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THE LIBRARY OF ^THE ZEN STUDIES SOCIETY
BUDDHISM AND ZEN .
EDITED AND TRANSLATED BY NYOGEN SENZAKI AND RUTH STROUT McCANDLESS THE WISDOM LIBRAJRY A DIVISION OF PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY "New York .Buddhism and Zen COMPILED.
4OTH ST.. NEW YOBS PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA .COPYRIGHT 1953 BY PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY 15 E.
. Glossary 35 73 84 86 .CONTENTS Foreword Introduction 9 13 Ten Questions Notes on Meditation Sho-do-ka Sho-do-ka by Yoka-daishi 19 32 Fragmentary Notes of Bodhi-Dharma's Disciples Suggestions for Zen Students by Zen-Getsu .
This book contains a few of the shorter and more simple of the translations together with comments to elucidate their meaning. California . Senzaki. and was famiUar with the writings of Dr. and practice To Ruth Strout McCandless Pasadena. Nyogen Senzaki. By that time I had read scriptures and commentaries of several rehgions and many sects in my quest for information. D. The notes in this book have been gathered and arranged as an elementary introduction to Zen Buddhism as well as a practical guide to its further understanding. whose analysis of Zen and translations of its literature held especial interest. Suzuki. T. As time passed. I was allowed to copy the work he had done as well as work with him on some of the current translations. In following this interest in an elusive and little known phase of Buddhism. who passed his days in comparative obscurity translating from old manuscripts and talking with visitors. I met Mr.FOREWORD It is now a number of years since I first met the Zen Buddhist monk. and a few notes on the principles of Zen given to students. the best of our knowledge there is no material available at present for a beginner.
The Buddha-body is omnipresent. Each sentient being beholds it Through aspiration and Karma relation As it dwells eternally on this seat of meditation.* .
animates them. but we cannot say that one shadow is essentially different from another.ualizes itself in the inherent nature of the Buddha-body that it individmyriad manifestations in the phenomenal world. casting her reflectioE in coimtless places wherever conditions are matured. our inmost being. but abides in them. see her image on the least trace of water or a vast expanse. all particular things be reflected in the mirror or Mind-Essence of the Buddha-body It is without hesitation. Beautiful or ugly. The moon is shining serenely in the sky. . but its manifestations are finite and limited. but each reflects the same moon according to We nature. Anything that comes in front of it is reflected without any premeditation on the part of the mirror. It is for this reason that the Buddha-body has to wait until conditions are matured before expressing itself. without demonstration. space and causation. high or low. Its essence is infinite. Although things are many and subject to constant transformation and regulation by their Karma. will Wherever and whenever conditions are correct. good or evil. thus that the principle of Karma works. nor has the moon left her orbit even for a moment. In this form it is subjected to certain conditions such as time. and makes them move freely. rich or poor. which may be polluted or clean. without reasoning. the Buddha-body abides eternally on the seat of Bodhi. . * It body. its . everything is reflected impartially. The shadows also are as numerous as the bodies of water. Suppose that there is a mirror the mirror of the Buddhais . It does not stand alone outside particular existences.
. Hinayana and Mahayana are names used by the Mahayanists designate the two main schools of Buddhism. at this date. whereas the Mahay anists had grown. but also the need to stay in the world to enhghten others. The Hinayanists had kept their school pure. and. basing its premise on the Pali texts.. but often at the expense of purity of understanding. and Taoists ^ Sutra . but Taoism had deep roots among the more intellectual. Confucianism was of more popular appeal because it laid down definite rules and regulations to be followed. they are united as Buddhists.^ were developing according to their principles. Monasteries had been built. many of the Sutras^ translated. The Hinayana. Confucianists appreciated Buddhist ethics. or Lesser Vehicle. or Greater Vehicle. more concerned with the precepts than with enlightenment. Chinese Buddhism was predominantly Mahay ana. Sutta: Pali. but at the expense of growth. and learned students of Buddhism spent long hours discoursing upon the nuances of the religious and philosophical aspects of its teachings.) ' to differ in point of view. a Buddhist scripture (Sutra: Sanskrit. Kung-fu-tsu and Lao-tzu. that all is constant change. had many adherents. without regard for namely. China's own great teachers. the Hinayana and the Mahayana. In India the two major schools of Buddhism. Although they 9 . it found fertile groimd in both Confucianism and Taoism. When the gradual spread of Buddhism began in China around 200 A. A thousand years had passed since Buddha's death.INTRODUCTION Buddhism was already established in China when Bodhi-Dharma arrived from India in the Sixth Centmy.D. In both schools Buddhist teachings were sometimes obscured by the clung to the letter of the Sutras one of Buddha's primary tenets. earlier beliefs and superstitions of its converts. The Mahay ana.. taught not only the necessity for enlightenment.
'* had not made the long journey to involve himself in academic discussion nor to curry favor among the famous." Those who followed Bodhi-Dharma were young men of great determination dedicated to complete enlightenment. Much to the emperor s surprise.10 BUDDHISM AND ZEN understood the ultimate aim of Buddhism. which included the building and endowing of monasteries. When he was brought before the emperor. . the "Blue-eyed Monk/' and twentyeighth successor of Buddha Sakyamimi. . the same as Gautama Buddha. Seeing one's true nature and attaining Buddhahood. . As Chinese scholars translated the Sanskrit texts of the Tripitaka^ available to them. literally. the Chinese equivalent of Dhyana. Ch'an. Hui-k'e was the first in China to receive the "Lamp of Dharma. but when they had proved their sincerity.'* of which Bodhi-Dharma said: "A special transmission outside the scriptures. he taught them and meditated with them. "None whatever. ." Bodhi-Dharma foretold that "with five petals the flower would be complete. Buddha Sakyamuni Dhyana Sanskrit . The Chinese had little use for abstract theory unrelated to practical application. . the emperor recited his own numerous charities. Bodhi-Dharma. from whose particular methods five Chinese Zen schools were evolved continuing the teaching and transmitting the Dharma. Bodhi-Dharma did not encourage them. Without dependence on words or letters. they automatically stripped oiff some of the more fanciful flights of Indian philosophy in favor of the practical approach demanded by their own nature. Bodhi-Dharma replied." containing . then asked Bodhi-Dharma what credit he had so achieved. . "Three Baskets. These schools were known as the Dhyana^ or Meditation schools. Direct pointing to the essence of mind." Succeeding generations produced five outstanding teachers. *Tripitaka * ^ . for meditation. all the Buddhist scriptures. .
is whose rehgious training based on duahsm. upon bv . nor will it countenance anything less than an individual's own experience. A problem given to the student for solution. Eno or Yeno). however. writing only of principles and practice. Zen brushes aside anything. will have an unnecessarily difficult time before gaining enlightenment. The teachings of the Sixth Patriarch. but it is interesting to note that early vmters seldom mentioned Zen or even Buddhism by name. and there are monasteries today that employ it as a part of their displayed ritual. Ko-an originally signified a public announcement. were gathered into a Sutra becoming known as the Chinese Sutra. derived from Chinese. It willingly accepts all that is true in any religion and recognizes those of any faith who have gained complete realization. Does a student cling to the Sutras? They are worthless scraps of paper! Does a student depend on Buddha? Who is that fellow? Does a student claim he carries nothing with him? Then drop it! The ko-an^ was devised as a • Ko-an . no matter of what seeming triviahty. . When Meister Eckhart asserted.INTRODUCTION became Zen when introduced in ii Japan in the twelfth century. but it came to mean also enlightenment. and has for centuries been a distinct. and even certain qualities for which Zen followers became noted." Zen nodded its agreement. Wei Lang ( Huineng. that does not deal directly with reality. however. concentration of mind. Zen originally meant meditation. Zen does not claim that only those of Buddhist background and training can achieve its realization. the means of enlightenment. the only one outside the translated portions of the Tripitaka. Zen grew out of Buddhism and Taoism. Japanese scholars wrote the first books in English on the subject. such a practice is. . it knows that despite great sincerity a person. frowned those who have achieved enlightenment. and it is for this reason that the Western world now uses the word Zen in its religiophilosophical vocabulary. kunk-an. the answer to which cannot be reached intellectually. This Sutra is based on Buddhism. unique form of Buddhism. "The eye with which I see God is the same eye with which God sees me.
they yet profess to lead others to enlightenment! It cannot be done. As Soyen Shaku once said. supported by the parish. McC. perceive can describe enlightenment to another. S. "What is philosophical in Buddhism is no more than a preliminary step toward what is practical left m it. thereby forcing him to abandon all forms of dualism and theory to deal with the problem directly. It is easy enough to say v^hat Zen is not. generation after generation. sectarianism. but Buddhism discourages proselyting. it is no longer Zen. but to say what Zen is is another matter entirely. Zen never advertises itself. In the West there are people who use the name of Zen to attract followers. A teacher may point the way or help to guide a student. "Silence speaks a million words." each moment of each day enlightenment will be actualized. R. . Zen cannot be adulterated. or any other restriction. Hke the accomplishment. and too dishonest to admit it." When we "gain the meaning. answerable to a hierarchy within the sect. The moment there is a trace to be perceived. Although it is transmitted directly. To Buddhists perseverance means inner culture rather than outer growth. and a million words express nothing but silence. Too lazy to provide for themselves. it has nothing to do with "teaching and learning. avoiding organizations. Other religions may approve of students who are eager to spread the teachings. is the student's. It is for this reason No one it that there are so monks have few true teachers.'* The Lamp of Dharma can be received only by those who have fulfilled the conditions for its reception. To one must achieve it for himself. In recent years the monasteries to set themselves up as priests. and even establishing their own households near the temple grounds. Zen has come down to the present time in a direct line.12 BUDDHISM AND ZEN means of driving the student to an impasse that could not be solved by the intellect. Zen will continue quietly on its way. but the work.
all are united in the basic teachings as given by Gautama Buddha. religions have been colored by the earlier beliefs and practices indigenous to varying fact that all major religions of their concepts distorted peoples is divided into two groups often referred to Hinayana and Mahayana. Although there are sects Buddhism as within each of these groups. without a deeper understanding of their meaning. but is now understood by the intellectual people of the world as a religion of enlightenment entirely in accord with the Buddhism filled and the highest of ethical culWith the increase of Western interest in Buddhism has come the desire for exact. Priests from the temples are often anxious to increase the membership of their congregations. and remaining in the world to enlighten oneself and others. It is an accepted commentaries have been altered and many by those whose lives were allegedly dedicated to the continuation and dissemination of their teachings. Philologists may translate the scriptures and latest findings of science ture. The following ten questions are those most frequently asked by non-Buddhists: What does a Buddhist believe or worship? 'iDelieve" and "worship" are unfamiliar to Buddhists because they do not "beHeve" but understand.TEN QUESTIONS is no longer considered a strange teaching with superstition and idol worship. Also. In general the difference may be described as retiring from the world to seek enlightenment for oneself. uncolored information on the subject. so we find them stressing outward conformity at the price of inner development. faithfully. the words can be misleading or without significance. but. The words 13 .
14 BUDDHISM AND ZEN "worship'* but practice and they do not stand. yes. no. he renounced his position to become a mendicant monk. a student of philosophy and a seeker of ultimate truth. Buddha is not a god. then the answer is.. If you imply by the term some personal existence apart from universal law. Buddhists understand the // . "The teachings I have given you will be your teacher when I am gone. this teaching is gradually becoming the invisible treasure of intellectual people the world over. who are more interested in the spirit of Buddhism and the practical application of the teachings. and. Do Buddhists believe in a god? If you use the word "God" as a poetical expression of universal law. "No. then the answer is. At the present time only about nine percent of these scriptures have been translated into Western languages. then there must be a real god above us. As such. and later translated into Chinese. On his death bed Buddha said. He was born Gautama Siddhartha. then the Germans.. Buddhism is a teaching that will free our minds to come into harmony with this universal law. 565 years before the Christian era. after six years of hard work. for forty-five years. crown prince Buddha an The answer Oriental god? of Nepal." He called the whole system of his teachings. he became enUghtened through his meditation. French and Scandinavians followed with books in their own tongues. Dharma or Dhamma. When he was twenty-nine years old. the law of the universe." Buddha was a human being. now have two main currents of Buddhist thought from which to draw . His teachings the people of India in Sanskrit and Pali. the Oriental and Occidental. Japanese and other Asiatic languages. English philologists and He then travelled and taught among were recorded archeologists did much of the early work of translating. Is what they under- is a definite. American students.
but later people with less understanding placed a god outside the universe. but once we are awake." then the universe is God and God is the universe. there cannot be God and man nor a universe and God. then you must feel that you are powerless to change anything. You may change it. Neither God nor no-God can exist outside this oneness. All Ufe is one. odor. but not created by some divinity. There is no remainder in the mathematics of infinity. rebuild it or improve it to suit yoiu: own will. On the contrary he may know the true nature of man and the universe better than more orthodox followers of younger religions. there is nothing. create the world each moment of each day. subjective and objective. therefore. Buddhists see the world as a phenomenon of flux consisting of various relations. This world is conceived in the relation of both sub- We jectivity Buddha concluded that without world to the elements. and one operates in all. and then to say that he stands outside this universe is a contradiction. then the world of form. and a world not in God is mireal. All things return to one. thus leaving your fate to the mercy of that creator. taste and touch are instantly created by our senses. there is nothing. If you think that this world is created by a supreme being. who created the world? If you are so attached to the word "God. this relationship of the . since proved in the laboratories of the world. Buddhists left anthropomorphic ideas behind twenty-five centuries ago. color. they created God. Buddhists know that the world is your own production. When we are asleep. To say that God created the universe. It does not follow that just because a person does not believe in a personal god he is a heathen or unmoral. If there is no god outside this world. In other words. Einstein brought the concept of relativity to scientific knowledge. Early Christians understood this better. and objectivity. A god not in the world is a false god.TEN QUESTIONS 15 universe and God as one.
then no one but you can create the mind. but it does promise that when you have fulfilled the requirements. If there is no personal God. Yes. whereas other rehgions put it in the objectivity outside the individual mind. the world of karmic hfe or the world of three processes. consequently. When this point of view is expanded. nor to accept the proposition that you are not making vicarious atonement for the transgressions of another.i6 BUDDHISM AND ZEN is Then what mind? Was not this mind given by God at the very beginning? Judge fairy tales or legends for yourself. but. or some- thing outside the individual. In other religions past. present and future are set in a straight Une. but . . no ruler of the universe. you will know the answer beyond the shadow of a doubt. Your intellection will not solve the problem. These three make a cycle craving to acting. Without these three processes there is no mind and. you mean a later individual Ufe. What is Some the first religions cause. and aside from this endless chain there is no creator. and discontent to craving again. Buddhism does not ask you to believe that you yourself are the creator. but Buddhism teaches that good character or bad character continues according to individual desire. namely. Buddhism places the center of the universe in the subjectivity of individual mind. no body. acting and discontent. . Allah. acting to discontent. Buddhism sweeps aside your idle speculation and tells you to find the answer in your own reaHzation. . but will use your time to push the solution farther from you. The mind is an endless chain of three processes. Do no. the very beginning of everything? answer God. if Buddhists believe in a future life? if you mean the continuation of cosmic Hfe. under the law of causation. We are living in an endless world. craving. Brahma. it will be seen that everything in the universe operates according to these processes. Other religions teach that your life comes to an end and you receive judgment.
