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6 views8 pages16 Out Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generator for All Operating Regions by Pitch Angle Control

Jan 17, 2014

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16 Out Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generator for All Operating Regions by Pitch Angle Control

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6 views

16 Out Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generator for All Operating Regions by Pitch Angle Control

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Ryosei Sakamoto

1

, Tomonobu Senjyu

1

, Member, IEEE, Tatsuto Kinjo

1

Student Member, IEEE,

Naomitsu Urasaki

1

, Member, IEEE, Toshihisa Funabashi

2

Senior Member, IEEE,

Hideki Fujita

3

, and Hideomi Sekine

1

AbstractEffective utilization of renewable energies such as

wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy

is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the

cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind

turbine generators to uctuate. In order to reduce uctuating

components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades

of windmill. We have proposed the pitch angle control using

minimum variance control in a previous work. However, it is a

controlled output power for only rated wind speed region. This

paper presents a control strategy based on average wind speed

and standard deviation of wind speed, and pitch angle control

using a generalized predictive control in all operating regions for

wind turbine generator. The simulation results with using actual

detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the

proposed method.

Index TermsGeneralized predictive control, output power

uctuation, pitch angle control, wind turbine generator.

I. INTRODUCTION

I

N recent years, there have been problems such as exhaus-

tion of fossil fuels, e.g., coal and oil, and environmental

pollution resulting from consumption. An effective utilization

of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead

of the fossil fuel [1]. However, wind energy is not constant

and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed,

which cause the generated power of wind turbine generator

(WTG) to uctuate. If capacity ratio of power source for

WTG is very small, power source does not uctuate the

frequency by output uctuation. However, if the ratio becomes

large, uctuation of frequency for power system will increase.

Wind farm for many WTG has the tendency of leveling

output power. However, synchronization phenomena of wind

turbines in wind farm are reported [2]. Thus, if synchroniza-

tion of output uctuation from synchronization phenomena

is generated, effect of leveling output power may be lost.

Considering above, recently, provision using power storage

system is proposed, but the cost increases. Also provisions

for stand-alone WTG is proposed [3], [4], such as variable-

speed (V-S) WTG [5]. In V-S mode electronic converters are

inserted between the generator and the grid, or a doubly-fed

induction generator (DFIG) controlled by the rotor circuit is

(1) Ryosei Sakamoto, Tomonobu Senjyu, Tatsuto Kinjo, Naomitsu Urasaki,

Hideomi Sekine are with the Department of Electrical and Electronics

Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa,

Japan (e-mail: k048482@eve.u-ryukyu.ac.jp, b985542@tec.u-ryukyu.ac.jp,

e985538@eve.u-ryukyu.ac.jp ), (2) Toshihisa Funabashi is with the Meidensha

Corporation, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail: funabashi-t@honsha.meidensha.co.jp), (3)

Hideki Fujita is with the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Aichi, Japan (e-mail:

Fujita.hideki@chuden.co.jp).

used [6]. The V-S WTG can change a speed of rotor with wind

speed variation, and can absorb a part of output uctuation

as rotation energy, and V-S WTG is especially useful in this

operating region since the electronic converter can maximize

the conversion efciency by controlling the generator torque

[5], [6]. However, the cost has been increased since V-S WTG

has some electronic converters and system is complication. On

the other hand, in medium-size to large-size WTG, the control

of the pitch angle is a usual method for output power control

above rated wind speed [5][8]. Several control methods for

controlling of pitch angle have been reported so far, such as the

backstepping method, feed-forward method [1], [8]. However,

those methods have not considered the variation in parameters

and effect of wind shear [9] for windmill. Hence, considering

above, we proposed the pitch angle control using minimum

variance control [10][12] and generalized predictive control

(GPC) [13], [14] in our previous work. However, the methods

mentioned above have xed pitch angle at 10 degree in below

rated wind speed and an actual wind speed distribution has

more below rated wind speed. Thus, if many WTGs using

squirrel-cage induction generators are interconnected to power

system, output power uctuation is supplied to power system.

The V-S WTG occurs similar situations because the V-S

WTG in below rated wind speed is based on the maximum

energy capture strategy that is corresponding to wind speed

variation. But the leveling of output power has a problem

which is reduction of output power in below rated wind speed.

