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twGJ (53

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trSwf (110)
Established in 1914

Myanma Alinn Daily
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Zefe0g&D

2014 ckESpf? Zefe0g&D 18 &uf? paeaeY/

17

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Zefe0g&D

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pae? Zefe0g&D 18? 2014

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gam?

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0efBuD;udk,fpm; SihasakPhuangketkeow? AD,uferfEkdifiH EkdifiH
jcm;a&;0efBuD; Mr. Pham Vinh
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,cktpnf;ta0;onf Moving forward in Unity to a
Peaceful and Prosperous
Community [laom aqmifyk'f

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Bolkiahl

uarÇm'D;,m;EkdifiH EkdifiHjcm;a&;
0efBuD; Mr. POU Sothiraki?
tif'dkeD;&Sm;EkdifiH EkdifiHjcm;a&;
0efBuD; R.M.Dr. Marty M.NAvmtdkEdkifiH
TALEGAWA?
H.E.Dr.
EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;
Thongloun Sisolith? rav;&Sm;
EdkifiH EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD; Dato
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rsm;&JUajymif;vJjcif;jzpfw,f/ "mwfjyKEIef;aES;&if tcsdefMumjyD; "mwfjyKEIef;jref&if tcsdefwdkygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
"mwfjyKEIef;[m tcsdefeJYajymif;jyef tcsKd;usw,f/ vHkavmufwJhpGrf;tifeJY "mwfjyKjcif;jzpfapr,fh oifhavsmfwJh
taetxm;rSm "mwfjyKypönf;rsm; tcsif;csif; xdwdkufrItMudrfrsm;avav "mwfjyKEIef;jrefavavjzpfw,f/
"mwfjyKjcif;wpfck&JUjrefjcif;? aES;jcif;tay: oufa&mufwJhtcsuf(6)csuf&Sdw,f/ "mwfjyKypönf;rsm;&JU
yg0ifued ;f ? zdtm;? tylcsed ?f "mwfuyl pön;f rsm;? a&mifjcnfeYJ "mwfjyKypön;f rsm;&JU rsuEf mS jyif{&d,mwdYk jzpfw,f/
1g of Mg ribbon eJY 0.5 M HCl wdkY&JU "mwfjyKEIef;[m 1 g of Mg ribbon eJY 1 M HCl wdkY "mwfjyK
EIef;xuf aES;wmudkawGU&w,f/ tJ'g[m effect of concentration of reactants jzpfw,f/ HCl &JU yg0if
udef;udkwlatmifxm;NyD; Mg udk ribbon tpm; powder oHk;&if "mwfjyKEIef;jrefwm awGU&ygr,f/ 'gu effect
of surface area of reactants jzpfygw,f/
Effect of pressure uawmh "mwfjyKjcif;wpfckxJrSm "mwfaiGUrsm;eJYom oufqdkifw,f/ Solids, liquids
eJUaqueous solutions rsm;yg0ifcJh&ifzdtm;oufa&mufrIr&SdEdkifyg/ oHpav;awG[m oxygen 20% omygwJh
avxJrSm ajz;nif;pGmavmifuRrf;NyD; pure oxygen rSmawmh rD;yGm;rsm;xGufNyD; jyif;xefpGmavmifuRrf;wmudk
awGU&ygw,f/ oxygen yg0ifrIrsm;avav ,if;"mwfaiGU&JU zdtm;vnf;rsm;avavjzpfNyD; "mwfjyKEIef;vnf;
jrefvmw,f/
Effect of temperature rSmawmh "mwfjyKjcif;rsm;[m edrfhwJhtylcsdefxuf jrifhwJhtylcsdefrSm vsifjrefpGm
"mwfjyKEikd Mf uw,f/ 'gaMumifh a&cJaowåmxJrmS odr;f qnf;xm;wJh tpm;tpmawG[m tcef;tylcsed rf mS xm;
wJh tpm;tpmawGxuf ykyfodk;ysufpD;rIaES;wmudkawGUEdkifygw,f/ tylcsdef 10 CH jrifhvm&if "mwfjyKEIef;[m
2q ydkjrefvmw,fvdkUqdkygw,f/
Effect of catalysts rSm positive catalysts eJU negative catalysts (2)rsKd;&Sdw,f/ H2O2 udk MnO2
tay:wpfpufcsi;f csvu
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jzpfw,f/ 'gayr,fh glycerine uawmh H2O2 NydKuGJEIef;udk aES;apvdkY negative catalyst jzpfw,f/
Enzyme (biocatalyst) udk ouf&r
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,if;tifZdkif;rsm;[m positive catalysts rsm;jzpfMuw,f/ Effect of radiation udk "mwfjyKjcif;wcsKdUrSm
awGUEdik yf gw,f/ H2 eJY Cl2 gas wd[
Yk m awmufywJh aea&mifatmufrmS jyif;xefpmG aygufuNJG y;D "mwfjyKEikd w
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tvif;a&mif pkyf,lNyD;rSjzpfwJh "mwfjyKjcif;udk photochemical reaction vdkYac:ygw,f/
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(forward reaction) qdkwm product jzpfwJhbuf? nmbufodkY oGm;jcif;jzpfw,f/ a&SUoGm;"mwfjyKjcif;eJY
qefYusifbufoGm;wJh "mwfjyKjcif;udk reverse reaction vdkY ac:w,f/ product awGjyefjydKuGJjyD; reactant
jyefjzpfomG ;wmyg/ rQajca&mufjyq
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yg0ifued ;f awG rajymif;awmhygbl;/ 'gayr,fh reaction u &yfomG ;wmr[kwb
f J a&SUodeYk YJ aemufjyef"mwfjyKEeI ;f
twlwl jzpfaevdkYyg/ 'gudk dynamic equilibrium vdkYac:w,f/
'DrQajcudyk supf ;D apwJh oufa&mufrI (3)ck&ydS gw,f/ temp., pressure eJY concentration wdyYk J jzpfygw,f/
rQajcudk a&mufaewJh "mwfjyKjcif;wpfckudk tylcsdefjr§ifhvdkuf&if tylpkyfwJh "mwfjyKjcif;udk OD;pm;ay;jzpfNyD; rQajc
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(volume) wl&if zdtm;oufa&mufrIr&Sdygbl;/
yg0ifypön;f rsm;jzpfwhJ reactant eJU product awG&UJ yg0ifued ;f awGukd ajymif;ay;&if yg0ifued ;f rsm;wJb
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f mG ;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh wpfcsed cf sed rf mS rQajcudk jyefjy;D a&mufomG ;ygw,f/
'gaMumifh reversible reaction awG[m tcsdefb,favmufMumMum "mwfjyKypönf;ukefqHk;oGm;wmrsKd;r&Sdygbl;/
Chapter (7) rSmawmh Enthalpy changes in chemical reactions ("mwfjyKjcif;rsm;eJY oufqdkifwJh tyl
ajymif;vJjcif;) awGukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ Energy trsK;d tpm;rsm;eJY "mwfjyKjcif; wpfcjk zpfay:&if tylxu
G jf cif;
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exothermic reactions vdkY ac:jyD; tylajymif;vJjcif; ('HT)wefzdk;udk tEkwfvu©PmeJY azmfjy&w,f/
pmrsufESm (17) odkU

