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projects on the head.

clamp d o w ~on l i ~ x u ~imports, y an amount of arable l a n d and M O S t af knocked the Nearly all of Cubas rice has been i t f a r more fertile, wlth mneral additional loss t o importers, mercoming from Louisiana. The Cubans ch,antsand servlcetrades. How will wealth that ipcludes copper,, nickel, manganese and one of the worlds wanted to keep rice and lard off the Castro carryout his ambitious pubfree list. It mayhave been purely lic-housing, school-buildmg, factory- great ironsupplies(now beingheld building, marsh-draining projects in reserve b y American corporations), coincidence that the American Ama and with less than seven million bassador a t t h e tlmecamefrom without,money? A few tokenland resegtlements have been made, but population - could become one of big rice and hog-growing plantation how, will he provide the promised the wodds rchest and most prosy family in Louisiana. Furthermore, instead s f being a the reclprocity treaty obliged Cuba farm equipment, animals, seed and perous nations exclusively in The world. What it t o buy almost technical assistance? How pay for blot on t11e free high-priced American market, prethe additional land that will be re- needs is honesty, inltlative and some venting I t from taking advantage of quired?Yet unless he canpromote outside help. One of Castro7splans is to make lower-priced goods from Germany, considerable land diversification, get a. few more consumer industries go- Cuba self-sufficient in rice produc- England, Japan and Italy. Cuba has been cooperating with tion ing, provideadequate food forthe notan unreasonable idea, the United States fora long time. rural population and degree a of given the soil andclimate;Ecuador sunk and and Panama both accomplished i t in The wry Cuban saying is, whenever economic security, he is civil liberties are sunk. T h e needs of recent years. But here too there the going gets rough, Cuba is a the people are great, and the pos- hangs a tale. Great increasesin rice cork; it alwaysfloats. B u t acork can do a lot of tossing. Cubanshave sibilities of new disaster loom even andlandproductionwereseriously two generations. attempted by, Cuba in the early been seaslck for greater. are likely t o be seasick a - about t h e thirties, butthe much-touted reci- They Nonetheless Cuba procity treaty with the United States while longer. size of England, with four times the

De GAULLE: THE FI ST YEAR . . b y Alexander Werth


Paris

PERHAPS THE GREAT change


that has occurredinEurope in the Iast two or three weeks may best be described by quoting a prominent Soviet official whom I met a few days after the announcement that Mr. Adenauer was relinquishing the West German Chancellorship. I thinkitprettycertain, now, he said, that there will be no War. Did you eyerreally thinkthere wight be one over Berlin? I asked, somewhat surprised. There was always the danger, the Sovietofficialreplied, that we might have drawn 30 near the brink that we would havehadtoresort to the kind of corqpromise which could lead only to new incidents and new perils. I think t h e world should be grateful t o Britain-the press, the Labor Party, , the eldermaston for showing more realism march than the rest of the world. , A few day,s-Jater, I met the same official. Hesaid:

Mr. Dulles was becoming more reasonable lately, but probably we will bestillsaferwith Mr. Herter. And my countrymen are delighted that Mr. Nixon will visit Moscow; be got oq surprisingly well with Mr. Mikoyan in Washington. In general, flexibility is making so much progress in the West that I think youll h d ZGJ more flexible. Theres a fair chance now that we may agree on apeace treaty, with some kind of confederation of t h e two Germanies; on a number of disengagementproposals and on a U,N,-controlled West Berlin.

. ~ , ... ALEXANDER WBRTH is T h e Na~

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tions PqrGr coryespondemt.

I QUOTEthisauthoritativeSoviet view because i t seems t o sum up the reasons why theres ground for optimism on both sides. A curious anomaly is de Gaulles belated selfidentification with the Adenauer policy of no clisengagemgnt of any kznd. But the way things have developed lately, i t seems unIlkely t h a t France will beable tostand alone for a wholly rigid attitude, especially after the recent DebrC visit t o London, where Macmlllan partially won

himover(Debrkwasnot all that pro-Adenauer, anyway) the to Britishviewpoint. So somerethinking is going on at the top in Paris a t the moment. Not that, on the face of tbings, the French public seems to care muchone wayoranother.Indeed, after a year of de Gaulle, one could argue thatthe Frenchpeople have become apolitical, preferring t o leave everything to the great man who, and while not infallible, is better morehonest thananybody else. Paradoxically, there is still a strong prejudicein favor of deGaulle on the Left. True, he is not popular id the hysterical way Hitler. was in Germany, or General Boulanger was m France. There is nothing emotional or even irrational in the worship of him. His public appearances arousenopopularenthusiasm.But nearly everybody somehow imagines that to support de Gaulle is rearonable, because he represents a compromise between twoextremes; because he represents not a revolution, but merely the preservation of a (slightly modified) 5tatzcs qvo. No