" Are there precepts Buddhism comparable to the Ten Sermon on the Mount? Yes. . you will never reach me and wiU remain forever a stranger to my teaching. . third. He attained his realiza- tion through his own striving without seeking help from a god or man.TEN QUESTIONS to Buddhists they are 17 mere names for an endless circle. Keep it as a reminder of your own futiu-e being. to avoid all evil thoughts and evil actions. American Buddhists keep three precepts: first. . The Brahmajala Sutra lists in Commandments or the ten precepts for all Mahay ana Buddhists to keep. but there is by no means any saving power to it unless we save ourselves. . "If you try to see me through my form. to develop Prajna^ so that quality of ability to ^Prajna Sanskrit: wisdom see directly into the true nature of things beyond mere intellec. to attain good thoughts and right actions. Often in writing on Buddhism the term means this alone. tion. If you have a figure or picture of Buddha in your home. There is no savior outside the brilliancy of en- Hghtened wisdom. which anyone can attain. second. Buddha means an enlightened mental state or condition. or if you try to hear me through my voice. Gautama Siddhartha was called Buddha because he attained supreme knowledge and moral perfection through his own perseverance. Buddhist monks and nuns keep more than two hundred and fifty precepts. Bear in mind Buddha's words. signify anything other than proclaimed these teachings? Yes. . . Although Buddhists refer to Gautama Siddhartha as Buddha. but he was neither a god revealing himself to mankind nor one sent by a god Does the word Buddha ever the man who to bring salvation to the world. Buddhahood is the goal of our culture. they also recognize other Buddhas both before and since his time. As you learn meditation the calm poise depicted will be your good companion. do not worship it nor pray to it for fortune or health.
and through the information given in imiversities. to do no destroying and to put all its emphasis on the constructive and positive side. From these precepts it follows naturally that no living thing is killed for individual pleasure. Buddhism is spread by the quiet influence of those who Hve its teachings day by day. . nothing is taken which live an unselfish and generdoes not belong to one ous life. . attitude of Buddhism toward other religions? "Buddhism has no destructive intention against other religions. The Buddhist aim has been. .i8 BUDDHISM AND ZEN that all humanity is benefited and all sentient beings mercifully treated." ^ There is no blood stain on the history of Buddhist proselyting. colleges and libraries all over the world. Macmillan Co. In no instance have they tried to destroy the customs of other faiths or countries by ridicule or force. . What is the 'James Bissett Pratt. .D. . . . neither do they insist on the exclusive use of their own rituals or rites. 1928. usually. that the two must go hand in hand.. there is loving- kindness for all sentient beings. Ph. speak no word that is not true rity in every way. and they study the scriptures and teachings of all faiths. in marriage keep constancy strictly with love purify and refine yourand respect for each other develop integself. . avoid intoxication and lead a pure and sober life keep yourself clean and worthy. The Filgrimage of Buddhism. . . The Christian-Moslem view has usually been that destruction must precede construction. . They accept what is true and beautiful in every religion. This is the distinctive mark by which Buddhist missionary work is differentiated from the work of Christian and Moslem missionaries. or at any rate. .
is referred to as that condition achieved by the . practice of dhyana. When the student replied that he had studied under Jaku-shitsu of Yo-ken Monastery. . When mental intuition to ^Dhyana .NOTES ON MEDITATION derived from the Chinese it is not the same as Dhyana. ^Samadhi but more often . . you good-for-nothing!" Zen uses meditation as a means of entering SamadhiJ^ but it does not deny the existence of other methods. but if he has no Zen. .^ me what to sit cross-legged you have learned. need no more. he is not my disciple/' On another occasion a student came to KwanZan to receive personal guidance. A student may now depend on his make decisions. it does insist that what is gained by the practice of Za-zen^ must be practically applied in everyday life. unnecessary worries and wandering thoughts drop off one by one. but a focus of mental powers. . Kwan-Zan asked him where he had studied Zen and under which master. tso ch'an. does not arise." The student's answer was in silence." second thought with its dualism. The teachings of Zen warn constantly of falling into the shouted. Sanskrit: is sometimes used in place of dhyana." When one devotes himself to meditation. however. "One may pass hours sitting in contemplation. Kwan-Zan said. Get out. 'Za-zen . "Show is Although the word Zen transliteration of the Sanskrit Dhyana. to sit in meditation. Sanskrit: meditation. his mental burdens. 19 . As he moves "at first glance. We trap of "quietism. Dai-to once said. Consciousness is not an entity ruling the movements of the mind. he feels that things go smoothly and somewhat pleasantly. whereupon Kwan-Zan "My monastery has too many stone Buddhas. from Chinese. . doubt and hesitation.
you must face it without thinking of it.20 BUDDHISM AND ZEN activities cease working in meditation. there is no focus. there or strange about it. it is useless for phi- losophers or spiritual teachers to talk about noumenon. and do not discuss a ko-an with any person other than yom* teacher. Unless you attain realization for yourself. The more you pound it in cognition. but the moment the five senses begin to work. a problem given by a teacher to the student The student must solve it himself. If you think that there is no such sound. which will only serve to lead you astray. can never solve a ko-an. it is given to force a student beyond intellection. the absolute. oneness. but for a student no matter how superior or a gate to Zen. in fact. your eagerness for its solution is necessary. When you reach the same stage. God within you or any other empty name. con- up immediately. Intellectual gymnastics. but use any leisure moment of the mind for the ko-an. A Zen ko-an is nothing but nonsense to outsiders. the more difficult to solve a ko-an. refined. sciousness flares is is exactly the same when nothing unusual Sometimes beginners in meditation speak about their dreams as though there was some connection between Zen realization and dreaming. Ko-an for solution. its solution will become. directly from his attainment. It a person goes to sleep. Two hands brought together produce a sound. . Just face the question without thinking anything else. it is Each ko-an is an expression of a person's actual experience. you are giving up your privilege. To work A ko-an is upon a ko-an. What is the sound of one hand? This is a ko-an. Do not neglect your duties of everyday life. Do not work upon more than one ko-an at a time. although a teacher will occasionally give him some help. Dreams are a psychological phenomenon and have nothing to do with Zen. you will express the same thing.
(What is life? What is death? These problems must be solved clearly. go to them and be happy. nor does he see mind and body as two separate things.NOTES ON MEDITATION 21 Unless you have faith in being enlightened in this life. in this way distinct from Arhat. Their way is untransmissible and can be attained only by living. a being. why do you not do it? Once you begin your work on Zen. Eld-do. a person dedicated not only to his own enlightenment but also to the enlightenment of all sentient beings." My and logic can convince your reason. you had better not study Zen at all. he is no more a Bodhisattva. you must strip yourself of egoistic ideas. when he sees it by introspection.. a person. a Zen master of Japan. Wherever I am. they should thus keep their thoughts under control. he names it mind. There are plenty of sects promising enlightenment after death . When he recognizes it by the senses. A Bodhisattva does not hold his body as his own. Before you enter one of the gates of Zen. The average man does not know the true meaning of life and death. Most people cling to "their" tlioughts. who lived in the nine-» teenth century. but I cannot over- * Bodhisattva . he calls it body. I will not stop my meditation.. Second.. .. Third. from eternity to eternity my life is endless. so he cHngs to life and is afraid of death. "In case good men and women raise the desire for supreme enlightenment. or a soul. do not turn to the left nor to the right but keep going straight ahead. whenever I five. In the Diamond Sutra. If you think you can reason out the final truth with your brain. I should not have any secondary thought for environment. every hour in the day and every hour in the night I will try to live as Buddhas and patriarchs lived. favorable or adverse. If a Bodhisattva^ retains the thought of an ego. the cascade of life and death must be crossed over. made the following vows: first. Buddha said. ) Until the dawn of such a realization. thus causing suflFering in the world.
is a term used in Buddhism that has caused considerable misunderstanding in Western minds." Do not try to cling to your pleasures. . will continue to flow in duaHsm. Your intellect may comprehend the oneness of all things. It will not help you to ask why you are sad. "All that has form is an illusive existence. . untransmissible When Zen says. stirred. . Since it cannot be expressed in Buddha ^Tathagata Eternal Now." "I should not have any secondary thought for environment. The moonUght is left penetrates the depths of the pool. he does not intend it to signify the opposite of fullness. your happiness as well as your sorrow.'' "Every hour in the day and every hour in the night I will try to live as Buddhas and patriarchs lived. . All things are transient. thereby "receiving the Lamp of Dharma. ence . Do not stop your tears. The bamboo shadows But no dust But no trace Emptiness Emptiness is are sweeping the stairs. Hke a cascade. ." it means only that the disciple perceived . If you desire worldly fame in any form. enlightenment himself." "Their way is ." Buddhism does not seek adherents. Mind Essence . Avoid secondary thought. . It is as impossible as attempting to catch sunshine in a box. . You must cross this cascade once for all to see for yourself the true emptiness of which Buddha said. and secondary thoughts will bring you nothing but suffering. ." live the life and you will know. in the water. . Eternal Pres- . . When it is perceived that all form is no-form. then work for that instead of hiding yourself under the name of "Buddhist. .%i BUDDHISM AND ZEN inertia of come the your dualistic thinking. the Tathagata^ is recognized. "Dharma was transmitted from a teacher to a disciple. but rather that unconditioned state in which there is nothing to be given and nothing to be received. but your thinking. When a Buddhist speaks of emptiness.
If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought." Buddhism teaches the way to emancipation and enlightenment. it 23 can only be hinted at in dialogue or referred to by use of the Some word "emptiness/* students have advanced far enough in their meditation to empty their minds. it is made of thought. in the objective case it is Karman. Realization? Forget it. At a glance you wiU recognize your true seff. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought. and each action in the present determines the fate of the future. meaning to do. not realizing that this in itself is a concrete. it is made of thought. Before he . but once they resume their normal activity. Life is the working process of Karman. the endless series of cause Karma Karma and effect. Kamma and Kamman are the Pali equivalents. All states and conditions in this life are the direct results of previous actions. it is founded on thought. happiness follows him.NOTES ON MEDITATION speech. When you count your inhalations and exhalations. Meditation? Forget it. All that is. pain follows him. self-limiting state quite different from the "emptiness" of Buddhism. making you less talkative. is a Sanskrit noun in the nominative case derived from the verb. is the result of thought. as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage. founded on thought. but Gautama Buddha never suggested that the way to perfection was easy or simple. less worried. Emptiness? Forget it. Hke a shadow that never leaves him. Buddha? Forget that fellow. True emptiness cannot be included nor excluded. Kar. In effect they continue a condition of mind in v^hich they recognize that there is nothing. Buddha it is said: "All that is. Your everyday Hfe will become calm and contented. In the Dhammapada. they are as unstable as before. contending thoughts will gradually disappear leaving no trace. is the result of thought. and less excitable.
by reciting the Sutras. It is not something just newly discovered . by practicing charity. this nature is the Buddha himseff. and to strive against ignorance. . but if he wants to climb the upward path. what is the use of thinking of Buddha.. worthy life. comfort. you may attain a bright intellect. to be just and kind. Buddha is a state of mind intellectual and moral perfection. you may be born into the heavens. is a Buddha. by the avoidance of evil to respect life. he must toil hard. to respect others and to live in peace with them. Purification is accomplished by being conscious of every thought. Bodhi-Dharma once said. but as to seeking the Buddha. or fasting. to live cleanly and think purely. but by leading an upright. and." Practice of Meditation is perfect and complete in itseff. or reciting Sutras.. Deliverance is not to be attained by prayer. His aspiration for perfection must be accomplished by self-discipline. By his own efforts each must find his inner treasure and see it for enlightened himseff. Buddha Sakyamuni attained Buddhahood through his own efforts. It means enlightenment. belief in creeds. nor initiation into secret orders or mysteries. you are far away. and declared that it was possible for anyone to do the same. Do not try to walk to it because your every step leads not away from it. "If you wish to see the Buddha. The natural tendency of every man is toward ease. or keeping the precepts? By thinking of Buddha. he experienced tremendous diflBculties. . it is ever near. you must look into your own inner-nature. The Truth Truth is not far away. by keeping the precepts. it has always existed. one who is truly . you may be rewarded abundantly.24 BUDDHISM AND ZEN achieved his own enlightenment. . your meritorious deed will bear fruit. If you have not seen your own nature. word and act. and the "good" things of life. To respect life is to practice the ordinary virtues. to be honest.