However, a large-scaled wind farm could be increased in

near future. Thus, in all operating regions, the output power

uctuation control of stand-alone WTG becomes important.

In this paper, output power leveling of WTG for all operat-

ing regions by pitch angle control is proposed. The proposed

method presents a control strategy based on average wind

speed and standard deviation of wind speed, and pitch angle

control using GPC in all operating regions for WTG. Output

power command is determined by approximate equation for

windmill output using average wind speed and, standard

deviation of wind speed is corrected by using fuzzy reasoning

[15]. Output power of WTG for all operating regions are

leveled by GPC, which is based on output power command.

In addition, standard deviation of wind speed is corrected

by using fuzzy reasoning, which corresponds to rapid change

in wind speed. That means WTG using proposed method is

possible to provide stability operation for rapid change of

operating point. Thus, proposed method is possible to level

output power of WTG for all operating regions by pitch

Vw

Pg Pgo

e Pitch angle

control system

Windmill and

generator

Hydraulic

servo system

CMD

Fig. 1. Wind generating system.

angle control. Moreover, the proposed pitch angle control

is able to apply regardless of the kind of the generators

such as permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG),

synchronous generator (SG), and DFIG. The simulation results

using actual detailed model for wind power system show

effectiveness of the proposed method.

The paper is organized as follows. Section II provides a con-

guration of WTG system and equations. Section III describes

the control method of pitch angle control using GPC. Section

IV provides the pitch angle control law for all operating

regions. In Section V, an effectiveness of the proposed method

is demonstrated by simulation results. Conclusions are drawn

in Section VI.

II. WIND TURBINE GENERATOR SYSTEM

The block diagram of WTG is shown in Fig. 1. Subtracting

output power command P

go

from output power P

g

gives

output power error e that evaluates pitch angle command

CMD

via pitch angle control system. Output power P

g

is

smoothed by hydraulic servo system that is driving blade.

A. Windmill and generator

Windmill output, P

w

is given by the following equation

P

w

=

C

p

(

1

, ) V

3

w

A

2

(1)

where V

w

is wind speed, is air density, A is cross-section

of rotor for windmill, and C

p

is power coefcient. Power

coefcient C

p

is approximated by the following equation

C

p

(

1

, ) = c

1

()

2

1

+c

2

()

3

1

+c

3

()

4

1

(2)

c

1

() = c

10

+c

11

+ c

12

2

+c

13

3

+c

14

4

c

2

() = c

20

+c

21

+ c

22

2

+c

23

3

+c

24

4

c

3

() = c

30

+c

31

+ c

32

2

+c

33

3

+c

34

4

_

_

_

(3)

where c

10

to c

34

represent by performance characteristic of

windmill are constants, is pitch angle,

1

is tip speed ratio

that is given by

1

=

R

V

w

(4)

where is angular speed of rotor for windmill, R is radius

of windmill. Angular speed of rotor for windmill given by

2

=

_

2

J

(P

w

P

g

) dt (5)

sqrt

IG(slip) C (1, ) p P (V ) w w

2

sJ

1(,V ) w

slip( )

V w

Pg

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Vw

15 [m/s]

17.5[m/s]

20 [m/s]

22.5[m/s]

24 [m/s]

12.5[m/s]

[ deg ]

Wind speed

Pitch angle

C

o

n

t

r

o

l

q

u

a

n

t

i

t

y

o

f

p

i

t

c

h

a

n

g

l

e

G

(

)

Fig. 3. Control quantity of pitch angle.

where J is moment of inertia for windmill. Slip s is expressed

with the following equation by angular speed of rotor for

windmill

s =

o

o

(6)

where

o

is synchronous angular speed of rotor for generator.