pae? Zefe0g&D 18? 2014

pmrsufESm (16) rS
tu,fí "mwfjyKjcif;wpfckjzpfzdkY ywf0ef;usifrS tyludkpkyf,l&&if Endothermic reaction vdkYac:NyD; 'HT
wefzdk;udk taygif;vu©PmeJYjy&ygr,f/
"mwfjyKjcif;wpfckjzpfay:wJhtcg heat absorbed (odkY) heat released jzpfjcif;udk constant temperature
rSmavhvmcJ&h if Enthalpy change ('H) vdYk owfrw
S w
f ,f/ tu,fí ambient room temperature/standard
temperature (25 CH / 298K ) eJY atmospheric pressure/standard pressure (1 atm/ 760 mmHg) rSm
avhvmr,fqdk&if Standard enthalpy change ('HT) jzpfw,fqdkwm owdjyK&ygr,f/ 'Dtcef;rSm trsm;qHk;
awGU&wJh Thermochemical equations awGudk a&;om;wJhtcgrSm "mwfypönf;awG&JU tylajymif;vJjcif;
(taygif; (odkU) tEkwfvu©Pm) rsm;? physical states awGudk xnfhay;zdkYvdktyfygw,f/
"mwfjyKjcif;trsKd;rsKd;rS&vmwJh heat change awGrSm heat of combustion, heat of formation of a
compound eJY heat of neutralization qdkNyD; (3) rsKd;&Sdygw,f/ ,if;wdkY&JU symbol awG? 'HT wefzdk;udk (+)
(odkY) (-) vu©Pmazmfjyjcif;awG? unit awGudk cGJjcm;NyD;rSwfom;xm;&ygr,f/
Hess’s law ykpmä awGeYJ ywfoufNy;D owdxm;&r,ft
h csuaf wGuawmh ay;xm;csuef aYJ emufq;kH tajz[m
heat of formation (odkY) heat of combustion vm;qdkwmudk ar;cGef;rSm aoaocsmcsmzwfNyD;rS "mwfjyKnDrQ
jcif;a&;jcif;? nd§jcif;? 'HT wefzdk;rsm;a&;jcif;wdkY vkyf&ygr,f/ physical state, heat change ('HT) &JU
vu©PmawGeJY unit rsm;udk jynfhjynfhpHkpHkxnfhoGif;azmfjy&ygr,f/ heat of combustion jzpfwJh compound
u 1 mole omjzpf&r,f/ heat of formation jzpfwJh compound u 1 mole jzpfwJhtjyif ,if; compound
rSmygwJh elements awGom aygif;&r,fqdkwmawGudk owdjyK&ygr,f/
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kJ jzpfoGm;NyD; rlvtylwefzdk;ajymif;vJoGm;ygr,f/ "mwfjyKnDrQjcif;rsm;udk ajymif;jyefa&;vdkuf&ifvnf; heat
change &JU unit rSm kJ jzpfNyD; vu©Pmyg ajymif;ay;&ygr,f/ aemufqHk;tajzrSm heat of combustion
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¤if; equation &Sd substance awG&JU mass udk ar;wJhykpämawGudkvnf; avhvmxm;&ygr,f/
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metallurgy (owåKaA') eJU ywfoufwJhtcef;awGjzpfw,f/ Metal awGudk olwdkY&JU owåK½kdif; (Ores) awGrS
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reduction enf;eJYxkwfr,f? b,fowåKawGudk obm0twdkif; xkwfEdkifw,fqdkwmudk avhvmxm;&ygr,f/
owåKawGeJY tufppf? av (atmufqD*sif)? a&? a&aiGUwdkYeJY "mwfjyKEdkifpGrf;owdåawGudk azmfjyxm;wJh
reactivity series udv
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trnfawG? Chemical formula ? owåK½ikd ;f rS owåKxw