Those who talk much about realization are usually wandering outside its gates. Even a delicate movement of your dualistic thought will prevent you from entering Samadhi. If you do. word upon word. Hold your body straight. Do not tip forward nor bend to the back. Lean not to the left nor the right. Just relax and forget that you are meditating. will 25 not follow some other person's thoughts. When you have throv^ni off your ideas as to mind and body. Wear the clothing loosely. Take your regular meal sparingly. but keep your feet in a pair of attain the blessedness of meditation To warm slippers. The practice of meditais not a method for the attainment of realization but enlightenment itself. the Palace of Meditation. therefore.NOTES ON MEDITATION Do mind to listen to the voice within yourself. Buddha Sakyamuni meditated six years. and remove your shoes. Zen is nothing but the actualization of truth. and BodhiDharma meditated nine years. may lead you to the depths of the cognition world. and will have some struggle before they enter this Palace of Meditation. Your room for meditation must be clean and quiet. Your search among books. but learn Your body and your blend in unity. Sit down in a chair with a large cushion in a manner as comfortable as possible. Put your right hand on your left thigh. and you will realize the one- ness of all life. but it is not the way to receive the reflection of your true self. the longings which are followed by actions are not the true attitude of tion is Zen at all. and shut out all noises and disturbances. you will never become one. palm up. Your ears should be at . you should begin the practice with a pure motive and a firm determination. you will see the original man in full. and let it hold the four fingers of your left hand so that the left thumb may press dov^ni the right thumb. Do not desire to become a Buddha. Do not let the mind dwell in thought on what is good or what is bad.
Think that which you cannot think. Do not doubt its possibilities be• Buddha-Dhamma . or at any leisure time during the day. Zen meditation is not physical culture. allowing your breathing to become normal again. . and breathe through your nostrils. Constant practice of mind culture will lead anyone to the realization of truth. . think nothing. Keep your tongue at the roof of your mouth and close your lips and teeth firmly. In other words. gaining a sort of intuitive power hitherto unnoticed. Keep your eyes slightly open. Before you begin meditation. Pali. It is the actualization of BuddhaDharma. When you wish to rest. Hold your body erect. This is the proper way to meditate according to Zen teaching. move your body slowly and stand up quietly. The human mind has absolute freedom within its true nature. . Do not allow the mind to become negative. ness.26 BUDDHISM AND ZEN right angles to your shoulders. The wise and the dull should both take time for meditation. and that you are . then take several slow. You can attain your emancipation intuitively. . the ultimate truth of universal oneright to left a . . Do not work for emancipation but allow the work itself to be emancipation. . Practice this meditation in the morning. It is peacefulness and blessedness itself. and your nose must be on a straight line with the navel. or in the evening. . nor is it a method to gain something material. Buddha-Dharma . Sanskrit: enlightened wisdom. You will soon then realize that your mental burdens are dropping away from you one by one. Do not think that the wise do not need to meditate. or you will fall asleep. Many thoughts will crowd into your mind just ignore them and they will soon vanish. . deep breaths. . In your meditation you yourself are the mirror reflecting the solution of your problems. move your body from few times.^ namely. In Oriental countries there have been thousands upon thousands of students who have practiced Zen meditation and obtained its fruits.
is either too warm or too cold. If you cannot find the truth right where you are.NOTES ON MEDITATION 27 cause of the simplicity of its method. Its all 3. brilliancy of enlightenment. should be well ventilated. Beginners should not meditate It when the weather 5. and is as applicable in the busy city as in the quiet country. For beginners the place should be clean and quiet. which in turn you can share abundantly with others. thereby gaining the treasures of wisdom. bringing them happiness. pure and unselfish life. These are our most important daily tasks. there are ten essential requirements: 1. As to the place where you meditate. all life. Zen Buddhism is the vehicle of Buddha Hrydaya. It should not oflFer any view that distracts the mind. The place should be light. This enlightenment is not confined to hermitages in remote mountains. and to be kind and helpful to all fellow beings. 4. . temperature should be comfortable during seasons. where else do you expect to wander Life is in finding it? and no one knows what the next moment your mind while you have the opportunity. Do-gen (1200-1253) short will bring. . neither too dark nor too 6. it transcends all cus- toms. Beginners in meditation should avoid associa- ' Buddha-Hrydaya . . Cultivate — Each one of us should try to be the master mind and body. 2.'' the brilliancy of enlightenment. the highest and most essential of all teaching. all places and all time. 7. to govern his environment to lead a of his own peacefully. as well as the conditions for its practice and continuance. all sects.
10. Beginners in meditation should avoid associawho like competitive games. flood. There are ten things about the physical condition to be guarded while you are learning how to meditate. 10. mind 1. Bathe daily. Keep your leisure hours for meditation. not meditate immediately after meals. but never be greedy for fine clothing. Beginners in meditation should avoid all places of danger such as fire. 9. Beginners should not meditate by the sea nor in the vicinity of pleasure resorts. 5. 8. present moment should contain your entire universe during meditation. Regulate your hours for sleep. storm and the haunts of criminals. take care of your health. remove the shoes while meditating. not try to meditate when you are too nerv- 8. 4. The 3. Do not be ambitious to attain reahzation. tion with those 9. If possible. not think of either the past or the future. 4. Do not desire to become a Buddha. First all. 1. Dress comfortably in clean clothes. 7. Do Do ous. 6. Both before and after meditation think of Do . Your stomach should be neither empty nor full. 3. There are ten things you should know about your as you learn meditation: Do not think of either good or bad nor of right and wrong.2S tion with BUDDHISM AND ZEN men of fame or with those who like to argue. 2. Do not waste your time writing poems or essays on Zen. 2. A of healthy body means healthy meditation.
In that moment ® The Bodhisattva's Vow: However innumerable sentient beings may be. concentrate your mind upon your forehead." When you meditate. you may cut oflF my head. your mind wanders. impermanency. Usually awareness of the lower part of your abdomen prevents mind-wandering. the sacred teachings are. do not cling to objectivity. If you feel dizzy during meditation. However immeasurable learn them all. Non-thinking and non-chnging purify the mind. Without moving or holding anything in your mind. 6. "If you follow my instruction and do not attain enhghtenment. concentrate your mind upon your toes. Before and after meditation repeat your vow to save all sentient beings. blot out your hope of the future. I vow to destroy them. advance step by step ahead in your meditation until you hear the sound of one hand. I vow be. an old master. . or clinging either to a positive or negative idea. However inexhaustible the evil passions are. When —Some items translated from Kei-Zan (1268-1325) When speaking to his disciples about meditation. (Zen students should keep their minds upon their feet when walking. 9. once said. 10. the impossibility of identifying any self entity in 5. you must have nothing in front and nothing in back.^ either your Do 7. Joshu.NOTES ON MEDITATION 29 Anicca. Cancel out your memory of the past. mind or your body. tightly. to No matter I how difficult the it path of Buddhahood may vow to follow to the end. If you feel sick. clasp your hands or concentrate upon the tip of your nose. 8. not cling to subjectivity. think also of Anatta. I vow to save them all.
teacher said." his teacher told him.30 BUDDHISM AND ZEN . once went to a teacher for personal guidance. Nan-in served tea. "It is overfull. "but what about the sound of one hand?" The monk looked up from where he lay on the floor. "You are dead. Zen calls this condition of the mind the "moment of great death/' but do not be afraid of this stage in your meditation. This is the "gateless gate" of Zen. but when you have passed it." The next time the monk appeared before his teacher. What is the sound of one hand?" The monk worked hard." said the teacher. name and fame. you will realize there was no gate there. . Instead of forcing yourself to enter such a condition. pride and the hundred other things that hamper and fetter you. "When I clap my hands together." "A dead man tells no story. either by counting your breath or meditating on your ko-an. get rid of all unnecessary opinion. there is a sound. he fell over as though dead. just meditate faithfully." observed the teacher. Until you pass this gate. and then kept on pouring. you rascal!" This monk had his teacher before him all the time. all right. "You are attached to food." Nan-in. "Get out. Even your desire for enlightenment will be an obstacle. "I have not solved that as yet. sleep. Instead of striving for something to be added to your nature. there is neither time nor space there is only the eternal present. and you will be there naturally and gracefully without being aware of the fact. but could not solve this ko-an. He poured his visitor's cup full. success or failure. . a master during the Meiji era. No more will A monk The go in!" . prejudice. pass on quickly. "You are not working hard enough. and where the Buddha is not. Just go quietly ahead in your meditation step by step without thought of good or bad. The professor watched the overflow until he could no longer restrain himself. you cannot enter Zen. "Do not linger where the Buddha is. received a university professor who came to inquire about Zen.
"you are fuU of your own opinions and speculations. David Mc- . How can I show you Zen unless you first empty your cup?" ^ 'Nyogen Senzaki and Paul Reps. 101 Zen Kay Company. Stories.NOTES ON MEDITATION 31 "Like this cup/' Nan-in replied. Philadelphia.
a writing of the Sixth Patriarch. The story of Yoka is contained in the Dan-kyo. he left a number of works on the Zen approach to enlightenment of which the Sho-do-ka (Song of Realization) is one. he realized intuitively the mystery of his own mind. the Sixth Patriarch. When he died in 713 A." "Before the time of the remote Buddhas.. 'Vipassana discernment contemplation or School)." Gen-saku remarked. but since that time. . "May I know the name of your teacher who transmitted the Dharma to you?" "I had teachers to instruct me. ^ ^ . but it was through the reading of the Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra that I realized the significance of the Buddacitta (Buddha-heart) School (Dhyana School). as follows: Zen Master Gen-kaku of Yoka was born of a Tai family in the state of On-shu. ." replied Gen-kaku. he reaHzed Mind Essence. he who attains enof Shastras or Sastras: commentaries on the Sutras. and during the course of the discussion. Samatha quietude. A disciple of the Sixth Patriarch by the name of Gensaku paid him a visit. and in this respect I have not yet had a teacher to verify and confirm my attainment. "it was possible to dispense with the service of a teacher. As a youth he studied the Sutras and Shastras/ and was well versed in the teaching of Samatha^ and Vipassana.SHO-DO-KA Yoka-daishi (Yung Chia) was an outstanding disciple Yeno (Hui-neng). (Tendai 32 . .D. that is.^ Through the reading of the Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra. "when I studied the Sutras and Shastras of the Vaipulya section. He then asked. noticed that the comments of his friend agreed with the sayings of the various patriarchs. . .
"A Buddhist monk is the embodiment of three thousand moral precepts and eighty thousand minor disciplinary rules. Gen-kaku walked around him three times." "Since the question of incessant re-birth is a momentous one and death may come at any moment. The Patriarch then commended him for his thorough . "and once this solved." "Will you kindly act as my testifier?" asked Gen-kaku. . "To realize the essence of mind is to be free of re- birth. "My words in great carry no weight. the Patriarch said." Gen-kaku ob- served. . When they reached So-kei to interview the Patriarch. shall be glad to accompany you.SHO-DO-KA 33 lightenment without the aid and confirmation of a teacher is a natural heretic. That is so. then stood still without making obeisance to him. I all directions with the com- mon If object of having the Dharma you wish transmitted to them. conceited. the question of transiency exists problem no longer. "How can there be 'quickness' exist intrinsically?" when motion does not Gen-kaku answered. are you not?" asked the Patriarch. and wish you to give me a quick answer to this problem. I wonder where you come from and what makes you so . "In is So-kei the Sixth Patriarch to be found to whom visitors numbers come from to go there. *Who knows that motion does not exist?" asked the "I Patriarch." replied his friend." the Patriarch concurred. 1 have no time to waste on ceremony. Noting his discourtesy. "You are going away too quickly." Gen-kaku replied. hope you will not particularize. At this moment Gen-kaku made obeisance according to the ceremony of departure." "Why do you not realize the principle of *Birthlessness' and thus solve the problem of the transiency of life?" the Patriarch retorted." is "That is so.
and they are often inspired during its recitation. In Sho-do-ka the stanzas have been done directly from a copy of the original into a free translation by Nyogen Senzaki. who can particularize?" asked the Patriarch. Korea. and is Nyogen Senzaki's own instruction to his students. "Well said!" exclaimed the Patriarch.'' replied Gen-kaku." Sho-do-ka is memorized in its entirety by students in China.34 BUDDHISM AND ZEN grasp of the idea of "Birthlessness. The commentary. . separated from each stanza. "That which particularizes is not an idea." but Gen-kaku countered. is to assist the reader in his understanding and interpretation of the poem. "Is there an idea in 'Birthlessness'?'' "Without an idea. From that time on Gen-kaku was known to his contemporaries as the "Enlightened-One-who-had-spenta-night-with-the-Patriarch. He then asked Gen-kaku to delay his departure and spend the night there. and Japan.
