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Output Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generator

for All Operating Regions by Pitch Angle Control


Ryosei Sakamoto
1
, Tomonobu Senjyu
1
, Member, IEEE, Tatsuto Kinjo
1
Student Member, IEEE,
Naomitsu Urasaki
1
, Member, IEEE, Toshihisa Funabashi
2
Senior Member, IEEE,
Hideki Fujita
3
, and Hideomi Sekine
1
AbstractEffective utilization of renewable energies such as
wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy
is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the
cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind
turbine generators to uctuate. In order to reduce uctuating
components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades
of windmill. We have proposed the pitch angle control using
minimum variance control in a previous work. However, it is a
controlled output power for only rated wind speed region. This
paper presents a control strategy based on average wind speed
and standard deviation of wind speed, and pitch angle control
using a generalized predictive control in all operating regions for
wind turbine generator. The simulation results with using actual
detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the
proposed method.
Index TermsGeneralized predictive control, output power
uctuation, pitch angle control, wind turbine generator.
I. INTRODUCTION
I
N recent years, there have been problems such as exhaus-
tion of fossil fuels, e.g., coal and oil, and environmental
pollution resulting from consumption. An effective utilization
of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead
of the fossil fuel [1]. However, wind energy is not constant
and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed,
which cause the generated power of wind turbine generator
(WTG) to uctuate. If capacity ratio of power source for
WTG is very small, power source does not uctuate the
frequency by output uctuation. However, if the ratio becomes
large, uctuation of frequency for power system will increase.
Wind farm for many WTG has the tendency of leveling
output power. However, synchronization phenomena of wind
turbines in wind farm are reported [2]. Thus, if synchroniza-
tion of output uctuation from synchronization phenomena
is generated, effect of leveling output power may be lost.
Considering above, recently, provision using power storage
system is proposed, but the cost increases. Also provisions
for stand-alone WTG is proposed [3], [4], such as variable-
speed (V-S) WTG [5]. In V-S mode electronic converters are
inserted between the generator and the grid, or a doubly-fed
induction generator (DFIG) controlled by the rotor circuit is
(1) Ryosei Sakamoto, Tomonobu Senjyu, Tatsuto Kinjo, Naomitsu Urasaki,
Hideomi Sekine are with the Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa,
Japan (e-mail: k048482@eve.u-ryukyu.ac.jp, b985542@tec.u-ryukyu.ac.jp,
e985538@eve.u-ryukyu.ac.jp ), (2) Toshihisa Funabashi is with the Meidensha
Corporation, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail: funabashi-t@honsha.meidensha.co.jp), (3)
Hideki Fujita is with the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Aichi, Japan (e-mail:
Fujita.hideki@chuden.co.jp).
used [6]. The V-S WTG can change a speed of rotor with wind
speed variation, and can absorb a part of output uctuation
as rotation energy, and V-S WTG is especially useful in this
operating region since the electronic converter can maximize
the conversion efciency by controlling the generator torque
[5], [6]. However, the cost has been increased since V-S WTG
has some electronic converters and system is complication. On
the other hand, in medium-size to large-size WTG, the control
of the pitch angle is a usual method for output power control
above rated wind speed [5][8]. Several control methods for
controlling of pitch angle have been reported so far, such as the
backstepping method, feed-forward method [1], [8]. However,
those methods have not considered the variation in parameters
and effect of wind shear [9] for windmill. Hence, considering
above, we proposed the pitch angle control using minimum
variance control [10][12] and generalized predictive control
(GPC) [13], [14] in our previous work. However, the methods
mentioned above have xed pitch angle at 10 degree in below
rated wind speed and an actual wind speed distribution has
more below rated wind speed. Thus, if many WTGs using
squirrel-cage induction generators are interconnected to power
system, output power uctuation is supplied to power system.
The V-S WTG occurs similar situations because the V-S
WTG in below rated wind speed is based on the maximum
energy capture strategy that is corresponding to wind speed
variation. But the leveling of output power has a problem
which is reduction of output power in below rated wind speed.
However, a large-scaled wind farm could be increased in
near future. Thus, in all operating regions, the output power
uctuation control of stand-alone WTG becomes important.
In this paper, output power leveling of WTG for all operat-
ing regions by pitch angle control is proposed. The proposed
method presents a control strategy based on average wind
speed and standard deviation of wind speed, and pitch angle
control using GPC in all operating regions for WTG. Output
power command is determined by approximate equation for
windmill output using average wind speed and, standard
deviation of wind speed is corrected by using fuzzy reasoning
[15]. Output power of WTG for all operating regions are
leveled by GPC, which is based on output power command.
In addition, standard deviation of wind speed is corrected
by using fuzzy reasoning, which corresponds to rapid change
in wind speed. That means WTG using proposed method is
possible to provide stability operation for rapid change of
operating point. Thus, proposed method is possible to level
output power of WTG for all operating regions by pitch
Vw
Pg Pgo
e Pitch angle
control system
Windmill and
generator
Hydraulic
servo system