If angular speed of rotor for windmill is greater than or

equal to synchronous angular speed of rotor for generator,

electric power is generated by induction generator. WTG is

used as squirrel-cage induction generator. Output power P

g

can be expressed by

P

g

=

3V

2

s (1 + s) R

2

(R

2

sR

1

)

2

+s

2

(X

1

+X

2

)

2

(7)

where V is phase voltage, s is slip, R

1

is stator resistance,

R

2

is rotor resistance, X

1

is stator reactance, X

2

is rotor

reactance. If energy loss is disregarded, P

w

= P

g

and P

w

can be approximated by

P

w

= d

1

() + d

2

() V

2

w

(8)

d

1

() =

11

+

12

+

13

2

+

14

3

d

2

() =

21

+

22

+

23

2

+

24

3

where

11

to

24

are constants. The above equations are

applied to windmill and generator as shown in Fig. 2. Tip

speed ratio

1

in (4) is calculated by wind speed V

w

and

angular speed of rotor for windmill in Fig. 2. Power

coefcient C

p

of (2) and windmill output P

w

of (1) and output

power P

g

are calculated by

1

and pitch angle in Fig. 2.

Angular speed of rotor for windmill in Fig. 2 is calculated

by P

w

and P

g

. Slip s in Fig. 2 is calculated by using (6).

Finally, P

g

is calculated by (7).

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

(a) (b) (c) (d)

[m/s]

[

p

.

u

.

]

Vw

P

w

W

i

n

d

m

i

l

l

o

u

t

p

u

t

Wind speed

cut-in

rated

cut-out

=90deg. =90deg. =10deg. =10~90deg.

Fig. 4. Windmill output power curve.

e

Vw

G( )

CMD

Pitch angle selector

90deg

10deg

1+T s a

1+T s b

P

Table2D

Fig. 5. Pitch angle control system.

B. Pitch angle control system

Control quantity of pitch angle G() is given by

G() =

P

=

1

A

1

+ A

2

V

w

2

(9)

A

1

=

12

+ 2

13

+ 3

14

2

A

2

=

22

+ 2

23

+ 3

24

2

where P and are small-signal state variable of output

power P

g

, and pitch angle , respectively.

Equation (9) depends on wind speed V

w

so that feature of

G() in Fig. 3 is varying for cut-off wind speed 24 m/s from

rated wind speed 12.5 m/s. Controlling of pitch angle control

is according to windmill output power curve in Fig. 4. For

example, wind speed range (a) in Fig. 4 is P

w

= 0pu so

that pitch angle is xed at = 90 degree because energy of

windmill is the smallest at 90 degree. Wind speed range (b)

is P

w

= 0pu to P

w

= 1pu so that pitch angle is xed at

= 10 degree because energy of windmill is the largest at 10

degree. Wind speed range (c) is P

w

= 1pu so that pitch angle

is selected to keep windmill output P

w

= 1pu. Finally,

wind speed range (d) is P

w

= 0pu so that pitch angle is

xed at = 90 degree for safety reasons. Fig. 5 shows the

pitch angle control system that resolves pitch angle command

CMD

, where output power error e is used as input into PD

controller. Pitch angle variable is multiplied by output

power signal P of PD controller and G() of (9), and by

adding and , pitch angle command

CMD

is obtained as

shown in Fig. 5. Where Table2D in Fig. 5 is feature in Fig. 3.

As can be seen in Fig. 3, if V

w

= 15 m/s, and = 20 degree,

the control quantity of pitch angle G() will be 0.05. So G()

1+T s c

1

CMD

10 deg

90 deg

Fig. 6. Hydraulic servo system.

Vw

Pg Pgo

e Pitch angle

control system

Windmill and

generator

Hydraulic

servo system

CMD

Identifier

GPC

u2

u1

STR

Fig. 7. Pitch angle control system using GPC.

is determined by wind speed and pitch angle as shown in

Fig. 5.

C. Hydraulic servo system

Hydraulic servo system is shown in Fig. 6. Originally,

hydraulic servo system has nonlinear characteristics, but it

is able to make rst-order lag system [7], [8]. Pitch angle

command

CMD

is limited by limiter at the range of 10 degree

to 90 degree.