. sees the true nature of ignorance as He nature. and he is a philosopher who does not carry the odor of philosophy. no ignorance separate from Buddha- He nature. . *Dharma-kaya . He is a sage who does not look like a sage. Yoka-daishi is admiring and praising the Zen student. He knows delusions as baseless and truth as himself. sees a person who has gone beyond relative good and evil. yet He rea- is he acts naturally and sonably. free of all care. and leaves no trace of his learning nor shadow of his doing. They do not in fact even really . there is no delusion. yet he practices easily and freely what he has learned and also what he He He should learn.^ the Buddha's eternal body. Whoever seeks after the truth will remain behind the truth. neither strives to avoid delusion nor seeks after the truth. it follows that they empty and visionary. no idle thought. Law body 35 of the Buddha. and the true body of his illusionary Buddhabody as Dharma-kaya. What you consider idle thoughts or delusions are nothing but waves on the vast ocean of Buddha-nature. lives in equanimity calmly and contentedly.SHO-DO-KA by YOKA-DAISHI Do you see that Zen student? He has forgotten what he has learned. you cannot enter Samadhi. If you try to avoid idle thoughts or delusions when you meditate. Just as there are no waves apart from the water. are As our bodies are impermanent.
and my body is not When one realizes completely the Dharma-body. . . himself. BUDDHISM AND ZEN Your body is not yours. they prevent us in the growth of insight as the roots of the couch-grass prevents the growth of useful plants. . us. .^ he sees no object. He is the Dharma-body. Tibetan Buddhist once wrote: "Greed.36 belong to mine. . anger and ignorance appear and disappear like a mirage on the ocean. . whose most serious actions appear as the play of small children. is the source of all things. one recognizes the Dharma-body as such." This mountaineer does not know Zen at all! Zen students never run away from the three poisons. He. there is no more and there is no less. anger and . Material things and mental phenomena come and go like clouds in the blue sky. His true nature is the source of all things in the the eternal Buddha that was in- never born and will never die. anger and ignorance are the three poisons jurious to the A good character of man. But once he has unified himself with the Dharma-body. But I know that among the mighty mountains of my native land there are men and woman who can bear wit- ignorance ness that in this very life they have attained the supreme goal and tasted the ultimate deliverance. and the matter When how Dharma-body is he. One must not expect that these enlightened ones will come to live with worldlings. Greed. but see " Dharma-body. he is still lingering in dualism. these three foams Greed. the eternal Buddha. original man in full. no beautifully he may define it or describe it. these three stand as obstacles to the way of deliverance. If there exist in countries other than Tibet people who have experienced the truth. I cannot say. and his true nature is another name of the eternal Buddha. He is universe. the sound of one hand.
These answers are a ghostly conception. A student may say that this is the truth. They mingle easily with so-called worldlings. you can leave hell in your dreams of yesterday. When Zen asks to hear the sound of one hand. Those without realization. ward "self-entity" then that there is jectivity are void existing only in terms of relativity. and make your own paradise wherever you stand. who cheat people with false knowledge. will create a hell during their own lives. Why not work deeply enough in meditation to reach the bottom of mind essence? The outcome of this honest. driving themselves to the end of the trail of logic. He can prove it by his attitude toand "self-limited ideas. hard work is attainment. He knows and sees shadow If that there no ego entity existing in him. Philosophers may postulate reality. has them in the present. that all forms of ob- .will have many of them in the future." He knows no ego entity. They play with children. you live in this Zen.SHO-DO-KA 37 them only as an ephemeral mirage. America has had Zen students in the past. he has no delusion concerning his personal desires nor his self-limited ideas. A man may easily free himself of egoism in ethical life. Zen aims at nothing but reahzation or attainment. it demands actual experience and nothing else. When he realizes the truth. When one attains reality. form as merely in relation to both subjective and obis clearly the voidness of all jective elements. but none of them ever succeeded in attaining. but to experience it is another. or that this is the absolute. and . he actually realizes the truth of all beings. To say that something must be is one thing. and handle gold and silver as pebbles and stones. respect kings and beggars. mere shadows of baseless delusions.
"The wind is moving. the Patriarchs. can leave hell in your dreams of yesterday." The former clings to the entity of the flag. The Sixth Patriarch answers them. which was later transmitted through Bodhi-Dharma. Those who speak untruth in this world. reverends or right-reverends. etc. When Yoka-daishi said.38 BUDDHISM AND ZEN and may even consider himself unselfish in materialistic desire. and recognition of the voidness of forms of objectivity. moving.. In your dream there are six paths. This was as widely practiced in Yoka-daishi's day as in ours. The wind is not moving. who can The minute you attain Buddha's Zen. The mind is moving. The latter has a broader view." Another replies. **The flag is not moving. will be reduced to noth- Buddha's Zen was transmitted ' first to Maha-Kasyapa^ first to receive in a direct line Maha-Kasyapa . The six noble deeds and ten thousand good are already complete within you. but save him if he does not save himself? Some religious workers build a brisk business selling people the idea that their sins can be wiped out by another. you are entangled in selfall 'The flag is limiting ideas.. a disciple of Buddha and Lamp of Dharma. actions But when you awake. but if he cannot listen to the opinions of others and insists on conquering the world with his own ideas. but does not understand true emptiness. the . bishops or archbishops. are making a hell here and now. In a ko-an one monk says. he is still the same old egoistic monster. Man creates his own hell in which to suffer. and make . *lf you live in this Zen. you ." If you think the Patriarch mentioned mind as a psychological phenomenon. so he warns such peddlers to beware of what they are creating. they ingness. Zen realization must be manifested in two ways: rejection of an ego substance. . causation." he did your own paradise wherever you stand not mean that an enlightened man can ignore the law of .
There is no record in the Sutras about this inner teaching. . . No Do sin. . charity. . Dhyana Prajna wisdom.SHO-DO-KA 39 from heart to heart. . . severance. transcending all scriptures and sectarian doctrines. What are the six noble deeds? They are Dana . but one whose meditation is mature receives the same genealogical wisdom. . nor can it be yours imtil you reach your own realization. In the future Americans may use a new name for their attainment. realization. . but to a Zen student they are nothing but shades of dualistic thought that vanish in the light of . What I say about Zen is my own. Manusya Deva superior man. . no happiness. no loss and no gain. . . fighting devil. . Virya striving. . . Preta hungry devil. its brilliance pre- serious mind can think way any more. hell. is the time for you to see cisely. . otherwise this inner wisdom will never survive in this country. A name is nothing but a symbol and can never be the thing it stands for. . . When of sin and bliss in the old a person has experienced realiza- it will make no difference to him whether sins may be blotted out by a supreme being and his agents or some supposed power of hokus-pokus may give him * Tathagata-dhyana . . . . Sila keeping the precepts. your mirror. . Tiryag-yoni Asura human being. This is the reason why Zen is always living vividly through human experiences. . . Many people recognize these stages as having true existence. . . . . . . . . . . . enlightened meditation. Later Chinese masters named Zen the Patriarch's Dhyana. What are the six paths? They are Naraka animal mind. Yoka-daishi called Zen Tathagatadhyana'^ in this work. Ksanti permeditation. . . . For a long time you have not wiped the dust from Now No tion. not try to seek these things in Mind-Essence.
When you count your breath. you will never be one. You think of your pet dog. just meditate on it. just count it. Do these stanzas seem difficult? Remember that Zen can be reahzed but never explained. Ask a robot whether he is happy or not. But why do you carry it as second thought? If. Where is paradise? You are standing in it. You cannot blame the dog for barking. Then the train of thought passes in front of your nose endlessly. This is the day to see it clearly. You suffer only because of your own ignorance. As there is no ice apart from water. When you meditate on your ko-an.40 happiness for a BUDDHISM AND ZEN when he student. people fail to perceive the truth and search afar for it. As long as you aim to become Buddha. In your meditation you may already have experienced "non-thinking. You say that you are suffering. No matter how you strive. Awake from your ignorant dream! The errors of the past will no longer harass you. so there is no Buddha outside our fellow beings." Your Mind-Essence is bright from the very beginning. you are already out of it. But suppose you hear a dog bark? You visualize a running dog. These are idle questions Zen In his Song of Meditation. In meditation you train your- . however. They are in poverty and forget that tliey are heirs to boundless wealth. This is the moment to begin your work instantly. Haku-in said: "From the very beginning you are Buddha. you cannot think of it. Where is hell? You left it in yesterday's dream. nor your ears for receiving the sound. They suffer thirst and do not see the fountain near at hand. Who thinks non-thinking and who recognizes non- existence? If it is really non-existence. you think you are entering Samadhi. asks for it. Although it is always within them." At this moment your "Mind-Mirror" is wiped and polished so thoroughly that there is not even a trace of brilHance remaining.
In PaH these four elements are called pathavi (soHdity). "Is Zen going to compel me to become a robot?" Do you wish to sufiFer. and does not block the flow of inner wisdom with the trash of delusions. "Ask a robot whether he is happy or not. from the Gateless Gate. as Buddhism does not see mind and body ferent things. Drink and eat according to your true nature. but also the conditions of the mind as psychological phenomena. Now where is your true nature? own true Second. forgetting both mind and body. but. two dif- When it says the four elements. lives in Mind-Essence. according to his own water. he will be free from . it does not mean only the elements of the material world. in be used. therefore. apo (cohesion). "As long as you aim to become Buddha. when one realizes his own true nature. will "First. no matter how you strive. lives his everyday life. they are in a state of emptiness. tejo ( radiabihty ) and vayu (movabiHty). This is Buddha's realization. Things are transient. Zen does not cling to these elements. To illustrate the third and fourth verses is of this stanza Tosotsu's ko-an." I can hear you complain. filling your mind with illusions? Do you know nothing of the joy of giving thoughts enough room in which to stretch themselves and grow? A Zen student has more time to enjoy life because he allows himself to think or to do one thing at a time. in daily life at a time without carrying unnecessary second thought." If you cannot find it where you stand." that is. A Zen student "drinks or eats.SHO-DO-KA self to carry 41 the one subject of meditation. Yoka-daishi says. studying Zen the aim to see one's nature. fire and wind. where do you expect to wander in search of it? do one thing Do not cling to the four elements. you will never be one. earth. true nature.
dukkha. Buddhism is concerned with the root of truth. illusions of individual entity vanish. think of the impermanency of worldly things. your mind. he suffers. When he cannot hold it. when you shut the light from how can you free yourself? Third. and so clings to what he Hkes. . Who said Buddha's reahzation? Do not be cheated by Yoka-daishi or anyone else. true self.42 birth BUDDHISM AND ZEN and death. Southern Buddhists express the ultimate truth with three Pah words anicca. What is the ultimate truth? Yoka-daishi says that all things are transient and ultimately empty. the gate of true meditation will be opened. and once this is seen there is reahzation. Anicca expresses impermanence. Buddha speaks you do not agree with what I say. where are you?" Do not think of good with your mind and body. Now. your body separates into four elements. Do not think of bad with your mind and body. A If true disciple of discuss it. Northern Buddhists express these fundamentals of Buddhism by i) admitting the impermanence of all . . you are free to that You must remember. If you cannot hold even the mind and body you use. Now. Life . you will come to the real "I" your as dukkha. Forget that you have a mind and body. if you free yourself from birth and death. When you understand these three characteristics. One does not realize this fact. your body and the world you live in. you should know where you are. . If an idea disturbs you. and this is known is an eternal flow. how can you expect to chng to other things and hold them? "Not I" is represented by anatta. Not with the branches or leaves. however. When the your eyes. With empty hands and with empty mind you can meet your true that there is self there. Just find it out for yourself. and become a corpse. . Make your present minute the only true life you have. the ultimate truth. and anatta. .
. nor is it to be sought outside of Samsara. You may clear his doubts by reasoning. you are free to discuss it. nor a condition of non^ existence. but he must reach the root by himself." But Tathagata has nothing to do with time or place. the world of thought. Buddhists Your eyes create the world of color and form. Most people do not recognize the mani-jewel. "If you do not agree with what I say. the It is gem of wisdom. in the secret place of hidden Tathagata awaiting discovery and attainment.^ When Yoka-daishi said. It has neither color nor form. the ° Nirvana synonymous with enlightenment. you cannot give him enlightenment unless he opens his own eyes to attain it. The six senses and the six worlds interweave making It is life as it is. the world of odor. an illusion as a whole. your tongue the world of sapidity. illuminates humanity. the world of birth and death. The six-fold function is manifested as ears. the gem of wisdom. .SHO-DO-KA things. is The mani-jewel fulfills a legendary its gem of old India that all desires of desirelessness. nor has it noncolor and non-form. yet nothing exists to be called illusion. 2) 43 denying absolutely the existence of individual soul. your world of sound. . No matter how cleverly logical you may be in cornering your opponent. . and your brain. looking forward to Yoka-daishi uses "mani-jewel" metaphorically saying that it can be found in "the secret place of the Tathagata. You cannot convince others of Zen through argument. The perfect Hght of this mani-jewel. your nose. but is not a negative condition as many suppose. treasuring calmness fection." he was not inviting argument for the sake of debate. 3) aiming at ultimate reality (Nirvana). work for and contentment and the highest wisdom and moral perpossessor.
energy. you call your true self. where they are facets of the same gem of wisdom. memory. which. bringing into the range of vision things that could not otherwise be seen. A Zen student who has sound knowledge of modern science and philosophy. Clarify the five kinds of vision. and objectively. lakes or the sea. heavenly. The prajna or wisdom eye views the world without desire. Everything just appears through contact of subjective and objective elements. It is possible only through Zen meditation that goes beyond speculation. dharma and Buddha vision. and you simply recognize and name them in terms of relativity. This is the performance of the mani-jewel. or as many waves may rise and fall on the selfsame body of the great ocean. meditation and wisdom. To hold the reflection of the moon on the water is impossible. and the person who possesses it can avoid entanghng. Everyone knows that the physical eye must have light in order to see. and that even then it is not to be relied upon implicitly. duahstic thoughts. subjectively.44 BUDDHISM AND ZEN numerous images of the moon may appear on ponds. The dharma eye is the eye of higher wisdom in the world of discrimination. One can see the images in the mirror naturally. The five powers are faith. is well acquainted with other religions and the cultures of many lands so that he may view the condition of other beings with sympathy and tolerance. Modern science has developed the heavenly eye in the telescope and the microscope. One attains these five types of vision and power through unification with Mind-Essence. . Buddha nature. and acquire the five powers. is one using the vision of dharma. The prajna. five kinds of vision are the physical.
