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Energy Optimization of Steam Turbines by Audit

Dr. I.P.S. Paul 1, Prof. I.P. Sharma2 and S.K. Choudhary3


Department of Mechanica Engineering, A!ay "umar #arg Engineering $o ege, %O Adhyatmic &agar, #haziabad 2'1''( )%
3 1,

&ationa %o*er Training +nstitute, Sector 33 ,aridabad 121''3 -aryana

pau, 2, 3s1c002.gmai /com

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________ TA<=E 155 %E3,O3MA&$E +&D+$ES O, >A3+O)S Abstract-- This paper is basically aimed at optimizing the E?)+%ME&TS turbine efficiency and turbine heat rate. The techni ues S/ %erformance inde; )nit >a ue of can be the type of solution and finance in!ol!ed. Typical &/ State of the design turbine efficiencies are in the range of "#.$" % &&.' art per cent (hile the operating efficiencies are in the range of e8uipment "&.' % &).'*. +e( technological solutions gi!e impro!ements of as much as )., * in turbine efficiency or 1 <oi er efficiency @ A(/' o!er $.$ * in heat rate or -& ./ for a )-' ./ unit. The aspects of energy audit of steam turbines can be classified 2 Turbine efficiency @ BB/' as follo(s0 1asic aspects of turbines0 .a2imum efficiency, 3fficiency of components and 4osses in turbines5 Performance e!aluation of steam turbines through acceptance tests or routine tests5 3!aluation of component efficiencies5 /illan6s line of a steam turbine5 Turbine diagnostics% Pressure, temperature and flo( profiles in turbines5 Technological impro!ements in turbines and 3nergy conser!ation measures. Keywords: Energy optimization, Turbine efficiency, Willans line, Turbine diagnostics. 1/ +&T3OD)$T+O& The po*er station and auditors !oint y decide the dates for energy audit/ The data ana ysis and processing is done at auditor4s *or1s and a report prepared ta1ing into consideration the rea istic economic cost factors associated *ith repairs and modifications if any/ The draft report is re eased *ithin 152 *ee1s of conducting the energy audit/ After interaction *ith the sponsors, a !oint y agreed fina report is prepared and re eased/ The efficiency of indi6idua circuit7e8uipment i1e *ater circuit, turbine piping, turbine, generator is e6a uated and compared *ith the design 6a ue/ The de6iation in efficiency is diagnosed 9using the o6erhau data pro6ided by the p ant: and reported/ The performance indices and osses in e8uipment are computed and presented/ The e;tent to *hich the efficiency can be impro6ed by imp ementing 6arious energy conser6ing measures is discussed a ong *ith the economic imp ications considering the present e6e of interest rate on the capita / The sa6ings en6isaged *i be a so be 8uantified/ The potentia for energy conser6ation can be estimated from 1no*ing the state5of5the art performance indices as gi6en in Tab e 1/
3 Turbine heat rate 1C71Dh 1ca 71Dh @ @ @ of gross po*er 1g71Dh m 71Dh A1A2 1(00 3(/' 3E/E E/'

B 0 E

#ross o6era efficiency &et o6era efficiency Au;i iary po*er

2 A

Specific fue consumption Specific secondary oi consumption #ross unit heat rate

'/E 1/'

1C71Dh 1ca 71Dh

(231 22'0

++/ MET-ODO=O#F The detai ed methodo ogy is gi6en as fo o*s/ lant E!aluation: The first phase of energy audit consists of p ant specifications, schematics, operating ratings, performance data 9such as p ant oad factor, design efficiency, au;i iary po*er consumption: from the records based on the 8uestionnaire to be fi ed by the po*er station and returned to the energy auditor before the energy audit is commenced/ %re iminary data about the indi6idua circuit7e8uipment i1e *ater circuit turbine piping, turbine, generator, transformers and au;i iariesG past data of p ant oad factor, p ant a6ai abi ity factor, au;i iary po*er consumption, and p anned7forced outagesG is co ected for past 0 years/ The data for the past 0 years is studied/ The energy auditors and the p ant engineers ho d detai ed discussions during their 6isit to the station/