CMD
Fig. 1. Wind generating system.
angle control. Moreover, the proposed pitch angle control
is able to apply regardless of the kind of the generators
such as permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG),
synchronous generator (SG), and DFIG. The simulation results
using actual detailed model for wind power system show
effectiveness of the proposed method.
The paper is organized as follows. Section II provides a con-
guration of WTG system and equations. Section III describes
the control method of pitch angle control using GPC. Section
IV provides the pitch angle control law for all operating
regions. In Section V, an effectiveness of the proposed method
is demonstrated by simulation results. Conclusions are drawn
in Section VI.
II. WIND TURBINE GENERATOR SYSTEM
The block diagram of WTG is shown in Fig. 1. Subtracting
output power command P
go
from output power P
g
gives
output power error e that evaluates pitch angle command

CMD
via pitch angle control system. Output power P
g
is
smoothed by hydraulic servo system that is driving blade.
A. Windmill and generator
Windmill output, P
w
is given by the following equation
P
w
=
C
p
(
1
, ) V
3
w
A
2
(1)
where V
w
is wind speed, is air density, A is cross-section
of rotor for windmill, and C
p
is power coefcient. Power
coefcient C
p
is approximated by the following equation
C
p
(
1
, ) = c
1
()
2
1
+c
2
()
3
1
+c
3
()
4
1
(2)
c
1
() = c
10
+c
11
+ c
12

2
+c
13

3
+c
14

4
c
2
() = c
20
+c
21
+ c
22

2
+c
23

3
+c
24

4
c
3
() = c
30
+c
31
+ c
32

2
+c
33

3
+c
34

4
_
_
_
(3)
where c
10
to c
34
represent by performance characteristic of
windmill are constants, is pitch angle,
1
is tip speed ratio
that is given by

1
=
R
V
w
(4)
where is angular speed of rotor for windmill, R is radius
of windmill. Angular speed of rotor for windmill given by

2
=
_
2
J
(P
w
P
g
) dt (5)
sqrt
IG(slip) C (1, ) p P (V ) w w
2
sJ
1(,V ) w
slip( )
V w

Pg

Fig. 2. System conguration of windmill and generator.


0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Vw
15 [m/s]
17.5[m/s]
20 [m/s]
22.5[m/s]
24 [m/s]
12.5[m/s]
[ deg ]
Wind speed
Pitch angle
C
o
n
t
r
o
l

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

o
f

p
i
t
c
h

a
n
g
l
e

G
(




)

Fig. 3. Control quantity of pitch angle.
where J is moment of inertia for windmill. Slip s is expressed
with the following equation by angular speed of rotor for
windmill
s =

o

o
(6)
where
o
is synchronous angular speed of rotor for generator.
If angular speed of rotor for windmill is greater than or
equal to synchronous angular speed of rotor for generator,
electric power is generated by induction generator. WTG is
used as squirrel-cage induction generator. Output power P
g
can be expressed by
P
g
=
3V
2
s (1 + s) R
2
(R
2
sR
1
)
2
+s
2
(X
1
+X
2
)
2
(7)
where V is phase voltage, s is slip, R
1
is stator resistance,
R
2
is rotor resistance, X
1
is stator reactance, X
2
is rotor
reactance. If energy loss is disregarded, P
w
= P
g
and P
w
can be approximated by
P
w
= d
1
() + d
2
() V
2
w
(8)
d
1
() =
11
+
12
+
13