observes no orthodox rites. David complains. It is easy to recognize the images it seems to contain. then forget what you saw in your mirror. but the moment you think you have them. He walks freely. use. Those who have attained. nor has a soul to be cared for by anyone else. he sees the world in truth as it is in reality. When a student has attained complete realization. meditation guards a person's calmness." This mirror belongs to each one of us. memory increases and enriches knowledge. Psalms io:i. they are still two and not one. In the Old Testament. does not look forward to a future abode. The secret is to hve every minute in Zen.SHO-DO-KA The Buddha eye is 45 the perfect eye. O Lord? matter Why how hidest thou closely thyself in times of trouble?" No God approaches David. A Zen student should walk alone at all times. which is the source of the fifth power. and clean and contented of heart. the wisdom of emancipation. 'Why standest thou afar ofiF. Yoka-daishi often speaks of the "mirror. energy is necessary to continue the climb. A Zen student worships no god. and the five powers manifest as you practice Zen in your everyday fife. ready to use. knowing that as he masters his situation. Since not one of them is concerned with special attraction. theological postulation. wherever he stands i-j . The five powers are self-evident. knov^ng they are only reflections with no self-entity. Each of them is natural in manner. they have vanished. prajna. This is the eye of perfect compassion free of all defilement. no one pays him special attention. tread the same road of Nirvana. unburdened by dogmatic. "Who can hold the reflection of the moon on the water?** The five kinds of vision are inherent in Zen realization. Faith allows one to stand firmly in truth. Receive.
he replied. The three bodies of Buddha and the four kinds of wisdom are completely contained in it. is the treasure beyond all value. He lives among men quietly and easily. the priceless treasure never deteriorates. shows the world his poverty. therefore. No . His Zen. Who calls it the road of Nirvana? He has no such road ahead of him. "Because no one can name the price. The The followers of Buddha speak of their poverty." How would you like to become the head of a dead cat? Zen students! Philosophers! Occult Metaphysicians! Theologians! Atheists! They Hving cats with their price clearly written on their foreheads! A true seeker of enlightenment cannot display his value. The eight sorts of emancipation and the six miraculous powers are merely impressions of the same seal. he is strong. torn and mended. When questioned as to his reason for this answer. He works hard. His heart is clean and he is always contented. unseen by others. A Chinese Zen master was once asked to name the most valuable treasure in the world. A monk's gown. He walks alone in Mind-Essence. students! are all noisy. called poor. He goes ahead step by step naturally and wisely. His Zen training and meditation are for nothing but his perfect emancipation. It may be given freely to others who need it.46 BUDDHISM AND ZEN the land of truth. matter how much it is used. simplicity of their living may be but not their Zen. He answered that it was the head of a dead cat. and so attracts no attention. He is not worried about his appearance.
fatal. the color and the shade may also vary. the clear perception of relations. wrote a eight Chinese characters which reads: 47 poem of Not twice this day Inch time foot gem. are the mirror intuition. the attainment body. The priceless treasure belongs to everyone. The three bodies of Buddha are considered to be the Dharma-body. Everything is contained in your reaHzation. and the knowledge is emancipation by mateemancipation by ideaHsm. and in our daily action and associations with others it produces the Transformation body. through realization it becomes the body of Attainment.SHO-DO-KA Taku-an. emancipation by Hinayana thought. . and the Transformation body. you are Hke a person who possesses a seal. visual. Each one of us has the Dharma body. When you attain enlightenment. the understanding of emptiness in Mahayana teaching. but each is made by the one seal of ultimate wisdom. emancipation by aestheticism. psychic and purification. auditory. emancipation by spiritualism. The six miraculous powers are geographical. but how can we reaUze it imtil we meditate and obtain the fruit of our striving? The eight-fold emancipation rialism. the intuition of identity. Each of us is a part of Dharmakaya. There is no need to memorize these lists. emancipation by prajnaparamita. You may make many impressions on varying materials. Each minute is worth a priceless gem. emancipation by distinction of Hinayana and Mahayana teaching. In a free translation to the English these words mean: This day will not come again. a Japanese Zen master. The four kinds of wisdom of work. emancipation by relativity.
When you can put out a light one thousand miles away. your auditory miracle when you hear the song of angels in the thirty-third heaven. and future Buddhas. you have mirror-intuition.48 BUDDHISM AND ZEN attainment does not sound of one hand. such as a stick of incense. It is the serve humanity. your psychic miracle when you know the one whose servants are the present Buddha. The excellent student of Zen goes directly to the ultimate truth. a Japanese Zen master. How can you wander around in outward striving? Mu-so Kokushi. past Buddhas. Once you strip off the tattered clothing of prejudice you will see your true self. When you hear the pure force used to called the body of what a foolish idea to limit! skies have no We make it eightfold! The blue merely designate the floating clouds as being here or there. and your miracle of purification when you avoid all evil thoughts and actions to develop good thoughts and right actions. but denote static conclusion. you have a clear perception of relations. As for emancipation. First. your fatal miracle when you know where you were when Gautama Buddha was born in India. This is the body of attainment. Whitney. Miracles! What nonsense! Just use each moment of the law of causation. you are practicing your intuition of identity. When you can show me how you enter an object. The fair or good ones like to learn from others but have no steady faith. Your geographical miracle is accomplished when you bring me some snow from the top of Mt. once spoke of the three types of students. there were those who threw off all entangling conditions to apply themselves . When you can tell me whether the man you meet is your younger brother or older brother. not only for yourself but for all with whom you associate. and pay homage to all the Buddhas. which service is transformation. you are proving your knowledge of doing work in Zen.
Zen once and for you you will see its brilliance instantly. will find only a Those who fragment at a time are insist that like those who would room. He knows where his treasure lies and how to use it. Forgetting even this sweetness the region of non-thinking. but the moment you unearth it. Each moment contains an opportunity for you to be an excellent student of Zen. live You can Some may slander or argue against Zen. then a lay student has Httle chance of becoming a first class disciple. A true student of Zen will take their words enters as sweet dew-drops. there came those who were not so single-minded seeking a solution in books or other activities. not a teaching which can settle the matter all. They are playing with fire. many points of difference on and other which religions will to hang their arguments. when he will find few people who agree with nor understand his effortless effort.SHO-DO-KA 49 wholeheartedly to the study of Zen. . let alone enlightened him. helping others whenever he can without seeking assistance for himself. Since argument never convinced anyone. a Zen student will avoid all fruitless discussion. Other sects of Buddhism decree that a student must go through many stages even to hope to attain enlighten- A Zen student his beliefs. the third and lowest group was made up of students who mouthed the words of Buddha If or the Patriarchs instead of digging for the is treasure within themselves. second. carry out the darkness before lighting a forget your worries of the past and future to only in the peaceful present. trying to bum the heavens in vain. You may spend a long time mining for your inner treasure. Zen belongs to the abrupt school of Buddhism. ment find in a future incarnation.
"Can't you see this lantern?" "Your candle has burned friend." This is the knowledge of the unborn. Yoka-daishi asks. whereas this one regards the abuser positively. A Zen student not only tive attitude but accepts the words with gratitude. "I do not need a lantern. but does not care to have another person criticize one of his minor faults. saying. "This man has slandered me. but before he had gone very far. out. Every Bodhisattva or Zen student loves all sentient beings irrespective of appearance or condition. "but if you do not take it. "darkness and light are the same to me. visiting a was offered a lantern to carry home with him." worrying about "why" and 'iDecause. And Since my feeling is neither for nor against the abuser." there is no listens." he said. You must take it." he means to avoid fussing about "reasons. it is painful to him. "Why should I express the two powers of perseverance. "Look where you're going. I shall be especially loving to him. He does not fall into the trap of dualism. Much as he may admit deserving such criticism." The blind man took the lantern. someone walked straight into him. consider the abuser as one of my good teachers." his friend replied. the knowledge of the unborn and the love of all beings? In the preceding stanza Yoka-daishi teaches the negatowards slanderers. A man may confess his sins to God." the stranger answered.50 BUDDHISM AND ZEN One night many years ago a blind man. Why should I express the two powers of perseverance." "I know you do not need a lantern to find your way home. someone else may run into you. both for your safety and for the sake of others. observe abusive words as virtuous action." the bHnd man exclaimed. When relativity of "I" and "not I." When there is no cognition of "I" or "he. own I Always be sure your candle is burning." .
Second is the eloquence of reason.SHO-DO-KA 51 His knowledge and love are expressed in all he thinks and does as naturally as the sun shines upon the earth or a white cloud floats across the blue sky. it would seem passion. Fourth is the eloquence of comhave learned to lead a pure. their love is greater than that of even the kindest unenlightened person. unselfish life. The fearless thought of Zen is like the mighty roar of the Hon. that there are entirely too many silver pieces in circulation these days. countless as the sands of the Ganges. This accomplishment is not Hmited to a few people. as the innumerable Buddhas (enHghtened ones) wiU bear witness. Beginners in meditation often cfing one-sidedly to an When you erroneous idea of emptiness. the eloquence Dhamma permits you to express the ultimate wisdom once you attain enlightenment. People waste words beof cause they lack concentration. There are four kinds of eloquence. Zen students should use their words economically. you should have no difficulty in reporting what you see. are all witness to this fact. Third is the eloquence of utterance. refusing positive action or remaining coldly distant from the world. A single act may adequately express your interpretation of inner wisdom when you gain realization. One who attains Zen must acquire its eloquence. Meditation and wisdom must have their full brilliance unclouded by an idea of emptiness. Buddhism is a religion of reason. The Buddhas. your words will become kind and powerful. If your eyes are clear. If silence is golden. First. Once they have experienced true emptiness. . Such an accomplishment is not Umited to the few. however. Even the king of elephants will run away forgetting his pride. Striking terror in the hearts of other beasts.
^ he strikes the bell twice without the slightest fear. "To study Zen requires the spirit of a hero. Sometimes a student will bring a bag full of answers. and even though I reject his answer. his calmness is unbroken. It took Yoka-daishi many years to reach So-kei. reaching So-kei. He had to cross the rivers of speculation. When a Zen student comes for San-zen." Zen will never appeal to the masses. he will return to his old alley of blind faith with all the stray cats that symbolize superstition. to study Zen. Instead of reaching the palace of wisdom. In Asia it is said that. trying one after another to fit the question. ." This does not mean that he shouts. In all ages students of Zen have been intelligent. he is beyond space and time. where I met my master and received Dhamma. Now I know my true being has nothing to do with birth and death. hear the roar with calm pleasure. . but he is like a pedlar in a vain attempt to please a customer. What he says now comes directly from his own Buddha nature. In that moment he transcends both birth and death. but wise physicians assisting each person to cure his particular illness. and is called the "roar of the lion. His speech is the result of his own hard work. and their one aim is to aid all sentient beings to achieve the same. Zen students journey by land and sea. like the dragon. they help each person according to his need. the sea of intellectu" San-zen from Chinese San-Ch'an. I also followed the way. He is not an empty radio turned on at full volume. across rivers and over mountains. .52 BUDDHISM AND ZEN Courageous students alone. They are not quacks prescribing one panacea for all ailments. when they attain realization. then. compassionate and courageous. Visiting monasteries and receiving personal guidance from teachers. especially the examination of a student by a teacher. They have accomplished their meditation. .
Our great teacher. 53 where many contemporary he had to scholars had drifted oflF their course never to reach the shores of Nirvana. met Dipankara Budand accepted 'Dipankara Buddha time of Gautama Buddha. he only affirmed the latter's attain- Dhamma ment. . in- He keeps his poise even at the nor can drugs alter his calm. one of the early Buddhas before the . his body always dwells in peace." This is your ko-an. nol Do not think about it! Just gaze at it closely. How can you free yourself from birth and death? What is your true being? No. In order to know we must remember A Zen student walks in Zen and sits in Zen. Although many of the ko-ans and Zen stories are woven around traveling or secluded monks.SHO-DO-KA ality. practiced in four ways. your mind and body move as you do your work in daily life. Sakyamuni. as in walking. the author of this poem intimately. . still. He smiles. nothing will be achieved by our clinging to and imitating these outward circumstances. of years ago. Whether in speech and action. as in reading or listening to a lecture. Third. the last line of the stanza. Meditation and body are tions. your is still mind but your body moves. your body but your mind moves.the opposite sex. "Now I know my true being has nothing to do with birth and death. dha''^ his many millions Dhamma. Fourth. facing the sword that takes his life. finally and attain cKmb the mountains of meditation to self-realization. your mind This is the source of all your Zen acis still Second. or silence and action. A Zen student is neither a misanthropist nor a misogynist. . He must control his own environment and master his situa-' tion wherever he stands. is moment of death. so there is no point in shutting himself up in some forest cabin or avoiding . The Sixth Patriarch did not bestow on Yoka. First. Thus at each moment a good Zen student experiences the Mind-Essence ever at ease.
life after Some people may be interested in past lives. . life. you will see Ksanti. Dhamma always act natu- Most people in the world live in samskrita. subject to causation.^ Those who give something to others to receive something in return. Man is born many times. and death.54 BUDDHISM AND ZEN Ever since. He will transcend both gladness and grief. perseverance. spiritual gold-diggers will strike it rich here and abroad. the actual business of the present moment. Vessness ^Asamskrita not subject to causation. so he dies many times.^ but Zen students live in asamskrita. Are shooting arrows heavenwards. . . mastering human affairs. He lives alone in a mountain Among the old pine trees. you will see Buddha Sakyamuni receiving Dhamma from Pipankara Buddha many millions of years ago. When you extend time and narrow space. the world of birth . but It is when you extend space and flatten time. Until students of occultism understand this and come to their senses. he is master of Ksanti. perseverance. but Zen students see Kfe as eternal presence. Those who imderstand rally. ' Samskrita . . Stories of "incarnation" insinuate the idea of individual personality distorting the vision of truth seekers. the worid of birthand death lessness. If he realizes the true meaning of unborn. Meditating comfortably hut And Hving peacefully. Life and death continue endlessly. .
What the meaning of this serenity? You must Dew. We The moon rises softly in the pines above the river. fog. A true Zen student ignores the branches and leaves until he reaches the root. treasure of emanI cipation. returns striving 55 to the earth. cloud and mist clothe the original man in This stanza is a ko-an. nothing remains. devote ourselves to meditation in order to reach the root of the teaching. It opens the gate of truth leading to the garden of Tathagata. When and gaining are balanced. full. you are the guilty one. If you think that I am hiding something from you. . which was shot against heaven. I now know. . Aimless striving is quite different. and others are benefited . had six rings on top whose tinkling called people from their dreams. The reflection of the moon on the water is beautiful. Do not ask me any foolish questions. First of all find out who you really are. The real beauty of the mani-gem. It is like the image of the moon reflected in the water of a jade bowl. the wind plays on the shore is All night long.SHO-DO-KA The arrow. I am conceafing nothing from you. but the moon itself is not there nor is its beauty fingering in the sky. see the precepts of Buddha-nature vividly imprinted. A begging bowl once The staff conquered dragons and a staff pacified fighting tigers. You must work hard to catch a gfimpse of it. . eternally.