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,if;wdkY&JUtoHk;jyKyHkawGudkvnf; avhvmxm;&ygr,f/
Steel trsKd;tpm; (5) rsKd;? alloys (owåKpyfrsm;) eJY ,if;wdkY&JU composition awG? properties awGeJY
toHk;0ifyHkawGudkvnf; aoaocsmcsmodzdkYvdkygw,f/ NyD;awmh oHacs;wufjcif;taMumif;eJY oHacs;wufjcif;udk
umuG,fjcif;? recycling metals (Al & Fe) taMumif;awGudk avhvmxm;zdkYvdkygw,f/
Chapter (10) Nitrogen and its compounds, Chapter (11) Sulphur and its compounds eJU Chapter
(12) The halogens tcef;rsm;uawmh nitrogen qdkif&m "mwfcGJcef; "mwfaiGUxkwfazmfyHk (N2, NH3, N2O,
NO, NO2) eJY ammonium hydroxide (ammonia solution) "mwfcGJcef;rSmjyKvkyfyHk? sulphur eJY oufqdkifwJh
"mwfaiGUxkwfazmfyHk (H2S, SO2, SO3, H2SO4 acid)? halogen rsm;jzpfwJh Cl2, Br2, I2 xkwfazmfyHkawGtjyif
ammonia, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, mining sulphur, chlorine tajrmuftjrm;xkwfazmfyHkawGudk od&Sd
xm;&r,f/ "mwfccJG ef;rSm "mwfaiGUxkwaf zmfyakH wGrmS oufqikd &f m rSeu
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"mwfaiGUpkaqmif;wJhenf;awGudkvnf; oufqdkif&m"mwfaiGUawG&JU ½kyf*kPfowdåawGeJY ,SOfwGJNyD; rSwfxm;
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"mwfccJG ef;xJrmS HNO3 acid xkwaf zmfjcif;eJY bromine xkwaf zmfjcif;awGrmS awmh ,if;wdu
Yk kd t&nftjzpf
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j'yfaygif;wdkY&JU ½kyf*kPfowdå? "mwf*kPfowdåeJY toHk;0ifyHkawGudkvnf; odrSwfxm;zdkYvdkygw,f/
Chapter (13) Acids, Bases and their Neutralization rSmawmh t"dyÜm,fzGifhcsuftrsKd;rsKd;? proton
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value wdu
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aysmf&nfwpfck&JUacidity (tufppfowdå) eJY alkalinity (t,fvfumvD^aAhpfowdå)udk azmfjyzdkY pH eJY
pOH udk toHk;jyKEdkifygw,f/ pH wefzdk; 7 xufi,f&ifawmh acid aysmf&nf? pH wefzdk; 7 xufMuD;&ifawmh
alkali/base aysmf&nfrsm; jzpfw,f/ pH 7 rSmqdk&ifawmh a&oefY (odkY) "mwfjy,fwJhaysmf&nfjzpfygw,f/ acid
awG&JU jyif;tm;udk Ka/pKa eJY jyEdkifovdk Base / alkali aysmf&nfawG&JUjyif;tm;udk Kb/pKb eJY azmfjyEdkifygw,f/
aysmf&nfwpfckxJrSm [H+] rsm;r,f? Ka wefzdk;BuD;NyD;? pKa wefzdk;i,fcJh&if strong acid jzpfNyD;awmh [H+]
enf;r,f? Ka wefzdk;i,fjyD;? pKa wefzdk;BuD;cJh&if weak acid jzpfr,fqdkwm em;vnfoabmaygufzdkY vdkygw,f/
qm;trsKd;tpm; (4) rsKd;jzpfwJh tm;jyif;tufppfeJY tm;jyif;aAhpf? tm;jyif;tufppfeJY tm;aysmhaAhpf?
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qm;awG&JUNydKuGJrIudk wpfzufoGm;nDrQjcif;? concentration udk square bracket, [ ] eJY azmfjy&NyD; unit udk M