2
+
14

3
d
2
() =
21
+
22
+
23

2
+
24

3
where
11
to
24
are constants. The above equations are
applied to windmill and generator as shown in Fig. 2. Tip
speed ratio
1
in (4) is calculated by wind speed V
w
and
angular speed of rotor for windmill in Fig. 2. Power
coefcient C
p
of (2) and windmill output P
w
of (1) and output
power P
g
are calculated by
1
and pitch angle in Fig. 2.
Angular speed of rotor for windmill in Fig. 2 is calculated
by P
w
and P
g
. Slip s in Fig. 2 is calculated by using (6).
Finally, P
g
is calculated by (7).
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
(a) (b) (c) (d)

[m/s]
[
p
.
u
.
]
Vw
P
w
W
i
n
d
m
i
l
l

o
u
t
p
u
t
Wind speed
cut-in
rated
cut-out
=90deg. =90deg. =10deg. =10~90deg.
Fig. 4. Windmill output power curve.
e
Vw
G( )

CMD
Pitch angle selector
90deg
10deg
1+T s a
1+T s b
P
Table2D
Fig. 5. Pitch angle control system.
B. Pitch angle control system
Control quantity of pitch angle G() is given by
G() =

P
=
1
A
1
+ A
2
V
w
2
(9)
A
1
=
12
+ 2
13
+ 3
14

2
A
2
=
22
+ 2
23
+ 3
24

2
where P and are small-signal state variable of output
power P
g
, and pitch angle , respectively.
Equation (9) depends on wind speed V
w
so that feature of
G() in Fig. 3 is varying for cut-off wind speed 24 m/s from
rated wind speed 12.5 m/s. Controlling of pitch angle control
is according to windmill output power curve in Fig. 4. For
example, wind speed range (a) in Fig. 4 is P
w
= 0pu so
that pitch angle is xed at = 90 degree because energy of
windmill is the smallest at 90 degree. Wind speed range (b)
is P
w
= 0pu to P
w
= 1pu so that pitch angle is xed at
= 10 degree because energy of windmill is the largest at 10
degree. Wind speed range (c) is P
w
= 1pu so that pitch angle
is selected to keep windmill output P
w
= 1pu. Finally,
wind speed range (d) is P
w
= 0pu so that pitch angle is
xed at = 90 degree for safety reasons. Fig. 5 shows the
pitch angle control system that resolves pitch angle command

CMD
, where output power error e is used as input into PD
controller. Pitch angle variable is multiplied by output
power signal P of PD controller and G() of (9), and by
adding and , pitch angle command
CMD
is obtained as
shown in Fig. 5. Where Table2D in Fig. 5 is feature in Fig. 3.
As can be seen in Fig. 3, if V
w
= 15 m/s, and = 20 degree,
the control quantity of pitch angle G() will be 0.05. So G()
1+T s c
1

CMD

10 deg
90 deg
Fig. 6. Hydraulic servo system.
Vw
Pg Pgo
e Pitch angle
control system
Windmill and
generator
Hydraulic
servo system

CMD
Identifier
GPC
u2
u1
STR
Fig. 7. Pitch angle control system using GPC.
is determined by wind speed and pitch angle as shown in
Fig. 5.
C. Hydraulic servo system
Hydraulic servo system is shown in Fig. 6. Originally,
hydraulic servo system has nonlinear characteristics, but it
is able to make rst-order lag system [7], [8]. Pitch angle
command
CMD
is limited by limiter at the range of 10 degree
to 90 degree.
III. CONTROL SYSTEM
In this paper, the proposed pitch angle control system using
GPC is shown in Fig. 7, where P
go
(k) is output power
command, P
g
(k) is output power, e(k) is output power error
of generator, u
2
(k) is control input of STR, k is number of
sampling. The error equation can by expressed by
A(q
1
)e(k) = q
km
B(q
1
)u
2
(k) +
(k)