III. CONTROL SYSTEM

In this paper, the proposed pitch angle control system using

GPC is shown in Fig. 7, where P

go

(k) is output power

command, P

g

(k) is output power, e(k) is output power error

of generator, u

2

(k) is control input of STR, k is number of

sampling. The error equation can by expressed by

A(q

1

)e(k) = q

km

B(q

1

)u

2

(k) +

(k)

(10)

A = 1 +a

1

q

1

+ +a

n

q

n

B = b

0

+ b

1

q

1

+ + b

m

q

m

where k

m

is dead time, q

1

is backward shift operator, (k)

is white noise that is equal to average value of zero and

decentralization

2

, is differencing operator 1 q

1

, n

and m are model order. For (10), GPC law is derived from by

minimizing performance index J

1

[13], [14], which is given

by

J = E

_

_

N

j=1

{e(k +j)}

2

+

NU

j=1

2

(j){u(k +j 1)}

2

_

_

(11)

where E = [] is expected value (interval average),

2

(j) is a

weighting function. For (11), rst term of right-hand side is

summing output power error e(k+j) for predictive interval N,

and second term is summing difference of control input u

for control interval NU, which is multiplied by weighting

function

2

(j). In consequence, difference of control input

u(k+j 1) for control interval NU is possible to minimize

output power error e(k + j) for interval j. Moreover, control

input u

2

for GPC is limited by

2

(j) so as to prevent

divergence. In order to set up GPC law, E

j

(q

1

) and F

j

(q

1

)

are calculated by

1 = A(q

1

)E

j

(q

1

) +q

j

F

j

(q

1

) (12)

where E

j

(q

1

) and F

j

(q

1

) are expressed by

E

j

(q

1

) = 1 +e

1

q

1

+ + e

j1

q

(j1)

F

j

(q

1

) = f

0

+f

1

q

1

+ + f

n

q

n

.

Moreover, R

j

(q

1

) and S

j

(q

1

) are calculated by

E

j

(q

1

)B(q

1

) = R

j

(q

1

) +q

j

S

j

(q

1

) (13)

where R

j

(q

1

) and S

j

(q

1

) are expressed by

R

j

(q

1

) = r

0

+ r

1

q

1

+ +r

j1

q

(j1)

S

j

(q

1

) = s

0

+s

1

q

1

+ + s

m1

q

(m1)

At this time GPC law is set up by

F

p

(q

1

)e(k) +G

p

(q

1

)u(k) = 0 (14)

where polynomials are expressed by

F

p

(q

1

) = p

1

F

1

(q

1

) + + p

N

F

N

S

p

(q

1

) = p

1

S

1

(q

1

) + + p

N

S

N

G

p

(q

1

) = 1 + q

1

S

p

(q

1

)

[p

1

, p

2

, , p

N

] = [1, 0, , 0

. .

N1

](R

T

R+

2

)

1

R

T

2

= diag{

2

(j)}

R =

_

_

r

0

0 0

r

1

r

0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 0

r

NU1

r

NU2

r

0

.

.

.

.

.

.

r

N1

r

N2

r

NNU

_

_

(15)

IV. ALL OPERATING REGIONS LAW

Conventional method for pitch angle law is xed at more

than cut-in wind speed and less than rated wind speed so that

output power for wind turbine generator is proportional to the

uctuation of wind speed at more than cut-in wind speed and

less than rated wind speed. Thus, in order to achieve output

power leveling of WTG for all operating regions by pitch angle

control, pitch angle control law have been extended as shown

in Fig. 8 while xed rated output power command have been

converted to variable output power command. The decision of

output power command is described below.

A. Output power command

In (8), d

1

and d

2

are expressed as a function of pitch angle

. When pitch angle is at 10 degree, captured energy of

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

[m/s]

[

p

.

u

.

]

Vw

P

w

W

i

n

d

m

i

l

l

o

u

t

p

u

t

Wind speed

cut-in

rated cut-out

=90deg. =90deg. =10~90deg.

Fig. 8. Pitch angle control system for all operating regions.

windmill is maximized. Eq.(8) is replaced by output power

command P

go

as a function of pitch angle at xed pitch

angle 10 degree. Thus, new output power command P

go

are

expressed by

P

go

(V

w

) = d

1

+ d

2

V

2

w

. (16)

If wind speed information V

w

is given as input to (16),

generally output power command P

go

is uctuated by variation

of wind speed. In order to smooth output power command,

average wind speed and standard deviation of wind speed are

dened as

V

w

=

_

t

0

V

w

(t)dt

t

(0 < t 600) (17)

V

_

t

0

_

V

w

V

w

_

2

dt

t

(0 < t 600). (18)