AK"E# $%&'(A) %* TE#+(%)%",, >o / 2, &o/ 1

#ross-o!er pipes0 This is ca cu ated based on the frictiona pressure drop across the f o* ength of the piping/ 1tudies At Auditors Wor2s: The turbine efficiency of unit is determined/ The osses of the generator are mode ed and thus the generator is determined/ This is used as a basis for determining the turbine efficiency from the e;perimenta turbo5generator efficiency/ Thus, the efficiencies of the generator and turbine are estimated *hi e the efficiency of the o6era unit is e;perimenta y determined based on the boi er efficiency, au;i iary po*er, etc/ +n case of efficiencies o*er than design, the causes for the de6iation in efficiency *i be oo1ed into by studying the data and the annua o6erhau reports of the po*er stations/ The studies at the auditor4s *or1s in6o 6esH Ana ysis of past data, efficiency e6a uation and performance study of the p ant at partia oading/ E6a uation of p ant performance based on different parameters obtained from the present data at rated7 tested e6e / $omparison of the p ant performance *ith the design parameters and computation of the de6iations/ Study of the reports of o6erhau , manufacturer data and other data associated *ith the system/ Mode ing of the osses in the generator/ Estab ishment of energy ba ance for the system and understanding *here and ho* the osses are occurring/ E6o ution of proposa s for energy conser6ation measures and the feasibi ity study of imp ementation/ Economic ana ysis of energy conser6ation measures/ -a/imum Efficiency %f A 1team Turbine: +f the entrance entha py of steam into a turbine is 3,E'' 1C71g 9say:, it is not possib e to e;tract the entire amount of energy as in a boi er because of the con6ersion of heat into *or1/ The entha py of steam and *ater at the e;it pressure 9decided by the saturation pressure corresponding to o*est coo ing *ater temperature: is 220' 1C71g and A0' 1C71g/ Testing A 1team Turbine .y A1-E- T# >arious aspects of tests are gi6en as fo o*s/ i/ Agreements bet*een o*ner and concerned parties The agreements *i be on the fo o*ing issuesH Specific ob!ecti6e of the tests Timing of tests, operating conditions and guarantees/ =ocation of primary f o* measuring de6ices Method of hand ing ea1s, continuous drains, b o* do*ns, etc/ ,re8uency of obser6ations and de6iations of test runs, no/ of test runs/ $a cu ation of heat rate, efficiency

Thus, this phase is basica y an information gathering and processing step *hereby a better understanding of the p ant and its operation is obtained/ erformance E!aluation: The detai ed energy audit consists of the fo o*ing H Efficiency tests on turbo5generator at rated oads and at part oads/ Efficiency tests on turbine au;i iaries at rated oads and at part oads/ Au;i iary po*er consumptionH E6a uation of efficiencies of the pumps and fans, etc/ The turbines are tested as per ASME ptc5E51((E/ The other Anne;ure to the test code are Appendi; A to the test code for steam turbine/ A procedure is a so a6ai ab e for routine performance tests of steam turbines 9ASME5ptc ES51(AA:/ A number of parameters are 1ept constant during the test period of 2 hours/ These inc ude p ant oad, dearator e6e , condenser e6e , drain e6e s, feed heater drain e6e s, positions of bypass, etc/ The osses in each stage of the b ade can be c assified asH a/ , o* friction o6er the b ades/ b/ Secondary re5circu ation f o* osses/ c/ Tip ea1age/ The tota of the abo6e three osses gi6es the b ading osses/ ;iii/ The other stage re ated osses are ca cu ated as fo o*sH -oisture lossesH The oca *etness is a6eraged out and the *etness of the bu 1 of f uid is determined from *hich the moisture oss is computed/ The moisture oss is gi6en by the product of the mass f o* rate of moisture in steam 9bu 1 of f uid: and the entha py gain across the stage/ )oss from .aumann stage due to bypass of last stage H This is ca cu ated on the basis of the difference bet*een the osses *hen 0' @ of the f o* is through the ast stage 9*ith the rest of the f o* entering the condenser through the <aumann e;haust: and *hen the fu f o* is through the ast stage using con6entiona b ading/ This oss stage is gi6en by the product of the mass f o* rate bypassing the ast stage and the entha py gain across the ast stage/ E/0aust outflow and e/traction lossesH This is based on the a6eraged 6a ues of the f uid parameters at the =%T b ade section out et/ This oss is gi6en by the product of the mass f o* rate of the e;haust steam and the s8uare of the e;it 6e ocity component of the bu 1 of f uid/ )osses from clearance seals of blading and s0aftsH This is ca cu ated on the basis of engineering practice based on guide ines gi6en by turbine designers/