(10)
A = 1 +a
1
q
1
+ +a
n
q
n
B = b
0
+ b
1
q
1
+ + b
m
q
m
where k
m
is dead time, q
1
is backward shift operator, (k)
is white noise that is equal to average value of zero and
decentralization
2
, is differencing operator 1 q
1
, n
and m are model order. For (10), GPC law is derived from by
minimizing performance index J
1
[13], [14], which is given
by
J = E
_
_
N

j=1
{e(k +j)}
2
+
NU

j=1

2
(j){u(k +j 1)}
2
_
_
(11)
where E = [] is expected value (interval average),
2
(j) is a
weighting function. For (11), rst term of right-hand side is
summing output power error e(k+j) for predictive interval N,
and second term is summing difference of control input u
for control interval NU, which is multiplied by weighting
function
2
(j). In consequence, difference of control input
u(k+j 1) for control interval NU is possible to minimize
output power error e(k + j) for interval j. Moreover, control
input u
2
for GPC is limited by
2
(j) so as to prevent
divergence. In order to set up GPC law, E
j
(q
1
) and F
j
(q
1
)
are calculated by
1 = A(q
1
)E
j
(q
1
) +q
j
F
j
(q
1
) (12)
where E
j
(q
1
) and F
j
(q
1
) are expressed by
E
j
(q
1
) = 1 +e
1
q
1
+ + e
j1
q
(j1)
F
j
(q
1
) = f
0
+f
1
q
1
+ + f
n
q
n
.
Moreover, R
j
(q
1
) and S
j
(q
1
) are calculated by
E
j
(q
1
)B(q
1
) = R
j
(q
1
) +q
j
S
j
(q
1
) (13)
where R
j
(q
1
) and S
j
(q
1
) are expressed by
R
j
(q
1
) = r
0
+ r
1
q
1
+ +r
j1
q
(j1)
S
j
(q
1
) = s
0
+s
1
q
1
+ + s
m1
q
(m1)
At this time GPC law is set up by
F
p
(q
1
)e(k) +G
p
(q
1
)u(k) = 0 (14)
where polynomials are expressed by
F
p
(q
1
) = p
1
F
1
(q
1
) + + p
N
F
N
S
p
(q
1
) = p
1
S
1
(q
1
) + + p
N
S
N
G
p
(q
1
) = 1 + q
1
S
p
(q
1
)
[p
1
, p
2
, , p
N
] = [1, 0, , 0
. .
N1
](R
T
R+
2
)
1
R
T

2
= diag{
2
(j)}
R =
_

_
r
0
0 0
r
1
r
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 0
r
NU1
r
NU2
r
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
r
N1
r
N2
r
NNU
_

_
(15)
IV. ALL OPERATING REGIONS LAW
Conventional method for pitch angle law is xed at more
than cut-in wind speed and less than rated wind speed so that
output power for wind turbine generator is proportional to the
uctuation of wind speed at more than cut-in wind speed and
less than rated wind speed. Thus, in order to achieve output
power leveling of WTG for all operating regions by pitch angle
control, pitch angle control law have been extended as shown
in Fig. 8 while xed rated output power command have been
converted to variable output power command. The decision of
output power command is described below.
A. Output power command
In (8), d
1
and d
2
are expressed as a function of pitch angle
. When pitch angle is at 10 degree, captured energy of
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

[m/s]
[
p
.
u
.
]
Vw
P
w
W
i
n
d
m
i
l
l

o
u
t
p
u
t
Wind speed
cut-in
rated cut-out
=90deg. =90deg. =10~90deg.
Fig. 8. Pitch angle control system for all operating regions.
windmill is maximized. Eq.(8) is replaced by output power
command P
go
as a function of pitch angle at xed pitch
angle 10 degree. Thus, new output power command P
go
are
expressed by
P
go
(V
w
) = d
1
+ d
2
V
2
w
. (16)
If wind speed information V
w
is given as input to (16),
generally output power command P
go
is uctuated by variation
of wind speed. In order to smooth output power command,
average wind speed and standard deviation of wind speed are
dened as

V
w
=
_
t
0
V
w
(t)dt
t
(0 < t 600) (17)
V

_
t
0
_
V
w


V
w
_
2
dt
t
(0 < t 600). (18)
Average wind speed of (17) is smoother information than
instant wind speed. On the contrary, standard deviation of
wind speed for (18) is an index of error, which is expressed
as dimension of distance to average wind speed from instant
wind speed. Generally, statistic wind speed is the average of
10 minutes so that time t of (17) and (18) are reset to 0 at
every 10 minutes, where instant wind speed of (16) is replaced
by average wind speed of (17). P
go
is expressed by
P
go
(

V
w
) = d
1
+ d
2

V
2
w
. (19)
Moreover, average wind speed of (19) is represented by
difference for average wind speed and standard deviation of
wind speed. P
go
is expressed by
P
go
(