Average wind speed of (17) is smoother information than

instant wind speed. On the contrary, standard deviation of

wind speed for (18) is an index of error, which is expressed

as dimension of distance to average wind speed from instant

wind speed. Generally, statistic wind speed is the average of

10 minutes so that time t of (17) and (18) are reset to 0 at

every 10 minutes, where instant wind speed of (16) is replaced

by average wind speed of (17). P

go

is expressed by

P

go

(

V

w

) = d

1

+ d

2

V

2

w

. (19)

Moreover, average wind speed of (19) is represented by

difference for average wind speed and standard deviation of

wind speed. P

go

is expressed by

P

go

(

V

w

V

) = d

1

+d

2

(

V

w

V

)

2

. (20)

Three different calculations have been run. Fig. 9 shows the

simulation results with wind speed and output power command

P

go

for (16), (19), and (20). In Fig. 9, a possibility that output

power command P

go

of (20) exceeds captured maximum wind

energy (by calculated (16)) is the lowest of the three equations.

This is very important and explanation is mentioned later.

Moreover, output power leveling is achieved by using (20).

B. Compensating value using fuzzy reasoning

If output power error e for difference of captured maximum

wind energy and output power command P

go

is too big, by

5

10

15

20

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

T i m e [ s ]

Eq.(16)

Eq.(19)

Eq.(20)

O

u

t

p

u

t

p

o

w

e

r

c

o

m

m

a

n

d

P

g

o

[

k

W

]

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

V

w

[

m

/

s

]

Fig. 9. Simulation results with output power command.

feedback of its value, control system has possibility to be

unstable. Because GPC law heavily depends on output power

error e. In consequently, output power command P

go

has to be

smaller than maximum wind energy. However, if wind speed

is rapid change wind speed, WTG system has possibility that

output power command P

go

of (20) could not correspond.

Authors present new method using fuzzy reasoning so that

above-mentioned problems are solved. Fuzzy reasoning is

described by a set of If-then rules that is based on fuzzy

rules so that it does not always have to need determinative

of model [15]. Moreover, when mathematical expressions are

difcult by included complex or non-linear, it is considered to

be availableness. Thus, wind speed for standard deviation of

(18) is changed as

V

= (k)

_

t

0

_

V

w

V

w

_

2

dt

t

(0 < t 600). (21)

Compensating value (k) of (21) is determined by fuzzy

reasoning so that above-mentioned problems are solved. (21)

is the product of wind speed for standard deviation of (18)

and compensating value (k). In consequence, output power

command P

go

is possible to correspond to variation of wind

speed by adjusting (k). Proposed output power command

system is shown in Fig. 10. There are two input of fuzzy

reasoning. One is difference of V

w

(k) and V

w

(k 1), where

(k) is number of sampling. On the other hand, when compared

with transient wind speed V

w

and average wind speed

V

w

,

smaller V

new

(k) of its value is used as input of fuzzy rea-

soning. Thus, one is represented as rapid change wind speed,

the other is represented as state of wind speed at the moment.

Output power command P

go

is determined by (20) that uses

(17) and (27). Compensating value (k) is adjusted by fuzzy

rules and membership function are shown Fig. 11 as presented

in Table I. Generally, frequency distribution of wind speed has

left-right asymmetry. In fact, frequency distribution is biased

toward to left side that means weak wind side. In fact, even if

wind speed is high wind, wind speed has possibility that is on

a rapid decline at short times. In consequence, setup of fuzzy

rules and parameters of membership functions are determined

by prioritizing to prevent in rapid reduction for output power

command P

go

. The ith of fuzzy rules is expressed as

Rule i : if V

new

(k) is L

k

and V

w

(k) is M

k

then (k) is Z

l

(22)

k = 1, 2, , 7, l = 1, 2, , 49

where L

k

, M

k

and Z

l

are membership functions respectively.

Final fuzzy reasoning (k)is calculated by

(k) =

49

i=1

w

i

Z

l

_

49

i=1

w

i

(23)

where goodness of t w

i

forRule i is expressed by

w

i

= w

Vnewi

w

Vwi

(24)

where w

Vnewi

and w

Vwi

are goodness of t of membership

function for (22) respectively.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

In this paper, the effectiveness of the output power com-

mand using proposed method is examined by simulation

using system model and parameters for mentioned in (3).

Constant output power command using pitch angle control of

conventional system is compared with the proposed system.