$onditions under *hich the tests are dec ared as unsatisfactory and terminated/

ii/ Timing of the testsH for acceptance tests it is A *ee1s from the date of synchronization iii/ <ench mar1s beyond A *ee1sH The bench mar1s *i be for heat rate, capacity, isentropic efficiency, etc/ i6/ Test re8uirementsH These inc udeH %re iminary test runs to chec1 the instruments, training of personne , confirming cyc e iso ation, confirm operation of 6a 6es/ +so ation of cyc e E;terna iso ation inc udesH au;i iary f o*s that enter or ea6e the cyc e such as condensate, au;i iary seam, etc/ the e;terna f o*s shou d be be o* '/1 @ of the main steam f o*/ +nterna f o* iso ation inc udesH drains, f o*s *hich do not ea6e the cyc e but bypass components/ +so ation of f o*s inc udesH Storage tan1s Au;i iary steam ines Turbine spray Drains on Stop, interceptor and contro 6a 6es/ Drains on MS I 3- piping +nterconnecting steam ines Au;i iary steam -eater, drains and bypass 6ents Emergency b o* do*n/ Dhere it is not possib e to iso ate then it must be ca cu ated/ These inc udeH shaft pac1ing ea1age, 6a 6e stem ea1age, interna turbine ea1age, turbine drain f o*s, etc/ +so ation of f o*s is throughH b an1 f anges, ea1 proof 6a 6es, monitoring through acoustic techni8ues such as engineer4s stethoscopes, etc/ >a 6e pointsH This can be through pressure measurement, ma;imum -%T efficiency 9isentropic: 9by increasing p,t in sma increments:, 6a 6e stem positions, pressure ratio/ 6/ &o/ of test runsH Minimum number is 2/ the heat rate from each must not differ by more than '/20 @/ Other*ise 3rd test run *i ha6e to be underta1en/ 6i/ %eriod of operation before testH minimum 2B hours and during each J hour inter6a the temperature and pressure 6ariation must be be o* K 3 @/ The oad must be constant during the pre5test period/ The contro 6a 6e must be open and c osed on y under emergency or upset conditions/

6i/ The parameters 9main steam temperature, main steam pressure, reheat steam temperature, reheat steam pressure, condenser 6acuum , etc/: must be as near to the design 6a ue as possib e to a6oid correction factors/ 6ii/ -ydrogen purity must be ma;imized/ 6iii/ Specified constant speed must be maintained/ E&E3#F O%T+M+LAT+O& O, STEAM T)3<+&ES i;/ &ozz e, bypass, e;traction and secondary f o* 6a 6es sha be in the position contemp ated in the specified performance/ Typica ocations for f o* nozz es are bet*een ast =% heater and deaerator, bet*een deaerator and <,%, bet*een <,% and -% heater and bet*een fina -% heater and entrance of boi er/ +++/ +DE&T+,+$AT+O& O, E&E3#F $O&SE3>AT+O& MEAS)3ES Typica design and operating efficiencies are gi6en in Tab e 2/ TA<=E 2 55 TF%+$A= DES+#& I O%E3AT+&# T)3<+&E E,,+$+E&$+ES/ S/ &/
1 2

%erformance inde;


>a ue

Turbine efficiency5 Design Turbine efficiency5operating

@ @

3(/E35BB/' 3B/'5B2/'

The techni8ues for identifying energy conser6ation measures are as fo o*sH Operationa optimization 3epairs O6erhau s Simp e modifications 3eno6ation, retrofitting, re6amps, re5po*ering, refurbishment Modernization %perational optimization: The operationa optimization of the turbines in6o 6es the fo o*ingH
i/ Maintaining MS I 3- temperatures and pressuresG e;it pressure and *etness fraction at the design conditions/ Minimizing *or1 osses in au;i iary steam by using e;traction steam instead of main steam for au;i iary tas1s/ )se of steam from the ast stages for steam coi air pre5 heating instead of e;hausting in the condenser/ Maintaining 6a 6e *ide open 9>DO: conditions in the entire operating range thereby reducing the irre6ersibi ity due to *or1 done against the 6a 6es/






Optimization of contro 6a 6e se8uence5fu arc7partia arc se8uences/ ii/ $o d *ashing of turbine to remo6e so ub e deposits/ The steam parameters are so maintained that it condenses before the regu ar condensing conditions enab ing disso ution of so ub e deposits/ The success of a co d *ash is indicated by a fa in the si ica in condensate, a;ia shift, differentia AK"E# $%&'(A) %* TE#+(%)%",, >o / 2, &o/ 1 e;pansion and bearing 6ibration/

m7s at the in et and 1/2 m7s at the out et/ +n case one of the heaters is out of ser6ice, the design temperature gain across the heater train must be obtained through the other heaters/ Ensuring ade8uate o;ygen is remo6ed in the deaerator tan1 by ensuring that the temperature corresponds to the saturation temperature at the deaerator pressure/ Design imits of feed *ater 6e ocities for erosion and corrosion resistance are 2/B m7s for $S tubes and 3/' m7/s for SS tubes/ -o*e6er, tube corrosion can be a6oided and protecti6e o;ide *i be preser6ed if the 6e ocities do not e;ceed 2/1 m7s for $S tubes and 2/2 m7s for SS tubes/ Temperatures at the out et of the de5superheating zone shou d be abo6e the saturation temperature of steam under a conditions to a6oid erosion due to *ater impingement and tube 6ibration/ Air 6enting rate of '/0 @ of the steam e;tracted to a heater must be maintained/