V
w
V

) = d
1
+d
2
(

V
w
V

)
2
. (20)
Three different calculations have been run. Fig. 9 shows the
simulation results with wind speed and output power command
P
go
for (16), (19), and (20). In Fig. 9, a possibility that output
power command P
go
of (20) exceeds captured maximum wind
energy (by calculated (16)) is the lowest of the three equations.
This is very important and explanation is mentioned later.
Moreover, output power leveling is achieved by using (20).
B. Compensating value using fuzzy reasoning
If output power error e for difference of captured maximum
wind energy and output power command P
go
is too big, by
5
10
15
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
T i m e [ s ]
Eq.(16)
Eq.(19)
Eq.(20)
O
u
t
p
u
t

p
o
w
e
r

c
o
m
m
a
n
d

P
g
o

[
k
W
]

W
i
n
d

s
p
e
e
d


V
w
[
m
/
s
]
Fig. 9. Simulation results with output power command.
feedback of its value, control system has possibility to be
unstable. Because GPC law heavily depends on output power
error e. In consequently, output power command P
go
has to be
smaller than maximum wind energy. However, if wind speed
is rapid change wind speed, WTG system has possibility that
output power command P
go
of (20) could not correspond.
Authors present new method using fuzzy reasoning so that
above-mentioned problems are solved. Fuzzy reasoning is
described by a set of If-then rules that is based on fuzzy
rules so that it does not always have to need determinative
of model [15]. Moreover, when mathematical expressions are
difcult by included complex or non-linear, it is considered to
be availableness. Thus, wind speed for standard deviation of
(18) is changed as
V

= (k)

_
t
0
_
V
w


V
w
_
2
dt
t
(0 < t 600). (21)
Compensating value (k) of (21) is determined by fuzzy
reasoning so that above-mentioned problems are solved. (21)
is the product of wind speed for standard deviation of (18)
and compensating value (k). In consequence, output power
command P
go
is possible to correspond to variation of wind
speed by adjusting (k). Proposed output power command
system is shown in Fig. 10. There are two input of fuzzy
reasoning. One is difference of V
w
(k) and V
w
(k 1), where
(k) is number of sampling. On the other hand, when compared
with transient wind speed V
w
and average wind speed

V
w
,
smaller V
new
(k) of its value is used as input of fuzzy rea-
soning. Thus, one is represented as rapid change wind speed,
the other is represented as state of wind speed at the moment.
Output power command P
go
is determined by (20) that uses
(17) and (27). Compensating value (k) is adjusted by fuzzy
rules and membership function are shown Fig. 11 as presented
in Table I. Generally, frequency distribution of wind speed has
left-right asymmetry. In fact, frequency distribution is biased
toward to left side that means weak wind side. In fact, even if
wind speed is high wind, wind speed has possibility that is on
a rapid decline at short times. In consequence, setup of fuzzy
rules and parameters of membership functions are determined
by prioritizing to prevent in rapid reduction for output power
command P
go
. The ith of fuzzy rules is expressed as
Rule i : if V
new
(k) is L
k
and V
w
(k) is M
k
then (k) is Z
l
(22)
k = 1, 2, , 7, l = 1, 2, , 49
where L
k
, M
k
and Z
l
are membership functions respectively.
Final fuzzy reasoning (k)is calculated by
(k) =
49

i=1
w
i
Z
l
_
49

i=1
w
i
(23)
where goodness of t w
i
forRule i is expressed by
w
i
= w
Vnewi
w
Vwi
(24)
where w
Vnewi
and w
Vwi
are goodness of t of membership
function for (22) respectively.
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
In this paper, the effectiveness of the output power com-
mand using proposed method is examined by simulation
using system model and parameters for mentioned in (3).
Constant output power command using pitch angle control of
conventional system is compared with the proposed system.
Simulation is allowed for inuence of wind shear. Simulation
parameters of windmill, induction generator, controller are
shown in Table II. Sampling interval of controller is T
s
= 1ms,
and parameter
2
of GPC, value of order m and n, and
maximum costing horizon N, and control horizon NU are
based on simulation results in achieved good performance.
Output power error parameters of (10) are unknown. Thus,
unknown parameters are determined by least square method
so that it is possible to identify the parameters online. If the
parameter is not converged in the worst case, pitch angle con-
trol system have possibility to be unstable. Proposed method
adds compensation u
2
to u
1
of conventional system as shown
in Fig. 7. If we observe u
2
as unstable, u
2
is removed from the
system. Moreover, application of system as shown in Fig. 7
is simplicity. Hence, it is applied in existence of wind turbine
system with comparative ease.
A. Performance function of output power
Performance of output power P
g
leveling is represented as
maximum energy function P
max
and leveling function P
level
which are expressed as
P
max
=
_
t
0
P
g
(t)dt (25)
P
level
=
_
t
0