FooHsh people limit themselves. but truth is never hidden. Some accumulate books trying to dig truth from the pile of trash. Legend says that Buddha Sakyamuni conquered dra- gons making them so small that they stayed in his begging bowl. Where are the burdens of egoism you have carried many years? Where are the dualistic ideas that fight continuously in your mind? Look! The moon rises above plays the melody of on the shore. What is the meaning of this serenity? Now you have no burden of egoism nor discord of dualism. Is this a miracle? Anyone can experience it if he has the courage to break his delusions and face himself as he has always been beyond the river of Samsara. With his sta£F a Zen master once stopped the fighting of two tigers and so saved them from kilHng each other. the world of birth and death. . It is the true form of Buddha's wisdom. "Truth is like vast space without entrance or exit. Some attend lectures trying to grasp truth in the words of 'Others. To I assist you in the interpretation of this last stanza paraphrase a portion of Shin-jin-mei. BUDDHISM AND ZEN The bowl and the staflF are not mere symbols of the But Tathagata's actual work remaining in the world. A few of the shall ^"Samsara . Non-form is neither empty nor not empty. a poem written by the Third Patriarch in China. . An ideal Zen student neither seeks the true nor avoids the untrue. you can perform the same deeds.56 teaching. These stories are neither symbols nor miracles. There is nothing more nor nothing less. He knows that these are merely dualistic ideas that have no form. They are both wrong. When you attain the mani-gem. .^^ The wind Buddha-Dhamma in the pines time and space. covering their eyes.
If you can realize that one is many. your Zen will be completed. "Faith and mind-essence are not separate from each other. What you have seen is what you had in the whole world. Just forget and ignore the When you you will get a glimpse of oneness. Its penetrating. illumines all ingenuously. limitless rays reach everywhere in is Without exception everything ror. you will scold them loudly so that the situation is worse than before. The serenity of this middle way is quite diflFerent from the inner void. that quietness is ever in motion. They chose the void rather than outer entanglements.' The *not two' is the faith. you will that the smallest thing is is know is large and the largest thing non-being and non-being is being. and many are one." . but you are with everything. Here is another portion of Shin-jin-mei to interpret the preceding stanza: "Zen transcends time and space. and you will attain peace of mind. that being lence is not the future. You will see only the *not two. There is no choice nor preference and dualism will vanish by itself.SHO-DO-KA 57 wiser ones may learn meditation in their efiFort to reach an inner void. The not two' is the mind-essence." noise. The mind mirror the universe. This sismall. Just think non-thinking if you are a true Zen student. There is no other way but silence to express it properly. If children make a noise. If your thought transcends time and space. There you do not know anything. but it is still the same old dualistic trick. forget your liking and disliking. reflected in this mir- The whole universe is a gem of light beyond the terms of in and out. This silence is not the past. But if you stop moving and hold quietness. This silence is not the present. Ten thousand years are nothing but a thought after all. Without such experience you will hesitate to do anything.
to ignore the law causation. morbid To to relativity. he will then Hve aimlessly with as evil thoughts and wrong His idea actions. Scientists reduce matter to atoms. All of them attempt to take hold of the true by abandoning the false. there is the law of causation. we come upon . They struggle endlessly. It is the same with time and space. Zen students who try to reach truth by rejecting delusions are making the same mistake. When name Bud- dhisnj denies the existence of anything. Who shall tell us what force is? When we turn from physics to psychology. word "emptiness" He who rejects delusions to search for May achieve skill in discrimination. But such a student will never reach enhghtenment Because he mistakes his enemy for his own dear child. then divide the atom as they divided the molecule. or that there is a hmit to its divisibiUty. which is inconceivable. we find nothing at last but force. which is also inconceivable. is he denies the existence of anyan entity of emptiness. but admits fire. a force impressed upon our organs of sense. truth. They are driven to the dilemma that matter is infinitely divisible. Some Confucians pine for the ancient kingdom but complain of the present government. The use of the implies that which cannot be spoken.58 BUDDHISM AND ZEN When He is likely a Zen-student sees emptiness onesidedly. "see emptiness onesidedly" is to give another phenomenality or nothingness. Some Christians admire an angel but hate a devil. There is order. but never attain true peacefulness. When we analyze matter. To escape drowning he has thrown himself into the thing. this of course includes the existence of emptiness. or a force resisting our organs of action.
if you like. perseverance. humility. cause we seek it outwardly in a world of form. no that. selfsurrender. learn silence and work on constantly in silence. Do not become enchanted by such expressions as "God within. attain the wisdom to enter the palace Buddhists often refer to the "seven treasures.SHO-DO-KA mind and before. The terms given by science and philosophy are based upon dualistic delusions." Until that time. . "God not in the world is a false God. and meditation and wisdom." but experience the Samadhi where there is no god. no matter what skill there is in discrimination. precepts. listening." or "I am That. and the world not in God is unreality. Here are greater puzzles than We must not postulate the true outside the untrue. . We must see holiness transmuting unholy conditions. 59 consciousness. We must establish the kingdom of heaven here and now. (Meditation and wisdom must are considered as one inner cultivation and outer illumination. ) To acquire these seven treasures one first — of all see his own Mind-Essence clearly. to see clearly what the mind is. no I and no you. . To pass through the gate of Zen one must correct this error. and say. Then he can of Nirvana. To make . Then you may use the Christian terms freely. Man misses the spiritual treasure and loses the proper merit Because he depends on dualistic thinking and neglects the essence of mind. once said." which are faith. just as Aladdin had first to find the lamp before he could produce other wonders. Wobaku. "Buddhas and sentient beings both grow out of One Mind. the more we seek the farther away it moves from us. a Chinese Zen master. within or without. where there is no this. and Only bethere is no reality other than this Mind.
" Buddha seek . of itself We The true student of Zen carries the sword of Prajna (the wisdom of emancipation). . Even so. . . the true student of Zen guides each according to his understanding until he attains enlightenment. appearing in many forms. . teaches five students of diflFerent nature. them masters or those call themselves Zen the robes of various rehgious sects. the process of Karma relation. "Nidana . The five types of students are those who enter Buddhahood by realizing the four noble truths (Cravaka). yet always loves other beings. or to this is . He He walks like the king of the elephants. do not realize that as soon as our thoughts cease and all attempts at forming ideas are forgotten. leading to Buddhahood. "Heavenly devils" are those who who wear . Sometimes the student preaches storm. and think that by so doing they have been equally invested with some divine right to direct the Hves of others.6o BUDDHISM AND ZEN after himself. although they come to him through the three diflFerent gates. the Buddha is revealed before us. make Mind take hold impossible to the end of eternity. he pours the gentle rain of loving kindness. . It cuts away the delusions of non-Buddhist thought as well as the haughty pride of heavenly devils. The blade is so sharp that one feels the searing flame around it. like a thunder Sometimes. Only the student who has accomplished Prajna has any right to lead others. Pride is one of the most subtle and insidious evils of all. the twelve nidanas^^ ( Pratyeka-buddha ) or the six paramitas ( Bodhisattva ) some students are uncertain. and others fit none of these categories.
makes the whole world kin. wink of the eye and countless ages of time have vanished. it is the law of the universe. no psychological movement. Zen students partake of teaching always as pure. The Dharma-kaya of all Buddhas becomes my inner being. other stages The Essence A A of Mind is not limited by color. it surrounds you. it is the character of all beings.SHO-DO-KA The precious grass of the Himalayas is 61 the only kind in the meadow. You cannot it. no form. One moon is reflected on many waters. Like the sky truth has no bounds. you have passed all ko-ans. When you pass one ko-an. of nature "One touch things return to one. When you seek it. Inmmierable names and categories have nothing to do with my reahzation. Your hand cannot hold it. and no action of duahstic tendency. snap of the fingers and eight thousand gates of the teaching are established. Innumerable reflections are nothing but the image of one moon. thought nor any activity. Cows that is made the law of humanity is completed. you cannot reach it." All and one operates in all things. nor your mind exclude When you no longer seek it. When My One inner being is unified with Tathagata. Wherever you stand. Realization has no color. It is your own fault if you are entangled by the next one. . form. all stage of meditation contains completely. it is with you. praise nor blame reahzation. When human character is purified. graze there give the best milk from which the richest cheese.
you speak fest its silence. it loudly. as you have heard. Bodhi-dharma. When I tell a person asks me what branch of Buddhism root of the teach- I studied. you are beyond the truth. received his robe To become the Sixth Patriarch in this land. Without Mahaprajna. genealogically through twenty-eight Patriarchs. My teacher. The order came from Buddha through the generations. the Patriarch of India. Who knows how many generations wiU carry the teaching in the future? . though you know right and wrong. studied Mahaprajna for many. meditation is another. many lives. The lamp Then of wisdom was first transmitted to Ma- hakasyapa. in speech you manito the Thus the gate of compassion opens wide benefit of all beings. came to this country across the seas. you aim to attain realYour motive is good in so far as motive is concerned. With the root of the teaching. wherever you go is I the land of truth. Do not mix them up. but beware of clinging entanglements. him about Mahaprajna. I was told to spread the teaching. This statement is neither to deceive you nor trick you. You may aim at realization to encourage yourself when you are not meditating. the ing. and saturate your everyday life ization. Carry your meditation as the eternal present. begin to study Zen. who works in So-kei. When you in it. Encouragement is one thing.6z BUDDHISM AND ZEN In silence. but in your meditation you should aim at nothing.
When Yoka speaks of having studied for many. Buddhas archs reflect this brilliance one to the other. When the mirror is free of dust. meaning great wisdom. late. This is the root of the teaching. the source God Those who specureading scriptures or clinging to creeds and dogmas. The mind rises and contacts the outer world. The true does not stand by itself. and Patri- Yoka gives a brief history of Zen. and objectivity are like dust on the surface of a mirror. The power of realization within you is called Mahaprajna. The brilhancy of all streams of Buddhistic thought. it shines brightly. but he must experience it in his meditation. Ethical deeds and kind actions may be praised. of Mahaprajna illumines all beings. but they are without real value until they spring from Mahaprajna. . Subjectivity . there is no contact. To discover or to ignore the latent Mahaprajna is the individual choice of each person. The goal of medi- .SHO-DO-KA Buddhism is 63 the teaching of self-enHghtenment. If no mind rises. No or gods will help you to realize the truth. Yoka is warning us not to postulate true and false. then wonders how future generations will carry the teaching. When ishes. no delusion only the true nature of man appears. When he attained his Zen. and the false never exists alone. he lost his selfish delusions to become one with the vast ocean of wisdom whose waves of Buddhas and Patriarchs were also his. thus delusions appear. each showing you the one body of Buddha-nature. many lives. he is not referring to innumerable incarnations. wander far from realization. . The Sutra gives twenty names to emptiness. the idea of existence and non-existence vanthe idea of emptiness and non-emptiness disappears. Without dualism man can easily reach the truth.
. He may study for years only to accumulate knowledge (his age of degeneration). . . imitation. There are three processes of Buddhism to establish the teaching in contemporary minds: first. give up the drug business and practice Zen meditation. fear and haIt is tred are spreading. third. sad to live in the time when Dhamma is not practiced and evil thoughts grow. next week may be his era of imitation or accuracy. it must be precisely realized and actualized. but they will not practice it. A person accuracy. for the next ten thousand years people may hear about Dhamma. of the intuitive teaching of They desire to crush it under their heels. This stanza refers to the Sutra in which Buddha said that one thousand years after his death the people would learn Dhamma. and some may practice it. If you wish to make a business of teaching. but if you want emancipation for yourself and others. Many teachers seek to hold or to mystify a student by using the various designations of good or evil built up through the ages. . but if he is brave and sincere enough to concentrate his study of meditation. Even though they hear Tathagata. If you are well and strong. The names of empti- ness are like the lists of drugs. it must be strictly practiced. but will not continue until they attain its fruits. Evil is strong and disciples are weak. practice it and attain its fruits. They live far from wisdom. The people cannot accept true teaching and cannot discipline themselves. . or degenchooses his own era eration. the teaching must be well understood. second. clinging to wrong ideas.64 •tation is BUDDHISM AND ZEN beyond words and ideas. then memorize the names. for the next thousand years people will learn the teaching. so of course they will not attain enlightenment. you are not interested in them.
Craving produces action effecting man's
It is useless to
blame others when you reap what
you have sown. Those who do not wish to suffer in hell, Should not slander the Wheel of Dhamma.
taught the law of causation to his disdetermined by ignorance; by action consciousness is determined; by consciousness are determined name and shape; by name and shape the senses are determined; the senses determine contact; by contact feeling is determined; by feeling craving is determined; by craving grasping is determined; grasping determines becoming; by becoming birth is determined; by birth are age and death determined, sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation and despair. Such is the arising
said, "Actions are
of all this
without discrimination, and that there is no discrimination without equahty, but few students understand the nuance of meaning. It is a seff-evident fact that each person, irrespective
of attainment, is subject to the law of causation. If he would terminate his own suffering and help others as well, let him work in accord with the law of the universe
rather than strive to evade
other trees grow in the forest of Chandana^^ wood; For countless ages only lions have Hved there.
freely in the silent, dark grove.
and no other animals enter the forest, Only the Hon cubs follow the older beasts.
the three-year-old roars loudly. can a yelping fox imitate the king of
Even though hundreds
It is said in
BUDDHISM AND ZEN
India that no inferior trees grow near a Chandana, so Buddhists use the name as a symbol of ultimate wisdom. In this stanza birds and beasts represent fame and glory. Monks are indifferent to these in any form in any age. Only the lion cubs can follow the older lions, and even they have learned to roar
imitations, as a false teacher will use the
rituals of true teachings,
some with his words and
but when he meets a real lion
Zen doctrine is no subject for sentiment. Doubts cannot be cleared by argument.
stubbornly demand your silence save you from the pitfall of being and non-being.