Time y e6acuation of condensate drains based on temperature sensing/

The operationa optimization of the condensers in6o 6es the fo o*ingH

i/ Maintaining condenser 6acuum as c ose to the design as possib e/ $ontro ed operation of air remo6a de6ices to match the air re8uirement/ These e8uipment are of fi;ed capacity and their optima operation can be achie6ed by their capacity contro / Optima operation of c eaning systems such as condenser ba c eaning system, debris separator, trash rac1, etc// $ondenser coo ing *ater deser6es e8ua y important attention as the feed *ater and steam/ +f the O2 in the condensate is o6er 0 ppb, the *ater ea6ing the condenser must be deaerated by in!ecting au;i iary steam into the condenser hot *e /





'etrofitting, re!amps, re-powering, refurbis0ment: The retrofits suggested for the turbines of 3' MD to 12' MD are as fo o*sH
i/ =% turbine retrofits 9using 12 @ $r stee b ades *ith induction hardened eading edges: are recommended to o6ercome mechanica prob ems due to stress corrosion crac1ing, torsiona 6ibration or erosion 9*ater drop et impact erosion or surface corrosion7erosion:/ As an offshoot, by introduction of ad6anced aerodynamica y designed retrofits, efficiency and a6ai abi ity of the p ant *i impro6e/ =%T retrofits inc ude impro6ed b ades as *e as optimised diffuser, e;traction nozz e and steam e;it in the casing of the o der turbines/ +mpro6ed b ade efficiency is achie6ed by increase in the hub reaction, a6oidance of the oss intensi6e channe ed shoc1 at the hub section of the ast stage b ades, optimisation of radia e;it ang e, impro6ed reso ution of f o* at end *a s, conica f o* passage instead of stair configuration, use of integra shrouded rotor b ades/ -igh efficiency diffusers aim at retarding the e;it f o* 6e ocities and reco6er as much of the 1inetic energy as possib e/ -igh performance reaction b ades characterized by t*isted, bo*ed and tapered airfoi s ha6e been de6e oped *hich can be used for retrofitting or re5po*ering o der units/ These ha6e features of insensiti6ity to in et ang e 6ariations, optimised contro ed diffusion and ha6e a thin trai ing edge/ Endoscopes for admission, e;haust and e;traction chambers/ E;pert systems for continuous 6ibration signature ana ysis/


The operationa optimisation of coo ing to*ers in6o 6es the fo o*ingH
i/ Ma;imisation of temperature drop and minimising the e6aporati6e osses in the coo ing to*er by ad!ustment of the gri s and a6oiding by5pass of coo ing *ater/ Minimisation of temperature gain in the *ater f o* bet*een the co d *e and the condenser in et 9ma;imisation of the $D oop efficiency:/ Minimising the $D b o* do*n to be o* 3 @/ ii/



The operationa optimization of the feed *ater heaters in6o 6es the fo o*ingH
i/ Optimisation of the condensate e6e on the she side/ +f the e6e is too high feed *ater heating surface *i be reduced/ +f it is too o* steam *i b o* through the condensate drain eading to corrosion and operationa instabi ity/ The e6e is ad!usted by obser6ing the TTD and D$A to the optima point/ The imits of drain 6e ocity to a6oid f ashing of steam are '/E iii/ i6/



+nformation techno ogy based turbine heat rate monitoring to indicate the 6arious osses/

