) 513 =B12 8 4 3 = ( P 2 * a 2 Q 2 ( a l +a3))M,,/(LSdet[C21) 8 2 1 =B13 B51 = B 4 3 B22=B11 B 5 2 = 841 B23=812 853 = 842 B31 = B 1 3 861 = B 4 2 8 3 2 = B13 8 6 2 = B43 B33 =B11 8 6 3 = B41 C1 = (3M,,2/2L,)-L, C 2 =-3M,,2/4L, S1 =(M,,*al *r,/Lr) +M,,w,bl S 2 =(MS,a3*r,/L,) M,,w,b3 S3 =(M,,a2*r,/L,) M,,w,b2 CS =-3d3M,,2~,/4L,

P1 =C12-C2' Q1 = C 2 ? - C l * C 2 2 *C23-3 *C 1 *C2' det[C 1 1 = C 1 C3 = (3Ms,'/2L,)-Lr C 4 =-3M,,'/4LS KO1 =(M,,*al *r,/L,)+M,,*w,*bl * a3 * rJLJ M , * w e* b 3 R 0 2 = (Ms, R 0 3 = (Ms, * a 2 * rJLJ M , , * w e *b 2 CR =-W3M,,2~,/4L, P2 = c 3 2 - c 4 2 0 2 = C4'-C3 * C 4 det[C2] =C33 + 2 * C 4 3 - 3 * C 3 * C 4 2 a1 =cos(@ a 2 = cos(@ 2n/3) a3 = cos(&2n/3) b l =sin(@ + 2n/3) b 2 =sin(@ b 3 =sin(B-2n/3) L, = L,, + (3/2)M,, L, = L,, + (3/2)M,,

+ +

616