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Modern History 2010 Wace Exam Essay Guides Australia

Question 2 Candidates may choose ONE of a range of social groups during this period: Aboriginal Australians, migrants, women, sporting groups or the RSL. There must be a clear discussion of the nature, motivation, role and the EXTENT to which this group was a MAJOR FORCE for change during this period of study. Aboriginal people and their non Aboriginal supporters could be argued as a force for change in government policies and some public attitudes during this period. After a long tradition of discrimination and suppression of Aboriginal Australians clear changes were taking place during the 1920s to the early 1950s. Developments did bring limited changes to Aboriginal experience. HOWEVER, there continued to be racial, educational and economic discrimination, removal of children, an assimilation policy, State control over Aboriginal affairs, no voting rights, and no political representation. Students will need to make a judgement on the extent to which Aboriginal people were a major force for change in Australian society.Migrants were another social group to bring change to Australian society during this period. Candidates will be required to explore the issues, policies, motives and impacts of migrants to assess how significant they were as a major force for change. Candidates should assess the extent to which migrants were a major force for change during this period. Question 3 Candidates should explain the reasons World War II was a force for cohesion. Some significant reasons could include: nationalism was heightened by the fear of invasion by Japan, loss of Singapore in February 1942 and reports of Japanese attacks on Northern Australia; powerful government propaganda and censorship; racism was used to alienate and mock the enemy; Government encouraged pride in achievements of servicemen, manpowered citizens and foreign troops in Australia; National Security regulations enforced codes of behaviour while centralised economic and administrative powers of the Federal government forged national unity. However, the War was also a cause of division within Australia. Candidates will need to identify some of the following aspects of division caused by the war: The government ban on Fascist, Communist Parties as well as religious groups such as the Jehovah Witnesses; The deep public suspicion of dissent during the war; Conflict between American and Australian servicemen over women and service conditions; Conscription debate and the Curtin Line prompted by the Japanese threat; Role of Australian troops. Were they to defend the allies or Australia? Curtin versus Churchill and the issue of support for the Empire; Internment and suspicion of Enemy Aliens, especially Japanese and Germans. Students should refer directly to the proposition and conclude with a clear argument convincing the reader of the extent to which it is accurate. Question 3

Candidates can choose to analyse the role of key politicians such as. Bruce, Page, Scullin, Lang, Menzies or Curtin. They will need to explain the ideas and motives underlying their policies and how far the individual contributed to political unity or division. Stanley Bruce (Prime Minister 1923 to 1929) is an example that Candidates may choose to analyse: Motivations: Bruce was from a conservative background and was anti communist and aimed to weaken the trade union movement. He came from experience in a family business and believed in applying business principles to government. He supported close links with the British Empire Bruce believed prosperity would be provided by men, money and markets from Britain. He aimed to make Federal/State administration more efficient. He maintained an effective coalition with the Country Party led by Earl Page. Contribution to cohesion: Bruce encouraged links to the Empire to build prosperity enacted Soldier Settlement schemes which opened land for cultivation ( later increased division because of failures), facilitated an agreement between the Federal Government and Britain in 1925 to lend money to states for the development of infrastructure such as railways, roads, irrigation works and large public works. upheld the White Australia Policy and gained support on promises of law and order Contribution to Division: Bruce undermined the ALP with accusations of socialism and disloyalty to Britain (because of the Irish members) criticised and heightened fear of the Australian Communist Party. Attacked trade unionists, The 1926 Crimes Act brought severe punishments for strikes but the continuation of strikes led to violent clashes between police and unionists. Wage reductions and laws restricting unionists led to accusations that the Bruce Page government supported wealthy Australians and cared little for the workers. He tried to abolish the Arbitration System, did not support floundering Soldier Settler Schemes, did not introduce social reforms and conflicted with Labor premiers in the States. China Question 2 Jiang Rishi, Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping may be popular choices. JIANG JIESHI (Chiang Kai Shek): Candidates will need to elaborate Jiangs ideology and reforms during the Nationalist Era. The problems facing the Guomindangmassive reform, corruption, Japanese aggression and conflict with the Communist s reduced the effectiveness of the GMD and Jiangs goals. Candidates will need to assess the effectiveness of Jiangs ideology and reforms in Mainland China up to the 1949. MAO ZEDONG: Candidates should explain Maos ideology peasant revolution, mass line, continuing revolution, nationalism, social reform- and the extent to which he achieved changes to Chinese society from the 1940s until 1976. A discussion of the changes (both positive and negative) from the past social, economic and political systems is required here. Candidates who maintain a clear link between changes and Maos ideological goals should be well rewarded. Areas of discussion include Land Reform, the Five Year plans and Great Leap Forward, mass education and political movements and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. A clear argument on the extent to which Maos reforms changed China must be the focus of this response and be clearly reinforced in the conclusion. Question 3

Candidates can focus on new ideas emerging throughout the period of study such as the development of Maoism, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution or the pro-democracy movement. They should analyse the extent to which the new ideas originated from external or domestic influences. The emergence of Maos ideology : Marxism entered China as part of the influx of foreign ideas during the May 4th Movement when intellectuals called for a cultural and political rebirth to strengthen the nation, Growth of Chinese nationalism was a direct response to the exploitation of Chinese people by foreign powers over several centuries, The Chinese Communist Party was formed in 1921 inspired by Marxism and the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Early Chinese Communists including Mao Zedong and Chen Duxiu followed the Russian model Marxist-Leninism, Directives from Moscow and Comintern agents guided Chinese Marxists. They were to work with Sun Yixians Guomindang to achieve the Three Principles of the People; The Russian model of an urban proletariat led revolution was promoted in China from 1921 through to the early 1930s. However, internal influences such as the experience of leaders, failure of the urban model and the large peasant population remodelled the Russian ideas to suit the Chinese environment. The Shanghai massacre of 1927, destruction of the urban base of the movement and the dispersal of the survivors into rural areas began a change in Chinese communism Mao wrote on peasant life in Hunan and developed a rural based philosophy in the Jiangxi Province This was to be his Mass Line or peasant based revolution devised from Chinese domestic requirements. The use of peasants as the heart of a Red Army using guerrilla tactics also emerged from Chinese history. Mao Zedong assumed the leadership of the Communist Party and rejected the Moscow line at the Zunyi meeting during the Long March. A new ideology had emerged, Maoism-. Initially forged by external influences but changed and developed by the circumstances within China during the 1920s and 30s. Candidates should weigh up the relative importance of external and internal influences on Maoism and conclude their debate.

Question 4 Candidates will need to elaborate the key facets of Maoism and Maos leadership skills. The discussion can include the emergence of the ideology, response by the peasant majority leading up to 1949 and the attempt to implement the ideas following the Communist victory in 1949. The candidates could Evaluate the popularity of the ideas of land reform, nationalism, local self determination and peasant Revolution during the 1930s to 1940s. It could be argued that there was an acceptance of Maoist

Ideology because of the contrast to the GMD dictatorship and failure to meet the needs of the people As well as the positive benefits of Communist policies. The support given to the Peoples Liberation Army and communist councils by peasants, intellectuals and middle class during the Civil War reflects The acceptance of communist ideology. However, the administration of the revolutionary changes During the decades following 1949 could support the thesis that acceptance of ideology was mainly Determined by propaganda and coercion. This is evident in the use of mass campaigns to create the New Socialist Man, the Great Leap Forward and the destruction of right wing deviation during the Cultural Revolution. The Cult of Mao also illustrates the use of the Party power to enforce unthinking Acceptance of Maos ideas. A clear judgment of the importance of ideology and/ or state power must Be included in the conclusion.