tip to tip sea ing, modified e;haust hood spray and a turbine super6isory system. The standard added features of the retrofitted turbines are as fo o*sH i/ -eating system for the surface of the ast stationary stage of ho o* b ades of =%T by in!ection of steam from an ear ier e;traction/ ii/ Modification in ocation of e;haust hood spray such that the e;cessi6e 6enti ation heating 9during o* oad operation and oad re!ection: is not e;perienced in the =%T on the generator side/ iii/ Endoscopes for e;amination of b ading *ithout opening of the casing/ E&E3#F O%T+M+LAT+O& O, STEAM T)3<+&ES +>/ +M%=EME&TAT+O& O, E&E3#F $O&SE3>AT+O& MEAS)3ES The methods of imp ementing energy conser6ation measures are preparation of a D%3, detai ed engineering of the proposed scheme, financia arrangements and pro!ect e;ecution/ >/ $O&$=)D+&# 3EMA3"S Energy audit is a primary too for assessing the energy conser6ation potentia and the routes to achie6e it through targeting performance indices/ The state of the art techno ogy shou d be used as a basis for assessing the energy conser6ing potentia / After imp ementation of the energy conser6ation scheme constant monitoring of the performance indices is a pre5re8uisite for efficient operation/ A combination of 6arious methods of energy conser6ation such as operationa optimization, repair, o6erhau ing, simp e modifications, upgradation, etc/, must be used to economica y achie6e the targeted performance indices/ >+/ 3E,E3E&$ES M1N/ ASME5ptc5E51((E, erformance Test code 3 on steam turbines, American Society of Mechanica Engineers, &e* For1/ M2N/ ASME5ptc5ES3eport 1(AA, rocedures for routine performance tests opf steam turbines, American Society of Mechanica Engineers, &e* For1/ M3N/ <hatt, M/S/ and 3a!1umar, &/ 91(((:, %erformance enhancement in coa fired therma po*er p ants/ %art ++H Steam turbines, 4nt. $. Energy 'es., )", pp BA(5010/ MBN/ +/%/S/ %au 91((A:, Systematic approaches for energy $onser6ation in Therma %o*er #eneration, C/ "arnata1a E ectricity <oard, <anga ore, pp 1512/

The retrofits suggested for the turbines of 21' MD and 0'' MD are as fo o*sH
i/ ii/ iii/ i6/ >ariab e pressure operation retrofit/ Endoscopes for admission, e;haust and e;traction chambers/ E;pert systems for continuous 6ibration signature ana ysis/ +nformation techno ogy based turbine heat rate monitoring to indicate the 6arious osses/ Dater5induction detection system based on acoustic transducers/


The retrofits suggested for the condensers are as fo o*sH


Automated monitoring and chemica contro of condenser ea1s/ +nsta ation of on5 ine c eaning *ith re6erse f o* 6a 6e7rubber sponge ba 7ny on brush system/ +nsta ation of automated debris fi ters *hich not on y screens materia s abo6e 1/0 mm but con6eys the debris from the in et of the $D pipe to its out et 9at the point of discharge from the condenser: based on sensing the differentia pressure across the $D ine or through timer operation/ +nsta ation of trash rac1 and screens *here6er ri6er *ater or sea *ater are used/ +nsta ation of on5 ine condensate po ishing unit especia y *here sea *ater or ri6er *ater is used for coo ing/





The retrofits suggested for regenerati6e feed *ater heaters are as fo o*sH
i/ +nsta ation for on5 ine sensing of TTD, D$A, drain e6e , drain temperature, etc// +ntroduction of 1'' @ -%7=% group and indi6idua by5pass in o der units *here these are not present/ +nsta ation of heat reco6ery de6ices such as g and steam condenser, stac1 steam condenser and 6ent steam condenser for o der units *here these are not present/



-odernisation : ,or achie6ing turbine efficiencies of as high as B15B2 @, the steam turbine 9-%, +% and =% cy inders: of o d units may be rep aced *ith standard 35d stage specific b aded turbines *ith 35d mode ed e;haust diffuser, impro6ed


Dr. I P S Paul is current y a %rofessor at the Department of Mechanica Engineering, A!ay "umar #arg Engineering $o ege, #haziabad/ Obtained <E 9Mech: from &+T <hopa , M<A from )ni6ersity of De hi, Dip oma in Energy Management, +ta y and %h/D/ from ++T De hi/ -e has ser6ed as po*er, research engineer and trainer in %SE<, &%T+, &T%$ and $%3+/ -e has guided %h/D/, M/Tech and M<A thesis and has 1'A research papers to his credit/

Prof. I.P Sharma 9b/ 10/E/1(00: is current y %rofessor and -ead of the Department of Mechanica Engineering, A!ay "umar #arg Engineering $o ege, #haziabad/ -e has 2A years e;perience in Maintenance and ?ua ity $ontro of Aircraft and re ated support systems/ -e has 1' years e;perience in Education 9Teaching7E;amination7 $oordination:/

S.K. Choudhary is current y Director *ith &ationa %o*er Training +nstitute, ,aridabad/ -e has o6er 3' years of industry5*ide e;perience *ith ast 21 years in training and human resource de6e opment/ -e is a certified instructor from $ity and #ui ds, )" and has undergone certificate course on &euro5=inguistic programming from St/ Coseph $o ege, <anga ore/ -e is a regu ar facu ty in M<A programs and conducts training *or1shops for enhancing indi6idua 7 organizationa effecti6eness/