Simulation is allowed for inuence of wind shear. Simulation

parameters of windmill, induction generator, controller are

shown in Table II. Sampling interval of controller is T

s

= 1ms,

and parameter

2

of GPC, value of order m and n, and

maximum costing horizon N, and control horizon NU are

based on simulation results in achieved good performance.

Output power error parameters of (10) are unknown. Thus,

unknown parameters are determined by least square method

so that it is possible to identify the parameters online. If the

parameter is not converged in the worst case, pitch angle con-

trol system have possibility to be unstable. Proposed method

adds compensation u

2

to u

1

of conventional system as shown

in Fig. 7. If we observe u

2

as unstable, u

2

is removed from the

system. Moreover, application of system as shown in Fig. 7

is simplicity. Hence, it is applied in existence of wind turbine

system with comparative ease.

A. Performance function of output power

Performance of output power P

g

leveling is represented as

maximum energy function P

max

and leveling function P

level

which are expressed as

P

max

=

_

t

0

P

g

(t)dt (25)

P

level

=

_

t

0

dP

g

(t)

dt

dt. (26)

If P

max

of (25) is large, wind energy efciency is good

performance. On the other hand, P

level

of (26) is integral

of the absolute value for the differentiation value of output

power P

g

. Thus, if P

level

is small, output power uctuation is

small so that leveling of output power is good performance.

In cut-in wind speed region to rated wind speed region, when

TABLE I

FUZZY RULES

Vw(k)

NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB

NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZO

NM NB NB NB NM NS ZO PS

NS NB NB NM NS ZO PS PM

Vnew(k) ZO NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB

PS NM NS ZO PS PM PB PB

PM NS ZO PS PM PB PB PB

PB ZO PS PM PB PB PB PB

NB=Negative Big NM=Negative Medium NS=Negative Small

PB=Positive Big PM=Positive Medium PS=Positive Small

ZO=Zero

q

Vw(k)

Vw

Eq.(17)

Fuzzy

reasoning

Vnew(k)

minimum selector

Eq.(21) Eq.(20)

Pgo

(k)

V

Vw

-1

Fig. 10. Output power command system.

0

1

Vnew(k)

NB

L1

NM NS ZO PM PB PS

l2

[m/s]

L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7

l3 l4 l1 l5 l6 l7 l8 l9

l

1

=5 l

2

=5.375 l

3

=6.5 l

4

=7.625 l

5

=8.75

l

6

=9.875 l

7

=11 l

8

=12.125 l

9

=12.5

(a) Membership functions for Vnew(k).

0

1

Vw(k)

NB

M1

NM NS ZO PM PB PS

m1 [m/s]

M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7

m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7

m

1

=-4.5 m

2

=-3 m

3

=-1.5 m

4

=0

m

5

=1.5 m

6

=3 m

7

=4.5

(b) Membership functions for Vw(k).

NB NS PS

0

1

NM ZO

(k)

PM PB

Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7

z7 z6 z5 z4 z3 z2 z1

z

1

=1.4 z

2

=1.2 z

3

=1.1 z

4

=1

z

5

=0.95 z

6

=0.9 z

7

=0.85

(c) Membership functions for (k)

Fig. 11. Membership functions.

TABLE I I

SIMULATION PARAMETERS

Parameters of Windmill

blade radius R 14 m

inertia coefcient J 62993 kgm

2

air density 1.225 kg/m

3

Parameters of Induction generator

rated output P

g

275 kW

phase voltage V 400

3 V

stator resistance R

1

0.00397

stator reactance X

1

0.0376

rotor resistance R

2

0.00443

rotor reactance X

2

0.0534

Control parameters for GPC

weighting factor

2

diag{50(j)}

dead time order d 1

model order n 3

model order m 3

maximum costing horizon N 5

control horizon NU 1

pitch angle is xed at 10degree, P

max

is maximum. However,

if pitch angel is xed, input torque can not be controlled and

results with increasing P

level

in consequence, P

max

and P

level

are related to trade-off.