Zen allows no student to waste his time even for a second. If you have a ko-an, work on it; if you have no ko-an, just count your breath. Doubt? What is it? Just keep on meditating. This is the only means of learning to walk the Middle Way.
not always wrong, nor right always right.
cling to fixed ideas, a tenth of an inch's differ-
ence will set you ten thousand miles away. she reaches the source, the infant female dra-
gon enters Buddhahood; he fails to touch the essence, a learned
suffers the tortures of heU.
The Saddharma-pundarika-sutra mentions an infant female dragon that attained realization, and in the Mahaparinirvana-sutra is found the story of Zen-sho, the
learned disciple, who suffered the tortures of hell. But search the scriptures when we witness such examples every day of our lives? Sex, age or intellectuality have nothing to do with enlightenment.
early youth I have accumulated the knowl-
edge of Buddhism, studying the Sutras and Sas-
had no time
to rest as I classified the terms of the
counting the grains of sand on the
as I read his
tired myself in vain.
I felt that
Buddha scolded me
in the Sutra,
the price of your neighbor's treasure?"
travelled in the
Like a prodigal son wandering from his home.
A Zen student must spend more time in meditation even Zen books. Without than he does in reading your own experience you will be a stranger to Zen and a philosophical tramp. Find your own treasure.
understands things correctly.
It is diflBcult for
to attain the abrupt
classes of students seek emancipation for themselves, not for the love of sentient beings.
Worldly scholars have
dualistic knowledge, but they lack Prajna, the wisdom of emancipation.
"By nature men are almost
practice they are far apart." Those
beings will meditate to save them, thereby developing their own character in Zen. The mind of Cravaka is ready to listen to an enhghtened man, but only to eliminate its own suffering. Some study Zen to overcome weakness such as temper, cowardliness and excitability.
The mind of Pratyeka-Buddha but its motive is not altruistic. Non-Buddhistic scholars have dualistic knowledge, which makes them intellectual, but they lack Prajna and realize that their efforts will not bring mankind true happiness.
also alert for study,
68 BUDDHISM AND ZEN Those who are stupid and childish wander beyond realization. When one realizes the truth. and their wrongly developed character finds the abrupt system of emancipation difficult to understand. you point your finger to the moon. The one who knows not true emptiness worries about debts and credits. they assume there is something in it. you are Tathagata. and. but he does not worry about them nor does he contract new debts. He should be called Avalokitesvara. they discuss the finger. which is also free of being and non-being. When Zen opens its closed fist to show that there is nothing within. easily deluded. Japanese: Kwannon. to pay his karmic debts just anyone else does. Once you realize that nothing exists. Their thought never goes beyond the five senses as they play hide and seek in the material world. These people enjoy the intoxication of illusion. When If they see a closed fist. they recite the scriptures and attend the services with enthusiasm. he knows that karma hindrance does not exist as an entity. . The one who sees nothing but Mind-Essence is Tathagata himself. not the moon.^^ the one who sees the world clearly with wisdom and compassion. spiritual customers are lost. Buddha of Compassion. . everything being the manifestation of Mind-Essence. They are idle dreamers. Chinese: Kwan-yin. How can the ill be cured when they turn from the the good physician? " Avalokitesvara . knowing nothing. . the Enlightened One. The enlightened one has as The hungry man refuses the royal feast.
eats? Is your
quenched when another drinks? Are you rested when another sleeps? By whose efforts will you be enlightened?
you have the wisdom of prajna, you can practice Zen in the world of desires. Like the lotus unconsumed by the fire, nothing can
destroy your Zen. Although Yuse, a monk, once broke the main precepts, he went ahead, without faltering, to reach
The pure land, which he built, exists even now. Buddha-Dhamma makes anyone fearless.
a pity that stupid minds do not appreciate
They consider only the
gain within the pre-
Forgetting that they can still open the secret door of Tathagata unaided. In ages past two monks broke the precepts. Their chief monk, UpaH, considered them hopeless in the light of his feeble understanding. But Vimalakirti, a layman, cleared their clouds of doubt to reahze truth as frost is melted in the
A Zen student must pass through the world of desires. In India a story is told of a lotus flower that bloomed in the midst of fire. Like the lotus or lik-e the phoenix a Zen student will rise from the ashes of his worldly desires and vain regrets never turning from his course toward enhghtenment. He will pay his karmic debts without question. The frost of his doubt is melted by the warm sunshine of reahzation that illumines all beings.
The wonderful power
of emancipation! applied in countless ways ... in Hmitless ways.
BUDDHISM AND ZEN
four kinds of ofiFering for this
a million gold pieces are
you sacrifice everything you have, cover your debt.
few words from your
even for debts of the remote
sincere students meditate morning and evening any other leisure moment to attain emancipation. You have studied other religions and schools of philosophy hoping to free yourself from entanglement, and some of these have taken a part of your familiar burden only in exchange for their own creeds and dogmas. You must throw them all ofiE at once! Buddhism takes away your unnecessary burdens but gives you nothing in return. If you think you have attained anything in this Zen-do, drop it at the gate and go home with empty hands. There you will find yourthis is your power self in an atmosphere of peace
four kinds of ofiFering are clothes, bedding, food
and medicine. These are always given to a monk, but any man, who has the power of emancipation, owes his happiness not only to monks or teachers but to mankind and all sentient beings.
proven by the attainment of countless TathaI
anyone who receives
Although there is nothing to be termed great or small in prajna, all people cherish comparative thoughts until they are enlightened; therefore, Yoka-daishi says that the
innumerable Tathagatas prove that Zen provides the
most direct route to wisdom for those who are strong enough to undertake this path. Even though most people
will avoid this steep, rocky course, those
the choice themselves they are not chosen by a god, they are not accidentally a member of a favored race, nation or creed. Such superficiaHties have nothing
do with Zen. Each of you may become a Bodhisattva.
In the eye of realization there is nothing to be seen. is neither man nor Buddha; All things in the universe are mere bubbles on the
Sages and wise
disappear in a lightning
Jews and Christians find it difficult to erase the idea god separate from man; although Buddhists know that Gautama Buddha was once a person like themselves, most of them cherish the idea of becoming a Buddha only in some future life. All are caught in the web of dualism, wisdom and ignorance. Whatever you
see, hear, smell, taste or think, are the
your subjectivity and objectivity.
or refined these
cannot attain enlightenment as long as you are the slave of your dualistic attachment.
of the fatal blow,
Zen student keeps
equanimity as usual.
carries his meditation
Nothing in the world can put out his lamp of wisdom. The sun may turn cold and the moon hot. But even then No devils or satans can crush
ultimate truth of
As the elephant draws the
great wheels are turned.
the road be blocked by a foolish mantis
stretching his legs?
but it can give you equanimity at all times. When you can open both your subjectivity and your objectivity carrying your day's work smoothly and happily. Enhghtenment transcends meager Stop looking at the skies with a pipe. . but the elephant-drawn carriage rolls on.*' Zen offers no miracle to save your life at the last moment. Just train yourselves in meditation to shut oflF both your subjectivity and your objectivity. giving you the illusion of a body. The elephant bits. thought (samjna). Then you can shut off your subjectivity and melt into your objectivity. "Skandhas: form (nipam). sensation or sense-perception (vedana). At the me from "These groups of four elements have not belonged to the beginning. Like a teacher who juggles the ancient names derived from religion and philosophy seeking to block the road to independent thought. you will be living in Zen. In China the mantis has always symbolized a person who overestimates his power. Heavens exist beyond your measurement. Come to me this minute and deal with me personally. consciousness (vijnana). or shut OJ0F your objectivity and live in your subjectivity. conformation (samskara). The five skandhas^* deceived you.72 BUDDHISM AND ZEN A tyrannical king of China once killed a Buddhist monk who refused to marry last moment the monk said: the royal princess. is not foimd in the company of rabintellection. so people hesitate to practice it. Your sword may as well cut oflF my head as this spring breeze blows the blossoms from the tree. and the elephant is enlightenment. The teaching of Buddha is too simple. There remains nothing but your own actualization. the mantis stretches his legs. The "great wheels" are Buddha-Dhamma.
being never disturbed by others. among which were some notes gathered by Bodhi-Dharma's disciples. did he have attainment in tlie Dharma?" Subhuti answered. in many cases. and. therefore. 73 . it is called Emancipation. It does not belong to anything. A. it is called the True Path. They consist of a question by a disciple. and holds nothing Comment: Buddha said to Subhuti. a comment by Nyogen Senzaki. you can call it Dharmakaya. World-honored One. When you see the self-same essence of it. it is therefore. sentient beings' minds. Suzuki copied them. so all called Nirvana. 'What do you think? In ancient times when the Tathagata was with Dipanakara Buddha. Stein excavated some manuscripts from Tung Huang. When you see the changeless nature of it. Comment: That mind Question: What is Tathagata? Answer: One who knows that he comes from nowhere and goes nowhere. is not yours. and the answer by Bodhi-Dharma. Question: What is Buddha? truth. Nyogen Senzaki received a copy of the book from which he translated the following notes into English. Answer: One who reaHzes the that is to be realized.Fragmentary Notes of Bodhi-Dharma's Disciples* Question: What is Buddha-Mind? Answer: Your mind is it. it is not going to perish. therefore. where Dr. It was not bom. These were placed in the National Library of Pei-ping. "No. he did not. and. later having them published in Japan in 1933. D. It is a constituent of You simply call it yours and others' as children play at being grown up. The Tathagata while with Dipankara Buddha had no attainment whatever in the Dharma." Bodhi-Dharma * Early in the twentieth century M. It works easily and freely. T. China. you can call it suchness.
They are afraid to face things in the phenomenal world. and will never be reduced. This is what you call dwelling in Dharma. it is called Dharma. therefore. ears and mouths so as not to see. you are denying your privilege and . That is meditation in emptiness. He should live naturally in Dharma. . they build their houses on the of the true way sand. hear or speak evil.74 BUDDHISM AND ZEN certainly the twenty-eighth successor of was Buddha Sakyamuni. and harmony of mind and body. is the Zen student. yet always dwells in emptiness. If you call yourself a non-Zen student. Instead of dwelling in emptiness. he said. Question: What is meditation in emptiness? Answer: One observes things in the phenomenal world. Question: What is Dharma? Answer: was never produced. Comment: If you think you are a Zen student. "Living in the world yet not clinging to nor forming attachments or the dust of the world. Question: What is is Sangha? Answer: It harmony. the norm of the It universe. Question: How can one dwell in Dharma? Answer: One should stay neither in in-dwelling Dharma nor in non-dwelling Dharma. . Comment: Zen-Getsu was a descendant of BodhiDharma who Hved in China during the Tang Dynasty." Many Buddhists are like those three monkeys that shut their eyes. As though he wished to illustrate Bodhi-Dharma's words. . you are labeling yourself unnecessarily. so named because of the beauty of its Comment: We learn nothing but to form a true Sangha harmony of one to another.
therefore. Buddha said." You give all sorts of names to your Question: as illusions. has he Zen realization? Answer: He is just Comment: he said? Just like dreaming and so are you. nor an entity designated as man or woman. He can . Man and woman Only in illusion they appear differently. Question: If one attains the Nirvana of an arhat. he is the same as Buddha who attained enlightenment under the pippala tree. In comparison you say "grass" or "trees. Such realization is neither intuition nor intellectuality. and passes through the ten stages of Bodhisattvahood. they are not going to perish. Has this man Zen realization? Answer: He is just dreaming and so are you. This is what you call dwell- ing in Dharma. and completes ten thousand virtues. He has nothing to receive and there is nothing to receive him. Question: If a man has ten powers. Physical matter produces the grass and trees as it does human beings. not taking the side of either feminism are alike Buddha. How can a man live as not-man and a woman not-woman? Answer: There is no difference in Buddha-nature between a man and a woman. "If as an illusion. Just live in Zen natiu-ally beyond all self-recognition.FRAGMENTARY NOTES 75 forcing yourself off the path. and completes eighteen systems of the teaching. he should know that all things are not born. and accomplishes four forms of fearlessness. he can is live one sees that everything exists in a higher sphere than ordinary man. Bodhi-Dharmal Did you hear what Question: If one practices the six paramitas." Comment: Zen or misogyny.
and you yourself are actually dreaming. present and future are in the realm beyond cognition.76 save all BUDDHISM AND ZEN sentient beings real and then enter into Nirvana. One who has true wisdom does not hold self -recognition. Until that time. start without proceeding to your destination quickly and is Bodhi-Dharma I calling you. I call you a dreamer. Whatever you figure with your dualistic mind never makes a true account of mind essence. Question: I have heard that all Buddhas in the past. Is it not true? Answer: You have heard someone speak of dreams. Do not mix them together. Buddhas in the past. Dream is one thing and realization another. In this way you can cut confusion and doubt. This is what I call wisdom. If you shut off your thinking faculty. Wisdom in the dream is not the real wisdom. you will know that they are baseless and not dependable. Why don t you wake up Question: What kind of wisdom should one use to cut off delusions? Answer: When you observe your delusions. Is he not a Answer: Buddha? is He just dreaming and so are you. town or whistle stop over which you pass? Zen demands that you hesitation. therefore. . whatever you do is nothing but foolishness in dreamland. you will enter a different sphere. Comment: What are the six paramitas? What are the ten stages of Bodhisattvahood? What are the ten thousand virtues? What are the ten powers? What are the foxu: forms of fearlessness? What are the eighteen systems of teaching? When you travel by plane do you recite the name of each city. whatever you think. directly. whatever you say. blocking off the road of your mind. present and future preached the same Dharma and countless beings were saved from suffering.
but it is in fact a spider's silk that floats in the air.FRAGMENTARY NOTES 77 Comment: A Zen student should not fear delusions. . whereas the en-' lightened man sees the holy path in a life of mediocrity. as soon as he hears of the path. The Tao-Teh-Ching says." Question: What sort of delusions will be cleared by Zen? Answer: Any delusions of mediocrity. This one life has no form and is empty by nature. but in for two groups the eye of Zen. sometimes remembers it and sometimes forgets it. Bodhi-Dharma refers to the forty-first section of the Tao-Teh-Ching: "The superior man. you should not see a thing. Question: What excellent life is the difference between a sage's most and the common people's everyday life? Answer: It is like gossamer. If you become attached to any form. ridicules it. . earnestly practices the teaching. a soul. A mediocre person sees the sage's life. "The most firmly established in the path appears the most remiss. or of a Bodhisattva. reject them all. The teaching of the path resembles a deep valley. Comment: Bodhi-Dharma thinks that all these people should wash their faces in the cold water of Zen." Comment: Zen is the offspring of Buddhism and Taoism. hearing of the path. "The real form of the ghost was nothing but a group of withered reeds in the late autumn field. If you see an ego. Question: Why and how do we reject them? Answer: If you have Zen. of a Pratyeka-Buddha. hearing of the path. the average man. you should reject it. a sage's life is one of mediocrity and the mediocre person's as the sage's. A Japanese poem says. a birth or a death. of a Cravaka. Some mistake it for vapor. and believes it to be the same as his own everyday life. of a philosopher. . He should gaze at them squarely and determine their true nature. You will observe in the sutras that all Buddhas preach the mediocre and the wise. the most innocent appears to be most . the inferior man.