dP
g
(t)
dt

dt. (26)
If P
max
of (25) is large, wind energy efciency is good
performance. On the other hand, P
level
of (26) is integral
of the absolute value for the differentiation value of output
power P
g
. Thus, if P
level
is small, output power uctuation is
small so that leveling of output power is good performance.
In cut-in wind speed region to rated wind speed region, when
TABLE I
FUZZY RULES
Vw(k)
NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB
NB NB NB NB NB NM NS ZO
NM NB NB NB NM NS ZO PS
NS NB NB NM NS ZO PS PM
Vnew(k) ZO NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB
PS NM NS ZO PS PM PB PB
PM NS ZO PS PM PB PB PB
PB ZO PS PM PB PB PB PB
NB=Negative Big NM=Negative Medium NS=Negative Small
PB=Positive Big PM=Positive Medium PS=Positive Small
ZO=Zero
q
Vw(k)
Vw
Eq.(17)
Fuzzy
reasoning
Vnew(k)
minimum selector
Eq.(21) Eq.(20)
Pgo
(k)
V
Vw
-1
Fig. 10. Output power command system.
0
1
Vnew(k)
NB
L1
NM NS ZO PM PB PS
l2
[m/s]
L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7
l3 l4 l1 l5 l6 l7 l8 l9
l
1
=5 l
2
=5.375 l
3
=6.5 l
4
=7.625 l
5
=8.75
l
6
=9.875 l
7
=11 l
8
=12.125 l
9
=12.5
(a) Membership functions for Vnew(k).
0
1
Vw(k)

NB
M1
NM NS ZO PM PB PS
m1 [m/s]
M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7
m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7
m
1
=-4.5 m
2
=-3 m
3
=-1.5 m
4
=0
m
5
=1.5 m
6
=3 m
7
=4.5
(b) Membership functions for Vw(k).
NB NS PS
0
1
NM ZO
(k)
PM PB
Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7
z7 z6 z5 z4 z3 z2 z1
z
1
=1.4 z
2
=1.2 z
3
=1.1 z
4
=1
z
5
=0.95 z
6
=0.9 z
7
=0.85
(c) Membership functions for (k)
Fig. 11. Membership functions.
TABLE I I
SIMULATION PARAMETERS
Parameters of Windmill
blade radius R 14 m
inertia coefcient J 62993 kgm
2
air density 1.225 kg/m
3
Parameters of Induction generator
rated output P
g
275 kW
phase voltage V 400

3 V
stator resistance R
1
0.00397
stator reactance X
1
0.0376
rotor resistance R
2
0.00443
rotor reactance X
2
0.0534
Control parameters for GPC
weighting factor
2
diag{50(j)}
dead time order d 1
model order n 3
model order m 3
maximum costing horizon N 5
control horizon NU 1
pitch angle is xed at 10degree, P
max
is maximum. However,
if pitch angel is xed, input torque can not be controlled and
results with increasing P
level
in consequence, P
max
and P
level
are related to trade-off.
B. Simulation results with nominal parameters
Simulation results with wind speed variation is shown in
Fig. 12. Here, amount of statistics for wind speed is dened
as gust factor
G
u
=
V
w max