B. Simulation results with nominal parameters

Simulation results with wind speed variation is shown in

Fig. 12. Here, amount of statistics for wind speed is dened

as gust factor

G

u

=

V

w max

V

w

(27)

where V

w max

is maximum transient wind speed of 10 minutes

mean,

V

w

is average wind speed of 10 minutes mean. In period

between from March 1997 to March 1998, average of G

u

is 1.20 at 30m observation point on Miyako island in Japan

and standard deviation of G

u

is 0.18. From Fig. 12(a), G

u

is 1.35. Thus, as can be seen in Fig. 12(a) wind speed is

high wind. Output power P

g

using conventional method is

shown in Fig. 12(b). In rated wind speed region, pitch angle

control using GPC constrains output power uctuation and

maintain to rated output power 275kW. However, in below

rated wind speed region, output power uctuation is same as

wind speed. On the other hand, as can be seen in Fig. 12(c)

the output power uctuations are levelled by the application

by the proposed method using GPC. Moreover, output power

command does not exceed captured maximum wind energy.

Thus, GPC is stable so that output power P

g

is following

output power command P

go

by using pitch angle with GPC.

Because standard deviation of wind speed V

is corrected

appropriately by using compensating value (k) of Fig. 12(d).

If wind speed is rapid decline (V

new

(k) of Big), (k) is

beforehand made up larger than 1. That is smoothed reduction

for output power command. It smoothes reduction for P

go

.

In addition, if state of wind speed at the moment is high

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

5

10

15

20

T i m e [ s ]

W

i

n

d

s

p

e

e

d

V

w

[

m

/

s

]

(a) Wind speed Vw.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

100

200

300

400

500

T i m e [ s ]

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

e

d

p

o

w

e

r

P

g

[

k

W

]

Rated output 275kW

(b) Generated power Pg(conventional method).

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

100

200

300

400

500

T i m e [ s ]

Generated power Pg

Output power command Pgo

G

e

n

e

r

a

t

e

d

p

o

w

e

r

P

g

[

k

W

]

(c) Output power command Pgo(proposed method)

and generated power Pg.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

C

o

m

p

e

n

s

a

t

i

n

g

r

a

t

e

T i m e [ s ]

(d) Compensating rate (k).

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

10

15

20

25

30

35

T i m e [ s ]

P

i

t

c

h

a

n

g

l

e

[

d

e

g

]

Conventional method

Proposed method

(e) Pitch angle .

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

10

20

30

40

50

Conventional method

Proposed method

T i m e [ s ]

M

a

x

i

m

u

m

e

n

e

r

g

y

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

P

m

a

x

[

M

J

]

(f) Maximum energy function Pmax.

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

T i m e [ s ]

L

e

v

e

l

i

n

g

f

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

P

l

e

v

e

l

[

M

W

]

Conventional method

Proposed method

(g) Leveling function P

level

.

-0.14

-0.12

-0.1

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

T i m e [ s ]

I

d

e

n

t

i

f

i

e

d

p

a

r

a

m

e

t

e

r

s

a

n

I

d

e

n

t

i

f

i

e

d

p

a

r

a

m

e

t

e

r

s

b

m

b0

b1 b2

b3

a1

a2

a3

(h) Identied parameters.

Fig. 12. Simulation results with wind speed variation.

wind speed (V

new

(k) of Big), (k) is beforehand made up

smaller than 1. That is increasing energy efciency. Pitch angle

of Fig. 12(e) with variations are generated by wind shear.

Output power P

g

is a lot uctuated by difference of a little

pitch angle in large-size and medium-size windmill. Proposed

method with GPC is smoothed output, no effect of wind shear

by opposite control input u

2

. Fig. 12(f) and Fig. 12(g) are

shown in order to show the validity of the proposal method

numerically. As compared with the conventional method, max-

imum energy function P

max

for Fig. 12(f) of proposed method

drops to about 2/3. Because pitch angle is xed at 10 degree

in below rated wind speed. However, as compared with the

conventional method, leveling function P

level

for Fig. 12(g)

of proposed method drops to about 1/3. Since slope of P

level

for proposed method is small compared with the conventional

method, if WTG is interconnected power system of small

capacity such as small island, in particular proposed method

is validated for frequency uctuation. Moreover, when output

power uctuation is compensated by power storage system,

capacity of power storage system can be made small by apply-

ing the proposed method. As shown in Fig. 12(h) parameters

identication conrmed instantaneously convergence. Thus,

output power P

g

is following output power command P

go

by

using pitch angle with GPC. Since the proposed method is

using wind speed information without predictive method, it

has to permit a certain amount of output power uctuation.