If one thinks that he is gaining. the largest bell sounds rarely. When he knows it without knowing. Question: to What do you call the mind which has nothing know and also nothing to reaHze? Answer: No answer from Bodhi-Dharma. thereone sees it without seeing. "Dharmakaya has no form. nevertheless. he does not know it thoroughly. he is not a true knower. he is not gaining entirely. the finest instrument is the latest to be perfected." Question: What do you the call the mind of greediness? Answer: It is mind of ignorance. it is precisely path that alone can give and accompHsh. one hears it without hearing. The path is this unseen and inscrutable. said. If he thinks that he is seeing. When he gains non-gaining. It is mind of Cravaka. Prajna has nothing to be known. the most firmly established in the path appears the most remiss. Buddha's actual dis- What do you call the mind of no-entity? Answer: It is the mind of sages who have no connection with the teaching of Buddha. Question: What do you caU the mind which has no particular understanding. Bodhi-Dharma . the highest in the virtues appears to be the humblest. Dharma has no voice. he sees it incompletely. one knows it without knowing.78 BUDDHISM AND ZEN ashamed. but discover the truth of Question: no-entity by themselves. therefore. he fore. call the Question: What do you the mind of egolessness? Answer: ciple. If one does not know this. he knows it completely. and also no painful delusions? Answer: It is the mind of Bodhisattvas. If he thinks that he knows it. therefore.
" Dharma-kaya is nothing but your own true self. The lamp of Dharma still burns. As a religious term it is called "Buddha-kaya." Comment: Although these recorded teachings of BodhiDharma were lost in the caves of Tung Huang more than thirteen hundred years. "Dharma-kaya. When he transcends right and wrong. righteousness is 79 is If one thinks that he right. There is a Zen poem written by a remote descendant of Bodhi-Dharma: When I the soft rain moistens my clothes. hear the voice of the patriarch without hearing. if I express it ethically. you will be imprisoned. If you do. Said Bodhi-Dharma. "It is the sound of one hand. One clings to hfe although there is nothing to be called life. When I a petal of a flower falls quietly. he betrays all Buddhas. another cKngs Why? . Because they wish to crush the concrete ideas of the students. Such wisdom is the gate-opener to a hundred thousand gates of the higher wisdom. Do not count them. "See Dharma-kaya without seeing. philosophically.FRAGMENTARY NOTES owns everything." and this wandering monk in America declares it is the single eye of which Meister Eckhart has spoken. Tell your great-great-grandfather they are all gateless gates in dream land. Never mind the names! It is neither knowable nor unknowable. his not perfect. hear it without hearing. "All Buddhas preach emptiness." and. proving that wisdom itself is untransmissible and only to be obtained by living. his virtues are accomplished." Haku-in says. BodhiDharma mentions the hundred thousand gates of wisdom. If a student even clings to an idea of emptiness. and gain it without gaining. Just see it without seeing. see the Buddha without seeing. Zen students continued to live as he taught.
inward or outward. At the time I knew only that there was no sweet in the box. The words of Bodhi-Dharma may not be clear to you. One day he answered. I know that you will neither like it nor disHke it. An ignorant person creates them. passing it to me occasionally when I would ask him if there was anything in it. the meaning of his words was beyond my comprehension. I hope that you all will devote yourselves to constant meditation and discover the light that will illumine not only yourselves. These words hold the brilHancy of the lamp of Dharma. You cannot touch it with your hand. "By clinging one recognizes a thing or an idea. It took me more than ten years of study and Zen meditation to realize the true father answered. emptiness has no form. and it will not go out of the box. They practiced what the ordinary patriarchs . Right and wrong do not exist in reahty. Now look and see!" He then took off the cover of the box. my foster father gave me my first lesson in emptiness. In reahty there is nothing to be bom. outside. nor middle part. An ignorant person creates delusions and suffers from discrimination. "This time there is nothing but emptiness/' to death although there "May I please have that emptiness?*' I asked. It did not enter this box. It has no sound. He used to keep all sweets in a box. "The teaching of gives you the highest wisdom. You cannot taste it in your mouth. no odor. consequently. Generation after generation worked hard for it. This is the general way of the phenomenal world. Buddha scribe all Bodhi-Dharma said to his disciples. near or far. My foster dear child. no color. but all sentient beings in the world. there is nothing to perish. but be patient and wait until you actually experience it. It is neither heavy nor hght. None of them wasted time for fooUsh things. It is neither good nor bad. It is neither pretty nor ugly. He then suffers from discrimination. "My meaning of emptiness. recognizes them.*' Comment: When I was a child. No one can deit without experience. Reality has neither inside.8o BUDDHISM AND ZEN is nothing to be called death.
the stupid one makes a path beyond his mind. Question: path? What part of the mind is the body of the . therefore. he will attain slowly. own destination according to their own Comment: For instance. They bore what the common peobear.FRAGMENTARY NOTES man ple cannot edge of the such petty Dharma of If 81 cannot practice. Question: Are there fast and slow ways of attainment? If one sees that endless time is the mind. he must have created his own destination using his concept of time and place. he can do it wherever he is whenever he feels like it. Question: Why does one attain quickly? Answer: Because mind is the body of the path. He does not know where the path is nor does he know that mind itself is the path. If you have some virtues and knowlworld. Stupid ones their mark their own time starting according to that standard. Comment: Whoever recorded these sayings of BodhiDharma must have had slow reaction time. you need not depend upon the trash excavated at Tung Huang. For present American students the first two sentences are more than enough. One does not punch a time clock twice upon Answer: arrival. is quickly reached. The wise one knows his mind is the path. he will attain quickly. With attainment how can you turn the wheel of the Mahayana teaching?" you American students carry the spirit of this saying. With the addition of two more delusions he cannot enjoy his life thoroughly. if one wants to enjoy his life. Just go straight ahead to the palace of your own innerliness and meet the blue-eyed monk face to face. but if he makes a point in his mind and aims at his destination. do not be conceited about them. If he aims at something to be acquired. they must delu- make sions. therefore.
he does not discriminate. the dragon. demon. and moves innocently. simple is mind. psy- Comment: "With mind" means with pered. and what the artificial. selfless movement. this is wrong. sound. it can be said. these images are nothing but illusions. Instead he makes an image of a tiger. Part of mind produces sight. If one realizes that from the beginning mind essence is empty and quiet. *this is right. therefore.' self-centered. he should know no specific time or place. In a Sutra it says. Thus is planted the seed. When one transcends right and wrong. recognizes them by comparison and produces likes and dislikes.82 BUDDHISM AND ZEN Answer: Mind is like the wood or stone from which a person carves an image. Discrimination with mind is wrong. lion. "With no-mind" means unham- . When he realizes this fact. simple mind. and seeing it fears it. he is truly right. If he does not fear it. his mind may be called the natural. warrior or other monster. If he carves a dragon or a tiger. anger and ignorance with all their accompanying Hkes and dislikes. odor and sensibility. which grows to great sufiFering. If he knows that from the beginning there is no such thing. he is like a stupid person creating a picture of hell and then afraid to face it. or. Question: What is the natural. in the natural. Both in the material and immaterial world a person stays or goes. taste. Question: What is right and what is wrong? Answer: Discrimination with no-mind is right. complicated mind? Answer: Letters and speeches come from the artificial. he will be emancipated at that instant. natural. simple mind. complicated mind. sits or lies down. "When one dwells on the right road. chological movement. When one remains unmoved by pleasure or suffering. then he should know that mind essence is not formed. and from them raises greed. then his unnecessary thoughts will vanish.
he transcends both wisdom and ignorance. without attaching to form or to non-form. who is avid for understanding. accumulates meanings. inactivity from activity and cHngs to one or the other of these. if. nor does he follow the sage's mind. . Even though one hears the teaching and does not cling to worldly desires. . A teacher has two kinds of students. then he is a dull student. when he has to select one out of two. . he selects quietness from confusion. is the dull student. does not love Buddha or the true path. has no greed for the teaching. then he is a sagacious student. The sagacious student understands instantly.FRAGMENTARY NOTES 83 Question: What is a sagacious student. but uses his own experience to find the truth. and mixes good and bad. and what is a dull student? Answer: A sagacious student does not depend on his teacher's words. . one hears the teacher's words without clinging to the material nor to the immaterial. the other. without thinkthis ing of animate objects or of inanimate objects is the sagacious student. and does not have aspirations to be Pratyeka Buddha nor Bodhisattva. he does not raise inferior mind when he hears the teaching. A dull student depends on coming to a gradual understanding through his teacher's word. If one transcends both wisdom and ignorance. does not raise right thinking. wisdom from ignorance. does not live in right recoUectedness.
Hearing of the mistaken action of another person. although right. Time passes but he never lags behind. Every day is a fortunate day for a true student. Express your feelings. were considered vvTong for many generations. Let your neighbors find you before you make yourself known to them. 84 . Poverty is your treasure. Do not exchange it for an easy life. The virtues are the fruits of self -discipline. but never become more expressive than your true nature. Always censure yourself. A person may look like a fool and yet not be stupid. A noble heart never forces itself forward.Suggestions for Zen Students by Zen-Getsu* Living in the world. is the way of a true Zen student. and do not drop from heaven of themselves like rain or hail. yet not clinging to or forming attachments for the dust of the world. never another. Neither glory nor shame can move his heart. encourage yourself to follow his example. Witnessing the good actions of another person. Even though you are alone in a dark room conduct yourself as though you were facing a noble guest. He may be conserving his wisdom and guarding it carefully. Some things. Modesty is the foundation of all virtues. Since the value of righteousness * The biography of Zen-Getsu is unknown except that he was a student of Toku-san (782-865) and Seki-So (807-888). Do not discuss right or wrong. advise yourself not to emulate it. Its words are as rare gems seldom displayed.
Why do you not leave everything to the great law of the universe and pass each day with a peaceful smile? .SUGGESTIONS FOR ZEN STUDENTS may be 85 recognized after centuries. there is no need to crave immediate appreciation.
Dharmakaya: same as Dharma-body.GLOSSARY Asamskrita: not subject to causation. . Prajna: that condition of the ability to see directly into the true natm-e of things beyond mere intellection. Sastras or Shastras: commentaries on the Sutras. Samsara: world of birth and death. the sound of one hand. the eternal Buddha. to study Zen. Bodhisattva: a person dedicated not only to his own enhghtenment but also to the enhghtenment of all sentient beings. Samskrita: subject to causation. Samadhi: Is sometimes used in place of dhyana. and personally experienced. Samatha: quietude. Dhyana: Sanskrit meditation. Japanese: Kwannon. Buddha-Dhamma: Pah for Buddha-Dharma. Dhamma. Chinese: Kwan-yin. directly. especially the examination of a student by a teacher. Tathagata: Buddha. Mind-Essence. but more often is referred to as that condition achieved by the practice of dhyana. Nirvana: synonymous with enlightenment. one of the two main groups of Bud. Dharma: Sanskrit. one of the two main groups of Buddhists. the content of enhghtenment to be realized intuitively. Hinayana: Small Vehicle. original man in full. Karma: the law of cause and eflFect. dhists. Eternal Presence. nor is it a condition of non-existence. Prajnaparamita: the sixth precept. the Law iDody of the Buddha. the world of birthlessness and deathlessness. San-zen: from Chinese San-Ch'an. Buddha-Hrydaya: brilhancy of enlightenment. . the world of birth and death. or practice of wisdom. Eternal' Now. Buddha Sakyamuni: the same as Gautama Buddha. Sanskrit: enhghtened wisdom. Mahayana: Great Vehicle. Nidana: process of Karma relation. nor to be found outside of Samsara. PaH. Ko-an: a problem given to a student for solution. 86 . but is not the negative condition as translated by many scholars. Avalokitesvara: the Buddha of Compassion.
to sit in meditation.GLOSSARY a unit. Za-zen: from the Chinese. tso ch'an. . All the Buddhist scriptures as Tathagata-dhyana: enlightened meditation. Vipassana: contemplation or discernment (Tendai School). 87 Tripitaka: literally. Three Baskets.
copy 2 . The Zen Studies Library of Dai Bosatsu Zendo Kongo-ji . trs and eds BUDDHISM AND ZEN.Senzaki Nyogen and Ruth Strout McCandless.
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