doubt,theconstitution of the Filth Slav world,urging Khrushchevnot Republlc is a monstrosity; b u t so tobe sdly3 about so unimportant lpng as de Gaulle is in charge, there a matter as Berlin! In fact, he even is llttle t o worry about. And you went further: he dismissed all the who quarrels over Germany and Berlin as wilI flnd old-fashioned liberals express satisfaction atthethought a global insignificant, and urged that,after all, since deGaullehas reconciliation with the saying of Taken over, personalfreedoms Seem man as the ultimate oblect, an,d to be more respected than they were wlth France forming, as it were, the ;n the bad last fewmonths of the center of this world-saving system. Only, as Beuve-M6ry of L e Mo.nde Fourth Republic. M TrCno, the witty, whimsical editor of t h e Ca- wrote on the followmg day, all this appeal for Man and or Human Dignard @tclzfl..il~e, the best satirical nity would sound a little more conweekly in France,toldmerecently that he had far less trouble with the vincing if it were t o meetwithan immediate %response in Algeria, autllorities today than previously, where, in themidst of blood and and that the sales of hispaperare and at the price of terrible soaring now thatthebulk of t h e tears, mutual degradations,anincreasingpress had become compIeteIy conformist.Indeed, M. TrCno toldme ly meaningless and senseless war is that de Gaulle himself took great continuing. This war is now costing pleasure, every Wednesday, in read- France 1,000 billion francs a year. ing the C a n n l d ~ wisecracks and in Not only is it having a fairly serious trying to figure out who had leak- effect on the standard of living here, but it is weakening France internaed to the paper inside information tionally,and is costingheraround about the last cabinet session. one hundred young men a week. I t ir begiwzing t o threaten t h e AND WHO cares here about Berlin? No doubt, theresa kind of tongue- de Cazdle regime itrelf. De Gaulle in-cheek attitudetowardthe ques- is vaguelyaware of this. He knows the Constantine Program for tion: everybody realizes that France, that the development of Algeria, predithe bulk of whose forces are tied cated on large Frensh private inup in Algeria, is in no good positlon to play at a great European policy. vestments i p Algeria, is meeting with increasing opposition from Big BusiWhetherdeGaullehadanyintenrisk its tlon originally t o revert t o his 1944- ness, whlch is not ready to money as long as the war continues 4.5 between-East-and-West policy render investments highly pre- (which Moscow was hoping for), he to had little choice but to stick to the any carious. Big Business (or, at of i t ) is in Atlantic Pact and NATO, assummg rate,asubstantialpart a t the same time a rather independ- favor of winding up the Algerian war, iE possible. And, as the recent ent air b y playing off Western Germunicipal elections showed, the elecmany against Britain. But most obseniers believe de Gaulles show of torate, despite outward appearances, IS far from indifferent t o Algeria; independence is little more than camouflage for Frances hopelessly and it is now obvious t h a t t h e votes Gaulle iu the September weak ,military position in Europe; for de andthe gang-up with Adenauer is seferendum and for t h e Gaullists In the November election were largeVot necessarily any more genuine than,the almost open breach with ly dictated by the hope that de Gaulle would end the war. Since Macmdlan. A few observers differ, by the time A leadmg nothinghadhappened however, withthisview. elections fpur British diplomat spoke in a11 serious- of the municipal ness tome of de Gaulles genuine montllslater,theelectoratetended apbitios to make the present Franco-to turn against the Gaullists, if not himself. CornmuGermqn repprpcheqe?zt the basis for againstdeGaulle nistswhohadvotedfordeGaulle 9 new , 6 6 Charlemagnes Empire-a now went back crazy formula de Gaulle conceived in the referendum back in 1951, But de Gaulle hirn- to voting Communist. In about a self implicitly denies any such de- quarter of the bigger provincial consigns; lje is talking biq about a much stituencies the Socialists, sick of Guy greater Europe embracin4 the vyhole Mollet, ganged up wlth the Coqmu-

nists, so much. so t h a t it was possible for the first time in m a n y y e a r s t o speak of a Popular Frontreviving in France. No doubt there were mental reservations on both sides; but the fact that a high proportion of Sociallsts was no longer willing to obey Mollets orders to keep out the Communists at any plice (even at the price of lettmg in the Gadlists and reactionaries) was slgniflcant. T h e anti-Fascist movement, which faded so lamentably t o materialize when the Fourth Republic was threatened with extinction last May, was showing signs of coming into being--lf onlyasaprotestagainst the Algerianwar. And I f the left-wingvictory was not more a sweeping one, it v a s because there continiles to be a widespread belief that, in t h e end, de Gaulle is determined to make peace in Algeria, though on what terms stillremains ;L mystery. The big pressawe 0% de G a d e %OW

w m ?! !95?