(odkY) mol dm-3 eJUazmfjyjcif;? pH, pOH eJY pKa wdkUrSm unit azmfjy&ef rvdktyfjcif;pwJh owdxm;&r,fh
tcsuaf wGukd em;vnfzv
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Chapter (14) Organic Chemistry tcef;rSmawmh alkane, alkene, alkyne eJY alcohol awGukd yg0ifwhJ
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wwfatmif? cGjJ cm;&mrSm rsupf jd zifjh rif&Ny;D odomxif&mS ;wJt
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"mwfjyKtajctaetjynfhtpHkxnfha&;ay;zdkUvdktyfygw,f/
Petroleum industry and petrochemicals taMumif;eJY ywfoufNyD; non-renewable energy rsm;
jzpfay:apwJh fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, coal) eJY renewable energy rsm;&apEdkifwJh biodiesel
& biogas, crude oil udk fractional distillation enf;pOfjzifh oefYpifjcif;? ,if;enf;pOfjzifh &vmwJh H/Cs
awGxJrS kerosene, diesel wdkYudk catalytic cracking enf;pOfoHk;NyD; gasoline ajymif;vJEdkifyHk? gasoline
(liquid fuel) &JU ÀDVKSRLQW eJY ignition temperature jcm;em;csufawGudk odxm;zdkYvdkygw,f/
tpm;xdk;avmifpmqDrsm;jzpfwJh methanol rS xkwf,l&&SdwJh gasoline, diesel, LPG, CNG, biodiesel,
biogas awG&UJ taMumif;t&mrsm;udk avhvmrSwo
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f jl cif;? ausmufr;D aoG;jzpfpOftrsK;d rsK;d
eJY ausmufrD;aoG;rS&EdkifwJh chemicals awGtaMumif;? crude oil, diesel, LPG, CNG, biodiesel, biogas,
zeolite, coal eJY coal gas awGrSm t"duygwJh elements awGeJY compounds awGudk od&Sdxm;&ygr,f/
aemufqHk; Chapter (15) Chemistry in Society qdkwJhvlaerIb0eJY "mwkaA'bmom&yfwdkY qufoG,f
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growth substances awGtjyif cement xkwa
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18-1 (19).pmd

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18-1 (20).pmd

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18-1 (21).pmd

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Address e 3/33, Bet 40/41 Street,
Bet 62/63 Street, Mandalay, Myanmar

zkef;-02-32624? 09-5105790

today;aMunmjcif;

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22

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NrdKUe,f? aejynfawmfwGif xkwfa0onf/ aejynfawmf - pmwnf;rSL;
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01-544309? refae*sm 01-544314? pDrH 01-544315? aiGpm&if;
01-544316? jzefUcsda&; 01-544317? aMumfjim 01-545834/ R /488
mmalin.npt @ gmail.com,
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pae? Zefe0g&D 18? 2014

aejynfawmf

Zefe0g&D

17

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2014, January 18, Saturday

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B ASEAN PARA GAMES Special

pae? Zefe0g&D 18? 2014

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Zefe0g&D

(7)Budrfajrmuf tmqD,HroefpGrf;tm;upm;NydKif
yGJudk aejynfawmfü Zefe0g&D 17 &ufu qufvuf
usif;yvsuf&Sd&m 0PÖod'¨djrm;ypftm;upm;uGif;ü
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