V
w
(27)
where V
w max
is maximum transient wind speed of 10 minutes
mean,

V
w
is average wind speed of 10 minutes mean. In period
between from March 1997 to March 1998, average of G
u
is 1.20 at 30m observation point on Miyako island in Japan
and standard deviation of G
u
is 0.18. From Fig. 12(a), G
u
is 1.35. Thus, as can be seen in Fig. 12(a) wind speed is
high wind. Output power P
g
using conventional method is
shown in Fig. 12(b). In rated wind speed region, pitch angle
control using GPC constrains output power uctuation and
maintain to rated output power 275kW. However, in below
rated wind speed region, output power uctuation is same as
wind speed. On the other hand, as can be seen in Fig. 12(c)
the output power uctuations are levelled by the application
by the proposed method using GPC. Moreover, output power
command does not exceed captured maximum wind energy.
Thus, GPC is stable so that output power P
g
is following
output power command P
go
by using pitch angle with GPC.
Because standard deviation of wind speed V

is corrected
appropriately by using compensating value (k) of Fig. 12(d).
If wind speed is rapid decline (V
new
(k) of Big), (k) is
beforehand made up larger than 1. That is smoothed reduction
for output power command. It smoothes reduction for P
go
.
In addition, if state of wind speed at the moment is high
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
5
10
15
20
T i m e [ s ]

W
i
n
d

s
p
e
e
d


V
w
[
m
/
s
]
(a) Wind speed Vw.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
100
200
300
400
500
T i m e [ s ]
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

p
o
w
e
r

P
g
[
k
W
]
Rated output 275kW
(b) Generated power Pg(conventional method).
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
100
200
300
400
500
T i m e [ s ]

Generated power Pg
Output power command Pgo
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

p
o
w
e
r

P
g
[
k
W
]
(c) Output power command Pgo(proposed method)
and generated power Pg.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
C
o
m
p
e
n
s
a
t
i
n
g

r
a
t
e




T i m e [ s ]
(d) Compensating rate (k).
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
10
15
20
25
30
35
T i m e [ s ]
P
i
t
c
h

a
n
g
l
e

[
d
e
g
]
Conventional method
Proposed method
(e) Pitch angle .
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
10
20
30
40
50
Conventional method
Proposed method
T i m e [ s ]
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

e
n
e
r
g
y

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

P
m
a
x

[
M
J
]
(f) Maximum energy function Pmax.
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
T i m e [ s ]
L
e
v
e
l
i
n
g

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n



P
l
e
v
e
l

[
M
W
]
Conventional method
Proposed method
(g) Leveling function P
level
.
-0.14
-0.12
-0.1
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
T i m e [ s ]
I
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s




a
n
I
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
s



b
m
b0
b1 b2
b3
a1
a2
a3
(h) Identied parameters.
Fig. 12. Simulation results with wind speed variation.
wind speed (V
new
(k) of Big), (k) is beforehand made up
smaller than 1. That is increasing energy efciency. Pitch angle
of Fig. 12(e) with variations are generated by wind shear.
Output power P
g
is a lot uctuated by difference of a little
pitch angle in large-size and medium-size windmill. Proposed
method with GPC is smoothed output, no effect of wind shear
by opposite control input u
2
. Fig. 12(f) and Fig. 12(g) are
shown in order to show the validity of the proposal method
numerically. As compared with the conventional method, max-
imum energy function P
max
for Fig. 12(f) of proposed method
drops to about 2/3. Because pitch angle is xed at 10 degree
in below rated wind speed. However, as compared with the
conventional method, leveling function P
level
for Fig. 12(g)
of proposed method drops to about 1/3. Since slope of P
level
for proposed method is small compared with the conventional
method, if WTG is interconnected power system of small
capacity such as small island, in particular proposed method
is validated for frequency uctuation. Moreover, when output
power uctuation is compensated by power storage system,
capacity of power storage system can be made small by apply-
ing the proposed method. As shown in Fig. 12(h) parameters
identication conrmed instantaneously convergence. Thus,
output power P
g
is following output power command P
go
by
using pitch angle with GPC. Since the proposed method is
using wind speed information without predictive method, it
has to permit a certain amount of output power uctuation.
However, it does not have to assume the large prediction error
which poses a problem by the predictive method and output
power leveling is achieved by proposed method.
VI. CONCLUSION
This paper presented output power leveling of WTG for
all operating regions by pitch angle control. Proposed method
presents a control strategy based on average wind speed and
standard deviation of wind speed, and pitch angle control
using GPC in all operating regions for WTG. Output power
command is determined by approximate equation for windmill
output using average wind speed and standard deviation of
wind speed is corrected by using fuzzy reasoning. Thus, WTG
using proposed method is possible to stability operation for
rapid change of operating point. In the simulations, despite
rapid change of wind speed in below rated wind speed and
wind shear, output power leveling for all operating region is
achieved by proposed method.
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