However, it does not have to assume the large prediction error

which poses a problem by the predictive method and output

power leveling is achieved by proposed method.

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper presented output power leveling of WTG for

all operating regions by pitch angle control. Proposed method

presents a control strategy based on average wind speed and

standard deviation of wind speed, and pitch angle control

using GPC in all operating regions for WTG. Output power

command is determined by approximate equation for windmill

output using average wind speed and standard deviation of

wind speed is corrected by using fuzzy reasoning. Thus, WTG

using proposed method is possible to stability operation for

rapid change of operating point. In the simulations, despite

rapid change of wind speed in below rated wind speed and

wind shear, output power leveling for all operating region is

achieved by proposed method.

REFERENCES

[1] O. Kanna, S. Hanba, S. Asato, and K. Yamashita, A Method of Stabi-

lization of a Wind Generator Power Using Backstepping Algorithm,

T. IEE Japan, vol. 117-B, no. 12, pp. 1 513-1519, 1997.(in Japanese)

[2] J. Cidras, A. Feijioo, and C. Carrillo, Synchronization of asynchronous

wind turbines. IEEE Trans on Power System, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1162-

1169, 2002.

[3] Tomonobu Senjyu, Tatsuto Kinjo, Katsumi Uezato, and Hideki Fujita,

Output Power Levelling of Wind Power Generation System by ECS

Energy Storage System, The papers of joint Technical Meeting on

power Engineering and Power Systems Engineering, T. IEE Japan,

pp. 67-773, 2003.(in Japanese)

[4] Tomonobu Senjyu, Tatsuto Kinjo, Katsumi Uezato, and Hideki Fujita,

Terminal Voltage and Output Power Control of Induction Generation

by Series and Parallel Compensation Using SMES, T. IEE Japan,

vol. 123-B, no. 12, pp. 1522-1529, 2003.(in Japanese)

[5] Eduard Muljadi, and C. P. Buttereld, Pitch-Controlled Variable-

Speed Wind Turbine Generation. IEEE Trans on Industry Applica-

tions, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 240-246, 2001.

[6] Jose Luis Rodriguez-Amenedo, Santiago Arnalte, and Juan Carlos

Burgos, Automatic Generation Control of a Wind Farm With Variable

Speed Wind Turbines. IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion, vol. 17,

no. 2, pp. 279-284, 2002.

[7] N. Kodama, T. Matsuzaka, and S. Yamada, Modeling and Analysis of

the NEDO 500kW Wind Generator, T. IEE Japan , vol. 120-B, no. 2,

pp. 210-218, 2000.(in Japanese)

[8] T. Matsuzaka and K. Tsuchiya, Study on Stabilization of a Wind

Generation Power Fluctuation, T. IEE Japan, vol. 117-B, no. 5,

pp. 625-633, 1997.(in Japanese)

[9] Torbjorn Thiringer, and Jan-Ake Dahlberg, Periodic Pulsations from

a Three-Bladed Wind Turbine. IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion,

vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 128-133, 2001.

[10] D.W. Clarke, and P.J. Gawthrop, Self-Tuning Control, Proc.IEE,

vol. 122D, no. 9, pp. 929-934, 1979.

[11] D.W. Clarke, Self-Tuning Control of Non-minimum Phase Systems,

Automatica, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 501-517, 1984.

[12] T. Senjyu, R. Sakamoto, N. Urasaki, H. Higa, K. Uezato, and T.

Funabashi, Output Power Control of Wind Turbine Generator by

Pitch Angle Control Using Minimum Variance Control, T. IEE Japan,

vol. 124-B, no. 12, pp. 1145-1462, 2004.(in Japanese)

[13] D. W. Clarke, C. Mohtadi, and O. S. Tuffs, Generalized Predictive

ControlPart I. The Basic Algorithm. Automatica, vol. 23, no. 2,

pp. 137-148, 1987.

[14] D. W. Clarke, C. Mohtadi, and O. S. Tuffs, Generalized Predictive

ControlPart II. Extensions and Interpretations. Automatica, vol. 23,

no. 2, pp. 149-160, 1987.

[15] Michio Sugeno, Fuzzy control. 1988.(in Japanese)

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