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Other left-wingers, ostensibly less hostlle to the PopularFront, claim that the, impossibility of Laving one mpst be attributed to the dominant role the Communists wouldwant to play 11; it (which, numerically, at any rate, is understandable); in truth, the Communist obstruction has, i n fact, been greatly exaggerated, nQtably in the pro-Bevan press in England. Others still, like CIaude Bourdet, hold th$t any alliance wlth the Communists (even acainst fascism) is doomed to failure, so long asThorezis still a Stalinand not a Khrushchev. In reality, it seems that the future of the Popular Front largely depends on de Gaulle himself. If he gives in to the Army and the ultrar, and a serious Fascist threat in France develops, there will be a Popular Front, whatever the intellectuals may say. If de Gaulle behaves in a reasonably liberal rnanner, keeps the Army inorderand holds out theprospect of. an Algerian settlement before very long, and i f also economic conditions do not de.teriorate disastrously, then there will be no need for one. Meanwhile, watch out for May 13, the anniversary of the .revolution. Something may happen that day. Another revolution? No. B u t , perhaps some kicd of showdown forced by the Right.
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from the L e f t , but from sembly (in which the . 200-odd t h e extreme Right, By this I do nor Ganlhst deputies represent 19,000 mean Big Business, which is essen- voters each, as against t h e ten Cornt~allyGaullist, but from the large munist depuries represgnting 4OO,OOO Fascist fringe of theEuropean Al- voters each). For,what it.ls worth, gerians and of the Army. thelatest ofiinion -poll shows tliat Some observers, like Claude Bour- 63 per -cent of the French want a der, think it not improbable that, t o negoriated peace ili Algeria; this appease the Army and the extremlsts, .widhis certainly nbt reflected in the de GauIlc will give the right-wing composition of &e, prisent Assembly. and pro-Fascist elements-particularly in the Army-a much freer IT SEEMS that.a large part of the hand in F r a n c e k r e t u r n for a peace non-Communist ,Left, JS -hoping or settlement in Algeria. Another pos- an early dissohtion o f parlialnerit. sibility is that the Berlin crisis (when Is this the result of wis&ful thiokit comes) will give de Gaulle an i$? What does the,non-Communist excuse for proclaiming an emergency Left represeht, anyhay? Ubw big a situation in which the prksent free- force can i t become without joindom of the press, for example, would ing forces with the Communists who, beabolished-much to the satisfac- in a general election tod,ay, would tion of the Algiers ultms who have again have overfive million votes? formonths been screamingfor the Instinctively, a growing proportion suppression of the treason press. of Socialists, though distrustful of A more optimistic view .is t h a t the Communists, have been prede Gaulle will refuse t o surrender ferring an alliance with them to to the Army and the Algiers ultim, toeing the Guy Mollet line; this but will waituntilgeneral dissatis- process P o d d undoubtedly be infactionw~lllhave grown sufficiently tensified;iif the Fascist menace be(because of economic difficulties, came accentuated. The role of MenAlgeria, etc.) t o enablehim t o dis- dksiErance is of doubtful importance solve the present National Assembly, at the Moment; he represents not with its incredible right-wing and a political force butratheran in71Lt.r.n majority, and to hold new electellectual attitude. I n any case he tions which would produce a left- is certainly not seeking a rapprochewing majority. This would be more ment with the Communists, or anyrepresentative than the present As- thing resembling a Popular Front.
comer, n o t
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WE, AMERICANS have been neg-

lecting our iherkage. Seduced by suchtriviaasnatlonalsecurity, the education of our children and the outer space, we have exploration of allowed the true essence of America t o sicken near unto death. Minor-league baseball clubs are losipg money. Many small boxing arenasare being forced intobankruptcy. Television has altered the delicate financial machinery which

once permitted fortunes t o be womin the minor leagues of sport. Soon, unless we act quickly, wisely and courageously, the salaries and bonusespaid to players will diminish, promoters will turntheirattention will to other matters and athletes become champions merely by eating Wheaties. The loss of money is not important; the promoters, impresarios and managershave. assured us of that. What +lorries Ithem is thegradual ROBERT COULSON is c1 member loss of. skill whith will afflict our of the Illi&x State Legidatwe - minor-league athletes. Inevitably, the state represeated i n the Ameri- thequality o -play in the larger c a n Eeague by those p e r e m i d mw- arenas will deteriorate. Our future mers-up, the Chicago White Sox. boxing. champions will suffer from

comparison withthe champions of old. Major-league baseball games will have more errors, fewer hits and less curve-ball pitching. Worst of all, the performerswho might have become champions will abandon their sportto become coaches, salesmen, laborers or candidates for political office. It is this last specter which haunts rhe impresarios, andpromptsthem t o appeal t o Congress andthe Supreme Court for special rulings, new laws and personalexemptionsfrom the Constitution which defines the rights of the rest of us. If we fail t o save baseball and boxing from the

competition of free tdevision, the

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